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1

Genetic divergence of peripherally disjunct populations of the gastropod Batillariella estuarina in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Geographically disjunct populations are unusual in marine species, but the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, provide opportunities to study highly disjunct peripheral isolates of several species. The intertidal snail Batillariella estuarina occurs in isolated tidal ponds in the Abrolhos Islands, where it is at its northern limit, disjunct from mainland populations by 600-900 km. The species is thus disjunct both geographically and among the peripherally isolated populations in the Abrolhos Islands. Comparisons of allozymes at 11 polymorphic loci were made among populations from 10 ponds in the Abrolhos Islands and six sites from relatively continuous tidal flats at Albany, 900 km away, the nearest major set of populations. Among all 16 populations, subdivision was high (FST = 0.455). Although there were subtle differences between the geographical regions, the large majority of divergence occurred among the isolated ponds in the Abrolhos (FST = 0.441), and divergence on the tidal flats at Albany was only moderate (FST = 0.085). Characteristic of peripheral isolates, the pond populations have less polymorphism and fewer alleles than the more connected populations at Albany. Combined with evidence of genetic divergence in the gastropods Bembicium vittatum and Austrocochlea constricta, which have very similar geographical distributions to that of B. estuarina, these results indicate the potential evolutionary significance of peripherally isolated marine populations in the unusual habitats of the Abrolhos Islands. PMID:11883876

Pudovskis, M S; Johnson, M S; Black, R

2001-11-01

2

Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

1990-05-01

3

Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900–2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. Conclusions/ Significance In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008–2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ?12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ?50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900–2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution.

Abdo, David A.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.

2012-01-01

4

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

5

Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the

D. G. Masson; A. B. Watts; M. J. R. Gee; R. Urgeles; N. C. Mitchell; T. P. Le Bas; M. Canals

2002-01-01

6

Subtidal Variability of Dissolved Oxygen in Western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of the subtidal budget of dissolved oxygen in estuaries is developed and applied to observations in western Long Island Sound. The goal is to analyze the causes of hypoxia and develop a predictive capability for its onset and duration by estimating mixing coefficients and comparing simple models of their temporal variability. A single-segment lower-layer box-model for western

P. S. Gay; J. O'Donnell

2008-01-01

7

The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

8

Subtidal Variability of Dissolved Oxygen in Western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of the subtidal budget of dissolved oxygen in estuaries is developed and applied to observations in western Long Island Sound. The goal is to analyze the causes of hypoxia and develop a predictive capability for its onset and duration by estimating mixing coefficients and comparing simple models of their temporal variability. A single-segment lower-layer box-model for western Long Island Sound is developed. The lower layer oxygen budget is influenced by a mean advection toward the west, horizontal dispersion, vertical mixing, and pelagic and benthic respiration. Inverse methods and eight years of fortnightly ship surveys of salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen throughout the water column at seven stations along the axis of western Long Island Sound are used to estimate parameters and evaluate the model performance. We find a subsurface respiration rate of 3.6 mM/m3/day and a vertical mixing rate of 0.23 cm2/s. A forward model is used to test whether the estimated mixing and respiration can be used to predict temporal variation of mean lower layer DO using DO data at one boundary station and temperature data elsewhere. This approach can assist efficient monitoring of estuarine DO levels.

Gay, P. S.; O'Donnell, J.

2008-12-01

9

Persistence of Western Hemlock and Western Redcedar Trees 38 Years After Girdling at Cat Island in Southeast Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dead western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) trees were examined 38 years after intentional girdling (cuts made into the wood around the bole) at Cat Island, Alaska, to describe their condition as wildlife habitat. All bu...

P. E. Hennon E. M. Loopstra

1991-01-01

10

76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks...western Long Island Sound, Mamaroneck, NY, no rain date is scheduled for this...

2011-12-12

11

Maps Showing Geology and Shallow Structure of Western Rhode Island Sound, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a high-resolution, seismic-reflection, and sidescan-sonar survey conducted in western Rhode Island Sound south of Narragansett Bay (fig. 1 inset) by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1980. The study defines the geologic framework of the Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf between lat. 41 deg 09' and 41 deg 32'N and long. 71 deg 07' and 71 deg 37'W. A total of 580 kilometers (km) of seismic-reflection profiles and 580 km of sidescan sonographs was collected aboard the RV Neecho. Trackline spacing was 1 to 2 km at the mouth of Narragansett Bay, and dip lines were 2 km apart with widely spaced strike lines in Rhode Island Sound (fig. 1). The maps in this report adjoin those for eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts, of O'Hara and Oldale (1980).

Needell, Sally W.; O'Hara, Charles J.; Knebel, Harley J.

1983-01-01

12

A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

2003-01-01

13

70 FR 32498 - Ocean Disposal; Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Central and Western Long Island...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sites in Long Island Sound over the...and western Long Island Sound, the cultural resources that have...significant cultural resources. The Connecticut...historic or cultural resources. EPA specifically...area around Long Island Sound to...

2005-06-03

14

Uranium-series age of coral reef growth on Rottnest Island, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dating samples of corals and shell from the elevated coral reef terrace on Rottnest Island, Western Australia, indicate that in this region away from active plate boundaries the sea stood at least 3 m above present sea level 132,000 ?? 5,000 years ago. There is no geologic evidence of other ancient reef-forming periods on this island. ?? 1979.

Szabo, B. J.

1979-01-01

15

Evolution of Lake Nikolay, Arga Island, Western Lena River Delta, during Late Pleistocene and Holocene Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The Late Pleistocene and Holocene history of Lake Nikolay on Arga Island, western Lena River delta, is reconstructed using shallow seismic and radio-eehe sounding (RES) profiles and sedimentary analyses including granulometry, biogeochemistry and pollen analysis. The main objective of this study is directed to the controversy about a glacial 01' a periglacial origin of Arga Island and a glacial

Georg Schwamborn; Andrei A. Andreev; Volker Rachold; Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten; Mikhail N. Grigoriev; Volodya Tumskoy; Elena Yu

2002-01-01

16

A 200-year coral stable oxygen isotope record from a high-latitude reef off Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core from a coral colony of Porites lutea was analysed for stable oxygen isotopic composition*. A 200-year proxy record of sea surface temperatures from the Houtman Abrolhos Islands off west Australia was obtained from\\u000a coral ?18O. At 29?S, the Houtman Abrolhos are the southernmost major reef complex of the Indian Ocean. They are located on the path\\u000a of the

H. Kuhnert; J. Pätzold; B. Hatcher; K.-H. Wyrwoll; A. Eisenhauer; L. B. Collins; Z. R. Zhu; G. Wefer

1999-01-01

17

Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; Dewitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

2011-01-01

18

Influence of seismic surveys on western gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) aggregate off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia during summer-autumn to feed on benthic and near-benthic prey. During summer 2001, 3D seismic surveys were conducted during a six-week period in known gray whale foraging areas off Sakhalin Island. To test the hypothesis that the distribution of gray whales on the feeding ground would shift

DAVID W. WELLER; YULIA V. IVASHCHENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

19

Oil seeps of the Ionian Islands, western Greece  

SciTech Connect

Many Greeks believe the tarry deposits commonly observed on the beaches of Levkas, Meganissi, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Zakinthos originate from Turkish tankers. Geologists would propose an origin from source rocks which feed the large oil pools exposed at Limni Keriou on the southwestern tip of the island of Zakinthos. Samples of this oil seep have been studied in detail, together with oil samples collected around the islands of Zakinthos, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Meganissi, from which it can be seen a geologic origin is plausible. Examination of possible source rock intervals (for both maturity and source potential) occurring within the pre-flysch succession (Triassic-Eocene) of rocks exposed in the same area has also been completed. From these findings, conjecture as to the possible source of the oil seeps has been made.

Lowe, S.P.; Doran, T.

1988-08-01

20

Holocene climate and vegetation change on Victoria Island, western Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed pollen record from Victoria Island provides the first quantitative Holocene climate reconstruction from the western Canadian Arctic. The pollen percentage data indicate that Arctic herbs increased over the Holocene in response to long-term cooling. The influx of locally and regionally derived pollen grains varies throughout the core and tracks several major changes observed in the biogenic silica record

Matthew C. Peros; Konrad Gajewski

2008-01-01

21

Status of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative Russia-U.S. research program on western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) summering off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, has been ongoing since 1995 and has produced important new information on the present day conservation status of this critically endangered population. This paper reviews findings from 2007 research activities and combines such with data from previous years, in some cases ranging back

DAVID W. WELLER; AMANDA L. BRADFORD; AIMÉE R. LANG; HYUN WOO KIM; MAXIM SIDORENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

22

The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) fishery and biology in the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study updates the information on the red shrimp fishery in the waters of the Balearic Islands in the middle of the Western Mediterranean, from its beginning to the present. Also, the development of the fishery and the biology of the shrimp population exploited from 1992 to 1997 is analysed.The red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) is one of the most

Aina Carbonell; Maria Carbonell; Montserrat Demestre; Antoni Grau; Sebastià Monserrat

1999-01-01

23

Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental change in western Staaten Island (54.5° S, 64° W), Fuegian Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Glacial – Holocene environmental conditions were interpreted in western Isla de los Estados (Staaten Island) from geomorphological and palynological analysis. The geomorphological data from Caleta Lacroix (54°50? S; 64 40? W) indicate the presence of a fossil dune field that suggest exposition of a larger land surface and stronger wind intensity predominantly from SW and W probably during Late Glacial

Ponce Juan Federico; Borromei Ana María; Rabassa Jorge Oscar; Martinez Oscar

2011-01-01

24

High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

2011-01-01

25

Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

2012-10-01

26

Transport variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current and the Antilles Current off Abaco Island, Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrography is combined with 1-year-long Inverted Echo Sounder (IES) travel-time records and bottom pressure observations to estimate the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) transport east of Abaco Island, the Bahamas (near 26.5°N); comparison of the results to a more traditional line of current meter moorings demonstrates that the IESs and pressure gauges, combined with hydrography, can accurately monitor the DWBC

Christopher S. Meinen; Silvia L. Garzoli; William E. Johns; Molly O. Baringer

2004-01-01

27

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of\\u000a the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; S. K. Meier; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. M. Nielson; V. L. Vladimirov; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

28

Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August’ September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered\\u000a western gray whale

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. Nielson; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

29

Late Quaternary Depositional History and Anthropogenic Impacts of Western Long Island Sound, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2006, we surveyed the seafloor of western Long Island Sound with the R\\/V HUGH SHARP and collected multibeam bathymetry, chirp subbottom profiling, side-scan sonar imagery, and sediment samples (25 gravity cores, 11 multicores, and 10 grabs). In addition, 36 CTD hydrocast stations measured O, pH, alkalinity, trace metals, nutrients, Polonium-210, Lead-210, Thorium-234, organic carbon, and pigments. Continuous weather

C. M. McHugh; M. Cormier; P. Marchese; Y. Zheng; G. Stewart; V. Acosta; A. Bowman; A. Cortes; L. Leon; M. Rosa; D. Semple; N. Thaker; W. Vargas; L. Williams

2006-01-01

30

78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS announces that the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council proposes to amend four fishery ecosystem plans to establish fishing requirements consistent with the Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...

2013-02-01

31

Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia: Nectariniidae).  

PubMed

We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis for western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia) and used this to investigate the geographic pattern of their diversification among the islands of the Indian Ocean. A total of 1309 bp of mitochondrial sequence data was collected from the island sunbird taxa of the western Indian Ocean region, combined with sequence data from a selection of continental (African and Asian) sunbirds. Topological and branch length information combined with estimated divergence times are used to present hypotheses for the direction and sequence of colonization events in relation to the geological history of the Indian Ocean region. Indian Ocean sunbirds fall into two well-supported clades, consistent with two independent colonizations from Africa within the last 3.9 million years. The first clade contains island populations representing the species Nectarinia notata, while the second includes Nectarinia souimanga, Nectarinia humbloti, Nectarinia dussumieri, and Nectarinia coquereli. With respect to the latter clade, application of Bremer's [Syst. Biol. 41 (1992) 436] ancestral areas method permits us to posit the Comoros archipelago as the point of initial colonization in the Indian Ocean. The subsequent expansion of the souimanga clade across its Indian Ocean range occurred rapidly, with descendants of this early expansion remaining on the Comoros and granitic Seychelles. The data suggest that a more recent expansion from Anjouan in the Comoros group led to the colonization of Madagascar by sunbirds representing the souimanga clade. In concordance with the very young geological age of the Aldabra group, the sunbirds of this archipelago have diverged little from the Madagascar population; this is attributed to colonization of the Aldabra archipelago in recent times, in one or possibly two or more waves originating from Madagascar. The overall pattern of sunbird radiation across Indian Ocean islands indicates that these birds disperse across ocean barriers with relative ease, but that their subsequent evolutionary success probably depends on a variety of factors including prior island occupation by competing species. PMID:12967608

Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bowie, Rauri C K; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Thébaud, Christophe

2003-10-01

32

History of Contamination and Coastal Hazards in Western Long Island Sound, N.Y.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Island Sound, estuary borders metropolitan New York at its western end where it has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities and natural hazards such as storm surges and floods. The waters and sediments of western Long Island Sound (LIS) accumulate many pollutants including heavy metals and organic matter loadings. Seasonal hypoxic conditions are a major water quality problem, not only with regards to the damage to its ecosystems, but also for the important fishing industry that LIS sustains. On June 2006, we surveyed LIS from 73°30'W to 73°50'W from the R/V Hugh Sharp collecting high-resolution subbottom seismic (chirp) profiles, multibeam bathymetric data and 25 gravity cores (up to 3 m long). The total organic carbon (TOC) and mercury contents measured in the sediments confirm that their concentrations systematically increase from east to west towards New York City. Mercury concentrations increase westward from 700 to 1200 ppb with pre-industrial values of 50 ppb. In contrast, TOC concentrations indicate that eutrophied conditions did exist in western LIS prior to industrialization with pre-industrial concentrations of 3.8% in the west. These concentrations increased due to anthropogenic activities to values in excess of 10%. High-resolution chirp and sonar data reveal that bottom circulation in western LIS is constrained by bedrock some of which outcrops near 73°45'W. The LIS western outlet to the East River at 73°55'W is controlled by the narrow, shallow sill of Hell Gate. The funnel shape of LIS and these bedrock constrictions contribute to significantly decrease tidal and wind induced currents from east to west (60 to10 cm/s). We propose that this decrease in flow velocity leads to sediment deposition and to the concentration of pollutants. We further suggest that hypoxic conditions possibly existed prior to anthropogenic activities due to the basin morphology and decreased circulation. Previous studies based on stable O and C isotopes do indeed indicate that it was hypoxic to anoxic. Finally, our measurements indicate that storms/floods also lead to erosion and deposition of pollutants in western LIS. We are developing a chronology to link erosional surfaces and peak abundances in heavy metals to the historical record of storms, and to a longer-term record to document their recurrence intervals. This will form a basis to assess future potential detrimental effects that storms may have on the Long Island Sound estuary due to climate change.

McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Pant, H.; Varekamp, J.; Marchese, P.; Charles, T.; Bowman, A.; Vargas, W.; Balbas, A.; Boteju, J.

2007-12-01

33

Digital seismic-reflection data from western Rhode Island Sound, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a seismic-reflection survey in western Rhode Island Sound aboard the Research Vessel Neecho. Data from this survey were recorded in analog form and archived at the USGS Woods Hole Science Center's Data Library. Due to recent interest in the geology of Rhode Island Sound and in an effort to make the data more readily accessible while preserving the original paper records, the seismic data from this cruise were scanned and converted to Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) images and SEG-Y data files. Navigation data were converted from U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN-C) time delays to latitudes and longitudes, which are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) shapefile format and as eastings and northings in space-delimited text format.

McMullen, K. Y.; Poppe, L. J.; Soderberg, N. K.

2009-01-01

34

High prevalence of schistosomiasis in Mbita and its adjacent islands of Lake Victoria, western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity among communities located around Lake Victoria and on its islands. Although epidemiological surveys have been conducted in other areas bordering the lake in western Kenya, Mbita district and its adjacent islands have never been surveyed, largely due to logistical challenges in accessing these areas. Consequently, there is a paucity of data on prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections that are endemic in this region. Methods This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence, intensity of infection and geographical distribution of schistosome and STH infections among 4,065 children aged 5–19?years in 84 primary schools in Mbita and nearby islands of Lake Victoria (Mfangano, Ringiti, Rusinga and Takawiri), in western Kenya. Single stool samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma mansoni and STHs (Hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) using the Kato-Katz technique. Primary schools were mapped using geographical information system data on PDAs and prevalence maps generated using ArcView GIS software. Results Overall, 65.6% (95% CI?=?64.2-67.1%) of children were infected with one or more helminth species; 12.4% (95% CI?=?11.4-13.4%) of children were infected with one or more STH species. Mean school prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 60.5% (95% CI?=?59.0-62.0%), hookworms 8.4% (95% CI?=?7.6-9.3%), A. lumbricoides 3.3% (95% CI?=?2.7-3.8%), and T. trichiura 1.6% (95% CI?=?1.2-2.0%). Interestingly, the mean S. mansoni prevalence was 2-fold higher on the islands (82%) compared to the mainland (41%) (z?=?5.8755, P?islands (217.2?±?99.3) compared to the mainland (141.3?±?123.7) (z?=?3.9374, P?islands is quite alarming, and indicates an urgent and critical need for control interventions. Findings from this survey indicate the need to implement treatment in remote areas not previously covered by mass drug administration programs.

2012-01-01

35

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 ?S/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 ?S/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly affected by tide. Transmissivity was estimated using transmissivity (T) ~ specific capacity (Q/s) relationsip: T = 0.99(Q/s)0.89/ proposed by Hamm et al. (2005). T estimates ranged from 21.9 to 2664.3m2/d, and Q/s estimates ranged from 32.4 to 7,143m2/d. The average drawdown is 12.9 m, between 0.1 and 40 m, presenting a wide variation of drawdown on different monitoring wells. From drill data, geophysical logs, and pumping tests, it is concluded that main aquifers develops in jointed parts in lava sequence, especially hyaloclastic breccia, and gravels and unconsolidated sands in Seoguipo Formation. Keywords: transmissivity, specific capacity, geophygical log, pumping test, Jeju volcainc Island Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3-4-3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center) and by the 2nd stage of the BK21 Project, Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

2008-12-01

36

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003.  

PubMed

In 2001-2003, >60,000 km of aerial surveys and 7,700 km of vessel surveys were conducted during June to November when critically endangered Korean-Okhotsk or western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were present off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Results of surveys in all years indicated gray whales occurred in predominantly two areas, (1) adjacent to Piltun Bay, and (2) offshore from Chayvo Bay, hereafter referred to as the Piltun and offshore feeding areas. In the Piltun feeding area, the majority of whales were observed in waters shallower than 20 m and were distributed from several hundred meters to approximately 5 km from the shoreline. In the offshore feeding area during all years, the distribution of gray whales extended from southwest to northeast in waters 30-65 m in depth. During all years, the distribution and abundance of whales changed in both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas, and both north-south and inshore-offshore movements were documented within and between feeding seasons. The discovery of a significant number of whales feeding in the offshore area each year was a substantial finding of this study and raises questions regarding western gray whale abundance and population levels, feeding behavior and ecology, and individual site-fidelity. Fluctuations in the number of whales observed within the Piltun and offshore feeding areas and few sightings outside of these two areas indicate that gray whales move between the Piltun and offshore feeding areas during their summer-fall feeding season. Seasonal shifts in the distribution and abundance of gray whales between and within both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas are thought, in part, to be a response to seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of prey. However, the mechanism driving the movements of whales along the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island is likely very complex and influenced by a multitude of factors. PMID:17703367

Meier, S K; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Wainwright, P; Maminov, M K; Yakovlev, Y M; Newcomer, M W

2007-08-17

37

Intermittent ventilation in the hypoxic zone of western Long Island Sound during the summer of 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, salinity, and temperature, during summer of 2004, at three levels on two moorings in the area of western Long Island Sound that is prone to seasonal hypoxia are described. Ship surveys in the area reveal that the DO concentration below the pycnocline decreases at approximately 2.4 mM m-3 d-1 throughout the summer. We show that this is the net result of oscillations in the rate of change of the DO concentration with periods of 3 to 7 days. During intervals of declining DO concentration, the rate of change is consistent with previous estimates of the rate of community respiration. Since there is insufficient light for photosynthesis below the pycnocline, increasing DO concentration (ventilation) must be a consequence of either vertical mixing or horizontal advection from regions of higher concentration. Analysis of the covariation of DO, salinity, and temperature and knowledge of the mean property distributions allow us to associate most (˜80%) of the ventilation intervals with increased vertical mixing. Comparison of DO and wind stress measurements suggest that it is the component in the along-sound direction that controls the occurrence of ventilation, perhaps through modification of the rate of stratification by the density-driven circulation. We conclude that the spatial and temporal variability of vertical mixing is crucial to understanding the duration and extent of hypoxia in the Long Island Sound estuary.

O'Donnell, James; Dam, Hans G.; Bohlen, W. Frank; Fitzgerald, William; Gay, Peter S.; Houk, Adam E.; Cohen, David C.; Howard-Strobel, Mary M.

2008-09-01

38

Regional offshore geology of central and western Solomon Islands and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

The central and western Solomon Islands and the Bougainville regions are parts of a complex island-arc system that includes an intra-arc basin and remnants of both forearc and back-arc depositional wedges. These features formed in response to episodic Cenozoic tectonism along the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Australia-India plates. Presumed early Tertiary southwest-directed subduction of the Pacific plate and associated arc magmatism were curtailed by impingement of the leading edge of the Ontong Java Plateau. Aprons of back-arc and forearc sediment were derived from highstanding parts of the arc during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Late Tertiary arc-polarity reversal and northeastward-directed subduction of the Woodlark spreading system caused a renewal of island-arc magmatism that completed the construction of the Central Solomons Trough as an enclosed intra-arc basin. Interpretations of multichannel profiles from 1982 and 1984 CCOP/SOPAC Tripartite Cruises of the research vessel R/V S.P. Lee indicate that the Central Solomons Trough is a composite intra-arc basin containing as much as 5.5 km of late Oligocene(.) and younger sedimentary rocks. As many as five lenticular seismic-stratigraphic units can be identified on the basis of unconformities and abrupt velocity changes. Late Miocene and younger folds and faults deform the northeast and southwest flanks of the basin. Profiles across the Kilinailau Trench show Ontong Java Plateau rocks covered by 2-4 km of trench sediment. The inner trench wall consists of folded, upfaulted, and rotated blocks of trench and forearc strata. The deep-water basin northwest of Bougainville is a southeastward extension of the New Ireland forearc basin, the southern margin of which is formed by a subsided part of the early Cenozoic arc. There, Oligocene(.) and younger basin strata, as much as 7 km thick, are deformed by pre-Pliocene faults and folds.

Vedder, J.G.; Colwell, J.B.; Bruns, T.R.; Cooper, A.K.

1986-07-01

39

Western Lifestyle and Increased Prevalence of Atopic Diseases: An Example from a Small Papua New Guinean Island  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic diseases represent an increasing problem in public health in most modern societies as their prevalence has risen markedly during recent decades. Nevertheless, the causes of this increase are not yet fully explained. Objective We investigated the correlation of Western lifestyle pattern in varying intensity to the prevalence of atopic diseases in 5 small villages on Karkar Island, in northeast Papua New Guinea. Methods Two hundred forty-eight native people from 5 villages on tropical Karkar Island have been included in this study. The degree of Western lifestyle was assessed (questionnaire and observation) for each village. The prevalence of atopic diseases was evaluated by personal and family history, physical and dermatological examination, skin prick test (10 allergens), and measurement of total and specific immunoglobulin E levels (20 common allergens). Results The more easily accessible and thus more "modern" and westernized coastal villages showed a significantly higher prevalence of habitants suffering from atopic diseases than a traditional mountain village (6.8% vs 0.0%, P = 0.034, Fisher exact test). A total of 4.4% (11/248) of the examined islanders suffered from an atopic disease. Atopic eczema seems to be absent on Karkar Island. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that so-called Western lifestyle may contribute to the development of atopic diseases.

2009-01-01

40

Seismic Observations of Westdahl volcano and Western Unimak Island Alaska: 1999-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westdahl volcano is a large basaltic shield volcano on the western end of Unimak Island Alaska in the Aleutian Island Arc. The volcano is topped by three separate vents, Pogromni Volcano, Faris Peak, and Westdahl Peak. The volcano is frequently active with known eruptions from Westdahl Peak in 1964, 1978, and 1991-92 that produced large basaltic lava flows. InSAR measurements indicate that Westdahl Volcano has been inflating at a slowly declining rate since 1992 (Lu et al., 2003). The Alaska Volcano Observatory has operated a network of six short-period seismometers on Westdahl Peak since 1998. Complementing this network are similar networks centered on Shishaldin and Akutan Volcanoes. Since 1999 more than 300 earthquakes have been located within 20 km of Westdahl Volcano. A volcano specific velocity model was determined for the western half of Uminak Island by simultaneously inverting for the velocity model and hypocentral earthquake locations using the program VELEST. Earthquakes located with the new model reveal five clusters of hypocenters: (a) a shallow cluster beneath Westdahl Peak, that largely occurred during a 24-hour period on January 7, 2004, (b) a concentration of 68 earthquakes with hypocenters ranging in depth from zero to eight km beneath Faris Peak occurring continually since 1999, (c) a diffuse cluster of long-period events northwest of Westdahl and Faris Peaks, (d) a cluster of 12 earthquakes near Pinnacle Rock, 12 km southwest of Westdahl Peak in October 2003, and (e) a cluster of 43 hypocenters near Unimak Bight, 20 km east of Westdahl Peak, that occurred between January and April 2004. Focal mechanisms were derived for four earthquakes in the Faris Peak cluster and four additional earthquakes that locate off the volcanic edifice (the four mechanisms are in the Pinnacle Rock cluster, the Unimak Bight cluster, and 20 km southeast and 30 km northeast of the volcano). Focal mechanisms in the Faris Peak cluster showed normal faulting with nodal planes trending north-south to northwest-southeast. Mechanisms of the off-volcano earthquakes are generally characterized by normal faulting with nodal planes trending southwest-northeast. These events are consistent with a stress field dominated by the Aleutian subduction zone. The Faris Peak mechanisms are not consistent with the presumed regional stress field and may reflect volcanic process. Lu et al., (2003) proposed the observed inflation of Westdahl Volcano resulted from a slowly pressurizing magma source at 6 km depth beneath Westdahl Peak. The observed seismicity is consistent with this model. Lu, Z., T. Masterlark, D. Dzurisin, and R. Rykhus, 2003, Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2354, doi:10.1029/2002JB002311, 2003.

Dixon, J. P.; Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.

2005-12-01

41

Seismic Stratigraphy Of The Ross Island Flexural Moat Under Western Mcmurdo-Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ross Island is a volcanic complex that began forming with the emplacement Mount Bird around 5 million years ago, though it has developed most significantly within the last 1 million years with the emplacement of the c. 4km high Mount Erebus. Throughout this time, loading of the lithosphere by this volcanic complex has warped the underlying crust into a subcircular submarine depression that has been accumulating sediment in series of flexural moat basins around the periphery of the island. Due to the depth of the floor of the depression (800-1000 m below sea level today), the sediment fill has largely escaped subsequent erosion by grounded ice of the McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves (MRIS) and Ross Ice Sheet. Our interest is in the 1.5 km-thick sedimentary record that now lies beneath the deepest part of the depression and is covered by the MRIS. The sediments here have the potential to provide a continuous and high resolution (10^2-10^3 year) record back to 5 million years of the past behaviour of the MRIS and its influence on bottom water production in Ross Sea. The flexural moat basin-fill between the volcanic complexes of Ross and White Islands, which because of its remoteness is only now being investigated for the first time, is in a key location beneath the north western corner of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) where it flows into the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). This site forms one of the 4 objectives of the ANDRILL Programme and is scheduled for drilling in 2005. Here we present new multi-channel seismic reflection data from over-ice shelf surveys conducted between 2001-2003, that elucidate the geometry and stratigraphy of the flexural-moat basin-fill and its relationship to the adjacent volcanics. We illustrate the proposed drill sites and make an initial prognosis of the sedimentary fill. The uppermost c. 500 m of the sedimentary succession is expected to be fine-grained muds with occasional glacigene sediment and layers of volcanic ash. Underlying strata may become progressively more glacigene in character as they were deposited at a time when the depression was shallower and the ice shelf may have been grounded.

Horgan, H.; Naish, T.; Bannister, S.; Balfour, N.; Wilson, G.; Finnemore, F.

2003-04-01

42

Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation.

Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Carey, Steven N.

2007-06-01

43

New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land installation.

Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

2010-05-01

44

Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data  

PubMed Central

The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens.

Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2012-01-01

45

Origin of igneous rocks associated with Mélanges of the Pacific Rim Complex, western Vancouver Island, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific Rim Complex (PRC) has previously been interpreted as a late Mesozoic subduction complex that formed along the western margin of Vancouver Island. This paper examines a specific aspect of this interpretation: that igneous rocks within the PRC are fault slices derived from the footwall or hanging wall of a subduction thrust. The footwall would have been an oceanic plate, and the hanging wall, Wrangellia, a large coherent terrane that underlies most of Vancouver Island. New mapping has shown that the PRC comprises a lower Mesozoic volcanic unit, herein named the Ucluth Formation, and a superjacent sequence, more than 2 km thick, of Lower Cretaceous sediment-rich mélanges. Within the mélanges are large blocks of volcanic and plutonic rocks, most of which were derived from the underlying Ucluth Formation. A minor fraction of these blocks cannot be assigned to Ucluth; they consist of Upper Jurassic pillow basalt and rare ultramafite. Fossil ages and chemical data indicate that the bulk of the igneous rocks in the PRC, as represented by the Ucluth Formation and blocks derived from the Ucluth, could not have come from Wrangellia nor from a subducting oceanic plate. The blocks of Upper Jurassic pillow basalt do represent fragments of oceanic crust, but field relations indicate that they are not fault slices. The mudstone matrix surrounding the blocks contains interbeds of "green tuff" which are shown to be scree deposits derived from the Ucluth and the Upper Jurassic pillow basalts. My interpretation is that the PRC mélanges formed by surficial mass wasting, and not by faulting along a subduction thrust. Furthermore, regional geologic relations indicate that the present location of the PRC, outboard of Wrangellia, is a result of strike slip faulting during the latest Cretaceous or early Tertiary. This event postdates the formational age of the mélanges by at least 45 m.y. An appendix of chemical analyses, locality descriptions, sample petrography, analytical methods, and estimated accuracy is available with the entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009. Document T89-004; $2.50. Payment must accompany order.

Brandon, Mark T.

1989-12-01

46

Connections between hydrodynamics, benthic landscape and associated fauna in the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking the abiotic and biotic traits of ecosystems is a critical step towards understanding their structure and functioning. Here we attempt to determine the connections between the hydrodynamics, benthic landscape and the associated fish communities on the coastal continental shelf off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Specifically we investigate the role the hydrodynamics play in shaping the benthic landscape, and whether the hydrodynamics affect the composition and structure of demersal fish communities. A realistic numerical model was used to establish the hydrodynamic characteristics of the area. The study area showed high hydrodynamic variability on a medium spatial scale (tens of km) in terms of mean water velocity (?). Principal component analysis was used to determine the main gradients of macro-epibenthic variability. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to model the effect of the hydrodynamics on macro-epibenthic species. RDA was also used to model the effect of the hydrodynamics and macro-epibenthos on the abundance of the associated fish fauna, and on its biomass at a community level using biomass spectra classes. The results showed that the hydrodynamics had a significant influence on the distribution of both macro-epibenthic species and the associated fish species. The latter was also influenced by the macro-epibenthos. Fish size appeared to be a key attribute for the distribution of species across gradients of ? and macro-epibenthic change. Our findings can be applied in ecosystem-based fisheries management, as they show that it is necessary to take into account both the biotic and abiotic traits of the habitats when the habitat use and requirements of the associated species are defined.

Ordines, Francesc; Jordà, Gabriel; Quetglas, Antoni; Flexas, Mar; Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric

2011-11-01

47

A nationwide survey of the prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoi infection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

A nationwide survey was performed to know the distribution and prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoi infection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea. A total of 4,178 fecal specimens were collected from residents on 45 (24 western and 21 southern) islands, and examined by Kato-Katz and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. Eggs of G. seoi were detected from 160 (3.8%) people living on 22 (13 western and 9 southern) islands. The prevalence varied by the location of islands; higher on western islands than on southern islands. The highest prevalence was found on Amtaedo (25.3%), followed by Cheungdo (25.0%), and Anchwado (20.9%) (Shinan-gun). A little lower prevalence was observed on Munyodo (13.3%), Shinshido (12.9%), and Sonyudo (10.3%) (Kunsan-shi). Of the remaining islands, the regions showing the prevalence greater than 5% included Kohado, Dallido (Mokpo-shi), Pyeongildo, Kogumdo (Wando-gun), and Keogumdo (Kohung-gun). A strong age predilection was noted (p < 0.05); 95% of the infected people were over 40 years old. Females showed a little higher prevalence than males. The results indicate that human G. seoi infection is more widely distributed than previously considered. Nine of 11 islands (excluding the 2 known areas Munyodo and Sunyudo) that showed greater prevalence than 5% are regarded as new endemic foci of G. seoi.

Park, Jae-Hwan; Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Hong, Kwang-Seon; Rim, Han-Jong; Lee, Soon-Hyung

2001-01-01

48

A nationwide survey of the prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoi infection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

A nationwide survey was performed to know the distribution and prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoi infection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea. A total of 4,178 fecal specimens were collected from residents on 45 (24 western and 21 southern) islands, and examined by Kato-Katz and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. Eggs of G. seoi were detected from 160 (3.8%) people living on 22 (13 western and 9 southern) islands. The prevalence varied by the location of islands; higher on western islands than on southern islands. The highest prevalence was found on Amtaedo (25.3%), followed by Cheungdo (25.0%), and Anchwado (20.9%) (Shinan-gun). A little lower prevalence was observed on Munyodo (13.3%), Shinshido (12.9%), and Sonyudo (10.3%) (Kunsan-shi). Of the remaining islands, the regions showing the prevalence greater than 5% included Kohado, Dallido (Mokpo-shi), Pyeongildo, Kogumdo (Wando-gun), and Keogumdo (Kohung-gun). A strong age predilection was noted (p < 0.05); 95% of the infected people were over 40 years old. Females showed a little higher prevalence than males. The results indicate that human G. seoi infection is more widely distributed than previously considered. Nine of 11 islands (excluding the 2 known areas Munyodo and Sunyudo) that showed greater prevalence than 5% are regarded as new endemic foci of G. seoi. PMID:11301587

Chai, J Y; Park, J H; Han, E T; Shin, E H; Kim, J L; Hong, K S; Rim, H J; Lee, S H

2001-03-01

49

The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

2010-05-01

50

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1  

PubMed Central

A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence.

Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

51

Translocation of captive-bred dibblers Parantechinus apicalis (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) to Escape Island, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of threatened marsupials to islands affords a high degree of translocation success due to the lack of exotic species on islands, or the feasibility of eradicating them. The dibbler Parantechinus apicalis is a small marsupial endemic to the southwest of Australia. It is listed under international and national legislation as Endangered, and has been the focus of a

Dorian Moro

2003-01-01

52

Seasonal and annual variation in body condition of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western gray whale population (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered and its potential for recovery is uncertain. Along with other natural and anthropogenic threats, western gray whales are susceptible to nutritional stress, known from regular observations of individual whales in compromised body condition. Thus, the ability to visually quantify the relative body condition of free-ranging western gray whales and evaluate

Amanda L. Bradford; David W. Weller; Yulia V. Ivashchenko; Alexander M. Burdin; Robert L. Brownell

53

Preliminary evaluation of the water resources of Yap and Gagil-Tomil islands, western Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yap Islands consist of four major islands, Yap, Gagil-Tamil, Maap, and Rumung. Of these, Yap Island has more than half the total land area, most of the population, and almost all of the economic development. The islands of Maap and Rumung together compose only 15 percent of the land area and population. Average annual rainfall over the Yap Islands amounts to 122 inches. Rainfall-runoff comparisons indicate that about half of the annual rainfall runs off to the ocean on Yap Island and Gagil-Tamil. Streams on Gagil-Tamil are perennial but streams on Yap Island are dry an average of 3 months per year due to geologic differences. Analyses of water samples from 23 sources show the good quality and the chemical similarity of surface and ground water. This report summarizes the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by the planning and public works officials of Yap to make decisions concerning development and management of their water resources.

Van der Brug, Otto

1984-01-01

54

Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189±4 ka. Then the activity was followed by the construction of the Mte Terrione at 168±4 ka (Gillot 1987), which is matched by High K-Ca andesites emplaced in the Chiumento crater. Therefore, two different magmatic series took place in only 15 ka. The last eruption of Filicudi built the High K-CA dacite lava dome of Mte Montagnola. For Lipari island, the same event is observed around 120-100 ka. In fact, the emitted products evolved from CA andesitic basalts, that emplaced from 256±8 ka (Monte Chirica) to 119±7 ka (Monterosa), to High K-CA andesite after 100 ka. The rocks becam more and more differentiated to achieve High K-CA rhyolite composition during the last 40 ka. At the same time, the Monte Fossa delle Felci of Salina island shows a geochemical "excursion" around 100 ka, characterised by High K-CA dacite. The lower limit of Pollara explosive eruption, that emitted High K-CA rhyolite products, is constrain by a Monte dei Porri lava flow affected by Pollara crater and dated at 13±2 ka. Thus, all these magmatic changes correlate with morphological and volcanic variations. Finally, our first results confirm that the Aeolian arc volcanism is generated in a complex source, with important roles of both arc-type and anorogenic-type compositions. Datings on key samples show that role of different mantle sources change within a very short time span, especially in the central portion of the arc, along the TL lithosheric fault system. This work also gives new geochronological constrains on the duration of magmatic evolution and eruptive phases.

Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

2009-04-01

55

Continuous Reproduction in the Indo-Pacific Sea Urchin Echinometra Mathaei at Rottnest Island, Western Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven gonadal samples of Echinometra mathaei were taken between April 1965 and June 1967 from Rottnest I., Western Australia, and analysed histologically. Rottnest I. is near the southern distributional limit of this widespread Indo-Pacific echinoid. All...

J. S. Pearse B. F. Phillips

1968-01-01

56

Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.  

PubMed

The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. PMID:22141900

Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

2011-11-17

57

A comparison of orogenic gold mineralisation in central Victoria (AUS), western South Island (NZ) and Nova Scotia (CAN): implications for variations in the endowment of Palaeozoic metamorphic terrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeozoic western Lachlan Orogen in Victoria (SE Australia), the Buller Terrane (western South Island, New Zealand) and the Meguma Terrane (Nova Scotia, Canada) are remarkably similar in regard to their geological age and history, structural make-up, and the setting and formation of orogenic lode-and disseminated-style gold deposits within these fold belts. A comprehensive review of the principal characteristics of

F. P Bierlein; A. B Christie; P. K Smith

2004-01-01

58

Stratigraphy and timing of eolianite deposition on Rottnest Island, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 whole-rock amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios from outcrops around Rottnest Island (32.0° S Latitude near Perth) indicate distinct pulses of eolian deposition during the late Quaternary. Whole-rock d-alloisoleucine\\/l-isoleucine (A\\/I) ratios from bioclastic carbonate deposits fall into three distinct modal classes or “aminozones.” The oldest, Aminozone E, averages 0.33 ± 0.04 (n = 21). Red palaeosol and thick calcrete

Paul J. Hearty

2003-01-01

59

Island weathering: river sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on two of the largest rivers and estuaries of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Fly and Sepik and explores the degree to which river input and estuarine reactions affect the rare earth element (REE) composition of surface sea water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. The dissolved phases of the Fly and Sepik River waters have striking

E. r. Sholkovitz; H. Elderfield; R. Szymczak; K. Casey

1999-01-01

60

Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

2008-12-01

61

Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Western Rhode Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working together to interpret sea-floor geology along the northeastern coast of the United States. In 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE completed survey H11322, a sidescan-sonar and bathymetric survey that covers about 60 square kilometers of the sea floor in western Rhode Island Sound. This report interprets sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA survey H11322 to delineate sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in the study area. Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments in Rhode Island Sound underlie Pleistocene glacial drift that affects the distribution of surficial Holocene marine and transgressional sediments. The study area has three bathymetric highs separated by a channel system. Features and patterns in the sidescan-sonar imagery include low, moderate, and high backscatter; sand waves; scarps; erosional outliers; boulders; trawl marks; and dredge spoils. Four sedimentary environments in the study area, based on backscatter and bathymetric features, include those characterized by erosion or nondeposition, coarse-grained bedload transport, sorting and reworking, and deposition. Environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition and coarse-grained bedload transport are located in shallower areas and environments characterized by deposition are located in deeper areas; environments characterized by sorting and reworking processes are generally located at moderate depths.

McMullen, K. Y.; Poppe, L. J.; Haupt, T. A.; Crocker, J. M.

2009-01-01

62

User-driven science: earthquake and tsunami scenarios for the Mentawai Islands, western Sumatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following recovery from a large tsunami on 25-Oct-2010 that killed over 500 people, the government of the Mentawai Regency turned its attention to developing a regional disaster-risk-reduction plan. Geodetic and coral studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust, yet there had not been any tsunami-inundation maps produced for the Mentawai Islands based on this scenario. By request from the Mentawai government, we will develop such tsunami-inundation maps for populated areas. Uncertainties in the source models include whether the accumulated strain on the Sunda megathrust is released in one great earthquake or in a series of large earthquakes, limited scientific understanding of the seismic potential of the Mentawai backthrust that lies inboard (east) of the islands, and whether these sources would rupture to the surface in a particular earthquake. Low-resolution bathymetry adds uncertainty to our modeled tsunami flow depths and runups. Because the Mentawai government is currently planning for disaster risk reduction, we chose to produce the inundation map now. However, we may have a communication challenge if, a few years in the future, further research leads to significant revisions of the inundation map. We will communicate the results and uncertainty to the Mentawai government and partner local NGOs through an in-person workshop. Monitoring and evaluation will inform further communication efforts. However, the remote location of the Mentawai Islands and limited internet and phone service significantly limits our ability to communicate with end-users at the community level. Since our maps are likely to be parceled out and distributed to villages in hard copy, we need to include key information for each location, including uncertainty, on a single sheet. With local partners, we will investigate the best way to frame this information in the local context.

McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Qiang, Q.; Huang, Z.; Hill, E. M.; Natawidjaja, D.; Sieh, K. E.

2011-12-01

63

Volcanic activity recorded in deep-sea sediments and the geodynamic evolution of western Pacific island arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of volcanic ashes interbedded in deep-sea sediments was carried out from DSDP-IPOD and ODP data collected along the western Pacific margin. Using a tephrochronological method, we attempted to reconstruct the Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic activity of major western Pacific arcs. For every arc, established volcanic episodes and volcanic-tectonic evolution recorded on land were compared. This study reveals close connections between tectonic events and volcanic activity of arcs, as well a temporal relationship between the opening of marginal basins and arc volcanism. In the Tohoku (NE Japan) and Bonin arcs (SE Japan), arc volcanic activity clearly vanishes during backarc spreading. In contrast, intense volcanism occurs during both arc rifting and intervals of no spreading. Detailed comparisons show that the maximum volcanic output is closely connected with the stress field evolution recorded on land. The case of Seinan arc (SW Japan) shows a good fit between volcanic episodes and periods of release of the compressional stress field after major orogenic events. Furthermore, in the marine sediments off Japan, a systematic late Miocene volcanic hiatus interpreted as a quiescence of volcanic activity corresponds to a changing stress field on the Tohoku and Bonin arcs. These correlations between volcanic episodicity and tectonic evolution of island arcs allow us to discuss the influence of subduction process on arc volcanism. In the Philippines, the volcanic signal in marine sediments is compromised by rapid alteration and diagenesis of ashes. Nonetheless, only the main events of arc volcanic activity are preserved. A comparison with on land volcanism shows that this filtered volcanic signal in different places corresponds to incipient subduction (transition from passive to active margins) or to the final stages of basin closure.

Cambray, Hervé; Pubellier, Manuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Pouclet, André

64

A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Muhs, D. R.; Ager, T. A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J. P.; Dean, W. E.

2003-01-01

65

Architecture and evolution of a fjord-head delta, western Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architectural framework and Holocene evolution of the Zeballos fjord-head delta on west-central Vancouver Island was established through a multidisciplinary field-based study. The Zeballos delta is a composite feature, consisting of an elevated, incised, late Pleistocene delta and an inset Holocene delta graded to present sea level. Both deltas have a classic Gilbert-type tripartite architecture, with nearly flat topset and bottomset units and an inclined foreset unit. Time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, borehole data, and gravel pit exposures provided information on the internal form, lithologies and substrate of both deltas. Both sets of deltaic deposits coarsen upward from silt in the bottomset unit to gravel in the topset unit. The TDEM survey revealed a highly irregular, buried bedrock surface, ranging from 20 m to 190 m in depth, and it delineated saltwater intrusion into the deltaic sediments.Late Quaternary sea-level change at Zeballos was inferred from delta morphology and the GPR survey. The elevated, late Pleistocene delta was constructed when the sea was about 21 m higher relative to the land than it is today. It was dissected when sea-level fell rapidly as a result of glacio-isostatic rebound. Relative sea-level reached a position about 20 m below the present datum during the early Holocene. Foreset beds that overlap and progressively climb in a seaward direction and topset beds that thicken to 26 m landward imply that the delta aggraded and prograded into Zeballos Inlet during the middle and late Holocene transgression. Sea-level may have risen above the present datum during the middle Holocene, creating a delta plain at about 4 m a.s.l. Remnants of this surface are preserved along the valley margins. Copyright

Gutsell, Jeffrey E.; Clague, John J.; Best, Melvyn E.; Bobrowsky, Peter T.; Hutchinson, Ian

2004-07-01

66

San José Island Accommodation Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico: A Key to Onshore-Offshore Fault Relationships along the Western Margin of the Southern Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-stage evolution of the southern Gulf of California included protogulf orthogonal rifting from ˜12 to ˜6 Ma, followed by overprinting from ˜6 to 0 Ma by the highly oblique-divergent, modern plate boundary. The San José Island accommodation zone, located ˜70 km north-northwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur, represents the transition between strike-slip partitioning to the south and the oblique-divergent structural overprinting to the north. The accommodation zone includes San José and San Francisquito islands, the San José Canal, and a 4 to 6 km wide belt along the coast of the Baja California peninsula. The accommodation zone separates the La Paz rift segment to the south from the Timbabichi rift segment to the north. The El Carrizal fault bounds the La Paz rift segment, and likely splays onshore in the southernmost accommodation zone. Kinematic data, fault mapping, and geomorphologic and bathymetric observations along the shoreline suggest the presence of en echelon, offshore faults in the San José Canal between the Baja peninsula and islands. The main faults in the southern San José Canal appear to be a series of right-stepping, east-dipping normal faults branching northward from the El Carrizal fault. Based on onshore fault trends in the northern accommodation zone, the northern Canal faults form a left-stepping link to the main bounding fault of the Timbabichi rift segment. The faults bounding the western edge of the islands are likely left-stepping, west-dipping normal faults. Steep, triangular facets and cliffs characterize the western edge of San José Island and suggest that the western island-bounding faults are active. The Pliocene basin, basin-bounding fault, and line of steep coastal cliffs on the eastern side of San José Island are likely associated with the northern end of the Espíritu Santo normal fault, which experienced a major earthquake in 1995. The basin and faults also may be the termination of a series of faults related to the fracture zone emanating from the Alarcón spreading ridge. A similar relationship between basin and accommodation zone development and the evolution of strike-slip/fracture zone systems has been demonstrated in other rifts. Formation of San José and San Francisquito islands along normal faults may be a result of (1) the latest Miocene-early Pliocene tectonic reorganization to oblique rifting, and (2) active normal faulting in the San José Island accommodation zone and southward.

Drake, W. R.; Umhoefer, P. J.

2003-12-01

67

Petrogenesis of western Philippine island arc magmas: potential origin of the potassium-depth relationship  

SciTech Connect

Three geographic volcanic arcs have developed in western Luzon. The Philippines as a result of subduction associated with an eastward-dipping Benioff zone. Approximately 200 samples were collected and analyzed for major and various trace elements. In addition, 30 initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and a few /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios have been determined. Seventy-six conventional K/Ar radiometric dates have also been determined. Based on these data, several conclusions can be made: 1) Excellent linear correlations exist between SiO/sub 2/ and the incompatible elements. 2) Incompatible elements do not appear to have been affected by alteration or weathering; 3) Based on geophysical and geochemical evidence, assimilation and contamination have played an insignificant role in affecting original magma compositions; 4) It can be argued that the sources for these volcanics are enriched (metasomatized) mantle above the Benioff zone because the Bataan volcanics have apparently not been contaminated. Derivation of the Bataan volcanic rocks by different degrees of partial melting of the mantle can be ruled out. The mantle sources become increasingly more enriched in incompatible elements and radiogenic strontium away from the Manila Trench; 5) All three arcs have apparently undergone early, non-selective crystal fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and/or olivine; 6) The variations in slopes observed on potassium Harker diagrams between the arcs can be explained by a combination of original primary magma potassium variations between the arcs and the fractionation of similar phases within each arc.

Defant, M.J.; Ragland, P.C.; Odom, A.L.

1985-01-01

68

Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The\\u000a area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and\\u000a proximity to the

Glenn Gailey; Bernd Würsig; Trent L. McDonald

2007-01-01

69

The study of nest-site preferences in Eleonora’s falcon Falco eleonorae through digital terrain models on a western Mediterranean island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses nesting-site preferences in Eleonora’s falcon Falco eleonorae by means of geographic information systems and high-quality high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). A small western\\u000a Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands) with a colony of 34 pairs was chosen as a case study. Overall, 21 grid variables\\u000a obtained from DTM were considered of which 12 showed a significant effect. Four of

G. Urios; A. Martínez-Abraín

2006-01-01

70

PLATE TECTONIC HISTORY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE WESTERN TRANSVERSE RANGES AND NORTHERN CHANNEL ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Channel Islands occupy the southern edge of the Transverse Ranges block and thus the islands share and illuminate the history of this block. In the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, the Transverse Ranges block was oriented north-south, so that the Channel Islands probably lay near San Diego. The block occupied the forearc region of a subduction zone, collecting continental shelf

Tanya M. Atwater

71

High Resolution Geophysical Survey of Western Long Island Sound Offshore New York: An Estuary Floor Shaped by Bottom Currents and Human Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound near metropolitan New York averages 16m in water depth, with a few elongated depression up to 40 m deep. In June 2006, we surveyed the westernmost section of Long island Sound with the R/V HUGH SHARP. Analysis of the high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data collected during that survey reveals a series of sedimentary features that are consistent with a net westward direction of bottom currents. These features include: (1) Large sedimentary waves spaced ab out 100 m west of two km-scale features outcropping through the sediments; (2) Prominent sediment drifts or scour marks west of numerous shipwrecks and bouldery outcrops; (3) Series of subtle, sub-parallel sedimentary furrows aligned in a general EW direction along the north slope of the surveyed area (similar features have been documented in north- central Long Island Sound - (Poppe et al., J. Coastal Res. 2002). The lack of short wavelength sedimentary waves is consistent with the known muddy substrate and weak bottom currents (<10 cm/s) documented in western Long Island Sound. Fields of pockmarks affecting areas of gas-charged sediments may indicate localized, active venting of fluids and/or gas. The high-resolution bathymetry also highlights numerous anthropogenic disturbances such as pipelines, cables, shipwrecks, anchor drag marks, and dredge spoils.

Vargas, W.; Cormier, M.; McHugh, C.

2009-05-01

72

Tephrostratigraphy and petrological study of Chikurachki and Fuss volcanoes, western Paramushir Island, northern Kurile Islands: Evaluation of Holocene eruptive activity and temporal change of magma system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tephrostratigraphic and petrological study of the Chikurachki (1816m)-Tatarinov-Lomonosov volcanic chain (CTL volcanic chain) and Fuss (1772m), located at the southern part of Paramushir Island in the northern Kurile Islands, was carried out to reveal the explosive eruption history during the Holocene and the temporal change of the magma systems of these active volcanoes. Tephra successions were described at 54

Takeshi Hasegawa; Mitsuhiro Nakagawa; Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto; Yoshihiro Ishizuka; Wataru Hirose; Sho-ichi Seki; Vera Ponomareva; Rybin Alexander

73

Conservation significance of island versus mainland populations: a case study of dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis) in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations are an interesting dichotomy in conservation biology. On the one hand, they can be a refuge for species where mainland populations have been decimated by loss of habitat and predation by exotic predators. On the other hand, island populations usually have reduced genetic diversity and are more susceptible to extinction through genetic and demographic processes. Genetic variation and

Harriet R. Mills; Dorian Moro; Peter B. S. Spencer

2004-01-01

74

Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

2011-12-20

75

Dynamics of coral reef benthic assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil: inferences on natural and anthropogenic drivers.  

PubMed

The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3-10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Coni, Ericka O C; Meirelles, Pedro M; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H; Bastos, Alex C; Abrantes, Douglas P; Ferreira, Camilo M; Gibran, Fernando Z; Güth, Arthur Z; Sumida, Paulo Y G; Oliveira, Nara L; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V; Moura, Rodrigo L

2013-01-24

76

Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers  

PubMed Central

The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted.

Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Guth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

2013-01-01

77

Integrating conservation, restoration and land-use planning in islands—An illustrative case study in Réunion Island (Western Indian Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an operational protocol for integrating conservation and restoration with land-use planning in islands. Conservation challenges are intensified in insular systems due to higher ecosystem vulnerability, limited spatial options, low data availability, rapid land-use change and, globally, short-term vision planning. Our operational planning protocol integrates ecological and socio-economic factors to identify the best spatial options for conserving and

Erwann Lagabrielle; Mathieu Rouget; Thomas Le Bourgeois; Karine Payet; Laurent Durieux; Stéphane Baret; Joël Dupont; Dominique Strasberg

2011-01-01

78

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

2010-08-11

79

Breakage of mutualisms by exotic species: the case of Cneorum tricoccon L. in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim In this study we tested the hypothesis that the dispersal success (estimated here as fruit removal rate) of a native shrub species living in the Balearic Archipelago, Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae), has decreased significantly in those islands where endemic lizards of the genus Podarcis have disappeared. These lizards acted as the main seed dispersers of the plant and became

Nuria Riera; Anna Traveset; Oscar Garcia

2002-01-01

80

Effect of predation by the invasive crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on recruiting barnacles Semibalanus balanoides in western Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction fewer than 20 yr ago, the spread of the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus along the east coast of the US has been remarkable. By many accounts it is now the numerically dominant brachyuran in rocky intertidal sites in Long Island Sound. Evidence from several laboratory studies has suggested that H. sanguineus could have significant consequences for

Diane J. Brousseau; Ronald Goldberg

2007-01-01

81

Island shadow effects and the wave climate of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) inferred from altimetry and numerical model data.  

PubMed

To implement a numerical model of atoll lagoon circulation, we characterized first the significant wave height (Hs) regime of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago and the local attenuation due to the protection offered by large atolls in the south Tuamotu. Altimetry satellite data and a WAVEWATCH III two-way nested wave model at 5 km resolution from 2000 to 2010 were used. Correlation between altimetry and model was high (0.88) over the period. According to the wave model, the archipelago inner seas experienced attenuated Hs year-long with a yearly average Hs around 1.3m vs a minimum of 1.6m elsewhere. The island shadow effect is especially significant in the austral winter. In contrast with southern atolls, Western Tuamotu experienced only few days per year of Hs larger than 2.5m generated by very high Hs southern swell, transient western local storms, strong easterly winds, and during the passage of distant hurricanes. PMID:22795488

Andréfouët, Serge; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Queffeulou, Pierre; Le Gendre, Romain

2012-07-15

82

The Relation Between Ageostrophy and Boundary-Layer Structure in the Western-Pacific Trades (Wake Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight years (1980–1987) of Wake Island rawinsonde data are used to derive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth, integrated boundary-layer moisture, and a measure of boundary-layer ageostrophy. The variability in these processes controls the accumulation of moisture and heat in the tradewind regions and their transport to regions of intense convection. Preliminary analyses using different methods reveal quasi-periodic signals in these

Gad Levy; Cole B. McCANDLISH; Dean Vickers

1999-01-01

83

Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial history of the continental shelf northwest of Alexander Island is not well known, due mainly to a lack of targeted marine data on Antarctica's palaeo-ice sheets in their inter-ice-stream areas. Recently it has been argued that the region was ice-free at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and thus a potential site for glacial refugia. In this paper, multibeam swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores are used to map the Alexander Island sector of the Antarctic Peninsula margin, in order to reconstruct the shelf's palaeoglaciology. Sea-floor bedforms provide evidence that an independent ice cap persisted on Alexander Island through the LGM and deglaciation. We show that this ice cap drained via two major, previously-undescribed tidewater outlets (Rothschild and Charcot Glaciers) sourced from an ice dome centred over the west of the island and near-shore areas. The glaciers grounded along deep, fjord-like cross-shelf troughs to within at least ˜10-20 km of the shelf edge, and probably reached the shelf break. Only one small outer-shelf zone appears to have remained free of ice throughout an otherwise extensive LGM. During retreat, grounding-line geomorphology indicates periodic stabilisation of Charcot Glacier on the mid-shelf after 13,500 cal yrs BP, while Rothschild Glacier retreated across its mid-shelf by 14,450 cal yrs BP. The timing of these events is in phase with retreat in nearby Marguerite Trough, and we take this as evidence of a common history and forcing with the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. The fine details of ice flow documented by our new reconstruction highlight the importance of capturing complex ice flow patterns in models (e.g. in inter-stream areas), for understanding how region-specific parts of Antarctica may change in the future. Moreover, the reconstruction shows that glacial refugia, if present, cannot have been extensive on the Alexander Island shelf at the LGM as indicated by previous biological studies; instead, we argue that any ice-free refugia were probably restricted to isolated outer-shelf pockets, that opened, closed, or were maintained through diachronous ice-sheet advance and retreat.

Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.

2012-03-01

84

Multistage collapse of eight western Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Sedimentological and geochemical evidence from subunits in submarine flow deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcaniclastic turbidites in the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of major landslides from the Western Canary Islands in the last 1.5 Ma. These volcaniclastic turbidites are composed of multiple fining-upward turbidite sands, known as subunits. The subunits indicate that the landslides responsible for the sediment gravity flows occurred in multiple stages. The subunits cannot result from flow reflection or splitting because the compositions of volcanic glasses from each individual subunit in an event bed are subtly different. This indicates that each subunit represents a discrete failure as part of a multistage landslide. This has significant implications for geohazard assessments, as multistage failures reduce the magnitude of the associated tsunami. The multistage failure mechanism reduces individual landslide volumes from up to 350 km3 to less than 100 km3. Thus although multistage failure ultimately reduce the potential landslide and tsunami threat, the landslide events may still generate significant tsunamis close to source.

Hunt, J. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Talling, P. J.; Masson, D. G.

2013-07-01

85

Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

1991-01-01

86

Trace Elements in Three Marine Birds Breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian Ocean): Part 1—Factors Influencing Their Bioaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to use seabirds as bioindicators of trace element levels in the tropical waters and food webs of the Western Indian Ocean. The accumulation patterns of selected toxic (Cd and Hg) and essential (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn) elements were determined in liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle of 162 marine birds belonging to 3 species collected in

Jessica Kojadinovic; Matthieu Le Corre; Richard P. Cosson; Paco Bustamante

2008-01-01

87

78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS announces approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) of collection-of-information requirements contained in regulations implementing amendments to four western Pacific fishery ecosystem plans, relating to fishing in three marine national monuments. The intent of this final rule is to inform the public that OMB has approved the associated reporting...

2013-07-02

88

The Relation Between Ageostrophy and Boundary-Layer Structure in the Western-Pacific Trades (Wake Island)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight years (1980-1987) of Wake Island rawinsonde data are used to derive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth, integrated boundary-layer moisture, and a measure of boundary-layer ageostrophy. The variability in these processes controls the accumulation of moisture and heat in the tradewind regions and their transport to regions of intense convection. Preliminary analyses using different methods reveal quasi-periodic signals in these data in the 30-60 days range. Cross correlation calculations in this intraseasonal range show that these ABL variables are coherent with each other and with the low-level flow. The integrated ABL variables and the ABL height exhibit local in-phase relationships. At higher frequencies, the analyses show intense diurnal variation of boundary-layer height but only a weak diurnal signal in integrated ABL properties. At the lower frequency range, the analyses show a significant reduction in the amplitude of the seasonal and intraseasonal variation in ageostrophy during the strong El-Niño event of 1982/1983. The results clearly establish a relationship between integrated water vapour and divergent ABL processes (Ekman pumping/suction) in which shallower (deeper) ABLs are associated with mass and moisture divergence (convergence) and higher (lower) sea-level pressure. A possible interpretation in terms of a remote dynamic response of the trade inversion and ABL processes to equatorial deep convection is suggested.

Levy, Gad; McCandlish, Cole B.; Vickers, Dean

89

Seismic Anisotropy Across a Boundary Between Compression and Extension Above a Subducting Plate, Western North Island, New Zealand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Island of New Zealand lies on the Australian Plate, above the subducted Pacific Plate. The highest point on the North Island is near its centre on Mt. Ruapehu Volcano, which is the southernmost in a line of active volcanoes associated with extension in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, the southern limit of the Lau-Havre Trough. South of Mt. Ruapehu, compression occurs and volcanism stops, but subduction continues. An east-west trending boundary between Mt. Ruapehu and Mt. Taranaki volcanoes is delineated by a strong gravity gradient, change in crustal thickness, and abrupt changes in seismic attenuation, and has been termed the "Taranaki- Ruapehu Line" (Salmon, 2007). Shear wave splitting determined from SKS phases on broadband stations exhibit strong, trench-parallel (extension-perpendicular) anisotropy both south of the line and north east of the line near the center of the extending region. However, SKS waves recorded north of the line and west of the extending region do not split, suggesting isotropy. (Greve and Savage, 2007). Anisotropy measurements from local S phases recorded on sparsely-spaced stations also suggest changes from well-aligned shear wave polarisations south of the line to more scattered measurements north of the line (Audoine et al., 2004). Several models have been proposed to explain the north-south changes. These include: 1) in the north, extension carries fluids away from the plate, allowing the fluids to spread westward while to the south, compression and plate- boundary parallel flow confine the fluids to the slab itself. (Audoine et al. 2004) 2) Thickened crust to the south shut off the vertical flow of fluids, driving northeastward flow of the mantle, increasing the fluids available in the north (Reyners et al. 2006). 3) In the west and central NI Miocene shortening of ~ 100 km led to a series of a Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities that have since detached to be replaced by an asthenospheric upwelling (Stern et al. 2006). We use seismic data gathered by seven temporary three-component stations set up across the Taranaki- Ruapehu line (TRL) to determine anisotropy in local S phases in an attempt to delineate more accurately the location of the change in anisotropy, and to explain the mechanism for the change. Preliminary results of shear- wave splitting delay times (dt) and fast polarisations are made from 409 phases. No overall correlation between dt and depth is found, which is attributed to a complex and rapidly changing anisotropic structure. Yet the anisotropy is consistent for phases arriving within close incidence angles and back azimuths; we attribute this to lateral variations in anisotropy. North of the line, within the extending region, extension-perpendicular fast orientations dominate with delay times from 0.5 to 0.8s, consistent with large splitting observed on SKS phases. Closer to the TRL, E-W trending fast orientations are more frequent and small delay times (0.1 to 0.3s) are common. We propose that the smaller delay times are caused by re-splitting in the crust due to anisotropic crustal structures parallel to the TRL. We plan to incorporate more measurements by using a newly developed automatic technique to test if the preliminary results hold.

Savage, M. K.; Bardout, M.; Salmon, M.; Greve, S.; Wessel, A.

2007-12-01

90

Three-dimensional geometry and evolution of a composite, multilevel salt system, western Eugene Island, offshore Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Seismic data from southwestern Eugene Island (EI) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been interpreted to determine the three-dimensional geometry of allochthonous salt. The main feature is a multilevel salt weld consisting of numerous lows separated from each other by ramps and saddles. Shallow portions of the weld surface often overhang deeper portions of the same weld system, producing a complex, almost spiraling geometry. Isolated salt diapirs are connected by the weld system and are usually found either over the saddles or near the edges of the shallow overhangs. Major normal faults, including those bounding the EI-330 mini-basin, are preferentially located over the ramps in the weld surface. The observed geometry was combined with the results of sequential restoration of several N-S profiles to determine a model for the three-dimensional evolution of the salt system. A fundamental component of the model is that the lows in the weld surface mark the location of original, isolated salt bodies. These formed salt glaciers at the sea floor during periods of slow sedimentation and/or fast salt flow. Once the deep salt source was exhausted, the topographically elevated salt fountains collapsed gravitationally, initiating basin formation and salt withdrawal; thus, the original salt bodies became the locations of major depocenters flanked by growth faults rising from the ramps in the weld surface. Displaced salt moved up and laterally to higher levels, forming amalgamated sheets at the sea floor, which in turn became segmented into diapirs through a combination of extension and differential loading.

Rowan, M.G.; Weimer, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Flemings, P.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

91

Carbonaceous Matter in the Black Cherts from the Dixon Island Formation, Western Pilbara, Australia (3.2 Ga)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dixon Island Formation is one of the best locations that preserve an Archean sea-floor hydrothermal system. The black chert vein is a characteristic for the Archean sea-floor hydrothermal system, and it contains three types of carbonaceous particles that may be derived from Archean microbes (Kiyokawa et al., 2001). In this investigation, we tried to characterize the carbonaceous matter in the black cherts. After washing the samples with acetone, they were powdered and extracted sonifically with chloroform : methanol = 1 : 2. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS, as TMS derivatives prepared with BSTFA. The residues were treated with HF/HCl (10M-1M) to remove silicates. After centrifuging and freeze-drying, black powders were obtained. One sample of them was saponified with 0.5 M KOH-MeOH and extracted with ether (basic-neutral fraction). The water layer was acidified (pH2.0) and extracted with ether in the same manner (acidic fraction). A portion of the black powders were subjected to elemental analyses. Gas chromatograms of the chloroform : methanol -extracts show various organic compounds including straight-chain hydrocarbons, however it remains uncertain whether they are indigenous or not. Compounds were rarely found in the ether fractions from saponified sample, suggesting that the carbonaceous macromolecular matter in the black chert has already lost ester bonds and that now it is on the way to graphite. This is consistent with the following results of the elemental analyses. H/C ratios of the residues after HF/HCl treatment range from 0.40 to 0.52, indicating the early metagenesis stage of which temperature is around 175 - 200 oC for oil source rocks. However, because the black cherts are much older than typical oil source rocks, the same maturity may be reached at much lower temperature.

Sakuragi, T.; Kitajima, F.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

2004-12-01

92

Polyfaceted Psychological Acculturation in Cook Islanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on acculturation were collected from five groups of Cook Islanders who have been differentially exposed to traditional and Western (New Zealand) influences: Residents of a small, outer island; residents of the much larger capital island; Cook Islanders who have migrated to New Zealand, and others who were born in New Zealand; and non-Cook Island New Zealanders. Comparison of the

John Altrocchi; Laurel Altrocchi

1995-01-01

93

Geophysical structure of a hydrothermal system in the Suiyo Seamount, the Izu-Bonin Island Arc, Western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface geophysical, airgun-OBS and deep towed surveys by R/V Kairei KR01-15 cruise and heat flow measurements by submersible Shinkai 6500 (NT01-08 cruise), were conducted to characterize geophysical features of a hydrothermal system in the Suiyo Seamount as a part of Archaean Park Project. The SeaBeam2112 and proton magnetometer data were collected over the seamount area to derive bathymetry, backscatter image, crustal magnetization. The results suggest 1) the seamount was formed during Brunhes Epoch (<0.78Ma), 2) low magnetization area exits on its summit, 3) its eruption accompanied with low backscatter materials, and 4) a collapse occurred in NNE side of the caldera after its formation. 2-D ray tracing results, using four OBS data with a GI gun across the seamount in NE-SW direction, indicate 1) P wave velocity of 2.2-4.2 km/s (2km thickness) locates all over the observation line, and 2) the relatively low velocity material exits under the caldera. Three deep towed equipments (WADATSUMI, a seismic reflection system and a magnetometer) were separately towed 100-200m above the sea floor to map the hydrothermal area in the caldera. The WADATSUMI supplied side scan sonar intensity images and sub-bottom profiles which reveal 10m thickness layer in the SW side of the caldera. The SW-NE seismic reflection image indicates two layers beneath the caldera; their thicknesses are 11m and 23m at the center of the hydrothermal site and both of them become thicker in the SW side. The low magnetization area is limited only in eastern side, which probably results from higher rock alteration by the hydrothermal activity. Eleven heat flow data across the hydrothermal site indicate anomalously high (>10W? (m2)), high (ca.4W? (m2) without hydrothermal activity, and low (ca.0.2W? (m2)) at the center, the eastern side and the western side of the hydrothermal site, respectively. All the data show that the hydrothermal area has different features between the SW and NE sides, and we will present a model to explain these features.

Seama, N.; Nishizawa, A.; Nishimura, K.; Murakami, F.; Kinoshita, M.; Kaiho, Y.; Kagaya, M.; Isezaki, N.; Tokuyama, H.

2002-12-01

94

Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2010-12-01

95

Modelling the potential transport of tropical fish larvae in the Leeuwin Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of an individual-based particle tracking model to the migration of tropical fish larvae along the continental shelf between the Houtman Abrolhos Islands and Rottnest Island (Western Australia) has shown that there is potential for the southwards advection of passive particles\\/larvae in the Leeuwin Current system throughout the year. However, seasonal variations in the prevailing wind field result in corresponding

A. Pearce; D. Slawinski; M. Feng; B. Hutchins; P. Fearns

96

Effects of contrasting tidal habitats on growth, survivorship and dispersal in an intertidal snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined size-frequency distributions, growth rates, sizes of mating snails, dispersal and genetics in populations of the littorine Bembicium vittatum Philippi in two connected, but very different tidal ponds on Long Island, in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. At one extreme, the \\

Michael S. Johnson; Robert Black

2008-01-01

97

Eruptive history of western and central Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): temporal evolution of magmatism and of morphological structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aeolian Island archipelago is a complex volcanic province located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. It emplaced in a geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on the western and central volcanoes that are respectively Alicudi-Filicudi-Salina and Lipari-Vulcano. They erupted the whole range of magmas typical of convergence settings : from calc-alkaline (CA) to potassic series (KS) through high-K CA (HKCA) and shoshonitic series (SHO). All these magma products were emitted in a span time of less than 300 ka that attests to the complexity of the volcano-tectonic evolution of this province. We report new geochronological data, based on the K/Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique, which is well suited for dating Quaternary volcanic materials. New geochemical analyses were realized on the dated samples in order to study the temporal evolution of the magmatism. These data sets were coupled with geomorphological analysis to study the relation between main morphological structures and eruptive styles. Before 180 ka, only the Filicudi, Salina and Lipari volcanoes had emerged activity. Their magmas have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously at the extremities of the archipelago. Alicudi products are less various and have the more primitive composition. SHO and HKCA products were emitted on Lipari and Vulcano, while only CA magmas were emplaced on Filicudi and Salina. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi is characterized by mafic magmas of HKCA affinity. To the other extremity, similar products of SHO affinity were emplaced in southern Lipari and northern Vulcano. At this period, explosive activity with dacitic pumices occurred in Salina. The degree of differentiation and the K enrichment increase from western sector to central sector volcanoes and through time except at Filicudi. At the scale of the archipelago, two main magma composition changes occurred around 120 and 40 ka. However, at smaller space and time-scales, the magmatic evolution is more complex reflecting different processes specific to each volcano.

Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.; Peccerillo, A.

2010-12-01

98

Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher received sound energy exposure levels, whales traveled faster, changed directions of movement less, were recorded further from shore, and stayed under water longer between respirations. PMID:17616825

Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L

2007-07-07

99

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

100

Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.  

PubMed

A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

2011-07-20

101

Seawater and Shellfish ( Geukensia demissa ) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: An Area Impacted by Feral Horses and Agricultural Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists\\u000a and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia\\u000a nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels

Mary S. Lambert; Gulnihal Ozbay; Gary P. Richards

2009-01-01

102

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to

Said Msaidie; Axel Ducourneau; Gilles Boetsch; Guy Longepied; Kassim Papa; Claude Allibert; Ali Ahmed Yahaya; Jacques Chiaroni; Michael J Mitchell

2011-01-01

103

Easter Island Seismograph Observations Indicative of Sea-Floor Spreading; Plate-Edge Seismicity Relationships; and, the Prediction of Earthquakes Along the West Coast of the Western Hemisphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary analysis of the seismograms obtained by the Easter Island Seismic Station (EISS) resulted in two observations: (1) that swarms of small earthquakes (body-wave magnitudes less than 4.0) may contribute significantly toward the total seismic en...

D. A. Walker G. H. Sutton G. P. Woollard N. J. LeTourneau E. Kausel

1972-01-01

104

Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island.

Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

2011-01-01

105

Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers from Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean: Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Boring of the carbonate sequence at the northern end of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, was conducted in 1985, as part of the Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program. The overall goal of the program was to characterize physical effects of large-scale nuclear blasts, which were conducted in the early 1950's, on the sediments of the atoll. In the report the authors document the occurrences of stratigraphically diagnostic planktic microfossils in samples from Enewetak (generally referred to as core) and outline the rationale for incorporating all available diagnostic planktic assemblages into a composite sequence that was used to date the Enewetak benthic zonation.

Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.

1991-01-01

106

Southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the western Pacific during the late Tertiary: Evidence from ferromanganese crusts on seamounts west of the Marshall Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts were dredged from four seamounts in the western Pacific, OSM7, OSM2, Lomilik, and Lemkein, aligned in a NW-SE direction parallel to Pacific Plate movement. The crusts consist of four well-defined layers with distinct textural and geochemical properties. The topmost layer 1 is relatively enriched in Mn, Co, Ni, and Mo compared to the underlying layer 2, which

Jonguk Kim; Kiseong Hyeong; Hoi-Soo Jung; Jai-Woon Moon; Ki-Hyune Kim; Insung Lee

2006-01-01

107

Changes in Planktonic Diatoms and Water Transparency in Hatchery Bay, Bass Island Area, Western Lake Erie Since the Establishment of the Zebra Mussel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total planktonic diatoms were analyzed from water samples collected in 1984-1986 (pre- zebra mussel period) and 1990-1992 (post-zebra mussel period) in Hatchery Bay of western Lake Erie. Planktonic diatom abundances for one post-zebra mussel year, 3 April 1990-26 March 1991, and weekly April\\/May frustules for 1990, 1991, and 1992 were compared to counts from the 1980s and to counts in

Ruth E. Holland

1993-01-01

108

74 FR 27948 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Central and Western Long Island Sound is available at: http...dragging, lobster, and shellfish fishing. This proposed...overlap with leased shellfish beds. The NOAA Navigation...location of wrecks within Long Island Sound. No historical...

2009-06-12

109

Impact of a medical waste incinerator on mercury levels in lagoon fish from a small tropical island in the Western Pacific.  

PubMed

In 2004-2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was launched in early 2007. The study identified a medical waste incinerator as the primary source of Hg enrichment. The incinerator was operational for about 20 years before it was closed down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2006, for multiple violations of the Clean Air Act. Stormwater runoff from this facility entered a drainage network that discharged into the ocean at the southern end of Hafa Adai Beach, about 1 km away. At the time of this investigation storm drain sediments at the coast were only marginally enriched with mercury although values some 50x above background were detected in drainage deposits a few meters down-gradient of the incinerator site. Mercury concentrations in fish from the Hafa Adai Beach area were also significantly lower than those determined in similar species 3 yr earlier. The implications of the data are briefly discussed. PMID:21598167

Denton, Gary R W; Trianni, Michael S; Bearden, Brian G; Houk, Peter C; Starmer, John A

2011-01-01

110

An evaluation of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of selected metals occurring in a wetland area on the volcanic island of Guam, Western Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

This initial research examined the presence, distribution and bioavailability of Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe in a wetland area of southern Guam. The research sites are within an area covered with saporite, a soil type derived from volcanic deposits on the island. Leaf tissue of Pandanus tectorius was extracted and analysed to determine the bioaccumulation of the target metals. Metal accumulation at sites considered aerobic and anaerobic was investigated together with an attempt to correlate actual accumulation of the target metals in the plant tissue with a recognised bioavailability indicator, in this case, three step sequential extraction scheme. Manganese was found to be accumulated in relatively high concentrations and to a lesser extent Cu was also accumulated. Chromium, Ni and Fe however exhibited very low accumulation factors. Accumulation of Mn in particular was significantly affected by aerobic conditions whereas the converse effect was experienced by Cu. Significant correlation between various steps of a Sequential Extraction Scheme and actual accumulation was not achieved although the degree of aerobic conditions at each site and soil pH did affect concentrations of metals extracted by differing steps of SES. Results obtained suggest that further research in the area should be undertaken using different plant species and tissues. PMID:20108688

Wilson, Bob; Pyatt, Brian; Denton, Gary

2009-01-01

111

Evidence of Arid to Semi-arid Climate Near Western Pacific Warm Pool During Sea-Level Lowstands: Caliche Surfaces in Late Cenozoic Carbonates of Nansha Islands, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the climate of tropical seas during glacial periods became cold and dry has been an open debate. Models by different authors proposed the tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to be about 2\\deg lower, or 5-6\\deg lower than present. The controversy partly arise from disparate reconstructions of temperature from stable oxygen isotope archives of marine sediments. In this paper, we provide field evidence of semi-arid or arid climate during late Cenozoic sea-level lowstands from an atoll located in central South China Sea near the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Lower rainfall and higher evaporation associated with the dry conditions might have resulted in less meteoric water component in the surface sea-water, and this factor should be taken into considerations in deciphering temperature from isotopic records. Taiping Islet (Itu Aba), located at N10\\deg 23' and E114\\deg 22' is part of the Nansha (Spratly) Islands near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Rock cores of a borehole at Taiping became accessible to the authors in the recent years. We identified at least four subaerial exposure surfaces (SES) in the late Cenozoic carbonates. Caliche deposits are recognized on each of the four surfaces on the basis of alveolar texture, micro-rhizolith, caliche glaebules and corroded limestone nodules in reddish matrix (terra-rossa). Caliche developed on limestones typically forms in semi-arid to arid areas with annual precipitation from about 500 to 1000mm, while the modern annual rainfall of Nansha Island is 1800-2100mm. The occurrence of the Nansha caliche suggests the climate was much drier than present during the sea-level lowstands represented by the four SES. During the sea-level falls, reduced surface area of South China Sea with continental shelves exposed might have resulted in less moistures in the atmosphere and therefore less precipitation and higher evaporation rates. As a result, the reduced amount of meteoric fresh water in the surface sea-water may yield heavier oxygen isotopic compositions. We suggest that paleo-SST interpretations based on oxygen isotope archives in or near South Chine Sea should take the precipitation factor into consideration. Previous studies in Southeast Asian land regions and offshore northern Australia have proposed a scenario of a drier WPWP during LGM. Our data suggest such dry condition may not only occur in LGM but also in the previous glacial periods or sea-level lowstands; may not only in lands, but also in the central South China Sea.

Gong, S.; Mii, H.; Horng, C.; Huang, F.; Chi, W.; Yui, T.; Torng, P.; Huang, S.; Wang, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, K.

2003-12-01

112

A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

2011-07-01

113

Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1?= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1?= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as <10-6 PAL. Sulfur isotope analysis revealed, based on the variable ?34S values (-1.9 ~ +26.8‰), that bacterial sulfate reduction was so extensive in the 3.2Ga deep marine environments that sulfate utilization by sulfate-reducers was near completion [8]. Production of bacteriogenic sulfide would have enhanced fixation of dissolved Mo into sulfide minerals in sediments. This is rather a common process occurring in oxygen-depleted environments in the modern ocean ([9]). A combined enrichment of Mo, Corg, and S, together with high ?34S values for a sedimentary formation may be used as a strong evidence for operation of modern-day style sedimentary Mo enrichment. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and (at least the surface) oceans was significant during deposition of the sediments, ~800Ma earlier than commonly thought ([10]). Operation of present-day style geochemical cycle of Mo in the Mesoarchean surface environments suggests early evolution of atmosphere, oceans, and microbial biosphere. References: [1] Kiyokawa et al, 2006, GSAB 118: 3-22. [2] Yamaguchi et al, 2009, Sci. Drill. 7: 34-37. [3] Yamaguchi, 2002, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State Univ. [4] Yamaguchi & Ohmoto, 2002, GSA Abstract [5] Naraoka et al, 2001, 4th Int'l Archaean Symp., Perth. [6] Anbar et al, 2007, Science 317: 1903-1906. [7] Vine & Tourtelot, 1970, Econ. Geol. 65: 253-272. [8] Sakamoto et al, 2010, Fall AGU Mtg. [9] Morford & Emerson, 1999, GCA 63: 1735-1750. [10] Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

2010-12-01

114

Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem. As an initiative of broader study to understand the spatial and temporal variability of heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in this area, water and sediment samples are being collected periodically from three different sites capturing the wide range of flushing zones. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) by Lachet QuickChem 8500 and dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn) were measured by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). Temperatures, conductivity, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on site by YSI multiparameter probe (600 QS) and ranged from 25.7 to 27.1oC, 17.3 to 36.9 mS/cm, 8.1 to 8.4, 74.7 to 160.8 mV, and 5.1 to 9.2 mg/l respectively. The 15 cm sections of 76 cm depth auger samples were analyzed for a suite of 26 elements including major and trace elements by using XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Average Fe concentration was found to be 6.5 ± 2.9 g/kg and distributed consistently in increased concentration with depth which also agree with the observed sediment colors on site; more darker towards surface. The preliminary data from site A showed a consistency in trace metal concentrations in surface water and sediments. Higher aqueous concentrations of Cu (17.5 ± 4.1 ?g/l), Pb (39.1 ± 23.9 ?g/l), Zn (91.1 ± 36.8 ?g/l) correspond to their elevated level in the sediments [Cu (50 ± 10 mg/kg), Pb (30 ± 30 mg/kg), Zn (30 ± 20 mg/kg)]. Trace amount of As (3.3 ± 1.5 ?g/l) and Cd (3.9 ± 1.5 ?g/l) were found in dissolved phase where as no As and Cd was detected by XRF in sediments (LOD: 7 mg/kg). In both solid and liquid phases, significant variation in concentration of heavy metals was observed in meter scales. Limited variation (~ 5%) was observed in concentrations of dissolved Ortho-phosphorus, nitrite with an average concentration of 6.8 ± 0.3 ?M, 7.2 ± 0.4 ?M respectively. On other hand, concentration of nitrate-N (11.3 ± 3.1 ?M), ammonia-N (37.1 ± 10.1 ?M), silica (2.9 ± 0.5 ?M) varies 15-27%. This erratic distributions of heavy metals and nutrients observed in this preliminary set of data suggest that contaminations may be caused by both natural processes and local environmental influences.

Dhar, R. K.; Beauzile, W.; Ma, N.; Clauson, K.

2009-12-01

115

Vernacular Literacy in the Touo Language of the Solomon Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Touo language is a non-Austronesian language spoken on Rendova Island (Western Province, Solomon Islands). First language speakers of Touo are typically multilingual, and are likely to speak other (Austronesian) vernaculars, as well as Solomon Island Pijin and English. There is no institutional support of literacy in Touo: schools function in…

Dunn, Michael

2005-01-01

116

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards

D. A. Novelo-Casanova; G. Suarez

2010-01-01

117

in Western Long Island, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: New York City obtains about 99 percent of its freshwater from a surface-water system. The supply could run short, however, during a prolonged drought or as a result of a system malfunction. The aquifers of eastern New York City (Brooklyn and Queens, fig. 1) could provide a substantial supplement for use in times of shortage, but excessive pumping of

P. E. Misut; W. Yulinsky; D. Cohen; C. I. Voss; J. Monti Jr

118

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of

B. D. Katsoulis; D. A. Metaxas

1992-01-01

119

Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

Schofield, W. B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S. L.

2004-01-01

120

Recommended Recovery Actions for the Hawaiian Monk Seal Population at Midway Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of the endangered Hawaiian Monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the western island populations of the Hawaiian Archipelago has been a primary concern of the Hawaiian Monk Seal Recovery Team (HMSRT, Gilmartin, 1983). Midway Islands (Fig. 1) is th...

W. G. Gilmartin G. A. Antonelis

1998-01-01

121

Geographical Heterogeneity between Far Eastern and Western Countries in Prevalence of the Virulence Plasmid, the Superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-Derived Mitogen, and the High-Pathogenicity Island among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces novel superantigenic toxins designated YPMa (Y. pseudotuberculosis- derived mitogen), YPMb, and YPMc and has a pathogenicity island termed HPI (high-pathogenicity island) and R-HPI (the right-hand part of the HPI with truncation in its left-hand part) on the chromosome. Analysis of the distribution of these virulence factors allowed for differentiation of species Y. pseudotuberculosis into six subgroups, thus

HIROSHI FUKUSHIMA; YUHOU MATSUDA; RYOTARO SEKI; MISAO TSUBOKURA; NOBUAKI TAKEDA; FELIX NIKOLAEVICH SHUBIN; KI PAIK

122

Happy Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, Nc is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the ?B-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

McLerran, Larry

2012-01-01

123

Origin and evolution of endemic plants of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bonin Islands are typical oceanic islands, located at the western part of the North Pacific Ocean and approximately 1,000\\u000a km south of mainland Japan. This archipelago consists of about 20 small islands. Although floristic diversity is low due to\\u000a the small area and limited environmental diversity, the Bonin Islands harbor unique endemic flora as in other well-known oceanic\\u000a islands.

Motomi Ito

1998-01-01

124

Discovery of 3.2 Billion-Years-Old Sulfidic Black Shales: A Progress Report of the Dixon Island-Cleaverville (DXCL) Drilling Project in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP), we drilled three holes; CL1 and CL2 (organic-rich massive black shales) and DX (very finely laminated black shales with lamination and veins of pyrite), all from the 3.2 Ga Cleaverville Group.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

2010-04-01

125

The influence of the Galápagos Islands on tropical temperatures, currents and the generation of tropical instability waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galápagos Islands provide a topographic barrier for the Southern Equatorial Current (SEC) and the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). An island wake effect can be diagnosed from the difference of an ocean general circulation model simulation which includes the Galápagos Islands and one which ignores their presence. Cold thermocline water upwells on the western side of the islands, and only during

C. Eden; A. Timmermann

2004-01-01

126

Lavender Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and

Mark Henrickson; Stephen Neville; Claire Jordan; Sara Donaghey

2007-01-01

127

Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been

M. S. McDowell

2002-01-01

128

Freshwater invertebrates from the Bermuda Islands and their zoogeographical affinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bermuda Islands lie in the western Atlantic Ocean with the closest mainland being North Carolina, some 965 km to the west. The islands have undergone considerable change since permanent settlement around 1612 and this has affected their freshwater habitats which now are limited to small lakes (variously influenced by saltwater intrusion), ponds and drainage ditches. Although there exist some

D. D. Williams; N. E. Williams

1998-01-01

129

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

130

Geology and geochemistry of Gannet (Karewa) Island, Tasman Sea: A rift?related nephelinitic tuff ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Karewa) Island is a small (0.06 km) island situated in the Tasman Sea, northwest of Kawhia Harbour, western North Island, New Zealand. It consists of well indurated, palagonitic tuff and lapilli tuff with subordinate scoriaceous basalt bombs and blocks (Karewa Volcanic Formation) which are considered to represent the eroded remnants of a tuff ring. Evidence for this includes such

R. M. Briggs; M. D. Rosenberg; P. J. de Lange; T. Itaya; P. R. King; R. C. Price

1997-01-01

131

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive…

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

132

Swimming from island to island: healing practice in Tonga.  

PubMed

The health care system of the Pacific island nation of Tonga serves as an example of enduring medical pluralism which incorporates traditional and Western medical practice and accommodates contemporary political and social change. Biomedicine is represented by the hospital and the community health centers; traditional medicine is practiced in homes by healers. Both types of therapies are popularly utilized for different ailments or for the same problem at different points in the illness. Contemporary healing is described and is also analyzed as an expression of social change occurring in Tonga as a result of a political movement toward democracy. PMID:10626277

McGrath, B B

1999-12-01

133

Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-28

134

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

135

Zooarchaeological Analysis at ADK011, Adak Island, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although William Dall explored the Central Aleutians nearly 140 years ago, surprisingly little archaeological research has occurred in this area since then. During 1999 the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project excavated archaeological sites on north Adak Island, Alaska. Faunal remains from two excavation pits at ADK-011 are analyzed here. This is the first analysis of faunal remains from this

Christine Lefèvre; Dixie West; Debra G. Corbett

2012-01-01

136

New methanol plant for Kharg Island  

SciTech Connect

Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-08

137

77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization...region. Natural and man- made situations can disrupt...the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab QS and...conditions or other natural or man-made circumstances can...

2012-12-13

138

Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K. M.

1976-01-01

139

Lagrangian observations in the Intermediate Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface float measurements at 800 m depth carried out from 1994 to 2003 in the Brazil Basin are used to characterise the equatorward Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and its connections to the ocean interior. Transversally, the boundary flow is less than 100 km wide, and most intense at 10-20 km from the 800 m isobath. Its average velocities range from ˜0.1 ms-1 to 0.3 ms-1 depending on latitude, with individual daily values as high as 0.7 ms-1. The flow meridional extent exhibits 3 contrasted domains: (i) from 27°S to the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge at 20°30'S, the boundary flow intensifies northward along a relatively smooth topography. A counter current adjacent to it on its seaward side feeds it with intermediate water from the northern limb of the subtropical gyre. (ii) At latitudes 20-15°S characterised by a very irregular topography, the IWBC becomes weaker with even no real proof of its presence at 18-15°S. An intense mesoscale variability prevails there, which apparently takes over from the boundary flow to ensure the northward transport of water to 15°S, where the IWBC re-forms. (iii) North of this latitude, the boundary flow increases again to ˜10°S along smooth isobaths, then decreases when encountering a rougher topography and the zonal jets of the equatorial current system. A counter current present from ˜5°S to 14°S, partly fed from the boundary flow, contributes to its drainage. The IWBC shows two main input locations, at 27-23°S and 15-12°S in the southern parts of the two latitudinal domains of smooth topography where the northward current increases. Output locations coincide with major capes in the continental slope geometry, at 20°S and 18°S (the southeastern and northeastern corners of the Abrolhos Bank), at 8°S near the Recife Plateau, and at 5°S near Cape São Roque.

Legeais, Jean-François; Ollitrault, Michel; Arhan, Michel

2013-01-01

140

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

141

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

142

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

143

Temporal and spatial dynamics of mega retrogressive thaw slumps revealed by 2D/3D geophysics and mechanical implications for the pace of coastal thermokarst on Herschel Island, western Canadian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrogressive thaw slump are among the most important carbon emitters along the Arctic coastline. Significant increases in their activity in the last 50 years has been demonstrated at multiple locations including Herschel Island. While distribution, size of retrogressive thaw slump and their respective change over time are assessed in a number of projects and publications at the moment, mechanics, spatial and temporal dynamics of retrogressive thaw slumps are still poorly understood. We have performed direct current (2D/3D) and capacitively coupled (2D) resistivity tomography, refraction seismics (2D) and ground penetrating radar (2D). Longitudinal, transverse and 3D measurements were systematically arranged on a series of mega (several hundred meters length) retrogressive thaw slumps. Using the ergodic principle, we compared thaw slumps in an initial, accelerating, climax and decelerating stage and compared them with sites with proven historical activity at 300 years B.P. and with undisturbed sites. We can rely on multiple validation measurements including exposed ice wedge profiling, chemical composition of ice, permafrost augering, ice wedge and tundra C14 dating and a 50 year sequence of air photography. The tomographies display remarkable spatial and temporal thaw slump dynamics in all development stages. Already in the initial stage, the tomographies show a large impact of the shoreline an associated warming at the toe of the slumps often extending several tens of meters inland. This could initiate a destabilisation dynamic starting from the toe rather than headwall of a slump, which contrasts previous hypothesis. In the climax stage, bimodal flows act to transport massive amounts of sediments to the shoreline. We can show that both, the accumulation of deep mud pools and the incision of the gully network has a decadal impact on permafrost distribution and mechanics of the thaw slumps. After the climax stage, deep reaching thermal patterns conditioned by bimodal flows and shoreline activity act to persist over hundreds of years and can be clearly distinct from undisturbed tundra slopes. The results are evaluated using the field evidence of ice wedge profiling, chemical ice data, permafrost augering, dating and air photography. Here we show how the 20-30 m deep reaching geophysical data and associated field surveys, profiles and laboratory data can help to create a better understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of mega retrogressive thaw slumps and their response to atmospheric and marine forcing.

Krautblatter, Michael; Angelopoulos, Michael; Lantuit, Hugues; Fritz, Michael; Lenz, Josefine; Fox, Dave; Pollard, Wayne

2013-04-01

144

Disturbed island ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However,

Robert J. Whittaker

1995-01-01

145

Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.  

PubMed Central

Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue.

Willcox, R R

1980-01-01

146

Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

2008-04-01

147

Introduced Predator Removal from Islands. EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western ...

E. P. Bailey G. V. Byrd W. Stahl

1996-01-01

148

Island Biogeography and Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MacArthur and Wilson’s theory (1967) set out to identify and measure the variables involved in the colonisation of islands\\u000a by biota and their subsequent evolution or extinction. The key biogeographical variables identified by their theory were island\\u000a size and distance from the mainland. They suggested that an island’s biodiversity is proportionate to the island’s size (i.e.\\u000a the larger the island

Ioannis Vogiatzakis; Geoffrey H. Griffiths

149

Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.  

PubMed

We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years. PMID:19040433

Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

2008-11-25

150

The island wind buoyancy connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent studies have suggested that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is at least partially controlled by the Southern Ocean (SO) winds. The paradoxical implication is that a link exists between the global surface buoyancy flux to the ocean (which is needed for the density transformation between surface and deep water) and the SO winds. Although the dependency of buoyancy forcing on local wind is obvious, the global forcings are usually viewed independently with regard to their role as drivers of the global ocean circulation. The present idealized study is focused on understanding this wind buoyancy connection. In order to isolate and investigate the effect of SO winds on the overturning we have neglected other important key processes such as SO eddies.We present the wind buoyancy connection in the framework of a single gigantic island that lies between latitude bands free of continents (such as the land mass of the Americas). The unique geometry of a gigantic island on a sphere allows for a clear and insightful examination of the wind buoyancy connection. This is because it enables us to obtain analytical solutions and it circumvents the need to calculate the torque exerted on zonal sills adjacent to the island tips (e.g. the Bering Strait). The torque calculation is notoriously difficult and is avoided here by the clockwise integration, which goes twice through the western boundary of the island (in opposite directions) eliminating any unknown pressure torques.The link between SO winds and global buoyancy forcing is explored qualitatively, using salinity and temperature mixed dynamical-box models and a temperature slab model, and semiquantitatively, employing a reduced gravity model which includes parametrized thermodynamics. Our main finding is that, in all of these cases the island geometry implies that the stratification (and, hence, the air sea heat flux) can always adjust itself to allow the overturning forced by the wind. We find that, in the mixed dynamical-box models, the salinity and temperature differences between the boxes are inversely proportional to the MOC. In spite of the resulting smaller north south temperature difference, the meridional heat transport is enhanced.

de Boer, Agatha M.; Nof, Doron

2005-10-01

151

Results of the Geoscientific Investigations from the Valdiva Cruise VA-10/1975 off Western Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precise information, garnered from refraction gravitational measurements and geological samples, was obtained for two regions: Cape Verde Rise to Mauritania; Gran Canaria Island to Cape Bojador/Western Sahara. Sediments up to 10 km thick were proved to ex...

J. Fritsch K. Hinz U. Vonrad H. A. Roeser G. Wissman

1978-01-01

152

Tale of Two Cedars: International Symposium on Western Redcedar and Yellow-Cedar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From May 24-28, 2010, an international symposium on western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and yellowcedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (syn. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis)) was held at the University of Victoria on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The ...

C. A. Harrington

2010-01-01

153

Influence of continental outflow events on the aerosol composition at Cheju Island, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of aerosols measured at Cheju Island, Korea, over the 3-year period March 1992 to February 1995 are presented and discussed, with a particular emphasis on the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Western Pacific (PEM-West B) time period. Cheju Island is under the influence of continental outflow conditions nearly 70% of the year, and as a result the

Li-Ling Chen; Gregory R. Carmichael; Min-Sun Hong; Hiromasa Ueda; Shang Shim; Chul H. Song; Y. P. Kim; Richard Arimoto; Dennis Savoie; Kentaro Murano; John K. Park; Ho-geun Lee; C. Kang

1997-01-01

154

33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a) Definitions...Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point to the eastern shore at Kent...

2009-07-01

155

33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a) Definitions...Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point to the eastern shore at Kent...

2010-07-01

156

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

157

Heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments impacted by a mine-tailings spill, Marinduque Island, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mine-tailings spill occurred on the island of Marinduque, Philippines, on 24 March 1996. Originating from the Marcopper Mine, tailings sludge flowed down the Boac River abruptly and during subsequent storm events. Most of the tailings material has since accumulated in the nearshore environment along the western coast of the island. Nineteen sediment cores were collected from this site and

C. P. David

2002-01-01

158

The taxonomy of Galium crespianum J.J. Rodr. (Rubiaceae), a Balearic Islands endemic revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galium crespianum J.J. Rodr. is a perennial plant inhabiting cliffs and crevices on the Balearic Islands. Although it was described from the mountains of Mallorca, several populations from the islands of Eivissa and Formentera have been traditionally considered as belonging to the same species. A careful comparison of specimens from the western and eastern Balearics revealed several discriminant features in

NÉSTOR TORRES; L. SAÂEZ; MAURICI MUS; JOSEP A. ROSSELLOÂ

2001-01-01

159

Burrowing mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie, 1942-1944  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These data, collected during 1942-1944 by Dr. David C. Chandler, describe the density, biomass, and growth of a now extinct population of burrowing mayfly nymphs (primarily Hexagenia limbata) that lived in the sediments of western Lake Erie near South Bass Island. The growth dynamics of this population have not previously been documented. Female nymphs grew faster than males and were about 4 mm longer than males at emergence each year. Significantly fewer nymphs were collected in 1943 than in 1942 or 1944. Before they were extinguished by low dissolved oxygen in 1953, mayfly nymphs were abundant (about 350 weighing 10 wet g m-2) near this island and throughout most of western Lake Erie. The western basin once supported a biomass of 9.6 t · km-2 or at least 17,600 metric tonnes of mayfly nymphs. If burrowing mayflies recolonize the sediments of western Lake Erie, these data could be used to assess the extent of their recovery.

Manny, Bruce A.

1991-01-01

160

The status of osprey research in western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The status of research on the Osprey tn western North America is reviewed. For discussion purposes the geographical populations are conveniently subdivided into Canada and Alaska, the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the western interior of the United States, and Mexico. Suggestions are made for further research on the populations in each region. In addition, possible research and management activities related to the extirpated or nearly extirpated California population on the Channel Islands and along the southern coast are presented.

Henny, C. J.

1985-01-01

161

Spatial Patterns in Assemblage Structures of Pelagic Forage Fish and Zooplankton in Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. Zooplankton abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the

Timothy B. Johnson; Michael H. Hoff; Anett S. Trebitz; Charles R. Bronte; Timothy D. Corry; James F. Kitchell; Stephen J. Lozano; Doran M. Mason; Jill V. Scharold; Stephen T. Schram; Donald R. Schreiner

2004-01-01

162

Rifting, landsliding and magmatic variability in the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifts, probably the most influential structures in the geology of the Canary Islands, may also be responsible for the development of central felsic volcanoes, which are consistently nested in the collapse basins of the massive lateral collapses found in the Canaries. Three main types of post-collapse volcanism have been observed, particularly in the western Canaries: 1. Collapses followed by relatively

J. C. Carracedo; V. R. Troll; H. Guillou; E. R. Badiola; F. J. Pérez-Torrado; S. Wiesmaier; A. Delcamp; A. R. Gonzalez

2009-01-01

163

Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.  

PubMed Central

The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands.

Willcox, R R

1980-01-01

164

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

165

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

166

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

167

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

168

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

169

El Niño related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass coral bleaching is currently viewed as a major threat to the long-term health of coral reef communities. Here we quantify coral bleaching in Palau coincident with the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event and with local sea surface temperatures of 31 °C, which were 1.0-1.25 °C higher than long-term, satellite-derived climatological maximum monthly means for the region. We sampled

J. Bruno; C. Siddon; J. Witman; P. Colin; M. Toscano

2001-01-01

170

The Quality of Ship Observations in the Equatorial Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and observational studies suggest that the Equatorial Western Pacific plays an important role in the origin and maintenance of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Historical data within this critical region are sparse except for a scattering of island stations and a merchant shipping lane along 155°E. The usefulness of ship data along this track is assessed utilizing exploratory data

Mark L. Morrissey

171

Geographical Distribution of Energy Consumption in Western Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated from recent statistical data the consumption per household over a 12-month period of electricity, gas, and kerosene in nineteen cities across the islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Okinawa in western Japan. The result showed that there were clear differences in gas and kerosene consumption among cities while there is little difference in electricity consumption. We analyzed the effect

Kazuhiro Fukuyo

172

Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

173

Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

Boal, C. W.; Sibley, F. C.; Estabrook, T. S.; Lazell, J.

2006-01-01

174

Initiation of subduction and the generation of slab melts in western and eastern Mindanao, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adakite, found in both the eastern and western parts of Mindanao Island, Philippines, is a rare rock type, characterized by low heavy rare earth elements and Y contents together with high Sr\\/Y ratios, and is considered to be the result of the melting of young subducted oceanic crust, which leaves an eclogite residue. Pliocene-Quaternary adakites from western Mindanao (Zamboanga Peninsula)

Fernando G. Sajona; René C. Maury; Hervé Bellon; Joseph Cotten; Marc J. Defant; Manuel Pubellier

1993-01-01

175

Chemistry of western Atlantic precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast and on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic.

Thomas M. Church; James N. Galloway; Timothy D. Jickells; Anthony H. Knap

1982-01-01

176

The Chemistry of Western Atlantic Precipitation at the Mid-Atlantic Coast and on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic.

Thomas M. Church; James N. Galloway; Timothy D. Jickells; Anthony H. Knap

1982-01-01

177

Christmas Island birds returning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

178

Coalescence of magnetic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of coalescence of magnetic islands is studied in an incompressible resistive MHD model. For intermediate values of resistivity, reconnection rate is independent of the resistivity, although the reconnection process is basically different from a Petschek-type model.

D. Biskamp; H. Welter

1980-01-01

179

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

180

Long Island Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dedicated librarians at the Stony Brook University Library have created this most excellent research guide and digital archive that covers all things Long Island. On their homepage, visitors can use the Long Island Documents area to view recently acquired items from key figures in local (and national) history, such as George Clinton, James Jay, and Benjamin Tallmadge. Also on the site is the Books, Pamphlets, and Journals area. Here visitors can make their way through key documents, such as "Early Long Island: A Colonial Study" and "The Evolution of Long Island: A Story of Land and Sea." Also, the site pays tribute to a very exciting new acquisition: several letters from George Washington, donated by Dr. Henry Laufer, a history enthusiast. This site is a tremendously valuable resource and one that will serve as a model to other institutions seeking to do similar work.

2012-08-24

181

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-15

182

The Long Island Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multi-faceted approach that combines analysis of existing statistical data, original research, survey data, and comparative\\u000a case studies, the Long Island Index has helped to clarify the complex dynamics of the region and succeeded in reaching a wide audience including leaders who\\u000a shape regional policy. This chapter explores the nature of the target area, Long Island, defining the characteristics

Ann Golob

183

Development of Pabelokan Island  

SciTech Connect

Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral island named Pabelokan Island has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the island include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the island facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral island for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral islands for similar purpose.

Powell, D.R.

1982-01-01

184

Phylogenetic Relationships of the Canary Islands Endemic Lizard Genus Gallotia(Sauria: Lacertidae), Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships among species and subspecies of the Canary Island endemic lizard genusGallotiaare inferred based on nucleotide sequences of fragments of 12S ribosomal RNA and cytochromebmitochondrial genes. The four morphologically established species have also been recognized at the molecular level. Relative affinities among species follow an eastern–western geographic transect. The nearly extinct speciesGallotia simonyifrom the most western island of El

Pedro González; Francisco Pinto; Manuel Nogales; José Jiménez-asensio; Mariano Hernández; Vicente M. Cabrera

1996-01-01

185

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

186

Seismic studies along the western shelf of Spitsbergen and the adjacent area of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (Isfjorden)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago that is located in the north-western corner of the Barents Sea. The island has a long history of sedimentation, structural deformation, vertical and horizontal movements. Geological studies of Spitsbergen and surrounding areas play a key role in the understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the Arctic region. The area along the

M. Blinova; R. Mjelde; Y. I. Faleide

2009-01-01

187

Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of Mari" (Charlie Gibuma);…

Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

188

Western Interior Seaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

Supergraphics, U-Haul

189

77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY in the Federal Register (77 FR...

2012-08-24

190

78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long Island Power Authority (Authority), and Long Island Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...

2013-08-09

191

Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

Wheatcraft, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Hydrology/Hydrogeology Dept., Environmental and Resource Science

1995-09-01

192

Vegetation History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken on Laysan Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to investigate its flora before his- torical observations. Substantial impacts occurred to the island as a result of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century guano mining, commercial feather col- lecting, and denudation of vegetation by feral rabbits. An account of Laysan's historically known vegetation is presented, followed by

John Stephen. Athens; James V. Ward; Dean W. Blinn

2007-01-01

193

The tectonic evolution of the New Siberian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Siberian Islands are located on the wide arctic shelf between the Laptev Sea in the west and the East-Siberian Sea in the east and represent the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane. Geologically, they are bounded by the Laptev Sea Rift in the west, the passive continental margin towards the Arctic Ocean in the north and the South Anyui Suture Zone in the south. Two scenarios are discussed: (1) the New Siberian Islands were situated at the North American margin before the start of the break-up of Laurasia in Jurassic times, and (2) the New Siberian Islands are part of the Siberian platform since at least Palaeozoic times. Compared with the structural evolution of Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard, the sedimentary succession of the New Siberian Islands is only very little affected by tectonicdeformation. There is no evidence for the Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogeny on the New Siberian Islands. Although there are some Late Ordovician volcanics exposed on the DeLong Islands, the stratigraphic succession continues without important breaks from Cambrian to Middle Carboniferous, a time span which includes both orogenies. Furthermore, the Paleozoic evolution of the sedimentary basin on the New Siberian Islands has more affinities to the Siberian platform than to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. The only observed deformation on the New Siberian Islands is related to the plate tectonic re-organisation of the recent Arctic during the break-up of the Arctic Ocean in probably Early Tertiary times. The deformation on the Anyui Islands is characterized by mostly gentle, open synclines and anticlines with NW-SE trending axis. The deformation increases westwards towards the Laptev Sea, and is dominated by tight folding, thrusting and partly cleavage-development at the west coast of Kote?ny Island and on Be?kovski Island. The fold-vergencies and the cross-cutting relationships of bedding and cleavage indicate NE-directed transports. On Novaya Sibir' Island and on the DeLong Islands, there is no evidence for NE-SW shortening, only minor tilting of the sedimentary units was observed. Structural investigations that were carried out during the CASE 13 expedition in September 2011 indicate that the folding on the western New Siberian Islands is probably related to the onset of the development of the Laptev Sea Rift during the Palaeocene. It is characterized by a dextral tectonic regime before anomaly 24 (55 Ma ago) and before the start of the sea-floor spreading in the Eurasian Basin. The evolution of the New Siberian Islands is very different compared to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island but quite similar to the south Taimyr Peninsula and Khatanga/Anabar areas. Based on this the New Siberian Islands have never been close to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island since Palaeozoic times, but they were relatively close to the Siberian margin. At least this means that the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane was never situated adjacent to Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island.

Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Mrugalla, S.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.

2012-04-01

194

Fanning Island Expedition, January 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interdisciplinary studies consisted of a sea phase, involving measurements in the South Equatorial Current and Undercurrent and measurement of the contribution of detritus from Fanning Island to the open sea; and an island phase, aimed at the physical...

K. E. Chave B. S. Gallagher F. I. Gonzalez D. C. Gordon G. Krasnick

1970-01-01

195

Geology of the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology of the 15 Cook Islands in the south-central Pacific is briefly described and their geological history outlined. All are the summit portions of extinct Tertiary volcanoes; six of the seven Northern Group islands are atolls, four of the Southern Group are makatea-type islands, and the others include a high mountainous volcanic island, a hilly near-atoll, an atoll, and

B. L. Wood

1967-01-01

196

Water for western agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued increase in American farm productivity depends to a large extent upon the availability and cost of water resources. The report in this book is one of three prepared by Resources for the Future on irrigation. It examines the role of western irrigation and the impacts of the changing water supply situation on the development of western irrigation. Past

K. D. Frederick; J. C. Hanson

1982-01-01

197

Chapter 2 The Erythroblastic Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the

Deepa Manwani; James J. Bieker

2008-01-01

198

Nurse Practitioner in Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the future role of the nurse practitioner in Rhode Island is reported. The study was conducted by the Rhode Island Health Science Education Council under contract to the Rhode Island Department of Education, in response to a resolution of the 1...

1976-01-01

199

Three Mile Island revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the

B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs

1991-01-01

200

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

201

Why the islands move.  

PubMed

Micronesian navigators routinely make voyages across large expanses of open ocean. To do this, a navigator must judge both the direction in which he is sailing and the distance he has travelled. The rising and setting points of the stars (and other cues) provide instantaneous information about direction, but distance can only be judged by integrating velocity-related information over time. Micronesian navigators judge distance in a way that seems odd. When they are out of sight of land, they imagine that the canoe is stationary and that the islands move back past them. For each voyage, they 'attend' to an island off to the side of the course which is out of sight over the horizon. As they sail, they imagine the island moving back along the horizon changing in bearing until it is imagined to be under the bearing it is known to have from the destination island. Then they know they are near their destination. There is good reason for using a frame of reference whose origin is defined by the boat. We show how it finesses a perceptual paradox--the rising and setting points of the stars do not exhibit motion parallax. PMID:6535986

Hutchins, E; Hinton, G E

1984-01-01

202

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

203

The Flores Island tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

204

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

205

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

206

Magnetic-island formation  

SciTech Connect

The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

Boozer, A.H.

1983-08-01

207

Man made floating island  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial island is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral

Martinak

1987-01-01

208

Earth Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this homepage can learn about the Earth Island Institute and its mission, origins, and purpose. Materials include summaries of projects designed to promote conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth, a biography of the organization's founder, news articles, and information for people who wish to become involved in conservation or outreach efforts.

209

Rhode Island's Health 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth annual report on the health conditions and health expenditures of the people of Rhode Island and is the only such report to be issued by any State in the Nation. Topics covered include population trends, health status (natality, mortali...

1979-01-01

210

Islands and despots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a conventional wisdom: that when discussing political systems, small is democratic. And yet, can there be paradises without serpents? The presumed manageability of small island spaces promotes and nurtures dispositions for domination and control over nature and society. In such dark circumstances, authoritarian rule is a more natural fit than democracy. By adopting an inter-disciplinary perspective, this

Godfrey Baldacchino

2012-01-01

211

Paleogeomorphology affecting early Pennsylvanian floras in Rock Island County, Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant fossils preserved in basal Pennsylvanian rocks of western Illinois are significant because composition of many of the paleofloras differs from those of more commonly preserved and better studied coal swamp floras. Floras dominated by Megalopteris and Lesleya and containing Noeggerathiales and Cordaites grew on well drained uplands. Subsurface data and exposure of the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity in Rock Island County, Illinois, reveal a surface of low relief with scattered steep sided valleys as much as 60 m deep and hills up to 20 m high. A karst topography developed on Devonian limestone in the Rock Island County area. Basal Pennsylvanian strata in the Rock Island County area provide evidence for several cycles of erosion and deposition. Paleoland forms, smooth bedrock surfaces, and lack of limestone debris at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity (post Late Devonian - preWestphalian B) surface indicate a warm, humid climate in earliest Pennsylvanian.

Leary, R. L.

1980-12-01

212

Seasonal variation of counterclockwise eddies downstream of the Tsushima Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal variation of counterclockwise eddies downstream of the Tsushima Islands in the Tsushima Straits was investigated from 2004 to 2008 using long-term acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data. Eddy activity was high from summer to autumn (July-November). The eddies were formed in short-term intervals of 5-8 days, almost corresponding to the formation cycle of Karman vortices. The eddy activity varied on a longer time period (about 13 days). The mean kinetic energy (MKE) converted to eddy kinetic energy (EKE) at current shears between the eastern and western channels of the Tsushima Straits. The counterclockwise eddies that formed downstream of the Tsushima Islands were intensified and maintained by energy conversion from MKE to EKE at the northern shear of the current core in the eastern channel. The countercurrent east of the Tsushima Islands from summer to autumn was intensified by energy conversion from EKE to MKE.

Takikawa, Tetsutaro; Onitsuka, Goh; Fukudome, Ken-ichi; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Morimoto, Akihiko

2012-10-01

213

Evidence for equatorial trapped waves at the Galápagos islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

From June 28 to November 23, 1979, sea level fluctuations at three locations on the western side of the Galápagos Islands were measured with shallow bottom-moored pressure and temperature gauges. Gauges were deployed at 1°24'N,0°, and 1°S. The sea level variations were dominated by a highly coherent low frequency fluctuation with a period of the order of 100 days. In

P. Ripa; S. P. Hayes

1981-01-01

214

Mitigating the Risk to Primitive Accumulation: State-building and the Logging Boom in Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, various forms of inter\\/transnational state-building have become increasingly common as a way of managing the perceived risk posed by dysfunctional governance in so-called fragile states to Western security. In Solomon Islands, the Australian government has led a robust and expansive regional intervention, designed to build the capacity of the Solomon Islands government and bureaucracy to provide more

Shahar Hameiri

2012-01-01

215

Magmatic and tectonic development of the Western Aleutians - An oceanic arc in a strike-slip setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Tertiary magmatic histories imply that the Western Aleutians has experienced a tectonic evolution unlike that of the central and eastern arc. In this work, the geochemistry of Eocene through Mio-Pliocene tholeiitic and calcalkaline magnatic successions on Attu Island and in the Near Isands are used to investigate the changing magmatic sources and evolving tectonics of the Western Aleutian region.

G. M. Yogodzinski; J. L. Rubenstone; S. M. Kay; R. W. Kay

1993-01-01

216

76 FR 13330 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS announces that the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) proposes Amendment 2 to the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP). If approved by the Secretary of Commerce, this amendment would create a 30-nautical mile (nm) longline prohibited area around the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and prohibit purse seine......

2011-03-11

217

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

2010-12-01

218

Western Hellenic subduction and Cephalonia Transform: local earthquakes and plate transport and strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal parameters of local earthquakes in the region of the Ionian Islands of western Greece are constrained with a temporary dense array of three-component seismographs operated jointly offshore and onshore. Seismic deformation is documented to be confined to the east of the N20°E-striking steep continental slope west of Cephalonia island, the right-lateral Cephalonia Transform Fault, CTF, inferred from large earthquakes.

M. Sachpazi; A. Hirn; C. Clément; F. Haslinger; M. Laigle; E. Kissling; P. Charvis; Y. Hello; J.-C. Lépine; M. Sapin; J. Ansorge

2000-01-01

219

Neogene disruption of Paleogene depositional facies in western Transverse Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic data imply that the western Transverse Rangers and nearby Channel Islands are composed of elongate fault-bounded crustal panels now oriented east-west but oriented north-south before Neogene clockwise rotation. Rotary motion within the complex strain field of the San Andreas transform system was accommodated by dextral strike slip along faults trending north-northwest between other crustal panels lying both north and

1991-01-01

220

When Might Barrier Island Chains 'Collapse'? An Initial Model Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been recent speculation that, in response to the accelerated sea-level rise and intensified storms expected over the coming century, barrier island chains such as those found on the US Atlantic and Gulf coastlines, could develop large (10-kilometer-scale) gaps in their most narrow stretches, or might disappear completely (Riggs, S. R., 2001). Such a collapse along the North Carolina Outer Banks barrier island chain, for example, would leave the mainland vulnerable to direct hits from Western Atlantic storm systems, and also would dramatically alter the estuarine system it encloses with potentially devastating effects to marine life. Concern for the future of the Outer Banks is also motivated by the decimation of the Chandeleur Islands in 2005 from Hurricane Katrina. We will present a series of initial numerical modeling experiments addressing how barrier island morphodynamics respond to the sudden creation of kilometer-scale gaps. Large-scale barrier island evolution is influenced by sea-level rise and barrier island overwash, alongshore sediment transport, tidal currents, and the availability of mobile sediment. Barrier islands transgress towards the mainland in response to sea-level rise through overwash: ocean-facing shorelines provide sediment that is transported onto the island to maintain its subaerial height and behind the island to maintain its width, while gradients in alongshore sediment transport typically dictate the large-scale shape of a coastline over long time frames (decades to millenia). Tidal currents also tend to scour inlet channels; the relative strength of this effect depends in part upon the width of the inlet channel. Our exploratory model includes both a one-line alongshore transport component and a cross-shore overwash component, as well as representations of underlying geology (weathering rates and material compositions). In our modeling experiments, we test the effects of perforating a 30 km barrier island chain with variable-sized gaps, ranging between 2.5-10 km. In preliminary model experiments, where we do not limit the availability of mobile sediment nor include tidal inlet dynamics, large gaps tend to close under all of the erosion rate scenarios and gap sizes. The ends of barrier islands extend to fill in the gaps and recurve landward. The rate of closure of gaps is unaffected by sea-level rise rates even under the most extreme cases; alongshore sediment fluxes exceed those associated with sea-level rise as highly curved isolated islands migrate rapidly landward before coalescing into an island chain again at a new location. In a natural setting, the overwash and spit-growth that maintain sub-aerial islands and tend to knit them back together (respectively) could be inhibited by a lack of mobile sediment. The shoreface of the Outer Banks, for example, consists of sometimes patchy Holocene sands perched atop a semi-lithified, sometimes more muddy Pleistocene substrate. Weathering of the Pleistocene substrate over long timescales generates mobile sediment consisting of both sands and muds. The fine-grained material, however, is typically lost to the nearshore system. The shoreface may not be able to weather fast enough to keep up with rapidly migrating islands. This effect, combined with that of substrate composition, will tend to limit the rate that sediment can be liberated, and, in turn, could prevent island-chain recovery. We conduct a series of model experiments to determine the combinations of geological parameters (weathering rates, composition) and forcing parameters (rate of sea-level rise, frequency of storms) that prevent barrier-island-chain recovery.

Slott, J. M.; Murray, A. B.

2007-12-01

221

Western States Fire Mission  

NASA Website

NASA and the U.S. Forest Service successfully demonstrated technologies that improved real-time wildfire imaging and mapping capabilities during the Western States Fire Mission flight series by unmanned research aircraft from 2006 through 2009.

222

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

223

Western Cave Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Western Cave Conservancy is dedicated to securing permanent protection for threatened caves in the western United States." The website provides a great summary about the reasons for the need for cave protection. Visitors can learn about the Conservancy's current efforts to save Rippled Cave and Marble Mountain Quarry Cave. Users can view numerous images of these two caves as well as pictures of the Conservancy at work. The website provides downloads to the Conservancy's newsletters and minutes and meeting notes.

224

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

225

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

226

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

227

An airborne hydrogeophysical study of San Christobal, Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne electromagnetic methods are practical tools for large scale hydrogeophysical mappings. In this presentation we show initial results from a study on the volcanic island of San Christobal, one of the islands in the Galapagos archipelago. The survey is an essential part of a project aiming on characterizing the entire hydrological system on this island and the island of Santa Cruz. The island has a serious growing lack of quality drinking water. A total number of about 800 km of time domain electromagnetic data were measured using the helicopter borne system, SkyTEM. The SkyTEM system is specially developed for high resolution surveys, the first time gate is measured at 15 micros and the maximum magnetic moment is approx. 105 kAm2. Data does not require levelling. The data were processed using state of the art filtering techniques and inverted using a newly developed 3D sharp boundary inversion algorithm with locally 1D derivatives. We discuss pros and cons of the applied methodology and present results from the survey. The results clearly reveal the saltwater boundary and outlines distinct structural differences between the western and central zone in relation with their different hydrological characteristics.

Auken, E.; D'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.; Deffontaines, B.; Viezzoli, A.; Sorensen, K.

2007-05-01

228

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that ÂÂthere is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place. Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

229

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

Overpeck, Jonathan

2004-02-01

230

Paleomagnetism and neogene tectonics of the Northern Channel Islands, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic observations and previous paleomagnetic studies have suggested that the western Transverse Ranges arrived at their anomalous east-west orientation by clockwise tectonic rotation. A paleomagnetic study of the northern Channel Islands was undertaken, in order to test the extent of rotated areas and to develop constraints on tectonic models concerning the formation of the southern California Borderland. The islands of Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel form an east-west trending chain and are considered part of the Transverse Range physiographic province. Oligocene through Miocene volcanic and intrusive rocks occur on these islands, and were sampled for this paleomagnetic study. Eocene sandstones were sampled on San Miguel Island, and Eocene sandstones and Miocene siltstones were sampled on Santa Cruz Island. Paleomagnetic results from igneous units are characterized by declinations deflected clockwise by 69° to 81° from expected directions and inclinations which are too shallow by 10° to 25°. Normal and reversely magnetized units yield antipodal mean directions. The mean result is concordant to the directions obtained from individual units which passed fold and baked contact tests. These results suggest that the northern Channel Islands have been tectonically rotated into place since early(?) Miocene time as the outer borderland area translated northwestward within a large shear zone between the Pacific and North American Plates. The data from the northern Channel Islands when averaged with the data from the Santa Monica Mountains yield a result of I = 36.1° ± 5.1°, D = 72.6° ± 6.3° for the southern part of the western Transverse Ranges (52 units, 405 samples). The shallow paleomagnetic inclinations suggest a northward latitude translation of 14.0°+3.7° or -3.9° for the western Transverse Ranges. However, most plate tectonic reconstructions suggest only 4°±3° of northward translation. The discrepancy may be due to initial dips of the volcanic flows which would cause an artificial shallowing of inclination when the structural dip of the units was corrected to an assumed original horizontal. Other causes for the shallow inclinations could be the effects of an offset dipole field or nondipole field components, or motions of small tectonic plates between the North American and Pacific plates as the Farallan plate broke up and was subducted.

Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

1985-12-01

231

Surficial sediments on the western Canadian continental shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active continental margin off western Canada is characterized in the south by convergence between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca Plates and the America Plate, and in the north by transform fault motion between the Pacific and America Plates along the Queen Charlotte Fault. Except in some of the deepest troughs and basins shelf sediments are dominated by immature lithic arenites reflecting this tectonic setting. The Vancouver Island shelf is from 5 to 75 km wide and displays complex topography on the inner shelf and a relatively featureless mid- and outer shelf. An exception is the area off southwestern Vancouver Island where large basins bounded by morainal deposits extend more than two-thirds of the distance across the shelf. The shelf edge varies from 180 to 225 m depth and is indented by numerous canyons. Nearshore sediments consist mainly of gravels and boulders and become finer offshore such that muds are slowly accumulating in depths greater than 100 m. Off northwestern Vancouver Island calcareous sediments are abundant with carbonate values often exceeding 75%. High wave and current energies and efficient sediment trapping in coastal fiords have resulted in low rates of accumulation. Olive, glauconitic, Holocene muds and muddy sands are generally less than 0.3 m thick and accumulate only on the outer shelf over an extensive stiff, gray, glaciomarine sandy mud. Queen Charlotte Sound exhibits three broad, shallow, glacially scoured troughs, filled mainly with clayey silts and fine sands and separated by sand and gravel covered banks. Hecate Strait, between the Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland, consists of a prominent southward-opening trough along the east side of the Strait bounded by Dogfish and Laskeek Banks on the west adjacent to Graham and Moresby Islands, respectively. The trough below 200 m is filled by silts. The banks are covered by discontinuous sands and gravels of variable calcareous content. The bank edges often display megaripples and sand waves. Shore-parallel and oblique sand and gravel ridges occur along northernmost Dogfish Bank. Except for the inshore area (less than 100 m) off northern Graham Island little is known of the sediment distribution in Dixon Entrance. Off northwestern Graham Island the near shore zone is dominated by bedrock and discontinuous sands and gravels made up of up to 90% skeletal carbonate. Off northeastern Graham Island sandy sediments predominate in the nearshore. No studies have been undertaken on the narrow shelf off the western Queen Charlotte Islands.

Bornhold, Brian D.; Barrie, J. Vaughn

1991-08-01

232

Island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a magnetic island is imbedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter | | for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If is high enough, the magnetic island is stable or, in other words, self-healing. The theory provides an explanation as to why an m = 2 island is not as commonly observed as m =3, 4, or 5 island in tokamaks. Here, m is the poloidal mode number. This mechanism also indicates an alternative route to stabilize the island in the long mean-free-path regime.

Land, I. S.

2005-10-01

233

Oblique collision and accretion of the Netherlands Leeward Antilles island arc: A structural analysis of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Netherlands Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc is an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. The Leeward Antilles islands (Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire) are located offshore western Venezuela, within the obliquely convergent diffuse plate boundary zone. Outcrop analysis, microthermometry, and 2D marine seismic reflection data provide evidence of three generations of regional deformation

Amanda Gail Beardsley

2007-01-01

234

The Archaeology of Rural Settlement and Class in a Pre-WWII Japanese Plantation on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature today exists on the events of World War II in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands located in the Western Pacific, written mostly by the victors of the conflict and their descendants. In contrast, no first-hand Japanese accounts have been translated into English from the pre-war period of sugarcane plantations in these islands, between

Boyd Dixon

2004-01-01

235

Late colonization of Easter Island.  

PubMed

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement. PMID:16527931

Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

2006-03-09

236

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative

Pytlinski

1992-01-01

237

Use of Single Grain 40Ar/39Ar Mica Ages for Provenance Studies of Loess, Long Island, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this provenance study we used single-step laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar ages of single grains of muscovite and biotite in loess and sand to evaluate its potential for distinguishing provenance sources. Long Island provides a good setting to evaluate this method for provenance because, in the potential local sources of loess north of Long Island, the cooling ages for mica in the basement rocks change systematically from 200 Ma in eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, to 300 and 400 Ma in western Connecticut and western Massachusetts, to 800 Ma in New York, and to older than 1,000 Ma further to the west in North America. Muscovite is common in our loess samples and there is reasonable published coverage of 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar ages of bedrock in the region. The deposition of loess on Long Island probably started as soon as the ice sheet retreated. The most likely sources of the sediment were stream deposits on the exposed lake beds of the drained Proglacial Lake Connecticut and Lake Hitchcock north of Long Island. Loess and sand samples were collected along the north shore and on the south fork of Long Island. Additionally, a sample was collected from the Lake Hitchcock bottom deposit. 40Ar/39Ar ages of muscovite in loess and eolian sand from the north shore of Long Island have a mode between 300 Ma and 400 Ma corresponding to the source rock in western Connecticut and western Massachusetts. In contrast, muscovite from the South Fork of Long Island has a mode between 200 Ma and 300 Ma suggesting derivation from a more easterly source in eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Muscovite from Lake Hitchcock bottom deposits has a bimodal distribution of 40Ar/39Ar ages with a mode younger than 300 Ma and a mode between 300 Ma and 400 Ma. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages from the same sample, however, are overwhelmingly younger than 320 Ma.

Kundic, V.; Hemming, S. R.; Hanson, G. N.

2007-05-01

238

The origin of the western Lake Erie grooves, Ohio: implications for reconstructing the subglacial hydrology of the Great Lakes sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streamlined grooves and s-forms cover the western Lake Erie Islands, Ohio, as well as the channels between the islands, and the adjacent mainland. Although previous interpretations advocate direct glacial ice erosion, we offer the alternative interpretation that forms were eroded by meltwater, specifically by plucking, sediment abrasion, and cavitation in high velocity, sediment-laden flows. We base our arguments on detailed

Mandy J. Munro-Stasiuk; Timothy G. Fisher; Christopher R. Nitzsche

2005-01-01

239

IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.  

PubMed

IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

2013-05-15

240

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

241

Rain on small tropical islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow rather than elevated surface heating.

Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

2011-04-01

242

Not Your “Typical Island Woman”: Anorexia Nervosa is Reported Only in Subcultures in Curaçao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN), once thought to be a problem of wealthier, Western countries has now been documented in survey studies and case reports across geographic and economic groups; however, few epidemiological studies including interview have been done on these populations. We report on a comprehensive study on Curaçao, a Caribbean island in economic transition, where the majority of the population

Melanie A. Katzman; Karin M. E. Hermans; Daphne Van Hoeken; Hans W. Hoek

2004-01-01

243

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE TUATARA (SPHENODON PUNCTATUS) ON STEPHENS ISLAND, COOK STRAIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Food habits of the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Stephens Island, in north-western Cook Strait, were studied by field observations and faecal analysis. The tuatara is a selective predator, feeding on a wide range of small animals, mainly large insects. Its diet shows seasonal changes and habitat differences, related to local conditions: the coastal broadleaf forest habitat, which predominated in

G. Y. WALLS

244

? 13 C stratigraphy of the Proterozoic Bylot Supergroup, Baffin Island, Canada: implications for regional lithostratigraphic correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bylot Supergroup, northern Baffin Island, contains >1500 m of platform, shelf, and slope carbonates deposited between ?1270 and ?723 Ma. Limited chronostratigraphic data have led to the broad correlation of the Bylot Supergroup with predominantly Neoproterozoic successions in northern and western Laurentia; yet, detailed correlation has been impossible given biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic limitations. Carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy represents a potential dataset

Linda C. Kah; Anne G. Sherman; Guy M. Narbonne; Andrew H. Knoll; Alan J. Kaufman

1999-01-01

245

Fossil Tree Stumps Found in Situ on Submerged Ridge at Amchitka Island, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two ancient tree stumps, in situ and partially embedded in bedrock, were found at a depth of 23 m off the Bering Sea coast of Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians. The stumps were found in October 1972 approximately 1.1 km north-northwest of Banjo Poi...

L. Barr R. J. Ellis J. H. Helle

1973-01-01

246

Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates

Atholl Anderson; J. Chappell; G. Clark; S. Phear

2005-01-01

247

Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

Stenderup, Vibeke

248

Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S. health care policies…

McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

1998-01-01

249

Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

Stenderup, Vibeke

250

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

251

First breeding records of whooping swan and brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We document the first breeding records of Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) in Alaska and North America on Attu Island in the Western Aleutians in the spring of 1996. Five cygnets were seen with adults and the nest located, and a territorial pair of Bramblings was observed and a nest with eggs found.

Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Sonneborn, D.W.

1998-01-01

252

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

253

Dissolved metal contamination in the East River–Long Island sound system: potential biological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cu and Pb), inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4), and chlorophyll a was measured along a 55 mile transect from the East River into western and central Long Island Sound. The main objectives of this study were to determine the relative levels of contamination from sewage, and to assess its possible biological impact on

Alison Sweeney; Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

2004-01-01

254

A synoptic and mesoscale diagnosis of a tornado outbreak in the Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tornadic event occurred over the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) during the evening of 11 September 1996 and the following night. A total of six tornadoes were observed, affecting populated areas, with an economical damage of more than 6 million Euro. The meteorological situation in which severe weather developed was characterised at low levels by a low covering all the

V. Homar; M. Gayà; C. Ramis

2001-01-01

255

Tornadoes and waterspouts in the Balearic Islands: phenomena and environment characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Balearic Islands, located in the Western Mediterranean, 27 tornadoes and 54 waterspouts have been recorded during the period 1989–1999. A climatology focusing, which focuses on path length, F-scale velocity, season and time of occurrence, is presented. September and October appear to be the months with the highest frequency of appearance. The environment in which thunderstorm producing tornadoes and

M. Gayà; V. Homar; R. Romero; C. Ramis

2001-01-01

256

Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrian Weber, Benjamin Gilbert, J.P. (Hamish) Kimmins, and C.E. Prescott Abstract: Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), a late successional species on northern Vancouver Island, has a low seedling survival in mature hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) - amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes) (HA) stands. Shade, moss competition, and substrate were tested

Adrian Weber; Benjamin Gilbert; C. E. Prescott

2003-01-01

257

Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.  

PubMed

The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

2009-12-01

258

Exchange between Long Island Sound and adjacent waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We exploit archived salinity data, averaged by month for the years 1995-2001, to evaluate exchange of salt between Long Island Sound and shelf waters, and treat Long Island Sound as a control volume with eastern and western boundaries at The Race and the East River, respectively. The use of inverse methods to solve a system of equations expressing conservation of salt and water provides estimates of model parameters together with uncertainty estimates and measures of model performance. We explore the use of a single exchange coefficient acting on an axial salinity gradient to represent exchange at The Race and find that it is necessary to allow the coefficient to depend weakly on variability of freshwater discharge, R, into the sound, i.e., ? = (?)0.2(1,600 ± 200) m2/s. Using established estimates of the mean circulation at the western boundary of the sound, we determine a dispersion coefficient in the Upper East River of 300 ± 200 m2/s. Explicitly modeling the advective exchange flow (gravitational circulation) at The Race using a coefficient that varies as the one-third power of the normalized discharge indicates that gravitational circulation accounts for less than 10% of the up-estuary salt flux in eastern Long Island Sound.

Gay, Peter S.; O'Donnell, James; Edwards, Christopher A.

2004-06-01

259

Invasive Rodent Eradication on Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to

GREGG HOWALD; C. JOSH DONLAN; JUAN PABLO GALVÁN; JAMES C. RUSSELL; JOHN PARKES; ARACELI SAMANIEGO; YIWEI WANG; DICK VEITCH; PIERO GENOVESI; MICHEL PASCAL; ALAN SAUNDERS; BERNIE TERSHY

2007-01-01

260

Roosevelt Island Tramway System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Roosevelt Island Tramway serves as an urban transit system in New York City. The system is based on conventional cable technology and connects a new urban community on Roosevelt Island in the East River to Manhattan. This system is the first urban tra...

C. P. Elms H. H. Hosenthien W. Bamberg W. Voss

1979-01-01

261

Newport Harbor Lighthouse Goat Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Newport Harbor Lighthouse may not be the best-known light in Newport Harbor, but its place in history is unchallenged as the first beacon to guide mariners into the bustling Newport of the early 1800s. The lighthouse stands on Goat Island, so named because early Newport residents pastured their goats there, and is known locally as Goat Island Lighthouse. This

Chet Smolski

1971-01-01

262

Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythroblastic islands, the specialized niches in which erythroid precursors pro- liferate, differentiate, and enucleate, were first described 50 years ago by analysis of transmission electron micrographs of bone marrow. These hematopoietic sub- compartments are composed of erythro- blasts surrounding a central macrophage. A hiatus of several decades followed, during which the importance of erythro- blastic islands remained unrecognized as erythroid

Joel Anne Chasis; Narla Mohandas

2008-01-01

263

Western Spruce Budworm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is a synthesis of current knowledge about the insect and its hosts. It summarizes most of the known information on the western spruce budworm and provides background for the recommendations contained in two management books: 'Managing Trees and S...

M. H. Brookes R. W. Campbell J. J. Colbert R. G. Mitchell R. W. Stark

1987-01-01

264

Western Cold War Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In he 1940s and 1950s, Western governments turned to radio as the most effective means of countering the Soviet information monopoly. U.S. and West European radio stations attempted to provide listeners with the kind of programs they might expect from their own radio stations if the latter were free of censorship. For most of these listeners in the Soviet Union

James Critchlow

1999-01-01

265

Western North America dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However,

A. Ghosh; T. W. Becker; G. Humphreys; M. Gérault

2009-01-01

266

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

267

Eddies along western boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ulleung eddy owes its existence to beta and nonlinearities . A nonlinear theory for the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) in the Japan\\/East Sea is proposed. Using the nonlinear reduced gravity (shallow water) equations, it is shown analytically and numerically that the eddy is established in order to balance the northward momentum flux exerted by the separating western boundary current

Wilton Zumpichiatti Arruda

2002-01-01

268

Western Tasman Sea Floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Tasman Sea floor is characterised by physiographic units that tend to parallel the coastline of south-eastern Australia. The margin has a narrow continental shelf and a steep continental slope. Sediment derived mainly from northern New South Wales and Queensland in the north, and from Tasmania and Victoria in the south, has built a system of fans forming the

John R. Conolly

1969-01-01

269

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

270

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

271

From pull-apart basins to ultraslow spreading: Results from the western Barents Sea Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results from a geophysical study in the area between the ultraslow Knipovich Ridge and Bear Island, western Barents Sea. The objective was to map the crustal structure along a profile crossing a pull-apart rifted continental margin and oceanic crust generated by ultraslow spreading. The results are based on modeling of wide-angle seismic and gravity data, together with

Audun Libak; Christian Haug Eide; Rolf Mjelde; Henk Keers; Ernst R. Flüh

272

COMPETITION AMONG PENGUINS AND CETACEANS REVEALS TROPHIC CASCADES IN THE WESTERN ROSS SEA, ANTARCTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparent trophic cascade that appears during summer in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, explains why the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) there becomes cannibalistic; its principal prey, crystal krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) becomes scarce; and the diatom community is minimally grazed compared to adjacent areas. The krill is the major grazer of diatoms. On the basis of fieldwork at Ross Island,

David G. Ainley; Grant Ballard; Katie M. Dugger

2006-01-01

273

Aspects of Western Subanon Formal Speech. Publications in Linguistics. Publication Number 81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation presents a study of patterns of speech in Western Subanon, as heard in areas of Mindanao, an island in the Philippines. An introductory section discusses relevant general issues in linguistic research and the present study. The relationships of language to linguistics and of language to society, the objectives of the study, the…

Hall, William C.

274

Benthic biodiversity patterns in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal: Environmental-biological relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the macrobenthic gradients in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal. Ria de Aveiro is the meeting place of a number of river basins, resulting in a transition system of complex geometry, with channels running parallel to the coast line, north and south of the entrance, but also inland, creating an intricate system of navigation channels, islands and intertidal

Ana Maria Rodrigues; Victor Quintino; Leandro Sampaio; Rosa Freitas; Ramiro Neves

275

MBARI's 2001 Hawaii Expedition using the R\\/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MBARI research vessel Western Flyer with the Tiburon remotely operated vehicle (ROV) spent 36 days at sea doing mainly geologic investigations offshore the Hawaiian Islands during March to May 2001. During these operational days we conducted 57 dives at depths ranging from 150 m to 3820 m and collected 1198 volcanic and carbonate rock samples; 185 sediment samples using

D. A. Clague; C. K. Paull; H. G. Greene; K. Jordahl; A. S. Davis

2001-01-01

276

New evidence from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the resubmergence of Bering Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread molluscan samples were collected from raised marine sediments to date the last retreat of the NW Laurentide Ice Sheet from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the head of Mercy Bay, northern Banks Island, deglacial mud at the modern coast contains Hiatella arctica and Portlandia arctica bivalves, as well as Cyrtodaria kurriana, previously unreported for this area. Multiple H.

John H. England; Mark F. A. Furze

2008-01-01

277

The Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and accretion of the Yakutat microplate, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Suckling Hills and Kayak Island are isolated mountain blocks located along strike from each other within the foreland of the St. Elias orogen in southern Alaska. These blocks preserve an erosional surface that was deformed by slip on northwest-dipping reverse faults in the Pleistocene. We suggest that the Suckling Hills Fault and Kayak Island Zone form a segmented fault network that links with the Bering Glacier structure to the north. This fault network separates the central Yakataga fold and thrust belt from complex, multiply deformed structures in the western syntaxis. Ongoing accretion of the Yakutat microplate to North America results in translation of structures of the fold and thrust belt into the western syntaxis. The composite Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and Bering Glacier structure may have formed because the older structures of the fold and thrust belt were unfavorably oriented within the western syntaxis region. This pattern of deformation provides a template for understanding the complex deformation within the core of the western syntaxis and predicts refolding and straightening of the western syntaxis margin with continued accretion. This study provides an analog for structural overprinting and changing deformation patterns through time in orogenic corners.

Chapman, James B.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Gulick, Sean P.

2011-12-01

278

The thrust belts of Western North America  

SciTech Connect

Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

Moulton, F.C.

1993-08-01

279

Global Collembola on Deception Island  

PubMed Central

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

280

Inshore Fishes of Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Kingman Reef. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 585.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A list is given of shore fishes known from Howland and Baker Islands, outliers of the Phoenix Islands group, and Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Kingman Reef in the Line Islands group. The list was compiled from literature sources, museum collection dat...

B. Greene B. Zgliczynski B. C. Mundy C. Museberger E. Demartini R. Wass R. E. Schroeder

2010-01-01

281

Western Waters Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the earliest European explorers to the time of modern engineers and hydrologists, the vast reserves of water within the Western United States have been the cause of both great excitement and concern. This compelling digital library brings together a wide range of documents (including legal transcripts, water project records, and personal papers) that document the Columbia, Colorado, Platte, and Rio Grande river basins. The project was completed with support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and twelve university libraries in eight western states. On the homepage, visitors can perform advanced searches, or just elect to browse through the available materials. Browsing is a good option actually, as all of the materials are contained with one of four sections: subject, people, places, and signature collections. The signature collections are a real find, and visitors can look over troves that include "Native American Water Rights in Arizona", "The Platte River Basin in Nebraska", and "Las Vegas: Water in the West".

2004-01-01

282

Western Hemlock Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old- growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (Ee) and at the forest floor (Eu) to examine

Michael H. Unsworth; Kyaw Tha

283

WESTERN URBAN WATER DEMAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Increasing concern with “sustainability”issues has raised natural questions regarding western water use. Efficient water allocation requires policy tools based on the value of water in alternative uses: agricultural, environmental, residential and others. Agricultural values are fairly well established. Environmental,values are recognized as “non-market” and estimated with various alternative techniques. Residential uses are normally thought to be market determined, but

David Brookshire; H. Stu Burness; Janie M. Chermak; Kate Krause

284

Rings dominate western Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per

Francisco V. Vidal L; Victor M. V. Vidal L; José María Pérez Molero

1990-01-01

285

Western Kentucky thrives  

SciTech Connect

Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2005-10-01

286

Testing hierarchical levels of population sub-structuring: the Azores islands (Portugal) as a case study.  

PubMed

The Azores archipelago (Portugal) is formed by nine islands whose relative positions define them as three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). Using the father's surname of 187,398 individuals living on the nine Azorean Islands, a population analysis based on inter-island relationship and hierarchical organization was conducted. The relation between islands was investigated using summary statistics, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) as well as graphical methods. When the values of heteronymy were contrasted with values of gene diversity based on haplogroup frequencies of the Y chromosome, it was possible to verify that Graciosa and Sta. Maria appeared to have the least diverse populations, and that Flores, despite its smaller population size and geographical isolation, has considerably higher levels of diversity. As for inter-island relationships, the difficulty of directly interpreting summary statistics values was evidenced. The AMOVA revealed that only 0.77% of the variation in surnames can be attributed to among-island variation, a value that, although small, can be considered significant. Application of Malécot's model revealed that geographic distance has an important impact in the genetic structure of the archipelago. Monmonier's maximum-difference algorithm demonstrated that the most isolated island of the archipelago appears to be Graciosa, followed by the islands of the Western group and by Sta. Maria. After integrating values of summary statistics with results from AMOVA and graphical methods, a more accurate genetic profile of the Azores, highly supported by genetic data, has emerged. PMID:17956651

Santos, Cristina; Abade, Augusto; Lima, Manuela

2007-10-24

287

Paleomagnetic study of Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleomagnetic study was carried out on recent volcanic rocks exposed on Deception Island (63.0°S, 60.6°W), Antarctica. Sampling comprised all stratigraphic units exposed on the island, which include basaltic, andesitic and trachytic lavas, basaltic dykes and pyroclastic flows. Following stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures, consistent characteristic remanence directions were determined at 21 sites, using principal-component analysis. The overall

Andrés Baraldo; Augusto E. Rapalini; Harald Böhnel; Mabel Mena

2003-01-01

288

Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

McMullen, K. Y.; Poppe, L. J.; Ackerman, S. D.; Worley, C. R.; Nadeau, M. A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

2012-01-01

289

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)|

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

290

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

291

America's Islands (Revised April 1974).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal islands of the United States have been surveyed and charted by the National Ocean Survey, formerly the Coast and Geodetic Survey, for well over a century. This important work is performed pursuant to hydrographic surveying, nautical charting and o...

1974-01-01

292

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

293

Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest Middle Holocene movement of people at this time from southern California desert environs westward to the southern islands, a migration perhaps stimulated by increased continental aridity.

Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

2007-02-01

294

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

295

Plant fossils from White Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the D.S.I.R. expedition to White Island in January 1947, plant fossils were discovered in bedded tuffaceous sands on the south side of the island, about 17 chains north-west of Ohauora Point. On this and other coastal headlands a formation of well bedded tuffaceous sands, locally including water-worn pebbles, is exposed from high-tide level to a height of at least

C. A. Fleming

1963-01-01

296

Further evidence for the Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Makronisos lies ~3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion and is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The geology of the Cyclades and the adjacent part of Attica is dominated by low-angle detachments caused by Miocene top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the Western Cycladic Detachment System in this area. Although extension is well documented both in the other islands of the Western Cyclades and on the Attica mainland, the geology of Makronisos is very poorly known, due to its historical background, and is a "missing link" in the area. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the tectonostratigraphic position of Makronisos in relation to the other Western Cycladic islands. Most of Makronisos consists of schists interlayed with blue-grey (mylonitic) marbles, with quartzites forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasite outcrops are present as small bodies along the east side of the island and are massively developed in the southeast. All thin-sections made of metabasites, from the whole length of the island, contain blue amphiboles, although often only as relicts after retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The tectonostratigraphically highest level of the island consists of white to pale-reddish ultramylonites, of up to ~40 meter thickness. These are mainly located on the ridge of the island, but also, due to large-scale upright folding, along the coast. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 metres of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and shear criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analysis shows the same consistent shear-sense. The available data suggest that Makronisos underwent a similar geological history as the Western Cyclades to the SW and that the detachment mapped is a component of the Western Cycladic Detachment System, with the white to pale-red ultramylonites forming the uppermost part of the footwall. We are conducting low-temperature thermochronology and expect late Miocene cooling ages preserved in the footwall assemblages, consistent with ages reported for Kea and on Attica.

Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Neville Rice, Alexander Hugh; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

2013-04-01

297

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-06-01

298

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-01-01

299

Western Water Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

300

Developing and Applying a Transportation Model for Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on Aquidneck Island in the State of Rhode Island. The research project has two primary objectives. First, the project builds the foundation for coordinated transportation and land use planning on Aquidneck Island using TransC...

F. Atash K. Woodward J. Boyce S. Eisenbeiser

2004-01-01

301

Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's second Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) site in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region was established on the island of Nauru as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Analysis of data taken during the Nauru99 intensive field experiment indicated that the cloud and radiation measurements at the ARCS site were being affected by a cloud plume, which was induced by the island due to diurnal heating relative to the ocean and the predominantly easterly flow of the tradewinds. The Nauru Island Effects Study (NIES) was developed to identify times when the island cloud effect occurs and to quantify the effect on the ARCS measurements. The Nauru cloud plume is found to be highly correlated with surface wind direction. During suppressed conditions the plume heading is predominantly to the west because of the consistency of the easterly trade winds. During El Nino conditions, the cloud plume can occur with almost any heading due to the variability of the surface winds. During suppressed conditions the cloud plume was observed in 60% of the visible satellite images after 10:30 LST. During active conditions, the plume was observed in only 25% of the satellite images and only half of the observed plumes were downwind of the ARCS site. This study indicates that the absolute increase in low cloud frequency due to the cloud plume is on the order of 10% and the effect of the cloud plume on the average daily surface radiation is around 50-60 wm. By installing a simple measurement platform consisting of surface meteorological instruments and a global shortwave radiometer at a site on the opposite side of the island, the effect of the cloud plume on the radiation field at the ARCS site can be quantified on a long term basis.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Donna M.

2005-07-01

302

Western Soundscape Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can get a good sense of the American West by reading authors as diverse as Sherman Alexie, Mark Twain, John McPhee, but can they really accurately describe the sounds of a resting short-eared owl? Perhaps, but if you're looking to listen to the natural world of the Western states, you should probably click on over to the Western Soundscape Archive website. This aural database is housed at the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library and features recordings contributed by state and federal agencies, conservation groups, and dedicated volunteers. Started in 2007, the archive continues to grow, and currently they have representative sounds from approximately 80% of the West's bird species and 90% of the region's frog and toad species. Visitors can get started here by taking a listen to the "Featured Sound" on the homepage and then move on over to the search engine. The site also has weekly podcasts, and a number of thematic sound collections, like the "Sounds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge". Overall, it's a tremendously well-presented site, and one that will be of interest to naturalists, scholars, and many others.

303

Review of geology of the New Siberian Islands between the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, North East Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Siberian Islands comprise De Long Islands, Anjou Islands, and Lyakhov Islands. Early Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments and igneous rocks are known on the De Long Islands. Cambrian slate, siltstone, mudstone and silicified limestone occur on Bennett Island. Ordovician volcanogenic turbidites, lavas, and small intrusions of andesite-basalt, basalt, dolerite, and porphyritic diorite were mapped on Henrietta Island. The igneous rocks are of calc-alkaline island arc series. The Ordovician age of the sequence was defined radiometrically. Early Paleozoic strata were faulted and folded presumably in the Caledonian time. Early Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone are known on Bennett Island. They are overlain by a 106-124 Ma basalt unit. Cenozoic volcanics are widespread on the De Long Islands. Zhokhov Island is an eroded stratovolcano. The volcanics are mostly of picrite-olivine type and limburgite. Radiometric dating indicates Miocene to Recent ages for Cenozoic volcanism. On the Anjou islands Lower-Middle Paleozoic strata consist of carbonates, siliciclastics, and clay. A Northwest-southeast syn-sedimentary facies zonation has been reconstructed. Upper Paleozoic strata are marine carbonate, clay and siliciclastic facies. Mudstone and clay predominate in the Triassic to Upper Jurassic section. Aptian-Albian coal bearing deposits uconformably overlap lower strata indicating Early Cretaceous tectonism. Upper Cretaceous units are mostly clay and siltstone with brown coal strata resting on Early Cretaceous weathered rhyolite. Cenozoic marine and nonmarine silisiclastics and clay rest upon the older units with a transgressive unconformity including a weathering profile in the older rocks. Manifestations of Paleozoic and Triassic mafic and Cretaceous acidic magmatism are also found on these islands. The pre-Cretaceous structure of the Anjou islands is of a block and fold type Late Cimmerian in age followed by faulting in Cenozoic time. The Lyakhov islands are located at the western end of the Late Cimmerian South Anyui suture. Sequences of variable age, composition, and structural styles are known on the Lyakhov Islands. These include an ancient metamorphic sequence, Late Paleozoic ophiolitic sequence, Late Mesozoic turbidite sequence, Cretaceous granites, and Cenozoic sediments. Fold and thrust imbricate structures have been mapped on southern Bol'shoi Lyakhov Island. North-northwestern vergent thrusts transect the Island and project offshore. Open folds of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strata are characteristic of Stolbovoi and Malyi Lyakhov islands. Geology of the New Siberian Islands supports the concept of a circum Arctic Phanerozoic fold belt. The belt is comprised of Caledonian, Ellesmerian, Early Cimmerian and Late Cimmerian fold systems, manifested in many places on the mainland and on islands around the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the geology of the New Siberian Islands has been used to interpret anomalous gravity and magnetic field maps and Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) lines. Two distinguishing structural stages are universally recognized within the offshore sedimentary cover which correlate with the onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands. Dating of the upper structural stage and constituent seismic units is based on structural and stratigraphic relationships between Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic units in the archipelago. The Laptev Sea-western East Siberian Sea seismostratigraphic model for the upper structural stage has much in common with the seismostratigraphic model in the American Chukchi Sea.

Kos'ko, M.; Korago, E.

2009-09-01

304

Construction of an eco-island: A case study of Chongming Island, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chongming Island is the largest alluvial island in the world and is an ecologically sensitive area. It has been planned as a world famous eco-island for future development. Eco-island is a special concept of sustainable development for a small island. This paper explores the applicability of the eco-island concept with respect to six characteristics: integrated ecosystem structure and function, powerful

Baorong Huang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hua Zheng; Huizhi Zhang; Xiaoke Wang

2008-01-01

305

Toward Full Literacy in the Pacific. Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop on Youth and Adults with Limited Literacy Skills (1st, Apia, Western Samoa, May 9-17, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in the workshop on literacy reported in this document included 15 educators and specialists from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, and Western Samoa. Chapter 1 reports an assessment of the present literacy situation in the South Pacific with particular attention to the problem of hidden illiteracy. Chapter 2…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Apia (Western Samoa). Office for the Pacific States.

306

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

307

Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from the tags compare across these different focal foraging areas.

Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

2006-12-01

308

Effects of the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the Western Samoan coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Samoa islands are located between 169.5°W to 172.9°W and at about 14°S. The main islands are Savaii, Upolu and Tutuila. The islands lay on the Pacific Plate, are of volcanic origin, rise sharply from the seafloor from depths of about 4000 m and are surrounded by smaller islands that are usually coral atolls. Upolu and Savaii are part of the Western Samoa while the Tutuila Island is an American territory. A regional tsunami was triggered on September the 29th 2009 by an offshore earthquake with Mw=8.1 and epicentre located at about 190 km south of Samoa, near the subduction zone between the Pacific and the Australian Plate. The tsunami waves struck severely the islands of Upolu, Manono and Savaii in Western Samoa, and their effects were also observed in Tutuila, Niuatoputapu in northern Tonga, Wallis and Funtuna. A few weeks after the event, a post tsunami field survey was organised by the UNESCO with the cooperation of the University of South Pacific and The Australian Tsunami Research Centre. The field survey had several tasks, including building damage assessment and measurement of tsunami run-ups and inundation along the Western Samoa coast. In this work, measured values of run-up and inundation along some land profiles are shown. The values vary from 0.7 to 6.5 meters, being the most affected zone the south east coast. The measurements have been taken using levelling procedures performed by the UNIBO-INGV team. Damage building assessment was also performed by the team, retrieving information of some structures such as type of material used, age of the structure, degree of exposure to the waves, content of damage and water depth when there were watermarks available.

Brizuela, Beatriz; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tonini, Roberto

2010-05-01

309

Archeomagnetism in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data might not be reliable.

Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

2001-05-01

310

Evolution of limited seed dispersal ability on gypsum islands.  

PubMed

• Premise of the Study: Dispersal is a major feature of plant evolution that has many advantages but is not always favored. Wide dispersal, for example, leads to greater seed loss in oceanic-island endemics, and evolution has favored morphologies that limit dispersal. I tested the hypothesis that selection favored limited dispersal on gypsum islands in western North America, where edaphic communities are sparsely vegetated except for a specialized flora that competes poorly with the surrounding flora. • Methods: I applied a series of comparative phylogenetic approaches to gypsophilic species of Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae) to investigate the evolution of limited dispersal function in seed wings, which increase primary dispersal by wind. Through these tests, I determined whether narrowed wings were selected for in gypsophilic species. • Key Results: Gypsophily was derived four to seven times. Seed area was not significantly correlated with gypsophily or wing area. Wing area was significantly smaller in the derived gypsum endemics, supporting the hypothesis in favor of limited dispersal function. A model-fitting approach identified two trait optima in wing area, with gypsum endemics having a lower optimum. • Conclusions: Evolution into novel ecologies influences morphological evolution. Morphological characters have been selected for limited dispersal following evolution onto gypsum islands. Selection for limited dispersal ability has occurred across animals and plants, both in oceanic and terrestrial systems, which suggests that reduced dispersal ability may be a general process: selection favors limited dispersal if the difference in survival between the habitat of the parent and the surrounding area is great enough. PMID:23997206

Schenk, John J

2013-08-30

311

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

312

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

313

The Messinian\\/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval

Hara Drinia; Assimina Antonarakou; Theodora Tsourou; Evi Tzortzaki; Amalia Filippidi; Konstantinos Nikolaou

2010-01-01

314

Experimental measurement of nesting substrate preference in Caspian terns, Sterna caspia, and the successful colonisation of human constructed islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caspian terns, Sterna caspia, recently bred in Hamilton Harbour, at the western end of Lake Ontario, on private property that is likely to be developed in the next decade. To reduce this land-use conflict and to promote the current level of biodiversity of colonial nesters in the area, artificial islands were built in the winter of 1995–1996 with different areas

James S. Quinn; Jane Sirdevan

1998-01-01

315

Heavy metal concentrations in growth bands of corals: a record of mine tailings input through time (Marinduque Island, Philippines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of copper mining along the western coast of Marinduque Island was investigated. Historic input of mine tailings in the coastal region was traced through variations in heavy metal concentrations in Porites growth bands. Five samples were collected from three reefs showing different modes and extent of exposure to mine tailings. Baseline metal concentrations in Porites were established using

C. P. David

2003-01-01

316

The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes…

Matsumoto, Kazuko

2010-01-01

317

An unusual climbing dune, Big Hellfire Pass, Stewart Island, New Zealand: exploration through environment, vegetation and trait patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Hellfire Dune on the western coast of Stewart Island\\/Rakiura, New Zealand, is an unusual dune climbing 220 m in altitude on the Ruggedy Range, to dissipate on the leeward side of Hellfire Pass. To record vegetation and environmental characters we ran six transects parallel to the coast, at 50-m altitudinal intervals up the dune. Topography reflected substrate and sand

AL Murphy; RB Silberbauer; RE Streeter; Smiley; AR Smith; S Darling; PR van Essen; GL Rapson

2012-01-01

318

Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

319

Atoll reef-island formation and response to sea-level change: West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef islands around the margin of coral atolls generally comprise unconsolidated Holocene sands and gravels, overlying a reef flat or cemented conglomerate platform. Such islands have accreted within the last 3000–4000 years, since sea level has reached a level close to present and the reef flat and conglomerate platform have formed. Island morphology consists of an oceanward ridge, a less

C. D Woodroffe; R. F McLean; S. G Smithers; E. M Lawson

1999-01-01

320

Hawaiian Monk Seal on Laysan Island, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on population size, reproduction, and factors affecting survival were collected on the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, on Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 23 April to 21 July 1983. Beach counts excluding weaned and...

D. J. Alcorn E. K. Buelna

1989-01-01

321

Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... but they are twice as likely to have stomach cancer. Although Asian/Pacific Islander women are 30% less ... are almost three times as likely to have stomach cancer. Both Asian/Pacific Islander men and women have ...

322

Citizens' council protecting Sky Island wildlife corridor  

Treesearch

Pacific Northwest · Pacific Southwest ... Bookmark and Share. Title: Citizens' council protecting Sky Island wildlife corridor ... Connecting mountain islands and desert seas: biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago II. Proc.

323

Recent Algal Stromatolites from the Canary Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algal stromatolites (oncolites) occur on the insular shelves of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. Specimens from an unnamed bank in these islands are made up predominantly of the encrusting nullipore, Goniolithon accretum; vary in size between 0...

R. L. McMaster J. T. Conover

1966-01-01

324

Coordinating Human Services Delivery in Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses some theoretical aspects of service delivery coordination in Rhode Island, examines coordination projects undertaken by other States, presents an overview of coordination efforts in Rhode Island, evaluates results of a special survey...

G. J. Beiser

1979-01-01

325

Bidding the CpG island goodbye  

PubMed Central

Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands.

2013-01-01

326

The European lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas) as an indicator of environmental quality of Tuscan Archipelago (Western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2004 we found adults of Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774; Cephalochordata) in sediment sampled within the integral reserve zone on the western side of Capraia island. The collecting site was located at 33 m depth in front of Punta del Fondo, by an extended Posidonia bed. The rippled substrate was dominated by coarse to very coarse sand (78.61%) while the

Emilia Rota; Guido Perra; Silvano Focardi

2009-01-01

327

Two new Cocconeis taxa (Bacillariophyceae) from coral sands off the Mascarenes (Western Indian Ocean) and some related unidentified taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral sands off Réunion Island and Rodrigues (Mascarene archipelago, Western Indian Ocean) support diverse diatom communities, particularly rich in Monoraphidineae. Recent surveys of reef environments (June 2005 and June 2007) permitted the recognition of several taxa belonging to the diatom genus Cocconeis, among which are two new, relatively small taxa, epipsammic on coral sand. Cocconeis coronata Riaux-Gobin et Romero sp.

Catherine Riaux-Gobin; Oscar E. Romero; Adil Y. Al-Handal; Pierre Compère

2010-01-01

328

Examination of the meroplankton community in the south-western Ross Sea, Antarctica, using a collapsible plankton net  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meroplankton community in the coastal Antarctic has been poorly studied, in part due to the presence of extensive sea-ice cover during the summer months. In this study, a collapsible plankton net was used to examine the meroplankton community at two sites in the south-western Ross Sea: at Cape Evans on Ross Island, and at Cape Roberts on the Victoria

Mary A. Sewell

2005-01-01

329

Numerical diagnosis of a small, quasi-tropical cyclone over the western Mediterranean: Dynamical vs. boundary factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A small, quasi-tropical cyclone occurred on 12 September 1996 over the western Mediterranean. Intense convective activity over the region during this period also produced a tornado outbreak in the Balearic Islands and torrential precipitation over eastern mainland Spain. Mesoscale model runs properly simulate the cyclone formation and show convection and heavy precipitation following the cyclone trajectory during its eastward

V. Homar; R. Romero; D. J. Stensrud; C. Ramis; S. Alonso

2003-01-01

330

Tropical western Pacific warm pool and maritime continent precipitation rates and their contrasting relationships with the Walker Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 2 August 2006; revised 11 September 2006; accepted 3 November 2006; published 16 March 2007. (1) The Cenozoic reorganization of islands in the Maritime Continent region of the tropical western Pacific may have increased the amount of land surface area, changed the distribution of sea surface temperature (SST), and consequently provided a necessary condition for the onset of the

Katherine E. Dayem; David C. Noone; Peter Molnar

2007-01-01

331

Variations in a shallow rocky reef fish community at different spatial scales in the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing grounds off the northern coast of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean Sea) are subject to very different fishing efforts as a result of both commercial and recreational activities. We analysed the variability at different spatial scales of the fishable community associated with shal- low littoral rocky bottoms. Underwater visual censuses (UVC) were carried out in 3 localities that have different

Francesc Ordines; Joan Moranta; Miquel Palmer; Albert Lerycke; Antoni Suau; Beatriz Morales-Nin; Antoni Maria Grau

2005-01-01

332

Major changes in ice stream dynamics during deglaciation of the north-western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victoria Island lies at the north-western limit of the former North American (Laurentide) Ice Sheet in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and displays numerous cross-cutting glacial lineations. Previous work suggests that several ice streams operated in this region during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation and played a major role in ice sheet dynamics and the delivery of icebergs into the Arctic Ocean.

Chris R. Stokes; Chris D. Clark; Robert Storrar

2009-01-01

333

Basal ice facies and supraglacial melt-out till of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacially-deformed massive ice and icy sediments (MI IS) in the Eskimo Lakes Fingerlands and Summer Island area of the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, show, in the same stratigraphic sequences, features characteristic of both basal glacier ice and intrasedimental ice. Basal-ice features comprise (1) ice facies and facies groupings similar to those from the basal ice layers of contemporary glaciers

J. B. Murton; C. A. Whiteman; R. I. Waller; W. H. Pollard; I. D. Clark; S. R. Dallimore

2005-01-01

334

How can endemic proboscideans help us understand the “island rule”? A case study of Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain size-change processes in terrestrial vertebrates on islands and in island-like ecosystems. Extinct endemic insular proboscideans are especially appropriate subjects for investigating this issue, given the frequency with which proboscideans colonised islands, and the multiple patterns in size reduction experienced by endemic taxa on different islands, as well as on a single one. To

Maria Rita Palombo

2007-01-01

335

77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY. The proposed safety zone is...

2012-06-12

336

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and... Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light...

2010-07-01

337

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and... Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light...

2009-07-01

338

Permanent upper plate deformation in western Myanmar during the great 1762 earthquake: Implications for neotectonic behavior of the northern Sunda megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1762 Arakan earthquake resulted from rupture of the northern Sunda megathrust and is one of those rare preinstrumental earthquakes for which early historical accounts document ground deformations. In order to obtain more comprehensive and detailed measurements of coseismic uplift, we conducted comprehensive field investigations and geochronological analyses of marine terraces on the two largest islands in western Myanmar. We confirm 3-4 m of coseismic coastal emergence along southwestern Cheduba Island, diminishing northeastward to less than 1 m. Farther northeast, uplift associated with the earthquake ranges from slightly more than 1 m to 5-6 m along the western coast of Ramree Island but is insignificant along the island's eastern coast. This double-hump pattern of uplift coincides with the long-term anticlinal growth of these two islands. Thus, we propose that the 1762 earthquake resulted from slip on splay faults under the islands, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Elastic modeling implies that fault slip during the 1762 earthquake ranges from about 9 to 16 m beneath the islands and corresponds to a magnitude of Mw 8.5 if the rupture length of the megathrust is ~500 km. The island's uplift histories suggest recurrence intervals of such events of about 500-700 years. Additional detailed paleoseismological studies would add significant additional detail to the history of large earthquakes in this region.

Wang, Yu; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Sieh, Kerry; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Chung-Che; Aung, Thura; Lin, Yu-Nung Nina; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Min, Soe; Than, Oo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Tun, Soe Thura

2013-03-01

339

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2010-07-01

340

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2009-07-01

341

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2013-07-01

342

Tiber Island in ancient and medieval Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether formed from an alluvial deposit or from the erosion of a tufa ridge, Tiber Island existed at least as early as the eighth century BC. According to Roman tradition, however, the island was formed only in 509 BC, after the expulsion of the Tarquins. It is probable that this tradition arose from an early taboo placed on the island

Margaret Angela Brucia

1990-01-01

343

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

344

27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section is âLong Island.â (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

2013-04-01

345

Beneath the Waters of Cocos Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cocos Island, a remote volcanic summit in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, serves as a beacon for hungry predators, including thousands of hammerhead sharks that travel here each year in search of prey. This video segment from NOVA: "Island of Sharks" depicts some of the common predator-prey interactions that take place in the nutrient-rich waters surrounding the island.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-27

346

The island-mainland species turnover relationship  

PubMed Central

Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M–M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland–island (M–I) and island–island (I–I) species turnover with predictions of the M–M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M–M model should successfully predict M–I and I–I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M–I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I–I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland–island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

Stuart, Yoel E.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Algar, Adam C.

2012-01-01

347

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

348

Economic Impact of Block Island Race Week.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Block Island, an area of 11 square miles lies 15 miles off the Rhode Island Coast. Biennially since 1965, the Storm Trysail Club of New York has sponsored a week of yacht races at Block Island. The event, which takes place in the third week of June, comes...

J. F. Farrell

1973-01-01

349

Chasing land crabs on Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christmas Island, or 'Kiritimati', is the world's largest coral atoll. It is located in the Line Island group, some 3240 km (2015 miles) from Tarawa, Kiribati's main island. About 4810 people (2002 fig- ures) live scattered around the atoll, mainly in four villages on the eastern side. The atoll covers 575 square km (222 square miles), but land resources are

Mecki Kronen

2007-01-01

350

Water Island Study. Attachment 2. Development Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attachment 2 of the Water Island Feasibility Study: Development Options, describes the potential uses of the undeveloped lands on Water Island to be examined. The most significant finding of this study for the Government of the Virgin Islands may be that ...

1980-01-01

351

The Foraminifera of the Pitcairn Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminifera were recovered from 18 samples collected in the Pitcairn Islands, 12 from Henderson Island (including the best and most comprehensive collections) and three each from Oeno Atoll and Pitcairn Island itself. Although both algae and sediment samples were collected, the living Foraminifera came, almost exclusively, from phytal (attached or clinging) habitats. Foraminifera in the sediment samples are mainly thanatocoenoses.

JOHN E. WHITTAKER; RICHARD L. HODGKINSON

1995-01-01

352

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

353

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

354

Gravity Anomalies in the Galapagos Islands Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent report Case et al, (1973) presented a free-air gravity map of the Galapagos Islands based on 32 gravity stations on the islands. They state that the Galapagos Islands are associated with an east-west trending 'residual negative anomaly' superi...

A. B. Watts J. R. Cochran

1973-01-01

355

The island-mainland species turnover relationship.  

PubMed

Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts. PMID:22874754

Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

2012-08-08

356

Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

Bjornstad, Bruce N.

2006-08-08

357

Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it was uplifted 3 m above sea level and remains completely exposed. Sediment samples were collected along transects extended from offshore to onshore environments for larger islands, such as Ghizo, where the tsunami did not pass over the entire island. Smaller islands, such as Nusa Aghana, a transect was conducted from the outer barrier reefs, through the lagoon, across the island, and offshore on the opposing side of the island. Offshore data was collected using a side-scan sonar system that records bathymetry and images coral reef morphology. This data was coupled with snorkeling and SCUBA diving to ground truth the offshore lagoon and reef environments. Sediment samples were collected offshore every 5 m and were documented by underwater photos and GPS coordinates. Offshore to onshore sediment transects reveal that sediment was eroded from seaward facing shorelines, deposited a thin veneer of sediment on islands, and transported the majority of the sediment on coral reefs on the lagoon side of islands, essentially burying coral and lagoonal sediment. Coral reef damaged by the earthquake and tsunami represents a major concern for an already threatened ecosystem. Recovery of the fishing and dive tourism economies rely on the healthy reestablishment of the reef.

Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

2007-12-01

358

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

359

The Three Mile Island crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample

P. S. Houts; P. D. Cleary; T. W. Hu

1988-01-01

360

Three Mile Island population registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and

M. K. Goldhaber; G. K. Tokuhata; E. Digon; G. G. Caldwell; G. F. Stein; G. Lutz; D. Gur

2009-01-01

361

ITURUP AND SAKHALIN ISLAND STRAWBERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A plant collecting expedition to Iturup and Sakhalin Islands, Russian Federation, occurred between 21 July and 12 September 2003. Actinidia, Rubus, Ribes, and Vaccinium, as well as seven accessions of strawberries, Fragaria L., were collected. Among them, a wild strawberry, Fragaria iturupensis Stau...

362

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

363

Impact of Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of nuclear power began before the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. The primary reason for deflation afflicting the nuclear industry is the oil price increase followed by other fuel price increases. These, along with the associated effects of conservation and increased energy productivity has led to reduced growth in electricity use and thus to reduced demand forecasts.

Gilinsky

1980-01-01

364

Magdalen Islands VAWT field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1977, an experimental large vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) was installed in the Magdalen Islands. The main objectives of the project are installation, operation and evaluation of the VAWT. The turbine has been operated at up to about 80 percent of design rpm. The information presented includes data from some of the 31 rpm tests which

P. South; A. Watts

1979-01-01

365

On a Crowded Desert Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

Rothstein, Samuel

1989-01-01

366

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

367

The Virgin Islands robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Etelman Observatory of the University of the Virgin Islands is the southernmost and easternmost optical observatory in the United States. The observatory is located at an elevation of 420 meters on the island of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. The site has exceptionally good seeing (frequently better than 1 arc-second), dark skies, and the ability to reach deep into the southern hemisphere and to plug the northern-hemisphere longitude gap between the US and Europe. Astronomers at the College of Charleston, South Carolina State University, and the University of the Virgin Islands have formed a consortium to refurbish the facility, conduct detailed site surveys, purchase a 0.5-meter telescope and instrumentation, and operate the facility robotically. The telescope, instrumentation, and dome have all been installed, and we are remotely obtaining commissioning observations. Our operations mode (manual, remote-controlled, or fully robotic) will simultaneously support our research, participation in multi-site campaigns, and the educational and outreach missions of our institutions. Further details are available at http://astro.uvi.edu/.

Neff, J. E.

2004-10-01

368

Chaos in easter island ecology.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

Sprott, J C

2011-10-01

369

Literacy in the Pacific Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The post-colonial governments of the Pacific Islands are demanding universal literacy in European languages through the introduced social institutions of education, government, law, and economics. This shift from oral to literate societies is contributing significantly to the erosion of traditional languages and cultures. (Author/MT)

Topping, Donald M.

1987-01-01

370

Expansion of Canopy-Forming Willows Over the Twentieth Century on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy-forming shrubs are reported to be increasing at sites around the circumpolar Arctic. Our results indicate expansion\\u000a in canopy cover and height of willows on Herschel Island located at 70° north on the western Arctic coast of the Yukon Territory.\\u000a We examined historic photographs, repeated vegetation surveys, and conducted monitoring of long-term plots and found evidence\\u000a of increases of each

Isla H. Myers-Smith; David S. Hik; Catherine Kennedy; Dorothy Cooley; Jill F. Johnstone; Alice J. Kenney; Charles J. Krebs

2011-01-01

371

Abundance of marine resources in relation to dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine effects of low dissolved oxygen on finfish, lobster, and squid under field conditions in\\u000a western Long Island Sound. The relationship between bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) and catch was examined for effects on abundance,\\u000a numbers of species, and mean length, for trawl sites throughout the sound. Examination of mean catch per tow, and species\\u000a number

Penelope Howell; David Simpson

1994-01-01

372

Activity patterns of a troop of Japanese monkeys ( Macaca fuscata yakui ) on Yakushima Island, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity patterns of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were observed for 240 hr from August to December 1976 on the western slope of Mt. Kuniwari, Yakushima Island, Japan. Activity\\u000a patterns and the time budget of a habituated wild troop which consisted of 47 animals in August 1976, were studied quantitatively\\u000a by using the scan-sampling method at 15-min intervals. Six thousand seven

Tamaki Maruhashi

1981-01-01

373

CRUSTAL STRUCTURE, FROM GRAVITY DATA, OF A COLLISION ZONE IN THE CENTRAL NEW HEBRIDES ISLAND ARC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fonds Documentaire ORSTOM We investigate the main crustal structures involved in the collision zone of the eastern d'Entrecasteaus Zone with the central Nem Hebrides island arc, using primarily gravity data and supporting seismic-refraction and magnetic data. Over the arc, gravity anomalies trend north-south and include a comples western gravity high, a median gravity low, and an eastern gravity high. Large

Jean-Yves Collot; Michael A. Fisher

374

ARTICLE The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Our goal is to test the generality of the island rule - a graded trend from gigantism in small-bodied species to dwarfism in large-bodied species - in the deep sea, a non-insular but potentially analogous system. Location Shallow-water and deep-sea benthic habitats in the western Atlantic Ocean from the North to South Poles. Methods We conducted regression analyses of

Craig R. McClain; Alison G. Boyer; Gary Rosenberg

375

Wind-wave driven circulation on the coral reef at Bora Bay, Miyako Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current records from three surveys at Bora Bay, Miyako Island, all showed strong unidirectional flows. Ocean water entered\\u000a the lagoon over the shallower western half of the reef flat and exited the lagoon through a channel on the eastern side. Fourier\\u000a transform of one of the survey data sets showed that this unidirectional flow is modulated on a cycle with

S. B. Kraines; T. Yanagi; M. Isobe; H. Komiyama

1998-01-01

376

Construction-Destruction of Volcanic Island in the Atlantic Ocean; Fuerteventura, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuerteventura shows exceptional features within the Canary Islands; it is the oldest, eastern-most and nearest to the African continent, the occurrence of wide exposures of submarine seamount stage rocks on its western side, it's unclear erosional history, and its longer time span volcanic activity. In the Western Fuerteventura, by 17.5 Ma huge landslides have removed about 3500 km3 of lavas and volcanoclastics of the shield stage to expose more than 300 km2 of submarine rocks of the Basal Complex (Stillman, 1999). 3 Jurassic to Cretaceous sandstone samples of marine origin, which represent the seamount stage of Fuerteventura gave zircon fission-track (ZFT) ages of 58.5±7.3 to 50.0±9.3 Ma, zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (ZHe) ages of 20.6±1.6 to 18.5±1.4 Ma, and apatite fission-track (AFT) ages of 46.3±30.0 to 14.5 ±4.0 Ma, respectively (Wipf et al., 2010). Other 3 samples from the Miocene intrusions gave ZFT age of 15.6±3.6 to 21.5±4.3 Ma and ZHe age of 13.4±0.5 to 15.0±1.2 Ma and AFT ages of 12.0±2.1, to 14.1±4.9 Ma, respectively. The aim of the ongoing study is to reconstruct the long-term landscape evolution of Fuerteventura and to unravel the confusion of its erosional record. Therefore, different thermochronologic techniques were applied on 18 samples from the Central Volcanic Complex and Northern Volcanic Complex in Western Fuerteventura. Resetting ZFT ages at ~50 Ma may document starting the doming in the Basal Complex since the Early Eocene. Then, this region was cooled (uplifted) slowly from ZFT closure temperature to ZHe closure temperature in ~30 Ma with cooling rate of 1.5-3°C/Myr (Wipf et al., 2010). Afterward, rapid exhumation has started ~20 Ma to uplift the samples from depths equivalent to depths of AFT closure temperature in less than 5 Ma with cooling rate of 50-70°C/Myr. The Lower Miocene intruded samples show a rapid uplift from depths equivalent to ZFT closure temperature to AFT closure temperature in ~3.6-7.4 Myr with cooling rate of 13-27°C/Myr as response to the previously documented huge landslides. References Stillman C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 94:89-104. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00099-2 Wipf M., Glasmacher U. A., Stockli D. F., Emmerich A., Bechstädt T., Heinrich Baur H., 2010. Reconstruction of the differentiated long-term exhumation history of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, Spain, through fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99, 675-686. Doi: 10.1007/s00531-008-0415-z

Mansour, Sherif; Glasmacher, Ulrich; Albinger, Marie; Stoeckli, Danny

2013-04-01

377

The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae)  

PubMed Central

Thirteen drosophilid species belonging to seven genera and two subfamilies are reported from three coral islands (namely Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso) that belong to the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. Five species are cosmopolitan and five are African. Three are endemic to the insular Western Indian Ocean, including a presumably new Scaptodrosophila species. On the island of Juan de Nova, most captured flies had pollinia attached to the bases of their proboscis. DNA analysis using the rbcl gene revealed that these pollinia belong to the genus Leptadenia (Apocynaceae), of which a single species L. madagascariensis, endemic in Madagascar and Comoros, is present in this island. This is the first reported association between this plant and drosophilids.

Yassin, Amir; Gidaszewski, Nelly; Albert, Beatrice; Hivert, Jean; David, Jean R.; Orgogozo, Virginie; Debat, Vincent

2012-01-01

378

The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae).  

PubMed

Thirteen drosophilid species belonging to seven genera and two subfamilies are reported from three coral islands (namely Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso) that belong to the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. Five species are cosmopolitan and five are African. Three are endemic to the insular Western Indian Ocean, including a presumably new Scaptodrosophila species. On the island of Juan de Nova, most captured flies had pollinia attached to the bases of their proboscis. DNA analysis using the rbcl gene revealed that these pollinia belong to the genus Leptadenia (Apocynaceae), of which a single species L. madagascariensis, endemic in Madagascar and Comoros, is present in this island. This is the first reported association between this plant and drosophilids. PMID:23222006

Yassin, Amir; Gidaszewski, Nelly; Albert, Béatrice; Hivert, Jean; David, Jean R; Orgogozo, Virginie; Debat, Vincent

379

On the reflection and transmission of low-frequency energy at the irregular western Pacific Ocean boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western boundary of the tropical Pacific is not continuous, and leakage of low-frequency energy from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean is possible. At low frequencies, equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves have very large east-west scales compared with the east-west scale of the land masses in the region. Consequently, these land masses may be treated as islands that are infinitesimally thin in the east-west direction. By generalizing previous theory for a single island, the leakage and multiple reflection of low-frequency energy through the seven major “islands” forming the boundary of the western Pacific can be studied. The results obtained depend on continuity of mass and large-scale balances and not on the details of nonlinear and/or frictional flow near island eastern boundaries. The major results are as follows: (1) When a mode 1 low-frequency Rossby wave is reflected at the discontinuous western Pacific boundary, the eastward reflected Kelvin wave energy flux is about one third of the incoming energy flux, or about two thirds ofthat expected for a solid meridional wall. In other words, the reflected Kelvin wave amplitude is 83% of that which would be reflected from a solid meridional wall. The reflection mainly occurs from the Indonesia/Borneo/Asia land mass and very little energy gets into the Indian Ocean. (2) Sea levels in the western equatorial Pacific and on the western boundaries of the major western Pacific land masses should be in phase and of a similar amplitude. In particular, in-phase interannual sea levels should occur along Australia's western coast and be highly correlated with sea levels in the western equatorial Pacific. Sea level data at Truk Island and on Australia's western coastline confirm this prediction. (3) The interannual exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian oceans due to interannual oscillations in the Pacific is about 6 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), is highly correlated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and bears definite phase relationships to sea level stations at locations in the western Pacific. For example, for a high sea level at Darwin, the transport is westward from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean. It seems that interannual transport may be approximately monitored using coastal sea level. (4) Strong narrow low-frequency currents are predicted to occur westward of some island tips. (5) Interannual Indian Ocean Kelvin wave signals are largely blocked at the Indonesia/Borneo/Asia land mass. (6) In terms of net transport, reflection, and transmission properties, the seven island Pacific western boundary can be reduced to a simpler two-island problem, in which one island is the Indonesia/Borneo/Asia land mass and the other New Guinea/Australia. (7) The comparatively small Halmahera Sea between Halmahera and New Guinea is dynamically important. Closing this sea for the incident first meridional mode Rossby wave case reduces the interannual transport between the Pacific and Indian Oceans by 40%.

Clarke, Allan J.

380

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago  

PubMed Central

Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P < 0.01). Except for one Y short tandem repeat lineage (Y-STR), seen in two unrelated Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island. The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP.

2011-01-01

381

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety zone in the waters of Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH...restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the fireworks event at Catawba Island...display will be taking place on Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton,...

2013-09-25

382

Timing Within the Western Area Power Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western), U. S. Department of Energy, is a Federal agency which transmits and markets electric energy primarily generated at hydro-electric dams. The transmission system in the western United States was experiencing ...

R. E. Wilson

1986-01-01

383

Beachrocks from the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beachrocks on La Palma Island developed on platform-forming lavas of the Cumbre Vieja volcano. Some of these lavas are related to the 1585 (Puerto Naos), 1677 and 1971 (Echentive) eruptions. Radiocarbon dating of the Charco Verde beachrock gives a conventional age of 33?330±490 BP, while that at Playa Chica beach gives a calibrated age of 14?940±525 BP. The beachrocks, up

F. Calvet; M. C. Cabrera; J. C. Carracedo; J. Mangas; F. J. Pérez-Torrado; C. Recio; A. Travé

2003-01-01

384

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island.

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

385

Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15

386

The island rule: made to be broken?  

PubMed Central

The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency.

Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

2007-01-01

387

Summary of research on soil testing for rock phosphate fertilizers in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between plant yield and values of soils tests for phosphorus (P) was studied in long-term field experiments\\u000a in south-western Australia for soil previously fertilized with rock phosphate and superphosphate. The rock phosphates studied\\u000a were: Queensland (Duchess) apatite rock phosphate; reactive apatite rock phosphate from North Carolina; and rock phosphate\\u000a from Christmas Island (as either C-grade ore or Calciphos).

M. D. A. Bolland

1993-01-01

388

Four years' observations of terrestrial lipid class compounds in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter over the open ocean, marine aerosol samples were collected on a biweekly basis from 1990 to 1993 in a remote island, Chichi-Jima, in the western North Pacific. The samples were analyzed for lipid class compounds using a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). A homologous series

K. Kawamura; Y. Ishimura; K. Yamazaki

2003-01-01

389

Potential Impacts of a Western Pacific Grapsid Crab on Intertidal Communities of the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population density and size distribution, salinity tolerance, and feeding activity were examined in a western Pacific grapsid\\u000a crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, that was recently introduced to the mid-Atlantic coast of North America. Seasonal abundance on a boulder\\/cobble shore (Crane\\u000a Neck Pt.) in central Long Island Sound, New York, USA, during 1997–1998, ranged from 7 to 10 crabs m?2 averaged over the

V. A. Gerard; R. M. Cerrato; A. A. Larson

1999-01-01

390

Genesis of the Western Samoa seamount province: age, geochemical fingerprint and tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samoan volcanic lineament has many features that are consistent with a plume-driven hotspot model, including the currently active submarine volcano Vailulu'u that anchors the eastern extremity. Proximity to the northern end of the Tonga trench, and the presence of voluminous young volcanism on what should be the oldest (?5 my) western island (Savai'i) has induced controversy regarding a simple

S. R. Hart; M. Coetzeesupbsu; R. K. Workman; J. Blusztajn; K. T. M. Johnson; J. M. Sinton; B. Steinberger; J. W. Hawkins

2004-01-01

391

Weight–length relationships of littoral to lower slope fishes from the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight–length relationships (WLRs) are presented for 103 fish species inhabiting littoral to lower slope habitats of the Balearic Islands and the Iberian coast (western Mediterranean). Samples were collected using seven types of fishing gear and at depths ranging from 0.5 to 1713m. Captures were made between the years 1991 and 2001. The b values in the WLR W=aLb varied between

G Morey; J Moranta; E Massut??; A Grau; M Linde; F Riera; B Morales-Nin

2003-01-01

392

Seismic structure across the active subduction zone of western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vancouver Island Seismic Project was conducted in 1980 to study the structure of the subducting oceanic Juan de Fuca plate and the overriding continental America plate. The principal seismic refraction line (line I) was a 350-km onshore-offshore profile perpendicular to the continental margin. An array of 32 receivers was located on the America plate on the mainland and across Vancouver Island and extended offshore with three ocean bottom seismometers (OBS's). Two shots were fired at the eastern end of the line, and 17 shots were located along the westernmost 100 km of the profile. Control for the interpretation of the onshore-offshore profile was provided by a reversed refraction profile along the length of Vancouver Island and by a marine refraction profile recorded on the OBS'S. Modeling of the seismic structure of this complex region utilized an iterative inversion method for travel times from explosions in which shots at several locations are recorded on the same set of receivers and utilized an algorithim based on asymptotic ray theory for the calculation of synthetic seismograms through two-dimensional media. The major features of the refraction structural model are that (1) the oceanic lithosphere dips at 3° or less beneath the continental slope, so the bend in the subducting slab occurs landward of the foot of the slope. (2) the oceanic lithosphere dips at 14°-16° beneath the continental shelf until it passes beneath the continental Moho at 37 km depth below western Vancouver Island, (3) an upper mantle reflector may correspond to the base of the subducting lithosphere, and (4) a segment of high-velocity material above the downgoing crust, with velocity 7.7 km/s and depth range 20-25 km, may represent a remnant of subducted lithosphere, perhaps detached when the subduction zone jumped westward to its present position.

Spence, G. D.; Clowes, R. M.; Ellis, R. M.

1985-07-01

393

At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

Adams, J.; Takekawa, J. Y.

2008-01-01

394

Statistical analysis for thermal data in the Japanese Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculated statistical average of thermal data to speculate regional thermal structure of the forearc area of the Japanese Islands. The three thermal statistical averages show a difference of a high thermal regime in the western part of forearc inner zone and a low in the Kanto forearc outer zone. The Kanto zone marks 18 K km -1 for mean geothermal gradient, 44 mW m -2 for mean heat flow, while the western inner zone shows 27 K km -1 for mean geothermal gradient, 63 mW m -2 for mean heat flow. The geothermal gradients of the Nobi Plain and the Osaka Plain in the western inner zone are 29 and 36 K km -1, respectively, while the value of the Kanto Plain in the Kanto zone is 21 K km -1. Taking account of the effect of accumulation of sediments, we see the difference in the thermal regime between the plains and conclude that the difference is significant. Heat flux in the crust depends on the volume of granite rich in radioactive elements. There are few granitic rocks in the Kanto zone, while granitic rocks are dominant in the western inner zone. The heat flow of 20 mW m -2 is attributed to the granitic rocks of about 8 km in thickness. There are two oceanic plate subductions of the Pacific plate and the Philippine Sea plate under the Kanto zone, while only the Philippine Sea plate has been subducting under the western inner zone. The model simulation based on thermal and subduction model shows a heat flow ranging 50-60 mW m -2 in the southwest Japan forarc area and a low value of about 20 mW m -2 in the northeast Japan forearc area. The heat flux from the cooling oceanic lithosphere depends on the age of plate. The Shikoku Basin, a part of the Philippine Sea plate, off the western inner zone is 15-30 Ma, while the Pacific plate off the Kanto zone is 122-132 Ma. Theoretically, heat flux values of 15 and 50 Ma oceanic plates range 60-120 mW m -2 and those of 122-132 Ma could be about 10 mW m -2. If the heat flux contribution from the Philippine Sea plate under the Kanto zone is smaller than the plate under the western inner zone, there could be a thermal regime difference in order of several tens of mW m -2. Conclusively, the cause of the difference of heat flux could be the uneven granitic rocks distribution and/or the difference of heat flux between the two subducting plate.

Okubo, Yasukuni; Uchida, Youhei; Taniguchi, Makoto; Miyakoshi, Akinobu; Safanda, Jan

2005-10-01

395

Geological features of a collision zone marker: The Antique Ophiolite Complex (Western Panay, Philippines)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antique Ophiolite Complex exposed along the western side of Panay Island, central Philippines was derived from the Jurassic to Cretaceous proto-South China Sea oceanic leading edge of the Palawan microcontinental block. The subduction and ultimate closure of this ocean basin resulted in the emplacement and exposure of this lithospheric fragment along the collisional boundary of the microcontinental block and the oceanic- to island arc-affiliated Philippine mobile belt. The ophiolite complex has volcanic rocks having normal- to transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to island arc tholeiitic (IAT) geochemistry consistent with the transitional MORB-IAT characteristics of its peridotites. The chromitites manifest subduction signature suggestive of the involvement of water in its generation. All of these would be consistent with generation in a supra-subduction zone environment, specifically in a subduction-related marginal ocean basin. The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt along western Panay resulted, aside from ophiolite emplacement, into arc curvature, island rotation, serpentinite diapirism and thrusting along the forearc side. The offshore bathymetric expression of the microcontinental block along the collision zone shows the leading edge of this oceanic bathymetric high to have spread laterally. This is indicative of its being buoyant resulting to non-subduction as supported by available earthquake hypocenter data.

Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Tamayo, Rodolfo A.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.

2013-03-01

396

Genetics of western white pine  

Treesearch

Pacific Northwest ... mid-Eocene eras, and that the species has withdrawn into four western North American subpopulations. ... The genetic load of P. monticola includes deleterious recessive genes for albinism, dwarfing, curly needles, and a  ...

397

Yeelirrie Uranium Project - Western Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yeelirrie uranium deposit is situated approximately 670 kilometers north-east of Perth, the capital of the State of Western Australia and approximately 500 kilometers north of the mining town of Kalgoorlie. The surrounding areas are somewhat desolate ...

R. J. Crawley

1982-01-01

398

Western forests and air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

1992-01-01

399

Western Blotting and ELISA Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the two most useful and sensitive methods to measure the ng\\/ml to pg\\/ml ordered materials in the solution, such as serum, urin e and tissue\\/cultured cell supernat ant, and they are especially widely used in protein detection. Western bl otting and ELISA have widely application in scientific researches, industry and medical prac

Yan Yang; Hongbao Ma

2009-01-01

400

Pine Island Glacier Calving (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event. This series of images from the MISR instrument on the Terra satellite not only shows the crack expanding and the iceberg breakoff, but the seaward moving glacial flow in the parts of the Pine Island Glacier upstream of the crack.

Perkins, Lori; Mitchell, Horace; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2005-03-09

401

Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

402

Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

Renteria, W.

2012-04-01

403

Stranded on a Desert Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are stranded on a tropical desert island. At an abandoned science lab on the island, they explore the properties of different materials to determine which are best to construct a shelter, boat, and path to aid in their survival. The properties investigated are: magnetism, conductivity, opacity, buoyancy, and elasticity. Learners practice research techniques, must work together, and need to design within constraints. This lesson plan includes definitions of key words, scenario sheet, lab sheets,and handouts. This activity is the third in a four part series of pre/post activities (Matter, Matter, What's the Matter?) created for an exhibit on material science, but can be used on its own.

Houston, Children'S M.

2009-01-01

404

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

405

An Island Made of Ice  

NASA Video Gallery

This time-lapse video shows the calving of an ice island from Greenland's Petermann Glacier and the drifting of the ice down the fjord and southward through Nares Strait. The images were captured between July 9 and September 13, 2012, by NASA's Terra and Aqua earth-observing satellites. This is the second time in three years that a city-sized hunk of ice has ripped off from the glacier. Credit: NASA's Earth Observatory > Related story > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-10-17

406

Flora of the Marquesas Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology offers online access to taxonomic and geographical information on the vascular plants of the Marquesas Islands. An easy-to-use search tool retrieves plant checklists, which include species distribution and status information. Other features of this well-presented Web site include a searchable image gallery, curatorial information on collected specimens, a general account of the Marquesas, and some gorgeous panoramic photos. Look for additional features as the site develops.

407

Tectonic influences on the preservation of marine terraces: Old and new evidence from Santa Catalina Island, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Channel Islands contain some of the best geologic records of past climate and sea-level changes, recorded in uplifted, fossil-bearing marine terrace deposits. Among the eight California Channel Islands and the nearby Palos Verdes Hills, only Santa Catalina Island does not exhibit prominent emergent marine terraces, though the same terrace-forming processes that acted on the other Channel Islands must also have occurred on Santa Catalina. We re-evaluated previous researchers' field evidence and examined new topographic, bathymetric, and stream-profile data in order to find possible explanations for the lack of obvious marine terrace landforms or deposits on the island today. The most likely explanation is associated with the island's unresolved tectonic history, with evidence for both recent uplift and subsidence being offered by different researchers. Bathymetric and seismic reflection data indicate the presence of submerged terrace-like landforms from a few meters below present sea level to depths far exceeding that of the lowest glacial lowstand, suggesting that the Catalina Island block may have subsided, submerging marine terraces that would have formed in the late Quaternary. Similar submerged marine terrace landforms exist offshore of all of the other California Channel Islands, including some at anomalously great depths, but late Quaternary uplift is well documented on those islands. Therefore, such submarine features must be more thoroughly investigated and adequately explained before they can be accepted as definitive evidence of subsidence. Nevertheless, the striking similarity of the terrace-like features around Santa Catalina Island to those surrounding the other, uplifting, Channel Islands prompted us to investigate other lines of evidence of tectonic activity, such as stream profile data. Recent uplift is suggested by disequilibrium stream profiles on the western side of the island, including nickpoints and profile convexities. Rapid uplift is also indicated by the island's highly dissected, steep topography and abundant landslides. A likely cause of uplift is a restraining bend in the offshore Catalina strike-slip fault. Our analysis suggests that Santa Catalina Island has recently experienced, and may still be experiencing, relatively rapid uplift, causing intense landscape rejuvenation that removed nearly all traces of marine terraces by erosion. A similar research approach, incorporating submarine as well as subaerial geomorphic data, could be applied to many tectonically active coastlines in which a marine terrace record appears to be missing.

Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.

2012-12-01

408

Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region. PMID:23698533

Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J; Warner, Jeffrey

2013-05-22

409

Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation.  

PubMed

While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin's finches, each island-endemic Foudia population is a monophyletic entity for which speciation can be considered complete. In explaining the only exceptions-mismatches between taxonomy, mitochondrial, and nuclear data-phylogenetic and coalescent methods support introgressive hybridization rather than incomplete lineage sorting. Human introductions of known timing of one island-endemic species, to all surrounding archipelagos provide two fortuitous experiments; (1) population sampling at known times in recent evolutionary history, (2) bringing allopatric lineages of an island radiation into secondary contact. Our results put a minimum time bound on introgression (235 years), and support hybridization between species in natural close contact (parapatry), but not between those in natural allopatry brought into contact by human introduction. Time in allopatry, rather than in sympatry, appears key in the reproductive isolation of Foudia species. PMID:22519786

Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bourgeois, Yann; Estep, Laura K; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Strasberg, Dominique; Thébaud, Christophe

2012-02-09

410

The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island FreedmenÂs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.

Click, Patricia C.

2001-01-01

411

Dense water formation around islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic constraints on the dense water formation rate and circulation resulting from cooling around an island are discussed. The domain under consideration consists of an island surrounded by a shelf, a continental slope, and a stratified ocean. Atmospheric cooling over the shelf forms a dense water that penetrates down the sloping bottom into the stratified basin. Strong azimuthal flows are generated over the sloping bottom as a result of thermal wind. Thermally direct and indirect mean overturning cells are also forced over the slope as a result of bands of convergent and divergent Reynolds stresses associated with the jets. The Coriolis force associated with the net mass flux into the downwelling region over the slope is balanced by these nonlinear terms, giving rise to a fundamentally different momentum budget than arises in semienclosed marginal seas subject to cooling. A similar momentum balance is found for cases with canyons and ridges around the island provided that the terms are considered in a coordinate system that follows the topography. Both eddy fluxes and the mean overturning cells are important for the radial heat flux, although the eddy fluxes typically dominate. The properties of the dense water formed over the shelf (temperature, diapycnal mass flux) are predicted well by application of baroclinic instability theory and simple heat and mass budgets. It is shown that each of these quantities depends only on a nondimensional number derived from environmental parameters such as the shelf depth, Coriolis parameter, offshore temperature field, and atmospheric forcing.

Spall, Michael A.

2013-05-01

412

Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands, the specialized niches in which erythroid precursors proliferate, differentiate, and enucleate, were first described 50 years ago by analysis of transmission electron micrographs of bone marrow. These hematopoietic subcompartments are composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. A hiatus of several decades followed, during which the importance of erythroblastic islands remained unrecognized as erythroid progenitors were shown to possess an autonomous differentiation program with a capacity to complete terminal differentiation in vitro in the presence of erythropoietin but without macrophages. However, as the extent of proliferation, differentiation, and enucleation efficiency documented in vivo could not be recapitulated in vitro, a resurgence of interest in erythroid niches has emerged. We now have an increased molecular understanding of processes operating within erythroid niches, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, positive and negative regulatory feedback, and central macrophage function. These features of erythroblast islands represent important contributors to normal erythroid development, as well as altered erythropoiesis found in such diverse diseases as anemia of inflammation and chronic disease, myelodysplasia, thalassemia, and malarial anemia. Coupling of historical, current, and future insights will be essential to understand the tightly regulated production of red cells both in steady state and stress erythropoiesis.

Mohandas, Narla

2008-01-01

413

Public Health Assessment for Island Chemical Corporation/Virgin Island Chemical Corporation, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. CERCLIS No. VID980651095.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Island Chemical/Virgin Island Chemical site is an inactive facility in the south central portion of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Historical operations at the site resulted in contamination by various organic compounds, including chloroform, pyridin...

1998-01-01

414

The 29th September Samoa Islands tsunami: preliminary simulations based on the first focal mechanisms hypotheses and implications of uncertainties in tsunami early warning strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 6:48 AM local time (17:48 UTC time) a strong earthquake of magnitude Mw=8.0 occurred less than 200 km south of the Samoa Islands (Western Samoa and American Samoa), triggering a tsunami that was detected by several tide gauges located all around the source area. The areas most affected were the south coasts of Western and American Samoa, where almost

R. Tonini; G. Pagnoni; A. Armigliato; S. Tinti

2009-01-01

415

Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination, and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

Malone, T. F.

2001-05-01

416

Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain)  

PubMed Central

Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human.

2011-01-01

417

Reconstructing the architectural evolution of volcanic islands from combined K/Ar, morphologic, tectonic, and magnetic data: The Faial Island example (Azores)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morpho-structural evolution of oceanic islands results from competition between volcano growth and partial destruction by mass-wasting processes. We present here a multi-disciplinary study of the successive stages of development of Faial (Azores) during the last 1 Myr. Using high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and new K/Ar, tectonic, and magnetic data, we reconstruct the rapidly evolving topography at successive stages, in response to complex interactions between volcanic construction and mass wasting, including the development of a graben. We show that: (1) sub-aerial evolution of the island first involved the rapid growth of a large elongated volcano at ca. 0.85 Ma, followed by its partial destruction over half a million years; (2) beginning about 360 ka a new small edifice grew on the NE of the island, and was subsequently cut by normal faults responsible for initiation of the graben; (3) after an apparent pause of ca. 250 kyr, the large Central Volcano (CV) developed on the western side of the island at ca 120 ka, accumulating a thick pile of lava flows in less than 20 kyr, which were partly channelized within the graben; (4) the period between 120 ka and 40 ka is marked by widespread deformation at the island scale, including westward propagation of faulting and associated erosion of the graben walls, which produced sedimentary deposits; subsequent growth of the CV at 40 ka was then constrained within the graben, with lava flowing onto the sediments up to the eastern shore; (5) the island evolution during the Holocene involves basaltic volcanic activity along the main southern faults and pyroclastic eruptions associated with the formation of a caldera volcano-tectonic depression. We conclude that the whole evolution of Faial Island has been characterized by successive short volcanic pulses probably controlled by brief episodes of regional deformation. Each pulse has been separated by considerable periods of volcanic inactivity during which the Faial graben gradually developed. We propose that the volume loss associated with sudden magma extraction from a shallow reservoir in different episodes triggered incremental downward graben movement, as observed historically, when immediate vertical collapse of up to 2 m was observed along the western segments of the graben at the end of the Capelinhos eruptive crises (1957-58).

Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Costa, A. C. G.; Sibrant, A. L. R.; Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Miranda, J. M.; Madureira, P.

2012-10-01

418

Reconstructing the architectural evolution of volcanic islands from combined K/Ar, morphologic, tectonic, and magnetic data: the Faial Island example (Azores)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morpho-structural evolution of oceanic islands results from competition between volcano growth and partial destruction by mass-wasting processes. We present here a multi-disciplinary study aimed at recovering the successive stages of development of Faial (Azores) during the last 1 Myr. Using high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), new K/Ar, tectonic, and magnetic data, we reconstruct the rapidly evolving topography at successive stages, in response to complex interactions between volcanic construction and mass wasting, including the development of a graben. We show that: (1) sub-aerial evolution of the island first involved the rapid growth of a large elongated volcano at ca. 0.85 Ma, followed by its partial destruction over half a million years; (2) at ca 360 ka a new small edifice grew on the NE of the island, and was subsequently cut by normal faults responsible for initiation of the graben; (3) after an apparent pause of ca. 250 kyr, the large Central Volcano (CV) developed on the western side of the island at ca 120 ka, accumulating a thick pile of lava flows in less than 20 kyr, which were partly channelized within the graben; (4) the period between 120 ka and 40 ka is marked by widespread deformation at the island scale, including westward propagation of faulting and associated erosion of the graben rims, which produced sedimentary deposits; subsequent growth of the CV at 40 ka was then constrained within the graben, with lava flowing on the sediments up to the eastern shore; (5) the island evolution during the Holocene involves basaltic volcanic activity along the main southern faults and pyroclastic eruptions associated with the formation of a caldera volcano-tectonic depression. We conclude that the whole evolution of Faial Island has been characterized by successive short volcanic pulses probably controlled by brief episodes of regional deformation. Each pulse has been separated by considerable periods of volcanic inactivity during which the Faial graben gradually developed. We propose that the volume loss associated with sudden magma extraction from a shallow reservoir in different epochs triggered incremental downward graben movement, as observed historically, when immediate vertical collapse of up to 2 m was observed along the western segments of the graben at the end of the Capelinhos eruptive crises (1957-58).

Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Costa, A. C. G.; Sibrant, A. L. R.; Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Miranda, J. M.; Madureira, P.

2012-04-01

419

Upper Miocene reef complex of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain  

SciTech Connect

The late Tortonian-Messinian coral reef platform of south Mallorca onlaps a folded middle late Miocene carbonate platform on which progradation of up to 20 km occurs. Vertical sea cliffs (up to 100 m high) superbly show the last 5 km of this progradation and complement the numerous water-well cores from the island interior. The Mallorca reef presents the most complete facies zonation of the Miocene reefs of the western Mediterranean. The reef wall framework is up to 20 m thick and shows (1) erosional reef flat with reef breccia and small corals; (2) spur-and-grove zone with large, massive corals; (3) deep buttresses and pinnacles with terraces of branching corals; and (4) deep reef wall with flat, laminar coral colonies, branching red algae, and Halimeda sands.

Pomar, L.

1988-02-01

420

Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Gal?pagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)  

PubMed Central

Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial) gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic differentiation between islands do not support this view. Therefore, our study is a nice example of how recently developed analytical tools such as Bayesian clustering analysis and DNA sequence-based demographic analyses can overcome potential biases introduced by simply relying on FST estimates from markers with different inheritance patterns.

2009-01-01

421

Interaction between magnetic island and electrostatic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between electrostatic turbulence and a magnetic island is investigated numerically. The physical model used is a 2-D version of the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations extended to include a curvature term and to account for the presence of a magnetic island. This is the simplest model of electrostatic turbulence that takes into account the effect of magnetic shear. The magnetic curvature makes the model linearly unstable to interchange instability. As a first approximation, it is assumed that the island growth is not affected by the surrounding turbulence since the latter evolves on a much faster time scale. Thus, the model is electrostatic and the island can be treated as a fixed object. The equations are solved numerically in a slab box by using a finite difference, fully implicit code that uses PETSc libraries. The interchange turbulence with and without the magnetic island is compared. In particular, the response of the turbulence to different magnetic island widths and collisionality values is examined.

Militello, Fulvio; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Waelbroeck, Francois

2006-10-01

422

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-24

423

SSW-directed low-angled extension on Makronisos, Western Cyclades, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makronisos is the most northwesterly island in the Western Cycladic archipelago, lying only a few kilometres from the Attica mainland port of Lavrion. The island is pencil-shaped, 13 km long (NNE-SSW) by 2.5 km wide, with a single axial ridge irregularly rising from 120 m in the south to 260 m in the north. Most of the island comprises a sequence of schists and interlayered blue-grey marbles that exhibit chocolate-tablet pinch-and-swell. The tectonostratigraphically highest level of the central to northern parts of the island consists of pale coloured calcite ultramylonites overlying cataclastically deformed schists. These form outliers on the crest of the island and also crop-out along the west and east coasts. Stretching lineations in all units trend NNE-SSW and all shear criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense (S-C-?, asymmetric porphyroclasts). Large-scale (~0.35 km wavelength) upright folds, with axes parallel to the stretching direction, control the overall outcrop pattern. The style of deformation is consistent with that found in more southeasterly parts of the W. Cyclades (Kea, Kythnos, Serifos) and also to that seen in the adjacent Attica mainland and confirms the continuity of top-to-SSE extension in that part of the Aegean. These observations allow the tectonostratigraphy of the mainland to be correlated with that of the W. Cyclades and hence a scenario for the exhumation of the metamorphic units in this region to be proposed.

Rice, A. H. N.; Huet, B.; Grasemann, B.; Soukis, K.; Tschegg, C.

2012-04-01

424

Genetic structure and origin of peopling in the Azores islands (Portugal): the view from mtDNA.  

PubMed

The Azores islands (Portugal), uninhabited when discovered by Portuguese navigators in the fifteenth century, are located in the Atlantic Ocean 1500 km from the European mainland. The archipelago is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin that define three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). To improve the genetic characterisation of the Azorean population, and to clarify some aspects related to the history of settlement, a study of mtDNA was conducted in the population of the archipelago. The HVRI region was sequenced and specific RFLPs were screened in 146 samples obtained from unrelated individuals with Azorean ancestry (50 from the Eastern group, 60 from the Central group, and 37 from the Western group). Samples were classified into haplogroups based on the information obtained from both sequencing and RFLP analysis. All the analyses performed support the idea that, in the whole group of islands, the majority of mtDNA lineages originated from the Iberian Peninsula, mainly from Portugal (mainland). However contributions from other European populations, especially from Northern Europe, cannot be disregarded. The values obtained for the various diversity parameters in the Azores archipelago indicate that the Azorean population, as a whole, does not exhibit the typical characteristics of an isolated population. The analysis of genetic data by groups of islands showed that the Western group exhibited particular features. The distribution of haplogroups in the Western group is very atypical, being significantly different from what is observed in the Eastern and Central groups. Furthermore, the diversity values are, in general, lower than those observed in other populations used for comparison. African haplogroups were found in all the groups of islands. Therefore the presence of Moorish and African slaves on the islands, as reported in historical sources, is supported by the mtDNA genetic data, especially in the Eastern group. The presence of Jews in the Central group is also supported by the mtDNA data. Neither historical nor genetic data (phylogeography of mtDNA) supports the idea of a differential settlement history for the Western group; however, it is represented in the phylogenies as an isolated branch. The effect of genetic drift, induced by the reduced population size since peopling occurred, has led to a very atypical distribution of haplogroups/haplotypes in this group of islands. We cannot ignore the influence of biodemographic and genetic processes, namely founder effect, genetic drift, migration, and even recent mutational events in the mtDNA lineages of the Azorean populations. Nevertheless, a great part of the variation in the Azorean mtDNA can be explained by the settlement history. PMID:12940917

Santos, C; Lima, M; Montiel, R; Angles, N; Pires, L; Abade, A; Aluja, Ma P

2003-09-01

425

Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ~1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

2011-01-01

426

ENSO and seasonal sea-level variability - A diagnostic discussion for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate cycle is the basis for this paper, aimed at providing a diagnostic outlook on seasonal sea-level variability (i.e. anomalies with respect to the Climatology) for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). Results revealed that the sea-level variations in the northwestern tropical Pacific islands (e.g. Guam and Marshall Islands) have been found to be sensitive to ENSO-cycle, with low sea-level during El Niño and high sea-level during La Niña events. The annual cycle (first harmonic) of sea-level variability in these north Pacific islands has also been found to be very strong. The composites of SST and circulation diagnostic show that strong El Niño years feature stronger surface westerly winds in the equatorial western/central Pacific, which causes north Pacific islands to experience lower sea-level from July to December, while the sea-level in south Pacific islands (e.g. American Samoa) remains unchanged. As the season advances, the band of westerly winds propagates towards the south central tropical Pacific and moves eastward, which causes American Samoa to experience a lower sea-level from January to June, but with six months time lag as compared to Guam and the Marshalls. U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands are among the most vulnerable communities to climate variability and change. This study has identified the year-to-year ENSO climate cycle to have significant impact on the sea-level variability of these islands. Therefore, regular monitoring of the ENSO climate cycle features that affect seasonal sea-level variability would provide substantial opportunities to develop advance planning and decision options regarding hazard management in these islands.

Chowdhury, Md. R.; Chu, P.-S.; Schroeder, T.

2007-03-01

427

Solar and Atmospheric Radiation Data for Broughton Island, eastern Baffin Island, Canada, 1971-73.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three years partial record of radiation for Broughton Island reported here tends to support the thesis already demonstrated elsewhere for other climatological parameters that conditions on the eastern coast of Baffin Island and, implicitly, in Davis S...

J. D. Jacobs

1974-01-01

428

Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and fission-track (AFT) ages are 1.3 - 1.5 Ma and 4.4 Ma, respectively, at the SW end of Montague Island and AHe ages are 4.4 - 4.6 Ma at the NE end. These age and geomorphic constraints indicate that Montague Island marks a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to thin-skinned thrust faulting and/or pop-up structures above the megathrust. The youngest AHe ages from Montague Island are similar to those from farther east along the St. Elias - Bagley fault systems implying that the south and east sides of Montague Island, and perhaps the along-trend eastern part of Hinchinbrook Island, may be the westward extension of these fault systems. Additional cooling ages will help constrain the spatial extent of this zone of deformation and potential links with other structural zones caused by Yakutat collision and subduction.

Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

2011-12-01

429

Social identity in the modern United States Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Virgin Islands (USVI) is a complex society with multiple diverse ethnic groups: Black Virgin Islanders, Eastern Caribbean islanders, Puerto Ricans, Spanish Dominicans, French Islanders, Americans (Continentals), Arabs and Asians. These ethnic differences as well as United States cultural imperialism have stymied any uniform Virgin Islands identity. Even though various ethnic groups share fundamental social characteristics, they nonetheless

Lomarsh Roopnarine

2010-01-01

430

Seismotectonics of the northern Philippine island arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study synthesizes available data on seismicity and focal mechanisms for the complex zones of plate convergence in the Philippine island arc from Luzon to Taiwan. Evidence for westward subduction at the East Luzon Trough includes (1) a series of large earthquakes located landward of the bathymetric low with aftershock zones elongated parallel to the trough; (2) focal mechanisms of large and moderate-sized events implying low-angle westward underthrusting; (3) a diffuse zone of seismicity extending to at least 60-km, and possibly to 80-km, depth; and (4) published seismic reflection profiles interpreted to show oceanic basement dipping westward beneath a wedge of deformed sediment. Although the formation of this incipient subduction zone appears to be in progress, the seismicity and focal mechanisms are similar to those found in well-developed subduction zones. This similarity may be explained by a reactivation of a preexisting convergent margin east of central Luzon. An east-trending belt of seismicity at 15°N connects the East Luzon Trough with the Philippine Trench. A large strike-slip event and several obliquely oriented reverse-faulting events may be explained by a zone of distributed sinistral shear connecting the two convergent margins. Along the western side of the arc, a continuous east-dipping subduction zone extends from southwestern Luzon to southern Taiwan. Major transitions in the mode of plate convergence along this margin coincide with concentrated deformation of the overlying plate and contortion of the underthrusting plate: (1) At the southern end of the Manila Trench, a vertically dipping nest of shallow and intermediate-depth seismicity coincides with the transition from arc-continent collision south of Luzon to subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath western Luzon. (2) North of Luzon, at 19°N, a cluster of seismicity, including one large strike-slip event and smaller dip-slip events, may be interpreted as a zone of upper plate shearing. This cluster of seismicity coincides with (a) a marked bend in the strike of the trench, forearc basin, and subducted lithosphere; (b) a zone of anomalous breadth of the volcanic arc, and (c) the approach of the boundary between South China Sea oceanic lithosphere and transitional/continental crust of the Asian margin. This portion of the subduction zone may reflect a transition to restricted subduction of buoyant Asian margin lithosphere. Just north of this transition, a set of normal-faulting events located near the Manila Trench indicates extensional deformation of the subducting slab and may be related to the resistance of buoyant continental lithosphere to subduction. (3) South of Taiwan, a dense cluster of large shallow earthquakes overlies a vertically dipping Benioff zone. This nest of seismicity coincides with the northern termination of the Manila Trench subduction zone and the transition to full arc-continent collision. Focal mechanisms of two events just north of Luzon and four events south of Taiwan can be interpreted as east- or southeast-directed underthrusting and would thus corroborate active plate convergence along the Manila Trench. A belt of large and moderate-sized shallow earthquakes with strike-slip focal mechanisms extends from southern Taiwan northeast to the western termination of the Ryukyu Trench. This belt may represent an incipient dextral shear zone developing into a new segment of the northwestern boundary of the Philippine Sea plate.

Hamburger, Michael W.; Cardwell, Richard K.; Isacks, Bryan L.

431

Reading the geography of Sri Lankan island-ness: colonial repetitions, postcolonial possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the cultural dimensions of Sri Lanka's island geography. In particular it argues the importance of regarding the geography of Sri Lankan island-ness as a representational and imaginative trope repetitively and textually inscribed over time. I trace the contours of a topological enclosure that seem so matter-of-fact, natural and characteristic of the Sri Lankan island-state. Inviolability and

Tariq Jazeel

2009-01-01

432

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

433

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

434

Effect of sheared flow on magnetic islands  

SciTech Connect

The effect of sheared flow on a magnetic island is examined. In contrast to the density and temperature gradients which are flattened for sufficiently wide islands, it is found that the velocity gradient persists inside the separatrix whenever the constant-{psi} approximation is satisfied. It follows that velocity shear has a negligible effect on island amplitude in that approximation. The effect of the violation of the constant-{psi} approximation is explored by using the Kelvin-Stuart family of islands, and it is found that flattening is modest even when the separatrix encloses virtually all the current.

Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Grasso, Daniela [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Burning Plasma Research Group, Department of Energetics, Politecnico di Torino and CNISM, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2007-02-15

435

A microbiological survey of Montserrat Island hydrothermal biotopes.  

PubMed

In March 1996, a survey of hydrothermal sites on the island of Montserrat was carried out. Six sites (Galway's Soufrière. Gages Upper and Lower Soufrières, Hot Water Pond, Hot River, and Tar River Soufrière) were mapped and sampled for chemical, ATP, and microbial analyses. The hydrothermal Soufrière sites on the slopes of the active Chances Peak volcano exhibited temperatures up to almost 100 degrees C and were generally either mildly acidic at pH 5-7 or strongly acidic at pH 1.5-3, but with some hot streams and pools of low redox potential at pH 7-8. Hot Water Pond sites, comprising a series of heated pools near the western shoreline of the island. were neutral and saline, consistent with subsurface heating of entrained seawater. Biological activity shown by ATP analyses was greatest in near-neutral pH samples and generally decreased as acidity increased. A variety of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic thermophilic organisms were isolated or observed in enrichment cultures. Most of the bacteria that were obtained in pure culture were familiar acidophiles and neutrophiles, but novel, iron-oxidizing species of Sulfobacillus were revealed. These species included the first mesophilic iron-oxidizing Sulfobacillus strains to be isolated and a strain with a higher maximum growth temperature (65 degrees C) than the previously described moderately thermophilic Sulfobacillus species. PMID:11057916

Atkinson, T; Cairns, S; Cowan, D A; Danson, M J; Hough, D W; Johnson, D B; Norris, P R; Raven, N; Robinson, C; Robson, R; Sharp, R J

2000-10-01

436

A survey of village poultry production in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

A total of 84 farmers in 31 villages of Guadalcanal, Western, Malaita and Central Provinces of the Solomon Islands were surveyed to obtain baseline information on the current feeding practices and farmer attitudes to village poultry production. Farming of village chickens in the Solomon Islands is conducted on a small scale. Most surveyed farmers thought chickens were easy to care for, provide food for the family and was a good cash income enterprise. Some farmers were interested in keeping local chickens, but found it difficult to obtain the birds. The main feed sources are fresh coconut, copra meal, fish meal, mill run, food scraps and forage sources from the range. Some villagers believe that chickens only need to eat household scraps and did not provide drinking water. Many villagers lacked the knowledge of managing a village poultry enterprise. Some chicken houses were built by using bush materials or by purchasing construction materials. Farmers indicated they would like the government to provide funds for establishing a smallholder poultry enterprise and to provide information on feeding and management of birds. PMID:19242817

Jansen, T; Glatz, P C; Miao, Z H

2009-02-26

437

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to the settlement and agricultural land. Our results may elucidate secure atoll and island type to mitigate the risk of future tsunamis on atoll nations/districts in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

2005-12-01

438

Differing Eocene floral histories in southeastern North America and Western Europe: influence of paleogeography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollen data show that in southeastern North America, the Eocene angiosperm flora attained its maximum relative diversity some 8 m.y. after the late early Eocene to earliest middle Eocene to earliest middle Eocene climatic maximum. Increasing diversity resulted in part from the flora's position on a large continent which allowed easy migration. In western Europe, the floral diversity began decreasing even before the climatic maximum. Paleogeography played large roles in this diversity decrease. In western Europe, terrestrial floras were on islands and peninsulas in the sea, so that the floras underwent increasing isolation and partial local extermination. Temperate plants generally did not migrate to western Europe, because of a lack of nearby uplands, lack of northern terrestrial source areas for these plants, and presence of the Turgai Straights barrier. -from Authors

Frederiksen, N. O.

1995-01-01

439

Crustal Thickness Beneath Ocean Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the thickness of the Earth's crust beneath about two dozen of the GDSN or GEOSCOPE stations located on ocean islands by stacking moveout-corrected high-quality P-to-S receiver functions (RFs). The RFs were filtered in the 0.05-0.5 Hz frequency bands to compress strong noises that are common for ocean island stations. Given the small (less than 2 s) time separation between the direct P and the P-to-S converted phase from the Moho, the PSmS phase, which has a negative polarity and can be clearly observed at almost all the stations, is used for the stacking. Preliminary resulting thickness at each of the stations is as follows: AFI (12.4 km), AIS (13.6), ASCN (9.6), BBSR (9.9), BORG (9.4), CRZF (6.6), GUMO (8.0), HNR (8.0), HOPE (19.0), KIP (13.0), MSEY (10.7), MSVF (15.1), NOUC (15.1), PAF (8.9), POHA (17.0), PPT (12.3), PTCN (10.4), RAR (12.8), RER (13.8), RPN (9.3), SEY (14.9), SHEL (17.5), TBT (14.1), XMAS (11.8). Crustal thickness at some of the stations has been measured previously, and our results are in general agreement with those measurements. Possible age-dependence of the resulting thickness and geological implications in the understanding of plume-lithosphere interactions and formation of ocean islands will be presented.

Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Cullers, R. L.

2005-12-01

440

Energizing the Island Community: A Review of Policy Standpoints for Renewable Energy in Small Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines public policy towards energy production in small islands. It provides an overview of social and economic obstacles and opportunities affecting the supply of energy. On the whole, small islands tend to have better sources of renewable energy and fewer sources of fossil fuels. Islands tend to rely heavily on imported fossil fuels to generate electricity. Energy production

E. Kathy Stuart