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1

High levels of genetic subdivision in peripherally isolated populations of the atherinid fish Craterocephalus capreoli in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atherinid fish Craterocephalus capreoli Rendahl is abundant in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, 70 km off the Western Australia coast and ?250 km south of the southern limit of the range of the species along the mainland. Electrophoretic examination of 7 allozyme loci at 17 sites in the Houtman Abrolhos revealed a substantially lower level of polymorphism than found in

M. S. Johnson; R. J. Watts; R. Black

1994-01-01

2

Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

1990-05-01

3

Associations with habitat versus geographic cohesiveness: size and shape of Bembicium vittatum Philippi (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, the direct-developing littorine snail Bembicium vittatum occupies a wide range of habitats, which are replicated across the three major groups of islands. Earlier studies showed that allozyme similarities followed patterns related to gene flow, independent of habitat, providing an excellent opportunity to test for associations with habitat for traits more likely to be

MICHAEL S JOHNSON; ROBERT BLACK

2000-01-01

4

Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900–2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. Conclusions/ Significance In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008–2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ?12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ?50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900–2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution. PMID:22952797

Abdo, David A.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.

2012-01-01

5

Upwelling processes along a western boundary current in the Abrolhos-Campos region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upwelling events observed from the years 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Our focus was on the Abrolhos-Campos region (ACR, 15°S-23°S), which is located along the Brazilian Margin and influenced by a western boundary current, the Brazil Current (BC). Satellite sea surface temperature, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) wind data were used to complement the results of a high-resolution regional oceanic model to investigate the occurrence of and the mechanisms responsible for intense upwelling events in this region. These events were more frequent from 20°S to 23°S. Over 90% of the identified upwelling events were influenced by favorable wind stress. Surface Ekman transport was found to be more important for the region from Prado (17°S) to Marataízes (21°S), whereas upward Ekman pumping played a more important role from 22°S to 23°S. Current-driven upwelling processes associated with the location of the BC as well as its velocity and meso-scale activity were also analyzed. The results showed that these mechanisms are highly influenced by the local topography. Topographic effects exerted via the acceleration of the BC are more obvious in the southern ACR, while in the Prado region, BC cyclonic meanders tend to be more relevant. Moreover, eddy-driven upwelling increases in the southward direction after the passage of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (20°S), an important submarine chain, which acts to constrain and modulate the southward flow of the BC.

Aguiar, A. L.; Cirano, M.; Pereira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.

2014-08-01

6

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

7

REVIEW Open Access Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far? Amélie. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion

Boyer, Edmond

8

Residual circulation in western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current, salinity and temperature measurements from repeated ship transects, complemented by observations from long duration current profilers, are used to characterize the variability and structure of subtidal flow in western Long Island Sound, a region prone to seasonal hypoxia. Subtidal flow plays a leading role in the transport of oxygen and organic matter and must, therefore, be simulated as accurately as possible. We show that during periods of light wind in March and July, the subtidal along-sound flow is vertically and horizontally sheared with lower salinity water in the top 7 m moving eastward toward the ocean at approximately 10 cm s-1 with a counterflow of similar magnitude elsewhere. Velocity contours were found to slope downward to the south, and maximum eastward velocities were found near the surface on the southern half of the section. We find that there is a net transport in the direction of the East River (westward.) The velocity distribution is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions for the steady, frictional, baroclinic pressure gradient driven flow modified by Coriolis acceleration, despite its neglect of advective effects which were found to be important in the present observational analysis. Our estimates of the pressure gradient, the Coriolis acceleration and stress divergence have similar magnitudes. Observation-based estimates of terms in the momentum balance suggest that advection is more important to along-estuary momentum than across-estuary momentum. Along-estuary advection is overestimated in recent hydrodynamic simulations when compared to observed values at sampling locations.

Fribance, Diane Bennett; O'Donnell, James; Houk, Adam

2013-09-01

9

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

10

Subtidal Variability of Dissolved Oxygen in Western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of the subtidal budget of dissolved oxygen in estuaries is developed and applied to observations in western Long Island Sound. The goal is to analyze the causes of hypoxia and develop a predictive capability for its onset and duration by estimating mixing coefficients and comparing simple models of their temporal variability. A single-segment lower-layer box-model for western

P. S. Gay; J. O'Donnell

2008-01-01

11

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

12

Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

1994-01-01

13

A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

2003-01-01

14

78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 0648-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries...Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...the Pacific Remote Island Areas, American...American Samoa, and Western Pacific Pelagics...Northern Mariana Islands, Fisheries, Guam...FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 0 1....

2013-02-21

15

Unforeseen effects of ecosystem restoration on yellow-legged gulls in a small western Mediterranean island  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A conservation project aimed at ecosystem restoration had several unforeseen effects on a colony of the yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis in a small western Mediterranean island (Benidorm Island). The project included regulation of massive tourist visits to help restore the soil and autochthonous vegetation. However, gulls habituated rapidly to regulation of tourist activities, as nests located either close to

A. MARTÍNEZ-ABRAÍN; B. SARZO; E. VILLUENDAS; M. A. BARTOLOMÉ; E. MÍNGUEZ; D. ORO

2004-01-01

16

Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; Dewitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

2011-01-01

17

Influence of seismic surveys on western gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) aggregate off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia during summer-autumn to feed on benthic and near-benthic prey. During summer 2001, 3D seismic surveys were conducted during a six-week period in known gray whale foraging areas off Sakhalin Island. To test the hypothesis that the distribution of gray whales on the feeding ground would shift

DAVID W. WELLER; YULIA V. IVASHCHENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

18

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine

Enrique Serrano; Jerónimo López-Mart??nez

2000-01-01

19

The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull, western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The afforestation of previously open habitats continues to involve conservation organizations in assessing effects on important species. We investigated the effects of commercial afforestation on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos on the island of Mull, western Scotland, using long-term data on eagle reproductive success and occupancy on 30 home ranges, largely during 1981-99. 2. We modelled home range parameters

D. Philip Whitfield; David R. A. McLeod; Alan H. Fielding; Roger A. Broad; Richard J. Evans; Paul F. Haworth

2001-01-01

20

Status of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative Russia-U.S. research program on western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) summering off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, has been ongoing since 1995 and has produced important new information on the present day conservation status of this critically endangered population. This paper reviews findings from 2007 research activities and combines such with data from previous years, in some cases ranging back

DAVID W. WELLER; AMANDA L. BRADFORD; AIMÉE R. LANG; HYUN WOO KIM; MAXIM SIDORENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

21

Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

2013-01-01

22

78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing...Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Western Pacific Fishery Management...PDF file formats only. The Western Pacific Fishery...

2013-02-01

23

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine rock glaciers and eleven protalus lobes have been identified. All of them are located in recently deglaciated zones between 300 m a.s.l. and sea level and they cover an area of 497×103 m 2. Tongue-shaped rock glaciers are more common than lobate types, being in general of medium and small sizes. They are talus rock glaciers (55%) and debris rock glaciers (45%), according to the genetic classification. The lack of a preferred orientation suggests that there is no significant microclimate control on their distribution. They are related to particular morphodynamic situations. Estimated annual velocities, based on relationships with raised beaches and transported debris volumes, range between 2.4 and 97 cm year -1, within the ranges reported for other rock glaciers. Three groups of rock glaciers can be recognised: (a) those immediate postdating the last major ice recession, (b) rock glaciers younger than 2000 years BP but pre-dating the Little Ice Age (LIA), and (c) rock glaciers formed during the LIA.

Serrano, Enrique; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

2000-10-01

24

Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

2012-10-01

25

Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August’ September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered\\u000a western gray whale

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. Nielson; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

26

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of\\u000a the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; S. K. Meier; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. M. Nielson; V. L. Vladimirov; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

27

78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA98 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments...permits and complete logbook reports to fish in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...

2013-07-02

28

Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located in the vicinity of the seismic survey. This paper presents data to assess whether western gray whale bottom feeding activity, as indicated by visible mud plumes, was affected by seismic operations. The mitigation and monitoring program associated with the seismic survey included aerial surveys during 19 July-19 November 2001. These aerial surveys documented the local and regional distribution, abundance, and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales. Data on gray whale feeding activity before, during and after the seismic survey were collected, with the whales assumed to be feeding on the benthos if mud plumes were observed on the surface. The data were used to assess the influence of seismic survey and other factors (including environmental) on feeding activity of western gray whales. A stepwise multiple regression analysis failed to find a statistically significant effect (alpha = 0.05) of the seismic survey on frequency of occurrence of mud plumes of western gray whales used as a proxy to evaluate bottom feeding activity in Piltun feeding area. The regression indicated that transect number (a proxy for water depth, related to distance from shore) and swell height (a proxy for sea state) were the only variables that had a significant effect on frequency of whale mud plumes. It is concluded that the 2001 seismic survey had no measurable effect (alpha = 0.05) on bottom feeding activity of western gray whales off Sakhalin Island. PMID:17680334

Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R; Wainwright, P W

2007-11-01

29

Influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies on zooplankton distribution south of the western Aleutian Islands during summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed south of the Aleutian Islands located between the Bering Sea and the subarctic Pacific. Eddies farther east, in the Gulf of Alaska, are known to transport coastal water and coastal zooplankton to offshore open ocean. The impacts of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed south of the western Aleutian Islands (Aleutian eddies) on the zooplankton community are not fully understood. In the present study, we describe zooplankton population structures within an Aleutian eddy and outside the eddy during July 2010. Our field study was conducted at seven stations along 51°15?N from 171°21?E to 174°38?E (western line) and at four stations along 50°40?N from 176°24?E to 178°44?E (eastern line) on 7-8 July 2010. At each station, environmental data (temperature, salinity and fluorescence were measured by CTD/XCTD. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tow of 150 m depth to the surface using 100 ?m mesh size plankton net. Based on the sea level anomaly (SLA), the western line crossed an anticyclonic eddy but the eastern line did not cross the eddy (Fig. 1). This Aleutian eddy was formed south of Attu Island (52°54?N, 172°54?E) in mid-February 2010, and it moved southeastward in the next five months. The SLA near the eddy center, representing the strength of the eddy, continuously increased, and the area oscillated at one to two month periods overlain on a general increase from ~7,000 to ~18,000 km2. Large oceanic copepods, Neocalanus cristatus, Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica were more abundant inside the eddy than the outside. Inside the eddy, the life stage distribution of N. cristatus was advanced than that outside, and Neocalanus spp. had accumulated more lipids. These conditions probably reflect the greater primary production in the eddy, production enhanced by nutrients advected into the eddy. Since the Aleutian eddy was formed in offshore waters and/or eddy-eddy interaction occurred after its formation, it contained mostly oceanic copepods. The sufficient food condition in the eddy presumably induced higher growth and survival rates of these oceanic copepods, resulting in the greater abundance, advanced development stages and greater lipid accumulation. Fig. 1. Sea level anomaly along the sampling lines on 7 July 2010 south of the western Aleutian Islands.

Saito, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yasuda, I.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Imai, I.

2013-12-01

30

The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

2012-07-01

31

The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

2012-01-01

32

Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (?70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

2014-05-01

33

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

2013-01-01

34

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 ?S/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 ?S/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly affected by tide. Transmissivity was estimated using transmissivity (T) ~ specific capacity (Q/s) relationsip: T = 0.99(Q/s)0.89/ proposed by Hamm et al. (2005). T estimates ranged from 21.9 to 2664.3m2/d, and Q/s estimates ranged from 32.4 to 7,143m2/d. The average drawdown is 12.9 m, between 0.1 and 40 m, presenting a wide variation of drawdown on different monitoring wells. From drill data, geophysical logs, and pumping tests, it is concluded that main aquifers develops in jointed parts in lava sequence, especially hyaloclastic breccia, and gravels and unconsolidated sands in Seoguipo Formation. Keywords: transmissivity, specific capacity, geophygical log, pumping test, Jeju volcainc Island Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3-4-3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center) and by the 2nd stage of the BK21 Project, Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

2008-12-01

35

Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

1999-10-01

36

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003.  

PubMed

In 2001-2003, >60,000 km of aerial surveys and 7,700 km of vessel surveys were conducted during June to November when critically endangered Korean-Okhotsk or western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were present off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Results of surveys in all years indicated gray whales occurred in predominantly two areas, (1) adjacent to Piltun Bay, and (2) offshore from Chayvo Bay, hereafter referred to as the Piltun and offshore feeding areas. In the Piltun feeding area, the majority of whales were observed in waters shallower than 20 m and were distributed from several hundred meters to approximately 5 km from the shoreline. In the offshore feeding area during all years, the distribution of gray whales extended from southwest to northeast in waters 30-65 m in depth. During all years, the distribution and abundance of whales changed in both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas, and both north-south and inshore-offshore movements were documented within and between feeding seasons. The discovery of a significant number of whales feeding in the offshore area each year was a substantial finding of this study and raises questions regarding western gray whale abundance and population levels, feeding behavior and ecology, and individual site-fidelity. Fluctuations in the number of whales observed within the Piltun and offshore feeding areas and few sightings outside of these two areas indicate that gray whales move between the Piltun and offshore feeding areas during their summer-fall feeding season. Seasonal shifts in the distribution and abundance of gray whales between and within both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas are thought, in part, to be a response to seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of prey. However, the mechanism driving the movements of whales along the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island is likely very complex and influenced by a multitude of factors. PMID:17703367

Meier, S K; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Wainwright, P; Maminov, M K; Yakovlev, Y M; Newcomer, M W

2007-11-01

37

Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Nio/La Nia transitions  

E-print Network

Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña: Gierach, M. M., M. Messié, T. Lee, K. B. Karnauskas, and M.-H. Radenac (2013), Biophysical responses near

Karnauskas, Kristopher

38

Dry climate near the Western Pacific Warm Pool: Pleistocene caliches of the Nansha Islands, South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nansha (Spratly) Islands are located in the middle of the South China Sea (at about 10°N) near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). A borehole was drilled at an atoll at Nansha, and cores were taken. The upper 165.4 m of the borehole consists entirely of limestone of reef facies and lagoon facies, which had

Shou-Yeh Gong; Horng-Sheng Mii; Kuo-Yen Wei; Chorng-Sherng Horng; Chen-Feng You; Fu-Wen Huang; Wen-Rong Chi; Tzen-Fu Yui; Pei-Keng Torng; Shieu-Tsann Huang; Shih-Wei Wang; Jong-Chang Wu; Kenn-Ming Yang

2005-01-01

39

The potential for long-term persistence of forest fragments on Tongatapu, a large island in western  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim We describe compositional variation among forest fragments on Tongatapu in terms of successional status and site conditions. We then examine two factors that directly influence the potential for long-term persistence of these fragments - tree regeneration and alien invasion. Location Tongatapu is the largest (261 km2), most densely inhabited (population 67,000) island in the Kingdom of Tonga, western Polynesia.

Susan K. Wiser; Donald R. Drake; Larry E. Burrows; William R. Sykes

2002-01-01

40

Late Wisconsinan glaciation and postglacial relative sea-level change on western Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study revises the maximum extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) during the last glaciation and documents subsequent ice sheet retreat and glacioisostatic adjustments across western Banks Island. New geomorphological mapping and maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages indicate that the northwest LIS inundated western Banks Island after ~ 31 14C ka BP and reached a terminal ice margin west of the present coastline. The onset of deglaciation and the age of the marine limit (22-40 m asl) are unresolved. Ice sheet retreat across western Banks Island was characterized by the withdrawal of a thin, cold-based ice margin that reached the central interior of the island by ~ 14 cal ka BP. The elevation of the marine limit is greater than previously recognized and consistent with greater glacioisostatic crustal unloading by a more expansive LIS. These results complement emerging bathymetric observations from the Arctic Ocean, which indicate glacial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to depths of up to 450 m.

Lakeman, Thomas R.; England, John H.

2013-07-01

41

Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

2014-01-01

42

Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

43

Seismic Observations of Westdahl volcano and Western Unimak Island Alaska: 1999-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westdahl volcano is a large basaltic shield volcano on the western end of Unimak Island Alaska in the Aleutian Island Arc. The volcano is topped by three separate vents, Pogromni Volcano, Faris Peak, and Westdahl Peak. The volcano is frequently active with known eruptions from Westdahl Peak in 1964, 1978, and 1991-92 that produced large basaltic lava flows. InSAR measurements indicate that Westdahl Volcano has been inflating at a slowly declining rate since 1992 (Lu et al., 2003). The Alaska Volcano Observatory has operated a network of six short-period seismometers on Westdahl Peak since 1998. Complementing this network are similar networks centered on Shishaldin and Akutan Volcanoes. Since 1999 more than 300 earthquakes have been located within 20 km of Westdahl Volcano. A volcano specific velocity model was determined for the western half of Uminak Island by simultaneously inverting for the velocity model and hypocentral earthquake locations using the program VELEST. Earthquakes located with the new model reveal five clusters of hypocenters: (a) a shallow cluster beneath Westdahl Peak, that largely occurred during a 24-hour period on January 7, 2004, (b) a concentration of 68 earthquakes with hypocenters ranging in depth from zero to eight km beneath Faris Peak occurring continually since 1999, (c) a diffuse cluster of long-period events northwest of Westdahl and Faris Peaks, (d) a cluster of 12 earthquakes near Pinnacle Rock, 12 km southwest of Westdahl Peak in October 2003, and (e) a cluster of 43 hypocenters near Unimak Bight, 20 km east of Westdahl Peak, that occurred between January and April 2004. Focal mechanisms were derived for four earthquakes in the Faris Peak cluster and four additional earthquakes that locate off the volcanic edifice (the four mechanisms are in the Pinnacle Rock cluster, the Unimak Bight cluster, and 20 km southeast and 30 km northeast of the volcano). Focal mechanisms in the Faris Peak cluster showed normal faulting with nodal planes trending north-south to northwest-southeast. Mechanisms of the off-volcano earthquakes are generally characterized by normal faulting with nodal planes trending southwest-northeast. These events are consistent with a stress field dominated by the Aleutian subduction zone. The Faris Peak mechanisms are not consistent with the presumed regional stress field and may reflect volcanic process. Lu et al., (2003) proposed the observed inflation of Westdahl Volcano resulted from a slowly pressurizing magma source at 6 km depth beneath Westdahl Peak. The observed seismicity is consistent with this model. Lu, Z., T. Masterlark, D. Dzurisin, and R. Rykhus, 2003, Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2354, doi:10.1029/2002JB002311, 2003.

Dixon, J. P.; Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.

2005-12-01

44

New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic singularities of the sponge fauna occurring in these deep-shelf bottoms strongly suggest these habitats to be considered within the environmental protection of the Nature 2000 Network. PMID:24870077

Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

2014-01-01

45

Implications of urbanization for artisanal parrotfish fisheries in the Western Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Increasing migration into urbanized centers in the Solomon Islands poses a great threat to adjacent coral reef fisheries because of negative effects on the fisheries and because it further erodes customary management systems. Parrotfish fisheries are of particular importance because the feeding habits of parrotfish (scrape and excavate coral) are thought to be critical to the resilience of coral reefs and to maintaining coral reef health within marine protected areas. We investigated the ecological impact of localized subsistence and artisanal fishing pressure on parrotfish fisheries in Gizo Town, Western Solomon Islands, by analyzing the density and size distribution of parrotfish with an underwater visual census (UVC), recall diary (i.e., interviews with fishers), and creel surveys to independently assess changes in abundance and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) over 2 years. We then compared parrotfish data from Gizo Town with equivalent data from sites open to and closed to fishing in Kida and Nusa Hope villages, which have different customary management regimes. Results indicated a gradient of customary management effectiveness. Parrotfish abundance was greater in customary management areas closed to fishing, especially with regard to larger fish sizes, than in areas open to fishing. The decline in parrotfish abundance from 2004 to 2005 in Gizo was roughly the same magnitude as the difference in abundance decline between inside and outside customary management marine reserves. Our results highlight how weak forms of customary management can result in the rapid decline of vulnerable fisheries around urbanized regions, and we present examples in which working customary management systems (Kinda and Nusa Hope) can positively affect the conservation of parrotfish--and reef fisheries in general--in the highly biodiverse Coral Triangle region. PMID:19961509

Aswani, Shankar; Sabetian, Armagan

2010-04-01

46

Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

Kaler, Robb S. A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

2014-01-01

47

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located adjacent to the seismic block. The data presented here were collected as part of daily monitoring to determine if there was any measurable effect of the seismic survey on the distribution and abundance of western gray whales. Mitigation and monitoring program included aerial surveys conducted between 19 July and 19 November using the methodology outlined by the Southern California High Energy Seismic Survey team (HESS). These surveys provided documentation of the distribution, abundance and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales in relation to seismic survey sounds. From an operations perspective, the aerial surveys provided near real-time data on the location of whales in and outside the feeding area, and documented whether whales were displaced out of an area normally used as feeding habitat. The objectives of this study were to assess (a) temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of gray whales in relation to seismic survey, and (b) the influence of seismic survey, environmental factors, and other variables on the distribution and abundance of gray whales within their preferred feeding area adjacent to Piltun Bay. Multiple regression analysis revealed a limited redistribution of gray whales southward within the Piltun feeding area when the seismic survey was fully operational. A total of five environmental and other variables unrelated to seismic survey (date and proxies of depth, sea state and visibility) and one seismic survey-related variable (seg3d, i.e., received sound energy accumulated over 3 days) had statistically significant effects on the distribution and abundance of gray whales. The distribution of two to four gray whales observed on the surface (i.e., about five to ten whales in total) has likely been affected by the seismic survey. However, the total number of gray whales observed within the Piltun feeding area remained stable during the seismic survey. PMID:17899420

Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R M; Vladimirov, V L; Wainwright, P W

2007-11-01

48

Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ?30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (?30,000–26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and

Thomas A. Ager

2003-01-01

49

Silvae Genetica 57, 6 (2008) 357 Pinus canariensis is endemic to the western Canary Islands  

E-print Network

Islands (NW coast of Africa), where it forms forest spanning an altitude from 500 to 2500 m distances due to this elevation gradient in the Canary Island pine forest. Those differences transects on the southern slopes of Tenerife Island to test for genetic isolation among altitudes. Although

Boyer, Edmond

50

Plankton and seston size spectra estimated by the LOPC and ZooScan in the Abrolhos Bank ecosystem (SE Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass size spectrum provides valuable information about the functioning of plankton systems. We evaluated hydrographic and bathymetric influences on biomass size spectra and on vertical distributions of plankton and seston above the Abrolhos Bank and in adjacent oceanic areas off Eastern Brazil. We used both in situ Laser Optical Particle Counter (LOPC) and preserved plankton samples analyzed with a ZooScan system to determine seston and plankton abundances, size distributions, and biomasses. Shelf stations, including those on the Abrolhos Bank, had higher particle concentrations and mesozooplankton biomasses than the vertically stratified oceanic stations. The latter were influenced by cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) below the mixed layer, particularly toward the south of the study area. Small particles (<1 mm) were more abundant above and within the pycnocline, whereas large particles (>1 mm) had a more heterogeneous vertical distribution, but were more abundant above the pycnocline, especially at the oceanic stations. Calanoid copepods usually dominated the mesozooplankton biomass spectra, but were accompanied by cyclopoids, appendicularians, and ostracods, the latter being particularly abundant during nighttime stations on the Abrolhos Bank. Both LOPC and ZooScan data showed significant differences in NBSS slopes and intercepts between shelf and oceanic stations. The higher intercepts and steeper slopes over the shelf are characteristic of higher productivity. The shallower slopes and presence of more biomass in larger particles indicate a more important contribution of large organisms and higher energy transfer efficiencies at the open ocean stations. Our results highlight the importance of the Abrolhos Bank for pelagic production in an otherwise oligotrophic ocean.

Marcolin, Catarina da Rocha; Schultes, Sabine; Jackson, George A.; Lopes, Rubens M.

2013-11-01

51

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1  

PubMed Central

A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

52

Seasonal and annual variation in body condition of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western gray whale population (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered and its potential for recovery is uncertain. Along with other natural and anthropogenic threats, western gray whales are susceptible to nutritional stress, known from regular observations of individual whales in compromised body condition. Thus, the ability to visually quantify the relative body condition of free-ranging western gray whales and evaluate

Amanda L. Bradford; David W. Weller; Yulia V. Ivashchenko; Alexander M. Burdin; Robert L. Brownell

53

Characterization of the seismogenic process in the Aleutian island arc: III. Earthquakes at the western and eastern margins of the arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes, as well as their relations to the characteristics of seismicity and geological structure are analyzed in the regions of the Komandorskie Islands in the west of the Aleutian arc, the Fox Islands, and the Alaska Peninsula coast in the east of the arc. Different types of ruptures are revealed in the western and eastern parts of the Aleutian arc. The leading type of ruptures at the southern slope of the Komandorskie Islands is steep reverse faults crossing the arc at azimuths from submeridional to northeastern. A similar type of rupture occurs in abundance on the Rat Islands and is predominant on the Near Islands. Steep strike-slips with small components of the normal or reverse fault manifest themselves at the northern side of the block uplift of the Komandorskie Islands. Seismogenic ruptures in the region of the Komandorskie Islands do not contradict geological data on the rupture tectonics on Medny and Bering islands. At the southern slope of the Fox Islands, as well as in the Andreanof Islands, steep reverse faults striking longitudinally (along the arc) with the dip toward the deep-sea trench are the predominant type of seismogenic ruptures. This type of seismogenic ruptures is the leading type for the structures of island arcs with present-day volcanism; an example is the Kurile-Kamchatka island. Different types of predominant seismogenic ruptures in the western and eastern parts of the Aleutian island arc probably reflect different stages of the tectonic development of these regions of the arc. Possible positions and sizes of sources of the largest historical earthquakes in the eastern part of the Aleutian island arc are considered

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-04-01

54

Transport of terrestrially-derived nutrients across the continental shelf of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, Anvers Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary productivity in the waters offshore of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) accounts for a large portion of the global oceans' CO2 drawdown, but is limited by the amount of bio-available iron (Fe) in surface waters and the duration of exposure to sunlight. The mechanisms that supply Fe to surface waters off the coast of the WAP play a key role in the global climate system by fueling primary production in this vast and ecologically important environment. To date, the Antarctic continent remains an important, yet unquantified source of nutrients to the waters offshore of the WAP. During the 2012-2013 austral summer, seawater samples were collected along the WAP offshore of Anvers Island to investigate the source and mixing of water masses across the continental shelf. We evaluated the transport of Fe- and macro-nutrient rich waters derived from the Antarctic continent along and across the continental shelf of the WAP using radon (222Rn) and radium isotopes (223,224Ra). Offshore surface waters were elevated in radon and short-lived radium isotopes relative to shelf waters closer to shore, suggesting longshore rather than shore-normal processes dominate water mass transport on the continental shelf near Anvers Island. These water column features suggest that the Antarctic Peninsula Coastal Current possibly influences circulation patterns offshore of Anvers Island. These findings about water mass characteristics near Anvers Island provide insight to understanding transport of terrestrially-derived nutrients to offshore waters that may stimulate productivity.

Crenshaw, J.; Corbett, D. R.; Walsh, J. P.; Null, K.; Peterson, L.; Hawkins, D.; Peterson, R. N.; Viso, R. F.; Lyons, W. B.; Sybert, D.

2013-12-01

55

Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of suprabenthic fauna in the NW Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope (? 13C and ? 15N) analyses were performed on suprabenthic fauna collected in the western Mediterranean (NW Balearic Islands), at depths ranging between 350 and 780 m. Samples were collected seasonally at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004, using a Macer-GIROQ suprabenthic sledge (0.5 mm mesh size). Twenty-four separate species (5 mysids, 12 amphipods, 2 cumaceans, 2 isopods, 1 euphausiid, 1 decapod and 1 fish) and bulk copepods were analyzed on a seasonal basis for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (? 15N) ranged from 2.3‰ (the amphipod Lepechinella manco in September 2003) to 13.0‰ (the amphipod Rhachotropis caeca in August 2003). ? 13C values ranged from - 24.2 (the cumacean Campylaspis sulcata in June 2004) to - 16.1 (the amphipod Bruzelia typica in November 2006). Both ? 13C and ? 15N values suggest that there are three trophic levels within the suprabenthic community. However, considering the bathymetric range of the species, the results suggest that the deepest assemblage supported only two trophic levels. The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values and confirmed a wide spectrum of feeding types (from filter-feeders to predators). In general, and in spite of the poor knowledge about diets available for most suprabenthic species, higher ? 15N were found for carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods. Low overlap for ? 13C and ? 15N values was observed, though ? 15N values where less variable than ? 13C, which suggests high resource partitioning in this assemblage. Seasonal variations in isotopic composition for both ? 13C and ? 15N were low (less than 1‰ and 3‰, respectively) and variable depending on species. Low correlations between ? 13C and ? 15N of suprabenthic fauna were found for all periods studied, though increasing from February 2004 to June 2004 (after the main peak of primary production in surface). C:N ratio (indicator of lipid content) showed higher values in summer than in winter. This suggests that lipid content may explain the seasonal patterns of ? 13C variability and, due to the increase of storage products in phytoplankton and zooplankton, it possibly indicates the peak of primary production at the surface.

Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.

56

Seismic stratigraphy and structure of the Barter Island sector of the Western Beaufort Sea  

E-print Network

the Nackenzie River Delta to Point Barrow, Alaska (Fig. 1). This area was divided into two regions of contrasting geologic structure and generally distinctive geology, the Barrow sector in the west and the Barter Island sector in the east (Grantz et al... coverage in the Barter Island sector was very limited, east- northeast striking folds were found to dominate the structure in the region (Grantz et al. , 1974). Multichannel seismic data have been gathered in the region by the U. S. Geological Survey...

Coffman, Jeffrey Dale

2012-06-07

57

Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compositional variations and differential diagenesis in Miocene turbidites from the western coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) Sonja Felder (1), Hildegard Westphal (1), Axel Munnecke (2), Guillem Mateu Vicens (1,3) (1) MARUM and Department of Geosciences, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen, Germany (2) GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Loewenichstr. 28, 91054 Erlangen, Germany (3) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Ple Aldo 7 Moro, 5. I-00185 Roma, Italy Cyclic alternations of limestone and marl beds crop out along the western coast of the Island of Mallorca. This Miocene succession is traditionally interpreted to represent more weathering-resistant turbidites interlayered by softer hemipelagic background sediment. However, the cementation patterns that dominate the appearance of the outcrop do not always consistently follow sedimentary layering; locally the cemented beds are systematically oblique to the sedimentary layers. Compositional studies demonstrate that differences in non-carbonate fraction, carbonate concentration and fossil content (e.g. foraminiferal assemblages) trace sedimentary bedding, regardless the diagenetic style. Limestone versus marl lithology, in contrast, is defined by the diagenetic style, tight cementation by calcite cements in the limestones versus low porosity and compaction in the marls. The reason for this striking pattern of diagenetic bedding cross-cutting sedimentary layers is assumed to be related to tectonic fracturing, opening pathways for diagenetic fluids. This example cautions the straight-forward interpretation of limestone-marl alternations as direct witnesses of environmental or climatic variations.

Felder, Sonja; Westphal, Hildegard; Munnecke, Axel; Mateu Vicens, Guillem

2010-05-01

58

Characterization of submarine glacial landforms and lowstand fluvial systems from western Campbell Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campbell Island is the southernmost of New Zealand’s subantarctic islands, located about 600 km south of the South Island at 52.33°S, 169.09°E. The volcanic strata of this remote, unpopulated ~113 km2 island are eroded by a series of steep-sided valleys that are assumed to be glacial in origin. This is evidenced by their U-shapes, ground moraine, and rocky hills along the sides of the valleys with roches-moutonées geometries. At least two of these valleys, Perseverance Harbour and Northeast Harbour, have basal levels that are beneath current sea level. This enables the investigation of the floors of these fiords with high-frequency marine seismic imaging techniques. Perseverance Harbour is ~9 km long with water depths of 35 to 45 m in the center. Northeast Harbour is ~3.5 km long with water depths of 15 to 25 m in the center. Sea level during the last glacial maximum is expected to have been ~120 m below the current level. The shoreline east of Campbell Island therefore would have been 6 - 10 km east of the present day coast. Water depths on this coast rapidly fall to 60 to 70 m and then follow a gentler gradient outward and beyond the inferred lowstand shoreline. Detailed investigations of seafloor features around Campbell Island are lacking. The relatively-shallow water depths on the leeward (east) side of Campbell Island provide an opportunity to examine the floors of the fiords and the adjacent shelf for evidence of glacial processes and associated sedimentation. Of particular interest are (1) determining the extent of past glacial cover on and around the island, and (2) observing glacial and periglacial erosional processes on the seafloor. In March 2009, a detailed high-frequency seismic survey was undertaken in Perseverance and Northeast Harbours and on the eastern shelf of the island. Data recorded included single-channel Chirp and electro-acoustic (boomer) sub-bottom imaging, and interferometric side scanning sonar (C3D). A network of ~42 lines was collected that provided full C3D bathymetric coverage of the seafloor within the harbours and good coverage on the shelf. Data were collected in water depths from <10 m in some parts of the harbours to >150 m on the eastern part of the shelf. Unusually calm and stable weather conditions resulted in ideal conditions for data collection; data quality is high. Boomer data successfully imaged the upper 20 to 60 m of sub-seafloor sediments and sedimentary rocks. Chirp data imaged a maximum of 20 m. Preliminary results suggest that terminal moraines co-incide with the mouths of Perseverance and Northeast Harbours. Present erosion and sediment transport off the island are expected to be minimal. This would suggest that glaciers did not extend out onto the present-day shelf of the island during the last glacial lowstand. Observations also support the existence of sub-aerially eroded channels on the eastern shelf of the island that appear to be sourced from glacial valleys onshore. Further investigations are required to link glacial and periglacial processes with the development of these channels.

Fraser, H. L.; Gorman, A. R.; Wilson, G. S.; Preskett, S.

2009-12-01

59

The Cephalonia Transform Fault and its extension to western Lefkada Island (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central area of the Ionian Islands is dominated by the existence of a major tectonic structure called the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF). Its main part (Cephalonia segment) has been identified by previous work based on the spatial distribution of earthquake foci, fault plane solutions of strong earthquakes, active tectonics, structural studies and geodetic measurements. This part (Cephalonia segment) which

E. Louvari; A. A Kiratzi; B. C Papazachos

1999-01-01

60

Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

1996-01-01

61

76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0999] RIN 1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western...NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display. This...to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters and to...zones. On May 10, 2012 New York Fun Factory Events is...

2011-12-12

62

Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

2008-12-01

63

The Effectiveness of an Established Sanctuary Zone for Reducing Human Disturbance to Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca Cinerea ) at Carnac Island, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the effectiveness of a recently established sanctuary zone on Carnac Island (Western Australia) in reducing human disturbances to Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea). Several methods of recording behaviors were also tested to clarify their adequacy for detecting human disturbances. Observations made between March 2005 and September 2006 (98 observations over 16 days) indi- cated that a wireless

Chandra Salgado P. Kent; Brett Crabtree

2008-01-01

64

User-driven science: earthquake and tsunami scenarios for the Mentawai Islands, western Sumatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following recovery from a large tsunami on 25-Oct-2010 that killed over 500 people, the government of the Mentawai Regency turned its attention to developing a regional disaster-risk-reduction plan. Geodetic and coral studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust, yet there had not been any tsunami-inundation maps produced for the Mentawai Islands based on this scenario. By request from the Mentawai government, we will develop such tsunami-inundation maps for populated areas. Uncertainties in the source models include whether the accumulated strain on the Sunda megathrust is released in one great earthquake or in a series of large earthquakes, limited scientific understanding of the seismic potential of the Mentawai backthrust that lies inboard (east) of the islands, and whether these sources would rupture to the surface in a particular earthquake. Low-resolution bathymetry adds uncertainty to our modeled tsunami flow depths and runups. Because the Mentawai government is currently planning for disaster risk reduction, we chose to produce the inundation map now. However, we may have a communication challenge if, a few years in the future, further research leads to significant revisions of the inundation map. We will communicate the results and uncertainty to the Mentawai government and partner local NGOs through an in-person workshop. Monitoring and evaluation will inform further communication efforts. However, the remote location of the Mentawai Islands and limited internet and phone service significantly limits our ability to communicate with end-users at the community level. Since our maps are likely to be parceled out and distributed to villages in hard copy, we need to include key information for each location, including uncertainty, on a single sheet. With local partners, we will investigate the best way to frame this information in the local context.

McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Qiang, Q.; Huang, Z.; Hill, E. M.; Natawidjaja, D.; Sieh, K. E.

2011-12-01

65

Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

2005-01-01

66

Petrochemistry, age and isotopic composition of alkali basalts from Ponape Island, Western Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven analyzed lava samples from Ponape Island are alkali olivine basalt, basanite and basanitoid. Most lavas are aphyric or sparsely phyric (< 10% phenocrysts) and have phenocrysts of olivine (Fo77-80), clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, and microphenocrysts of plagioclase (An53-68) in a fine-grained groundmass of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, opaques, potassic oligoclase, ?? nepheline and accessary phases. Oxygen isotope and Fe2O3 FeO data suggest that most samples are fresh, although H2O contents are high. Xenoliths of chromite-bearing harzburgites and dunites, both with cumulate textures occur in one locality. Major- and trace-element concentrations are similar to other oceanic volcanic islands. Most major elements and compatible trace elements vary systematically with respect to the Mg number [ 100Mg (Mg + Fe2+)]. In contrast, the incompatible trace elements do not correlate with the Mg number, but do covary with other incompatible elements. Simple closed-system shallow fractionation cannot be invoked to explain the observed chemical variation in the lavas. Derivation of the fractionated lavas (Mg number = 66-48) probably involved polybaric crystal fractionation from a high-Mg-number parental liquid. In addition, variable-source concentration of a trace-element-rich minor phase is postulated. However, the mantle was homogeneous with respect to the ratio of 87Sr 86Sr. New KAr age data are not consistent with the hypothesis that Ponape and the Caroline Ridge represent a simple "hot spot". ?? 1984.

Dixon, T.H.; Batiza, R.; Futa, K.; Martin, D.

1984-01-01

67

Calibrating and monitoring the western gray whale mitigation zone and estimating acoustic transmission during a 3D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

A 3D marine seismic survey of the Odoptu license area off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, was conducted by DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of Exxon Neftegas Limited and the Sakhalin-1 consortium during mid-August through early September 2001. The key environmental issue identified in an environmental impact assessment was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which spends the summer-fall open water period feeding off northeast Sakhalin Island in close proximity to the seismic survey area. Seismic mitigation and monitoring guidelines and recommendations were developed and implemented to reduce impacts on the feeding activity of western gray whales. Results of the acoustic monitoring program indicated that the noise monitoring and mitigation program was successful in reducing exposure of feeding western gray whales to seismic noise. PMID:17762974

Rutenko, A N; Borisov, S V; Gritsenko, A V; Jenkerson, M R

2007-11-01

68

Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land  

E-print Network

Palma, Canary Islands, from land magnetotelluric imaging X. Garcia1,2 and A. G. Jones1 Received 9 March wasting is a natural part of the evolution of volcanic islands, where deformation and indications of flank on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) provides an ideal setting to address fundamental questions about

Jones, Alan G.

69

Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

2014-10-01

70

Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation during 2009 - 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plate boundary along the southern margin of the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific, is characterized by convergent tectonic processes between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The horizontal convergence rate between two plates is 135 mm/yr in the direction of N45°E. In terms of the structure, this subduction zone is relatively complicated because large seamounts are involved in subduction of extremely young lithosphere generated by the Woodlark spreading system. Hence, the crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural model that constitutes and operates the entire subduction system. For the purpose of monitoring crustal motion, we began to deploy continuous mode GPS stations in September 2009. All of them have been working for 1-3 yr. The total horizontal rates are 95±1, 52±3, 78±7, 120±14, 114±7, and 114±7 mm/yr for Sibo, Nusu, Lale, Husu, Tepa, and Sege respectively. However, the moving directions are N23°E, N63°W, N10°W, N65°W, N63°W, and N69°W. During 2009, the uplift rates are -31±8 and 50±17 mm/yr for Sibo and Nusu, but during 2010, the rate are 2±2 and 13±9 mm/yr. The larger slips may cause of the postseismic deformation of 2007 Mw8.1 Solomon Earthquake. It also shows the large uplift rates on Husu (98±36 mm/yr), Tepa (60±11 mm/yr) and Sege (33±10 mm/yr) after the 2010 Mw7.1 Solomon Earthquake; however, it still needs longer measuring time to confirm the tectonic behavior.

Kuo, Y.; Lin, K.; Ku, C.; Taylor, F. W.; Chen, Y.; Huang, B.

2012-12-01

71

An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level. PMID:17456231

Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

2007-01-01

72

Petrogenesis of western Philippine island arc magmas: potential origin of the potassium-depth relationship  

SciTech Connect

Three geographic volcanic arcs have developed in western Luzon. The Philippines as a result of subduction associated with an eastward-dipping Benioff zone. Approximately 200 samples were collected and analyzed for major and various trace elements. In addition, 30 initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and a few /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios have been determined. Seventy-six conventional K/Ar radiometric dates have also been determined. Based on these data, several conclusions can be made: 1) Excellent linear correlations exist between SiO/sub 2/ and the incompatible elements. 2) Incompatible elements do not appear to have been affected by alteration or weathering; 3) Based on geophysical and geochemical evidence, assimilation and contamination have played an insignificant role in affecting original magma compositions; 4) It can be argued that the sources for these volcanics are enriched (metasomatized) mantle above the Benioff zone because the Bataan volcanics have apparently not been contaminated. Derivation of the Bataan volcanic rocks by different degrees of partial melting of the mantle can be ruled out. The mantle sources become increasingly more enriched in incompatible elements and radiogenic strontium away from the Manila Trench; 5) All three arcs have apparently undergone early, non-selective crystal fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and/or olivine; 6) The variations in slopes observed on potassium Harker diagrams between the arcs can be explained by a combination of original primary magma potassium variations between the arcs and the fractionation of similar phases within each arc.

Defant, M.J.; Ragland, P.C.; Odom, A.L.

1985-01-01

73

The BIG'95 event, Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea: numerical simulation of the possibly generated tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BIG'95 debris flow that occurred ~11 kyrs BP affected an area of about 2200 km2 of the Ebro margin, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The debris flow originated at the upper continental slope and involved a sediment volume of ~26 km3. After a total runout of 110 km the distalmost deposits resulting from this mass movement partly filled the upper course of the Valencia Channel at 2000 m depth. Multibeam bathymetry and backscatter maps, deep-towed side scan images, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, submarine video records, sedimentological and mass physical properties measurement on sediment cores, and in situ geotechnical tests constitute a valuable dataset providing the basis to model the landslide evolution. Different observational elements in this data set jointly with numerical modelling simulations suggest that the downslope mass movement was rather fast (i.e. peak velocities of 50 ms-1 and 20 ms-1 have been reported for the loose sediment fraction and individual blocks, respectively). It was subsequently inferred that the BIG'95 could have generated a tsunami potentially impacting the Balearic and the Spanish coasts. In this work we explore the tsunamigenic potential of the BIG'95 by applying numerical codes that have been developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team. The code UBO-BLOCK is used for the simulation of the slide motion on a Lagrangian grid moving along with the body: the mass is split into a set of interacting blocks, that conserve the volume but can change their shape. The movement of the mass on the sea bottom generates tsunami impulses that are calculated and interpolated on the static tsunami computational grid by the intermediate code UBO-TSUIMP. The tsunami propagation is computed via the code UBO-TSUFE, solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow water approximation on the computational domain, constituted by triangles whose dimension depends on the local sea depth. This work has been performed in the framework of the EU-funded project TRANSFER, dealing with the study of tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea, from the possible sources to the assessment of the risk along the coasts.

Tinti, S.; Canals, M.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Iglesias, O.; Lastras, G.

2009-04-01

74

Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The\\u000a area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and\\u000a proximity to the

Glenn Gailey; Bernd Würsig; Trent L. McDonald

2007-01-01

75

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135–780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between

J. E. Cartes; T. Madurell; E. Fanelli; J. L. López-Jurado

2008-01-01

76

PLATE TECTONIC HISTORY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE WESTERN TRANSVERSE RANGES AND NORTHERN CHANNEL ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Channel Islands occupy the southern edge of the Transverse Ranges block and thus the islands share and illuminate the history of this block. In the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, the Transverse Ranges block was oriented north-south, so that the Channel Islands probably lay near San Diego. The block occupied the forearc region of a subduction zone, collecting continental shelf

Tanya M. Atwater

77

Distribution of fallout and environmental radionuclides in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is progressing at a rate which is several times the global average in Western Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula region has experienced a rise of ca. 3°C for surface air temperature over the last 50 years; and 87% of 244 glaciers along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated in the last 50 years. Examining the impacts of climate change in Antarctic landscapes, in particular in the soils at the foot of retreating glaciers, can provide a better understanding of the future impacts of climate change on landscape dynamics (including land degradation and resulting changes in land, water and ecosystem quality) in the higher mountainous cold regions of the world. In this paper, results of an exploratory assessment of soil movement and identification of sediment sources and sediment sinks by investigating the distribution of fallout (FRN's) and environmental radionuclides (ERN's) in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica) are discussed. This assessment has been carried in the context of an Instituto Antártico Chileno project, and supported by the IAEA Technical Cooperation, studying land degradation in the cold regions of South America. To this purpose soil profiles were sampled at depth increments at three different control sites. In addition, topsoil (0-1 cm depth) samples were collected from areas identified as potential soil sources and from others identified as sinks of sediments. The soil profiles at the control sites showed distinctive patterns in the depth distribution of the FRN's and ERN's. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity mass concentration (Bq kg-1) were highest in the topsoil and penetration depth was less than 8 and 25 cm, respectively. The depth distribution of 226Ra and 232Th in the soil profiles was quite homogeneous and greater variation was found for 40K and 238U, possibly related to differences in the mineralogical composition of soils. Average mass activity values of 137Cs and 210Pbex at the source areas were significantly lower than those found at sink areas, suggesting that processes of soil movement are relatively important. The knowledge gained with this research provided baseline information to establish future sampling strategies intended to ensure minimal intervention in the environment. Furthermore, the values of the areal activity density (Bq m-2) of 137Cs, 210Pbex and 7Be in soils and sediments proved the potential for using FRN's to study the redistribution of soil and sediments associated to the process of glacier retreat.

Castillo, Alejandra; Schuller, Paulina; Dercon, Gerd; Nguyen, Minh-Long; Navas, Ana; Ramírez, Paola; López, César

2013-04-01

78

High Resolution Geophysical Survey of Western Long Island Sound Offshore New York: A Seafloor Morphology Shaped by Glacial Features, Tidal Currents, and Human Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound, near metropolitan New York, averages 16m in water depth, with elongated depressions up to 40m deep occurring around its axis. These depressions are currently interpreted as ancient drainage channels that were cut into lake deposits some 15,500 years ago, when glacial Lake Connecticut occupied the Long Island Sound estuary and completely drained away. In June 2006, as part of a geoscience educational project, we surveyed a 17km2 area of Long island Sound just off Stamford, CT, with the R/V HUGH SHARP, using its high resolution multibeam bathymetric sonar and a chirp seismic profiler that imaged the Holocene sedimentary strata. Preliminary analysis details fields of sand waves, scour marks, outcropping moraines, pipelines and other human artifacts. Together, this data suggest that the eastward deepening trough within the study area exposes a glacial-sculpted surface, and that tidal currents produce long E-W drift in the shadow of a shallow outcrops (possibly, some moraine block). This interpretation is consistent with that proposed by Poppe et al. [Geo-Marine Letters, 26, 59-68,2006] for Eastern Long Island Sound based on a similar high resolution survey, and may characterize most of Long Island Sound. Grain size analysis for 9 gravity cores collected within the survey area will test the energy of the current regime, and confirm (or not) this interpretation.

Vargas, W. I.; Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.

2007-05-01

79

A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess residual impacts. Aerial and vessel-based surveys determined the distribution of whales before, during and after the seismic survey. Daily aerial reconnaissance helped verify whale-free areas and select the sequence of seismic lines to be surveyed. A scout vessel with MMOs aboard was positioned 4 km shoreward of the active seismic vessel to provide better visual coverage of the 4-5 km buffer and to help define the inshore edge of the 4-5 km buffer. A second scout vessel remained near the seismic vessel. Shore-based observers determined whale numbers, distribution, and behavior during and after the seismic survey. Acoustic monitoring documented received sound levels near and in the main whale feeding area. Statistical analyses of aerial survey data indicated that about 5-10 gray whales moved away from waters near (inshore of) the seismic survey during seismic operations. They shifted into the core gray whale feeding area farther south, and the proportion of gray whales observed feeding did not change over the study period. Five shutdowns of the air guns were invoked for gray whales seen within or near the buffer. A previously unknown gray whale feeding area (the Offshore feeding area) was discovered south and offshore from the nearshore Piltun feeding area. The Offshore area has subsequently been shown to be used by feeding gray whales during several years when no anthropogenic activity occurred near the Piltun feeding area.Shore-based counts indicated that whales continued to feed inshore of the Odoptu block throughout the seismic survey, with no significant correlation between gray whale abundance and seismic activity. Average values of most behavioral parameters were similar to those without seismic surveys. Univariate analysis showed no correlation between seismic sound levels and any behavioral parameter. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after allowance for environmental covariates, 5 of 11 behavioral parameters were statistically correlated with estimated seismic survey-related variables; 6 of 11 behavioral parameters wer

Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

2007-11-01

80

Conservation significance of island versus mainland populations: a case study of dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis) in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations are an interesting dichotomy in conservation biology. On the one hand, they can be a refuge for species where mainland populations have been decimated by loss of habitat and predation by exotic predators. On the other hand, island populations usually have reduced genetic diversity and are more susceptible to extinction through genetic and demographic processes. Genetic variation and

Harriet R. Mills; Dorian Moro; Peter B. S. Spencer

2004-01-01

81

Evaluation of Spondylus gaederopus Linneo, 1758 mass mortality event in the Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve (Western Mediterranean, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve encircles a volcanic archipelago situated 30 nautical miles off the coast of Castelló, Spain. The Marine Reserve was created in 1990 and is managed by the Spanish Fishing Authority, Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima. The Columbretes Islands seafloor is constituted mainly by rocky substrate close to the main islets reaching down -50 m. Soft bottoms,

José Gutiérrez Abascal

82

Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

2014-05-01

83

Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island  

E-print Network

BRISBANE Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island Lady Musgrave Island Wilson Island Heron Island Great Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands

Wang, Yan

84

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

2011-01-01

85

Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers  

PubMed Central

The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Guth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

2013-01-01

86

Island shadow effects and the wave climate of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) inferred from altimetry and numerical model data.  

PubMed

To implement a numerical model of atoll lagoon circulation, we characterized first the significant wave height (Hs) regime of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago and the local attenuation due to the protection offered by large atolls in the south Tuamotu. Altimetry satellite data and a WAVEWATCH III two-way nested wave model at 5 km resolution from 2000 to 2010 were used. Correlation between altimetry and model was high (0.88) over the period. According to the wave model, the archipelago inner seas experienced attenuated Hs year-long with a yearly average Hs around 1.3m vs a minimum of 1.6m elsewhere. The island shadow effect is especially significant in the austral winter. In contrast with southern atolls, Western Tuamotu experienced only few days per year of Hs larger than 2.5m generated by very high Hs southern swell, transient western local storms, strong easterly winds, and during the passage of distant hurricanes. PMID:22795488

Andréfouët, Serge; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Queffeulou, Pierre; Le Gendre, Romain

2012-01-01

87

'Heaven' for serpents? A mark-recapture study of tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) on Carnac Island, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals resident on small islands provide excellent opportunities to carry out detailed mark- recapture studies. Populations are closed and ecosystems are often simpler than those of mainland sites. These factors enable the study of cryptic species that have otherwise been neglected. Snakes are notable for their secretive nature and, as a result, few natural populations have been accurately described through

Xavier Bonnet; David Pearson; Mitchell Ladyman; Olivier Lourdais; Don Bradshaw

2002-01-01

88

Effect of predation by the invasive crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on recruiting barnacles Semibalanus balanoides in western Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction fewer than 20 yr ago, the spread of the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus along the east coast of the US has been remarkable. By many accounts it is now the numerically dominant brachyuran in rocky intertidal sites in Long Island Sound. Evidence from several laboratory studies has suggested that H. sanguineus could have significant consequences for

Diane J. Brousseau; Ronald Goldberg

2007-01-01

89

A review on the effects of alien rodents in the Balearic (Western Mediterranean Sea) and Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions of alien rodents have shown to have devastating effects on insular ecosystems. Here we review the ecological impacts\\u000a of these species on the biodiversity of the Balearic and the Canary Islands. A total of seven species of introduced rodents\\u000a (two rats, three mice, one dormouse, and one squirrel) have been recorded (six in the Balearics and four in the

A. Traveset; M. Nogales; J. A. Alcover; J. D. Delgado; M. López-Darias; D. Godoy; J. M. Igual; P. Bover

2009-01-01

90

Radionuclide tracer profiles at the CESAR Ice Station and Canadian Ice Island in the western Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water column profiles of naturally-occurring (210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra) and fallout (137Cs, 239,240Pu radionuclides measured at the Canadian Ice Island in 1985, 1986 and 1989 over the Arctic Ocean continental shelf were compared to profiles measured at the CESAR ice station in the central Arctic Ocean in 1983. Cesium-137 concentrations at CESAR decreased from a mean value of 4.2 Bq\\/m3 in

J. N. Smith; K. M. Ellis

1995-01-01

91

Trace Elements in Three Marine Birds Breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian Ocean): Part 2—Factors Influencing Their Detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabird tissues collected between 2002 and 2004 from Barau’s Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon’s Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Trop icbird (Phaethon lepturus) colonies on Reunion Island were analyzed for metallothioneins (MTs) and trace element content. The subcellular distribution\\u000a between soluble and insoluble fractions of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn was determined in liver and kidney. In both,

J. Kojadinovic; P. Bustamante; M. Le Corre; R. P. Cosson

2007-01-01

92

Prey fish consumption by Double-crested Cormorants in western Lake Erie near West Sister Island, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives for this study were to: 1) determine the diet of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, hereafter: cormorants) in western Lake Erie; 2) to determine if yellow perch (Perca flavescens) or walleye (Sander vitreus) were a noteworthy prey item; and 3) to determine if the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) are consumed. Diet of cormorants was determined from stomach contents

Michael T. Bur; William H. Edwards; Patrick M. Kocovsky; Michael J. Porta; Martin A. Stapanian

93

VARIATION IN SUMMER DIET OF GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: AN ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), like other gulls, is an omnivorous opportunist. Although the literature contains numerous brief references to feeding habits, including discussions of feeding behavior (Moyle 1966) and selective predation (Mossman 1958) at Alaska salmon streams, no detailed analysis of diet has been published. I report here on 2319 regurgitated pellets examined at 4 locations in the western

JOHN L. TRAPP

1979-01-01

94

Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial history of the continental shelf northwest of Alexander Island is not well known, due mainly to a lack of targeted marine data on Antarctica's palaeo-ice sheets in their inter-ice-stream areas. Recently it has been argued that the region was ice-free at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and thus a potential site for glacial refugia. In this paper, multibeam swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores are used to map the Alexander Island sector of the Antarctic Peninsula margin, in order to reconstruct the shelf's palaeoglaciology. Sea-floor bedforms provide evidence that an independent ice cap persisted on Alexander Island through the LGM and deglaciation. We show that this ice cap drained via two major, previously-undescribed tidewater outlets (Rothschild and Charcot Glaciers) sourced from an ice dome centred over the west of the island and near-shore areas. The glaciers grounded along deep, fjord-like cross-shelf troughs to within at least ˜10-20 km of the shelf edge, and probably reached the shelf break. Only one small outer-shelf zone appears to have remained free of ice throughout an otherwise extensive LGM. During retreat, grounding-line geomorphology indicates periodic stabilisation of Charcot Glacier on the mid-shelf after 13,500 cal yrs BP, while Rothschild Glacier retreated across its mid-shelf by 14,450 cal yrs BP. The timing of these events is in phase with retreat in nearby Marguerite Trough, and we take this as evidence of a common history and forcing with the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. The fine details of ice flow documented by our new reconstruction highlight the importance of capturing complex ice flow patterns in models (e.g. in inter-stream areas), for understanding how region-specific parts of Antarctica may change in the future. Moreover, the reconstruction shows that glacial refugia, if present, cannot have been extensive on the Alexander Island shelf at the LGM as indicated by previous biological studies; instead, we argue that any ice-free refugia were probably restricted to isolated outer-shelf pockets, that opened, closed, or were maintained through diachronous ice-sheet advance and retreat.

Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.

2012-03-01

95

Holocene vegetation and land-use dynamics in the karstic environment of Inis O??rr, Aran Islands, western Ireland: pollen analytical evidence evaluated in light of the archaeological record  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed Holocene pollen record, elaborated in the project TIMECHS, is presented from An Loch Mór, a deep lake at the north-eastern end of Inis O??rr, Aran Islands, western Ireland. Woodland development in the early Holocene is broadly comparable, as regards the general sequence of tree spread and overall woodland composition, to that known from mainland sites in the nearby

Karen Molloy; Michael O’Connell

2004-01-01

96

Trace Elements in Three Marine Birds Breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian Ocean): Part 1—Factors Influencing Their Bioaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to use seabirds as bioindicators of trace element levels in the tropical waters and food webs of the Western\\u000a Indian Ocean. The accumulation patterns of selected toxic (Cd and Hg) and essential (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn) elements were\\u000a determined in liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle of 162 marine birds belonging to 3 species collected in

J. Kojadinovic; M. Le Corre; R. P. Cosson; P. Bustamante

2007-01-01

97

Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher ?13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed ?13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ?C7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2012-12-01

98

Re-interpretation of the age and environment of deposition of Paleogene turbidites in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Western Sunda Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbidites composed of sandstone-shale alternations on the Kalipur-Shibpur coast, North Andaman Island, classified under the Palaeocene-Eocene Mithakhari Group in several recent papers are identified as and compared with the type section of the Oligocene Andaman Flysch exposed at Corbyn's Cove, South Andaman Island. The Kalipur turbidites were interpreted as the inner fan and the latter as the distal mid fan facies of a forearc submarine fan. The turbidites of these two locations are separated by ˜250 km. Detailed studies concerning the identification and comparison, have however, revealed significant differences, and the turbidite outcrops are not continuous between these two localities. Turbidites at Kalipur-Shibpur and adjacent areas are part of a melange terrane, normally gritty and coarse grained, massive to locally graded bedded, calcareous, intercalated/interstratified with conglomerates and reefoidal limestones and show a framework composition varying from volcanolithic to lithic-poor arkosic sandstones, deposited in several isolated basins, fed by transverse supply of detritus from an accreted and uplifted ophiolite and arc massif. The Kalipur-Shibpur coast exposes marginally deformed, sandstone-dominated turbidites (coherent units) containing abundant ichnotraces, late Palaeocene foraminifera, and rip-up shale clasts, indicating deposition in shallow water accretionary slope basins. South of Kalipur, the Ramnagar coast exposes mud-rich turbidites showing accretion-related deformation. These deformed turbidites are interpreted as offscraped trench deposits. Further south, on the Rampur coast, turbidites intercalated with reefoidal limestones containing late Palaeocene foraminifera indicate deposition on the upper slope or on top of the accretionary slope basin. In contrast classical Bouma sequence-bearing sandstone-shale turbidites at Corbyn's Cove, are part of a continuous outcrop belt of siliciclastic turbidites, lack fossils, carbonate facies and conglomerates, and consist of compositionally uniform greywackes, deposited in an open deep sea fan, fed by axially transported detritus derived from the continental blocks of western Burma. These key differences together with previous mapping and stratigraphic studies confirm the incorrect identification of Andaman Flysch in North Andaman Island in recent papers. The turbidites of these two locations were neither produced by the same sediment gravity flows nor deposited in the same forearc fan during the Oligocene, instead, they were derived from different palaeographic domains, deposited in different tectonic and sedimentary environments and also at different times. This provides new insights into the Paleogene turbidite deposition in this part of Western Sunda Arc.

Bandopadhyay, P. C.

2012-02-01

99

Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral ?18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral ?18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana ?18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana ?18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

2012-12-01

100

Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water column, while postflexion stages presented a wide distribution at night, undergoing vertical displacement to the near-surface layers during the day. The roles of the position of the thermocline, the availability of food and light intensity as factors modulating these differences are discussed.

Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

2014-10-01

101

Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2010-12-01

102

Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher received sound energy exposure levels, whales traveled faster, changed directions of movement less, were recorded further from shore, and stayed under water longer between respirations. PMID:17616825

Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L

2007-11-01

103

Patterns of variability and gene flow in Medicago citrina, an endangered endemic of islands in the western Mediterranean, as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).  

PubMed

Medicago citrina is an endangered western Mediterranean endemic that grows only on small islets of the Balearic archipelago and off the eastern Spanish coast. Only 10 isolated subpopulations are currently known (four from Ibiza, three from Cabrera, two from Columbretes and one from an offshore islet in northern Alicante province), constituting a severely fragmented genetic system. Data were analysed with the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinates analysis (PCOA), revealing several distinct groups. Genetic diversity indices indicated that Ibizan subpopulations had the highest genetic variability (Nei's index: 0.1463; Shannon's index: 0.228), whereas the lowest variability was found in Alicante (Nei's index: 0.035; Shannon's index: 0.050) and Cabrera (Nei's index: 0.068; Shannon's index: 0.104). These latter populations show the highest FST values (FST = 0.548) revealing high differentiation between them. Columbretes subpopulations formed a defined single group, although it also included some Ibizan samples. The smallest FST values, obtained between Ibiza and Columbretes (FST = 0.185), are not correlated with geographical proximity, but appear to be related to the geologically recent volcanic origin of the Columbretes islands (300,000 years ago). According to the distribution of the Ibizan samples in the dendrogram and the FST values, the best hypothesis is to regard the Ibizan subpopulations as the centre of genetic diversity of the currently known subpopulations. Our results suggest migratory scenarios from Ibiza to Columbretes based mainly on zoochory probably by seabirds. Finally, recommendations are provided for management strategies to facilitate the conservation of this endangered species. PMID:15315680

Juan, A; Crespo, M B; Cowan, R S; Lexer, C; Fay, M F

2004-09-01

104

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

105

An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT

Duncan C. Munro; Scott K. Rowland; Peter J. Mouginis-Mark; Lionel Wilson; Victor-Hugo Oviedo-Perez

1991-01-01

106

75 FR 34088 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Community Development Program Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...plans for access to western Pacific fisheries...the participation of island communities in fisheries...the Northern Mariana Islands (collectively, the western Pacific); (2) Consist...people indigenous to the western Pacific area who...

2010-06-16

107

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

108

A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

E-print Network

National Wildlife Refuge, is the second largest island in the Rat Island group of the western Aleutian disturbance, and the introduction of non-native Arctic foxes (introduced 1825, eradicated 1987) and Norway

Jones, Ian L.

109

78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishery management issues in the Western Pacific Region. DATES: The...4. Report from the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center...Bottomfish: Hawaii and the Western Pacific 2. Assessments a...Overfishing of North Pacific Western and Central Pacific...

2013-05-31

110

50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...Hawaii, or the Northern Mariana Islands (collectively, the western Pacific); (2) Consist...aboriginal people indigenous to the western Pacific who conducted...

2011-10-01

111

50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...Hawaii, or the Northern Mariana Islands (collectively, the western Pacific); (2) Consist...aboriginal people indigenous to the western Pacific who conducted...

2010-10-01

112

50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...Hawaii, or the Northern Mariana Islands (collectively, the western Pacific); (2) Consist...aboriginal people indigenous to the western Pacific who conducted...

2012-10-01

113

50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development...Hawaii, or the Northern Mariana Islands (collectively, the western Pacific); (2) Consist...aboriginal people indigenous to the western Pacific who conducted...

2013-10-01

114

77 FR 5775 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XA979 Western Pacific Fishery Management...SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management...fishery management issues in the Western Pacific Region. The Council...convene community meetings on the islands of Tinian and Rota, in...

2012-02-06

115

Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem.

R. K. Dhar; W. Beauzile; N. Ma; K. Clauson

2009-01-01

116

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to

Said Msaidie; Axel Ducourneau; Gilles Boetsch; Guy Longepied; Kassim Papa; Claude Allibert; Ali Ahmed Yahaya; Jacques Chiaroni; Michael J Mitchell

2011-01-01

117

An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

1991-01-01

118

Effects of a larval stage on isolation of populations of the trochid Austrocochlea constricta in tidal ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the importance of special environments for local genetic subdivision in species with a larval phase, we examined allozyme variation among populations of the intertidal snail Austrocochlea constricta, in 18 tidal ponds in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Levels of genetic divergence between pond populations were correlated with those of parallel analyses among adjacent shore populations. However, divergence

M. S. Johnson; R. Black

2005-01-01

119

Efficacy of three vaccines in protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from experimental infection with West Nile virus: implications for vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis).  

PubMed

The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator(®) DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek(®) equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

Wheeler, Sarah S; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Reisen, William K; Boyce, Walter M

2011-08-01

120

Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

2011-01-01

121

A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided. PMID:21998551

Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Jaume, Damia

2011-01-01

122

Igneous history of the Koyukuk terrane, western Alaska: constraints on the origin, evolution, and ultimate collision of an accreted island arc terrane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Koyukuk terrane consists of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and plutonic rocks which range from Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age. The terrane crops out in a U-shaped belt which is roughly paralleled by outer belts of ultramafic rocks, oceanic plate basalts and cherts, and retrograded blueschist facies rocks of continental protolith. These rocks have been interpreted as components of a volcanic arc terrane that collided with the North American continental margin in Early Cretaceous time. The Koyukuk terrane consists of four time-stratigraphic units: (1) pre-Middle Jurassic basalts, (2) Middle and Late Jurassic granitic rocks, (3) lower Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks, and (4) upper Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Limited chemical data from the basalts of unit 1 indicate that they were erupted in a nonarc tectonic environment, possibly in an oceanic island or back arc setting. Units, 2, 3, and 4 have the characteristics of subduction-related volcanic rocks. -from Authors

Box, S.E.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

1989-01-01

123

Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

2009-08-01

124

Changes in cortical thickness of the clavicle and serum bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in the elderly in an island community in western Japan.  

PubMed

The cortical thickness of the clavicle (CTC), concentrations of bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing (Gla) protein (s-BGP, osteocalcin), alkaline phosphatase (s-ALP), calcium (s-Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (s-P) in serum, and calcium/creatinine (u-Ca/Cr) and inorganic phosphorus/creatinine (u-P/Cr) ratios in urine were examined in 211 subjects aged over 40 years in Oshima Island in Nagasaki prefecture. CTC decreased and s-BGP increased with age in both sexes, especially in women. Serum BGP was significantly higher in women than in men at the ages of 50's and over. Serum ALP in women increased until the ages of 60's. Serum Ca at the ages of 50's and s-P at the ages of 60's and over were higher in women than in men. As the increase in s-BGP is reported to be coincident with active bone formation, our findings do not support the view that age-related bone loss, especially in women, primarily results from decrease in bone formation. PMID:3252555

Aoyagi, K; Takemoto, T; Moji, K

1988-11-01

125

An island arc origin of plagiogranites at Oytag, western Kunlun orogen, northwest China: SHRIMP zircon U Pb chronology, elemental and Sr Nd Hf isotopic geochemistry and Paleozoic tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents detailed SHRIMP zircon U-Pb chronology, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of three intrusive plagiogranite bodies formed in an island arc setting within the Oytag ophiolite suite of the Oytag-Kuda Suture Zone. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of two of these intrusions shows that they were emplaced into the Oytag volcanic rocks at 337.5 ± 4.1 Ma and 327.7 ± 4.9 Ma, and that the younger intrusion contains inherited zircons ranging from 435.3 to 480.8 Ma. Both intrusions are composed of low-Al trondhjemite and tonalite. The rocks have low K 2O and Sr and high Y contents with low Sr/Y ratios. They have relatively low rare earth element (REE) concentrations and are depleted in light REE (LREE) and relatively enriched in heavy REE (HREE), with marked negative Eu anomalies in the chondrite-normalized REE patterns. They have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.7048 to 0.7068 and ?Nd (T) values of 6.2 to 7.6, which are lower than those of typical MORB. In situ Hf isotopic compositions of zircons with Early Carboniferous age from both intrusions are characterized by positive initial ?Hf values, ranging from + 12.5 to + 19.5, similar to typical MORB. The inherited Ordovician zircons in the younger intrusion have initial ?Hf values of - 1.9 to + 3.1, similar to zircons from Ordovician granitoids in the region. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that the Oytag plagiogranites were formed in an oceanic island arc setting, by differentiation of arc tholeiitic magmas that formed in response to the intra-oceanic subduction. The inherited zircons are interpreted as the xenocrysts captured from the incipient oceanic crust that contains relicts of discrete fragments of continental crust with Ordovician zircons, through which the plagiogranite was emplaced. The Oytag ophiolite suite might be the remnants of an ancient island arc, the basement of which was the incipient oceanic crust. The Oytag-Kuda Suture Zone is suggested to be a multiple suture zone that represents the remnants of both the Proto-Tethyan and Paleo-Tethyan oceans. The western Kunlun orogen was therefore not a long-lived active continental margin during the early and late Paleozoic times. It most likely underwent at least two orogenic cycles and thus might represent a multiple orogenic belt.

Jiang, Yao-Hui; Liao, Shi-Yong; Yang, Wan-Zhi; Shen, Wei-Zhou

2008-12-01

126

A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

2011-07-01

127

Facial scarification and tattooing on Santa Catalina Island (Solomon Islands).  

PubMed

Ritual scarification is the culturally sanctioned process of incising the skin to achieve patterned scars. Scarification was practiced widely by traditional societies, but the encroachment of Western cultural expectations has made the practice increasingly uncommon. Ritual tattooing has a meaningful place in many traditional societies. Ritual scarification and tattooing are still found on Santa Catalina Island, an isolated member of the Solomon Islands in the south-west Pacific. PMID:9347234

Mammen, L; Norton, S A

1997-10-01

128

Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

129

76 FR 37285 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The...for the Pacific Remote Islands Areas (PRIA), American...Archipelago, Hawaii, and western Pacific pelagic fisheries are available from the Western Pacific Fishery...

2011-06-27

130

76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100218104-1291-01] RIN 0648-AY27 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601 Kapiolani...PDF file formats only. The Western Pacific Fishery Management...for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region...

2011-06-07

131

75 FR 3335 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations under authority of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Regional Office, 1601...

2010-01-21

132

76 FR 17808 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY93 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying...accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The proposed...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601 Kapiolani...the recommendations of the Western Pacific Fishery...

2011-03-31

133

75 FR 54044 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Community Development Program Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AX76 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Community Development...community development plans for western Pacific fisheries. The intent...promote the participation of island communities in fisheries that...the Mariana Archipelago, and western Pacific pelagic...

2010-09-03

134

76 FR 23964 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Purse Seine Prohibited Areas Around American...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AW66 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601 Kapiolani...only. In March 2011, the Western Pacific Fishery Management...for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (Pelagics...

2011-04-29

135

76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...deployed observers on alia in (Western, or independent) Samoa...The Administrator, Pacific Islands Region, NMFS, determined...PART 665--FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 0 1. The authority...and in the definition of ``Western Pacific pelagic...

2011-08-24

136

78 FR 14755 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Regional Office (PIRO...comprises the majority of the western and central Pacific...

2013-03-07

137

76 FR 82180 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Regional Office (PIRO...comprises the majority of the western and central Pacific...

2011-12-30

138

Northerly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND  

E-print Network

of the Chicago Loop, is a peninsula sur- rounded by Lake Michigan and Burnham Harbor. The four teams were groupedNortherly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs CUPPA FALL 2005 NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

139

75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule...the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery from the West regional designation...Under the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program, golden king...

2010-02-18

140

75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule...the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery from the West regional designation. Under the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program, Federal...

2010-08-17

141

Canary Islands—Origin and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of the Canary Islands are discussed. An oceanic origin seems reasonable for the central and western islands, which are of central-volcanic type. A continental origin is suggested for Lanzarote and Fuerteventura; folded Mesozoic sedimentary rocks occur within their basement, and ostrich eggs from Upper Miocene calcarenites found on Lanzarote confirm the earlier existence of

Peter Rothe

1974-01-01

142

76 FR 17811 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0808051054-91123-01] RIN 0648-AW67 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries...the Northern Mariana Islands, and Prohibiting Longline...2011. ADDRESSES: The Western Pacific Fishery Management...not be used to fish for western Pacific pelagic MUS in...818. (1) Tutuila Island, Manua Islands,...

2011-03-31

143

Bahama Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This beautiful photograph from space shows the contrast between islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water of the Bahamas (25.0N, 76.5E). The Bahama Islands of Nassau (the smaller island) and Eleuthera are at the edge of the Bahama Bank where the water is shallow revealing the bottom in pale blue detail contrasted to the dark depths of the Exuma Sound where the bottom is over a thousand feet deep.

1983-01-01

144

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

145

Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. The island is Dougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of the Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles).

1975-01-01

146

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

147

Siberian Islands  

... East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May ... Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is ...

2013-04-16

148

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of

B. D. Katsoulis; D. A. Metaxas

1992-01-01

149

40 CFR Table W - 1D of Subpart W of Part 98-Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S.  

...98-Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S. W Table W Protection...Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S. Eastern U.S. Western U.S. Connecticut Alabama...Pennsylvania Nevada Rhode Island New Mexico South...

2014-07-01

150

40 CFR Table W - 1D of Subpart W of Part 98-Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...98-Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S. W Table W Protection...Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S. Eastern U.S. Western U.S. Connecticut Alabama...Pennsylvania Nevada Rhode Island New Mexico South...

2013-07-01

151

79 FR 59991 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in the United States, in southwestern...Caribbean Islands, and the...distribution of the western populations...as the western yellow-billed...range of the western yellow-billed...Vancouver Island and along...In the United States the DPS...

2014-10-03

152

76 FR 6403 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting will be held at the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management...4. Report from the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Director...Hawaii Longline Fleet from Western and Central Pacific Ocean Bigeye...Seventh Regular Meeting of the Western and Central Pacific...

2011-02-04

153

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

154

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

155

Pacific Islanders--Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

156

76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2011-06-30

157

78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2013-08-12

158

78 FR 18302 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hawaii. NMFS and the Western Pacific Fishery Management...coral fisheries in the U.S. Pacific Islands...coral harvest in the U.S. Pacific Islands...entity possessing a western Pacific precious corals...FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 0 1. The...follows: Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et...

2013-03-26

159

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

160

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

161

Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.  

PubMed

After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence. PMID:24856252

Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

2014-06-01

162

Dengue Virus Type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013  

PubMed Central

After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence. PMID:24856252

Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J.; Aaskov, John

2014-01-01

163

Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been

M. S. McDowell

2002-01-01

164

An island arc origin of plagiogranites at Oytag, western Kunlun orogen, northwest China: SHRIMP zircon U–Pb chronology, elemental and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic geochemistry and Paleozoic tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents detailed SHRIMP zircon U–Pb chronology, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope geochemistry of three intrusive plagiogranite bodies formed in an island arc setting within the Oytag ophiolite suite of the Oytag–Kuda Suture Zone. SHRIMP zircon U–Pb dating of two of these intrusions shows that they were emplaced into the Oytag volcanic rocks at 337.5±4.1 Ma and 327.7±4.9 Ma,

Yao-Hui Jiang; Shi-Yong Liao; Wan-Zhi Yang; Wei-Zhou Shen

2008-01-01

165

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde  

E-print Network

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 2 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands 1 Introduction Introduction

Verschelde, Jan

166

Topographic enhancement of tidal motion in the western Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution numerical lattice is used to study a topographically trapped motion around islands and shallow banks of the western Barents Sea caused both by the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves. Observations and model computations in the vicinity of Bear Island show well-developed trapped motion with distinctive tidal oscillatory motion. Numerical investigations demonstrate that one source of the trapped motion

Z. Kowalik; A. Yu. Proshutinsky

1995-01-01

167

Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview

E. L. Miller; G. Gehrels; A. Soloviev

2007-01-01

168

PROJECT DESCRIPTION DISSERTATION RESEARCH: BIOGEOGRAPHY OF SUMATRA AND THE MENTAWAI ISLANDS  

E-print Network

PROJECT DESCRIPTION DISSERTATION RESEARCH: BIOGEOGRAPHY OF SUMATRA AND THE MENTAWAI ISLANDS of the Indonesian megaisland of Sumatra and an archipelago of deepwater islands that lie off of its western margin as levels of current and past genetic connectivity among islands and with mainland Sumatra. II

Silver, Whendee

169

East Canary Islands as a Microcontinent within the Africa-North America Continental Drift Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dash and Bosshard1 have reported, on the basis of seismic reflexion and refraction profiling, that the five western islands of the Canary archipelago lie on normal oceanic crust. On the other hand, Lanzarote Island and Fuerteventura Island and Concepcion Bank (constituting the eastern group) seem to rest on continental or sialic crust. They suggest that a fault lies parallel with

Robert S. Dietz; Walter P. Sproll

1970-01-01

170

Availability, usage, and threats to freshwater resources on low carbonate islands in Micronesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is an insular nation in the western Pacific. It consists of 4 high volcanic islands and 37 low carbonate units, mostly coral atolls. The high islands are relatively large, and are developing socioeconomic centers of the country, whereas low islands are small and remote outposts of traditional subsistence lifestyle. The latter are inhabited by a

Danko Taborosi; John W. Jenson; Maricruz Sánchez Collazo; Mojca Zega

2010-01-01

171

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

âÂÂThe RockâÂÂ, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay AreaâÂÂs most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâÂÂs best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of AmericaâÂÂs most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from AlcatrazâÂÂs past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous âÂÂBattle of Alcatrazâ and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

172

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

173

2010 Western Pacific Geophysics Search Results  

E-print Network

2010 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting Search Results Cite abstracts as Author(s) (2010), Title, Eos Trans. AGU, 91(26), West. Pac. Geophys. Meet. Suppl., Abstract xxxxx-xx Your query was: "Ng, C" HR Geophysics Meeting Secondary Island Formation in Numerical Simulations of Magne... http

Ng, Chung-Sang

174

Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-28

175

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife...

2010-08-18

176

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

177

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

178

SeaWinds - South Georgia Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

This large-scale view shows regions of high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

179

78 FR 58240 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations under authority of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries...fisheries operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean...Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Once the limit of...Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific...

2013-09-23

180

Trindade and Mart?´n Vaz Islands, South Atlantic: Isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace element constraints on plume related magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly alkaline silica undersaturated lavas erupted at Trindade Island over its 5 Ma geologic history and comprise primitive nephelinites-basanites and more evolved nepheline-bearing phonolitic rocks. Nephelinites-basanites and phonolitic rocks are thought to be genetically related via crystal fractionation, as indicated by the very limited range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, systematically increasing contents of incompatible trace elements from primitive to evolved rock types, and similar variation in chemical composition of the major phenocryst phases (clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar) in all rock types. Tb/Yb ratios of the primitive lavas are high (2.6-4.1) and silica contents are low (39.8-42.9 wt.% SiO 2), indicating that the melts were generated at deep mantle depths (˜150 km), within the garnet lherzolite stability field. Non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70377-0.70421) and radiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512752-0.512837) values show that the Trindade and Mart?´n Vaz rocks are derived from moderately depleted sources relative to bulk-earth. The lavas have moderate radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios of 19.00-19.33, 207Pb/ 204Pb of 15.56-15.60, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 38.89-39.34; they plot close to the Northern Hemisphere Reference Lines (NHRL). The narrow range of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions in the Trindade and Mart?´n Vaz lavas suggests either that the source region was homogeneous (similar to the common mantle components FOZO and "C"), or that melts from a heterogeneous three-component mantle source, involving HIMU, enriched mantle EM I, and depleted N-type MORB, were well mixed before eruption. Late Cretaceous to Present volcanism ranging from interior Brazil towards Trindade is thought to record the passage of the South American plate over the Trindade mantle plume (e.g., O'Connor and Duncan, 1990). Comparison with published data from other mafic rocks along the suggested plume track shows that Trindade isotopic compositions match those of transitional basalts from the Late Cretaceous Poxoreu igneous province (inland Brazil) and the Eocene Abrolhos platform (Brazilian Atlantic margin). Simple batch-melting considerations indicate that the degree of melting has decreased from Poxoreu through Abrolhos to Trindade. These estimates might suggest a diminishing thermal input of the Trindade mantle plume through time.

Siebel, W.; Becchio, R.; Volker, F.; Hansen, M. A. F.; Viramonte, J.; Trumbull, R. B.; Haase, G.; Zimmer, M.

2000-05-01

181

A Brown HAwk-owl (NiNox scutulata) from kiskA islAnd, AleutiAn islAnds, AlAskA  

E-print Network

). Finally, the short-eared owls (Asio flammeus flammeus) that occur annually in the western Aleutians and Amchitka islands in the Aleutian chain (Gibson and Byrd 2007), and (probably) the long-eared owl (Asio otus

Jones, Ian L.

182

A Western Pacific Hotspot?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea (Johnson et al., 1978; Macpherson et al., 1998). The past influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles ocean island basalts and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The lithosphere lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene was subsequently subducted. During the Oligo-Miocene the hotspot was traversed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, buoyancy differences between the IBM, supported by hot mantle, and older, colder lithosphere of the adjacent Pacific Plate may have provided a mechanism to propagate widespread subduction at the nascent IBM arc. Johnson RW, Smith IEM, &Taylor SR, BMR J. Aus. Geol. Geophys. 3, 55-69, (1978). Macpherson CG, Hilton, DR, Sinton, JM, Poreda RJ &Craig H. Geology 26, 1007-1010, (1998). Macpherson CG &Hall R, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 186, 215-230, (2001).

MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

2003-04-01

183

Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

1976-01-01

184

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

185

Temporal and spatial dynamics of mega retrogressive thaw slumps revealed by 2D/3D geophysics and mechanical implications for the pace of coastal thermokarst on Herschel Island, western Canadian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrogressive thaw slump are among the most important carbon emitters along the Arctic coastline. Significant increases in their activity in the last 50 years has been demonstrated at multiple locations including Herschel Island. While distribution, size of retrogressive thaw slump and their respective change over time are assessed in a number of projects and publications at the moment, mechanics, spatial and temporal dynamics of retrogressive thaw slumps are still poorly understood. We have performed direct current (2D/3D) and capacitively coupled (2D) resistivity tomography, refraction seismics (2D) and ground penetrating radar (2D). Longitudinal, transverse and 3D measurements were systematically arranged on a series of mega (several hundred meters length) retrogressive thaw slumps. Using the ergodic principle, we compared thaw slumps in an initial, accelerating, climax and decelerating stage and compared them with sites with proven historical activity at 300 years B.P. and with undisturbed sites. We can rely on multiple validation measurements including exposed ice wedge profiling, chemical composition of ice, permafrost augering, ice wedge and tundra C14 dating and a 50 year sequence of air photography. The tomographies display remarkable spatial and temporal thaw slump dynamics in all development stages. Already in the initial stage, the tomographies show a large impact of the shoreline an associated warming at the toe of the slumps often extending several tens of meters inland. This could initiate a destabilisation dynamic starting from the toe rather than headwall of a slump, which contrasts previous hypothesis. In the climax stage, bimodal flows act to transport massive amounts of sediments to the shoreline. We can show that both, the accumulation of deep mud pools and the incision of the gully network has a decadal impact on permafrost distribution and mechanics of the thaw slumps. After the climax stage, deep reaching thermal patterns conditioned by bimodal flows and shoreline activity act to persist over hundreds of years and can be clearly distinct from undisturbed tundra slopes. The results are evaluated using the field evidence of ice wedge profiling, chemical ice data, permafrost augering, dating and air photography. Here we show how the 20-30 m deep reaching geophysical data and associated field surveys, profiles and laboratory data can help to create a better understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of mega retrogressive thaw slumps and their response to atmospheric and marine forcing.

Krautblatter, Michael; Angelopoulos, Michael; Lantuit, Hugues; Fritz, Michael; Lenz, Josefine; Fox, Dave; Pollard, Wayne

2013-04-01

186

Canary Island Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

1989-01-01

187

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

188

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

189

A survey of village poultry production in the Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 84 farmers in 31 villages of Guadalcanal, Western, Malaita and Central Provinces of the Solomon Islands were surveyed\\u000a to obtain baseline information on the current feeding practices and farmer attitudes to village poultry production. Farming\\u000a of village chickens in the Solomon Islands is conducted on a small scale. Most surveyed farmers thought chickens were easy\\u000a to care

T. Jansen; P. C. Glatz; Z. H. Miao

2009-01-01

190

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

191

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba...require an assessment of potential costs and benefits under section 6(a...Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club,...

2013-09-25

192

Lagrangian observations in the Intermediate Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface float measurements at 800 m depth carried out from 1994 to 2003 in the Brazil Basin are used to characterise the equatorward Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and its connections to the ocean interior. Transversally, the boundary flow is less than 100 km wide, and most intense at 10-20 km from the 800 m isobath. Its average velocities range from ˜0.1 ms-1 to 0.3 ms-1 depending on latitude, with individual daily values as high as 0.7 ms-1. The flow meridional extent exhibits 3 contrasted domains: (i) from 27°S to the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge at 20°30'S, the boundary flow intensifies northward along a relatively smooth topography. A counter current adjacent to it on its seaward side feeds it with intermediate water from the northern limb of the subtropical gyre. (ii) At latitudes 20-15°S characterised by a very irregular topography, the IWBC becomes weaker with even no real proof of its presence at 18-15°S. An intense mesoscale variability prevails there, which apparently takes over from the boundary flow to ensure the northward transport of water to 15°S, where the IWBC re-forms. (iii) North of this latitude, the boundary flow increases again to ˜10°S along smooth isobaths, then decreases when encountering a rougher topography and the zonal jets of the equatorial current system. A counter current present from ˜5°S to 14°S, partly fed from the boundary flow, contributes to its drainage. The IWBC shows two main input locations, at 27-23°S and 15-12°S in the southern parts of the two latitudinal domains of smooth topography where the northward current increases. Output locations coincide with major capes in the continental slope geometry, at 20°S and 18°S (the southeastern and northeastern corners of the Abrolhos Bank), at 8°S near the Recife Plateau, and at 5°S near Cape São Roque.

Legeais, Jean-François; Ollitrault, Michel; Arhan, Michel

2013-01-01

193

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

SciTech Connect

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.

Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. (Univ. of Ioannina (Greece))

1992-12-01

194

77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY...U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western...

2012-03-01

195

The tsunamigenic earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands (Aleutian island arc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interpretation of the type, size, and location of the source of the Aleutian earthquake on April 1, 1946, which was characterized by the highest intensity ( I = 4), is proposed. The earthquake source is a subvertical reverse fault striking along the island arc and dipping at an angle of 85° toward the deep-sea trench. The reverse fault is located in the lower part of the island slope, within the eastern termination of the Aleutian terrace. The western end of the reverse fault is located in the area of the Krenitsyn Islands (? ˜ 165°W), where the pattern of isobaths changes, and an abrupt widening of the shelf part of the Fox Islands takes place. Large ( M S ˜ 7) shocks, preceding the 1946 earthquake, occurred here in 1940, 1942, and 1944. Structural inhomogeneities in the island slope in the area of the Sanak Islands (? ˜ 162°W) determine the eastern edge of the source-reverse fault, whose length within the specified boundaries is about 200 km. The mean magnitude of the earthquake corresponding to such a source is ˜8.3. According to the regular relation between the rupture length and the mean movement, the vertical displacement of the ocean floor in the source region could attain 5-6 m. A significant vertical displacement of the ocean floor over its large length (˜200 km) was responsible for the high tsunamigenic ability of this earthquake. A favorable combination in the source area of the topographic and other conditions necessary for the tsunami formation could additionally contribute to an increase in the intensity of the tsunami. The earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands, as well as the tsunamigenic earthquakes of March 9, 1957, in the Andreanof Islands and February 4, 1965, in the Rat Islands, does not belong to the class of “slow” earthquakes.

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-06-01

196

Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.  

PubMed Central

Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

Willcox, R R

1980-01-01

197

Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

2010-01-01

198

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

199

The potential for Soviet penetration of the South Pacific Islands: An assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of the colloquium held in Wellington, New Zealand in July 1984 on the special problems of small island states indicate that the primary self-assessed security threat to the Islands arises from their economic insecurity. I While this accords closely with the assessments of their Western supporters, it is in some respects an extraordinary perspective for the regional states to

Robert C. Kiste; R. A. Herr

1986-01-01

200

Adaptive Units for Conservation: Population Distinction and Historic Extinctions in the Island Scrub-Jay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis )i sf ound on Santa Cruz Island, California, and is the only insular bird species in the continental United States. We typed seven microsatellite loci and sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region of Island Scrub-Jays and their closest mainland relative, the Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), to assess levels of variability and effective

KATHLEEN S. DELANEY; ROBERT K. WAYNE

2005-01-01

201

78 FR 17340 - Control Date for Qualifying Landings History in the Western Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reporting Area of the GOA. The Western Reporting Area, defined at...CFR part 679, includes the Western Regulatory Area (Statistical...the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands and the GOA. The LLP is intended...fisheries in the Central GOA and Western GOA. This series of...

2013-03-21

202

76 FR 13330 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AW67 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries...Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, and Prohibiting Longline...SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Western Pacific Fishery Management...for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP)....

2011-03-11

203

78 FR 79388 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Catch and Effort Limits for the U.S. Participating Territories  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-BD46 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries...SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Western Pacific Fishery Management...for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region. If approved...Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The framework would...

2013-12-30

204

78 FR 32181 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BC89 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; 5-Year Extension...of gold corals in the U.S. Pacific Islands through...fisheries is found in the western Pacific fishery ecosystem...665--FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 0 1. The authority...follows: Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq....

2013-05-29

205

Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCBs in zebra mussels were elevated to concentrations greater than 5,000 ng\\/g lipid and 15,000 ng\\/g lipid, respectively, at the Ambassador Bridge in the Detroit River and concentrations gradually declined at downstream locations, which included three stations in the western basin of Lake Erie (Middle Sister Island, East Sister Island, Pelee Island). PCB concentrations in

Chris D. Metcalfel; Tracy L. Metcalfe; Geoffrey Riddle; G. Douglas Haffner

1997-01-01

206

Dartington: A Principal Source of Inspiration behind Aldous Huxley's "Island".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Dartington Hall School in Devon, England, which between the 1920s and 1970s implemented an educational system combining traditional Hindu religious philosophy and ideals of living and Western scientific knowledge and work experience. Considers ways Dartington educationally and socially resembled Aldous Huxley's utopia in "Island." (AYC)

Parsons, David

1987-01-01

207

Arago Seamount: The missing hotspot found in the Austral Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Austral archipelago, on the western side of the South Pacific superswell, is composed of several volcanic chains, corresponding to distinct events from 35 Ma to the present, and lies on oceanic crust created between 60 and 85 Ma. In 1982, Turner and Jarrard proposed that the two distinct volcanic stages found on Rurutu Island and dated as 12 Ma

Alain Bonneville; Raymond Le Suavé; Laurence Audin; Valérie Clouard; Laure Dosso; Pierre Yves Gillot; Philip Janney; Kelsey Jordahl; Keitapu Maamaatuaiahutapu

2002-01-01

208

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

209

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

210

Application study of urban heat island effect in the Northwestern City based on MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studied the urban heat island effect of a western city, the capital of Qinghai Province on the western plateau. This research was based on MODIS LST products from 2000 to 2008. The results showed: 1) the urban area had higher LST, the suburban and rural surroundings had lower LST; 2) the county with higher altitude had lower LST,

Hongchun Peng; Haiying Li

2009-01-01

211

DIPLOMARBEIT Islands of Music  

E-print Network

musical genres. Mountains and hills on these islands represent sub-genres. The islands are situated perceptually very different genres are separated by deep sea. The pieces of music from the collection raw music data (e.g. MP3s) without any further information such as which genres the pieces of music

Rauber,Andreas

212

DIPLOMARBEIT Islands of Music  

E-print Network

musical genres. Mountains and hills on these islands represent sub-genres. The islands are situated perceptually very di#11;erent genres are separated by deep sea. The pieces of music from the collection raw music data (e.g. MP3s) without any further information such as which genres the pieces of music

Rauber,Andreas

213

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

214

Late Mesozoic Evolution of the Western Pacific Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of east-trending magnetic anomalies located in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean near the Phoenix Islands is Early Cretaceous in age. The use of magnetic reversal model studies shows that this lineated anomaly pattern correlates with one east of ...

R. L. Larson, C. G. Chase

1972-01-01

215

Deformation of the Manihiki Plateau, Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submarine Manihiki Plateau, an oceanic large igneous province (LIP), encompasses ˜800,000 km2 of seafloor in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of Early Cretaceous ( ˜120 Ma) age, the plateau stands several kilometers above the surrounding seafloor, and comprises three major structural highs. The `High' plateau to the east contains several islands, including the eponymous Manihiki atoll. To the west,

M. F. Coffin; J. J. Mahoney; H. Sato; S. P. Ingle; A. Tikku; R. Miura; P. Shamberger

2004-01-01

216

Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrkdalen lake, western Norway was subjected to a permanent 1.4 m drawdown in June 1987. After the drawdown, channels and artificial islands were constructed within the exposed floodplain system. Two permanent transects were established within this man-made environment, and these have been analyzed annually until 1995. The quadrats lie all on the same type of substrate, are at different

Arvid Odland

1997-01-01

217

Extensional and Transtensional Tectonics of the Manihiki Plateau, Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standing several kilometers above surrounding seafloor, the submarine Manihiki Plateau, an oceanic large igneous province (LIP), encompasses ~800,000 km2 of seafloor in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of Early Cretaceous (~120 Ma) age, the plateau comprises three major structural highs. The High Plateau to the east contains several islands, including the eponymous Manihiki atoll. To the west, the Western Plateaus

M. F. Coffin; R. Werner; F. Hauff; K. Hoernle; F. Scientific Party

2007-01-01

218

Recording and analyzing the July 2 cascading outage [Western USA power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 2, 1996, a short circuit on a 345-kV line in Wyoming, USA, started a chain of events leading to a breakup of the Western North American power system. Five islands formed with controlled and uncontrolled load shedding, uncontrolled generation tripping, and with a blackout in Southern Idaho. The Western power system is operated by power companies belonging to

C. W. Taylor; D. C. Erickson

1997-01-01

219

Initiation of subduction and the generation of slab melts in western and eastern Mindanao, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adakite, found in both the eastern and western parts of Mindanao Island, Philippines, is a rare rock type, characterized by low heavy rare earth elements and Y contents together with high Sr\\/Y ratios, and is considered to be the result of the melting of young subducted oceanic crust, which leaves an eclogite residue. Pliocene-Quaternary adakites from western Mindanao (Zamboanga Peninsula)

Fernando G. Sajona; René C. Maury; Hervé Bellon; Joseph Cotten; Marc J. Defant; Manuel Pubellier

1993-01-01

220

Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

Boal, C.W.; Sibley, F.C.; Estabrook, T.S.; Lazell, J.

2006-01-01

221

New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

1996-01-01

222

76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993). Specifically...airspace area for Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the...

2011-01-14

223

The Erythroblastic Island  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the macrophages provide nutrients, proliferative and survival signals to the erythroblasts, and phagocytose extruded erythroblast nuclei at the conclusion of erythroid maturation. There is also accumulating evidence for the role of macrophages in promoting enucleation itself. The central macrophages are identified by their unique immunophenotypic signature. Their pronounced adhesive properties, ability for avid endocytosis, lack of respiratory bursts, and consequent release of toxic oxidative species, make them perfectly adapted to function as nurse cells. Both macrophages and erythroblasts display adhesive interactions that maintain island integrity, and elucidating these details is an area of intense interest and investigation. Such interactions enable regulatory feedback within islands via cross talk between cells and also trigger intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. An additional control mechanism for cellular growth within the erythroblastic islands is through the modulation of apoptosis via feedback loops between mature and immature erythroblasts and between macrophages and immature erythroblasts. The focus of this chapter is to outline the mechanisms by which erythroblastic islands aid erythropoiesis, review the historical data surrounding their discovery, and highlight important unanswered questions. PMID:18282516

Manwani, Deepa; Bieker, James J.

2011-01-01

224

3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...semicircular emergent reef around the north and western margins of the island. Four major habitats characterize Johnston: low-lying islets consisting of the remains of corals and shells, shallow coral reefs to depths of 150 meters, deeper reefs to...

2010-01-01

225

78 FR 16257 - Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military Training Environmental Impact Statement...unfilled unit level and combined level military training requirements in the Western...Memorandum of Understanding with the military services regarding their support...

2013-03-14

226

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

227

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

228

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... is part of a community's energy, air quality, water, or sustainability effort. Activities to reduce heat islands range from voluntary initiatives, such as cool pavement demonstration projects, to policy actions, such as requiring cool roofs via building ...

229

Mapping Staten Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Staten Island has been in the news recently due to the severity of the damage wrought by Hurricane Sandy. For those wishing to know more about the history of this venerable community, this website is a gem. Mapping Staten Island is part of an in situ exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York that looks at the geography and history of Staten Island. The exhibit examines the borough's historical transformation through maps, government documents, and newspapers. By clicking on the Explore the Maps section, visitors can use a graphic interface that overlays dozens of historic maps, including an 1845 land use map and a 1781 chart and harbor map of the area, on the contemporary geography of Staten Island. Also, visitors can use the scroll bar near the bottom of the page to look at the maps in a chronological fashion.

230

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Griffith, Christopher

231

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Gardiner, Lisa; Universe, Windows T.

232

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

233

Galveston Island and erosion  

E-print Network

protection. The 1970's and 1980's have seen the building of two new beachfront condominiums on East Beach and extensive housing subdivisions on west Galveston Island. Homecr aft Land Development (an affiliate of U. S. Homes), Mitchell Development Inc... problems in the future. Erosion is an old, continuing phenomenon on Galveston Island but most people do not seem concerned about it until they are directly im- pacted. PREVIOUS STUDIES I1any early studies concerning erosion and shoreline protection...

Bolleter, Jim Mason

2012-06-07

234

Development of Pabelokan Island  

SciTech Connect

Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral island named Pabelokan Island has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the island include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the island facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral island for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral islands for similar purpose.

Powell, D.R.

1982-01-01

235

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

236

Genetic structure, phylogeography and demography of two ground-beetle species endemic to the Tenerife laurel forest (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary archipelago) was formerly covered at 600-1200 m above sea level on most of its northern side by a cloud forest holding much of the endemic insect fauna. In the most significant surviving patches of this laurel forest at the eastern and western tips of the island occur two forest-specialist, closely related species of Eutrichopus

ÓSCAR MOYA; HERMANS G. C ONTRERAS-DÍAZ; PEDRO OROMÍ; CARLOS JUAN

2004-01-01

237

Hearing loss in western Samoan children.  

PubMed

In an effort to help determine the current status and needs of hearing impaired children in Western Samoa, the Commonwealth Society for the Deaf sent a team of three professionals to this Pacific island nation in 1991. Initial information on known children with severe and profound hearing loss was gathered and a small prevalence survey of urban school children's ear health was conducted. No previously published information was available for this population. Results are presented and related to data from other areas of the Pacific. Hearing health care implications of the survey team's findings are discussed. PMID:8056506

McPherson, B; Kumar, P V; Wollman, D

1994-06-01

238

Invertebrate macrobenthos of western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report contributes to knowledge of the relative abundance of major groups of benthic invertebrates in western Lake Superior, primarily in the Apostle Islands region. Observations are made on the depth habitation of certain species, and some of the fauna are compared to that in some of the other Great Lakes. Also included is a note on the catch of benthic organisms in a plankton-net tow, and a note on Oligochaeta from Chequamegon Bay and the harbors of Duluth and Superior.

Hiltunen, Jarl K.

1969-01-01

239

Western Interior Seaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

Supergraphics, U-Haul

240

Seismic studies along the western shelf of Spitsbergen and the adjacent area of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (Isfjorden)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago that is located in the north-western corner of the Barents Sea. The island has a long history of sedimentation, structural deformation, vertical and horizontal movements. Geological studies of Spitsbergen and surrounding areas play a key role in the understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the Arctic region. The area along the

M. Blinova; R. Mjelde; Y. I. Faleide

2009-01-01

241

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom ........................................................................ 1 1.2 OVERVIEW OF ISLANDS .................................................................................................... 3 1.5 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLANDS

242

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

243

Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

2012-12-01

244

Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island  

PubMed Central

Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

2012-01-01

245

Kinematic studies of transport across an island wake, with application to the Canary islands  

E-print Network

Transport from nutrient-rich coastal upwellings is a key factor influencing biological activity in surrounding waters and even in the open ocean. The rich upwelling in the North-Western African coast is known to interact strongly with the wake of the Canary islands, giving rise to filaments and other mesoscale structures of increased productivity. Motivated by this scenario, we introduce a simplified two-dimensional kinematic flow describing the wake of an island in a stream, and study the conditions under which there is a net transport of substances across the wake. For small vorticity values in the wake, it acts as a barrier, but there is a transition when increasing vorticity so that for values appropriate to the Canary area, it entrains fluid and enhances cross-wake transport.

Mathias Sandulescu; Emilio Hernandez-Garcia; Cristobal Lopez; Ulrike Feudel

2006-05-29

246

Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously indicates that the Alisida is not unique. Global island chains other than the Alisida may better serve disciplines other than those of hydrology and geology.

Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

2002-01-01

247

76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife...

2011-04-08

248

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

249

Water for western agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued increase in American farm productivity depends to a large extent upon the availability and cost of water resources. The report in this book is one of three prepared by Resources for the Future on irrigation. It examines the role of western irrigation and the impacts of the changing water supply situation on the development of western irrigation. Past

K. D. Frederick; J. C. Hanson

1982-01-01

250

Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species that invade remote islands, usually following human settlement, have had catastrophic effects on native biota. However, on islands it is increasingly feasible to eradicate key exotic species allowing extant native species to recover in situ or to return naturally. The practice of marooning threatened species on islands where the threat is absent, irrespective of whether the threatened species

I. Hutton; J. P. Parkes; A. R. E. Sinclair

2007-01-01

251

Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and pyroclastic flows. Capelo Complex, which is partially contemporary to the previous formation, comprises the western fissural volcanism and the historical eruptions of Cabeço do Fogo and Capelinhos. Groundwater occurs in two main aquifer systems: (1) the basal aquifer that corresponds to the freshwater lens floating over underlying salt water and (2) perched water bodies. 15 drilled wells and 10 hand dug wells extract water from the basal aquifer and about 80 springs drain the volcanic edifices at different altitudes. In what concerns hydrodynamic characterisation, an estimate of the recession constant of the springs yielded values from 2x10-3 to 14.2x10-3. Calculated transmissivity values for the basal aquifer and a perched aquifer are within the range of 9.5x10-3 to 3x10-2 m2/s. Hydraulic diffusivity estimated from tidal effect measurements has a value of 2634 m2/d. Physical and chemical water analysis shows that they are cold, except for two of them. Four water samples show high CO2 contents. Water from springs and from wells not contaminated by salt water intrusion are bicarbonated and sodium rich in composition while water from contaminated wells has higher chloride and magnesium contents. Geochemical modelling indicates that the major mineralizing processes are silicate dissolution and salt water intrusion.

Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

2011-12-01

252

Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the heat island phenomenon; (3) measurements of heat islands; and (4) the design and implementation of heat island mitigation strategies. On the afternoon of the second day of the workshop, the participants divided into three workgroups. Group 1 discussed research needs to better quantify the effect of heat island mitigation on energy use. Group 2 discussed future research on the characterization and modeling of heat islands. And Group 3 discussed the development of a manual that would present to policy makers our current knowledge of techniques to mitigate heat islands and thereby save energy. This Proceedings documents the presentations and outcome of the Workshop.

Garbesi, K.; Akbari, H.; Martien, P. (eds.)

1989-11-01

253

Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the north to near Boxer Bay on the south. Headlands having rugged cliffs or narrow, boulder-strewn beaches characterize the southwest coastline. The geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island was prepared from published and unpublished field investigations carried out between 1966 and 1971 by W.W. Patton, Jr., Bela Csejtey, Jr., T.P. Miller, J.T. Dutro, Jr., J.M. Hoare, and W.H. Condon (Patton and Csejtey, 1971, 1980) and data from Ormiston and Fehlmann (1969). Fossils collected during these investigations are reported in the Alaska Paleontological Database (www.alaskafossil.org), and mineral resource information is summarized in the online Alaska Resource Data File (Hudson, 1998).

Patton, William W., Jr.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

254

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista  

E-print Network

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara§ P. P´erez-Lantero ¶ J. Urrutia I S is called an island of S, if I2 is the intersection of S and a convex set C. An island of S is monochromatic a monochromatic4 island of maximum cardinality. The previous best running time for this problem was O(n3 log n)5

Díaz-Báñez, José Miguel

255

Urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of an urban heat island was investigated by the use of Landsat\\/Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington, DC. By combining the derived spectral albedos and temperatures, surface energy composites of five surface categories were analysed. The results indicate that urban heating is attributable to a large excess in heat from the rapidly heating

H. H. Kim

1992-01-01

256

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

257

URBAN EXTENTS Falkland Islands  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS BRAZIL CHILE PARAGUAY URUGUAY GRUMPv1 Falkland Islands A t l a n t i c O c e a n P Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Population Density. Palisades, NY: CIESIN Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries

Columbia University

258

GREEN HOMES LONG ISLAND  

E-print Network

energy bill, reduce your carbon footprint... at little or no cost to you. #12;A Message From Supervisor energy-efficient and reduce our community's carbon footprint. Why do we call it Long Island Green Homes to yourevery day. By making basic improvements to yourevery day home, you can reduce your carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

259

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

2010-07-20

260

Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

261

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

262

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

263

The Falkland Island Fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review in the current number of NATURE of Mr. Renshaw's ``Some Mammalian Types,'' reference is made to the ``Antarctic wolf of the Falkland Islands exterminated by the sheep farmers in self defence.'' Might I be permitted to add a word on this subject in correction of an erroneous impression current among many naturalists with regard to this animal?

R. N. Rudmose-Brown

1906-01-01

264

Invasive rats and seabirds after 2,000 years of an unwanted coexistence on Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mediterranean, the survival of endemic long-lived seabirds despite the long-standing introduction of one of the most\\u000a damaging alien predator, the ship rat (Rattus rattus), on most islands constitutes an amazing conservation paradox. A database gathering information on approximately 300 Western\\u000a Mediterranean islands was analyzed through generalized linear models to identify the factors likely to influence ship rat\\u000a presence

L. Ruffino; K. Bourgeois; E. Vidal; C. Duhem; M. Paracuellos; F. Escribano; P. Sposimo; N. Baccetti; M. Pascal; D. Oro

2009-01-01

265

Temporal characteristics and fog water collection during summer in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of fog dynamics in the island of Tenerife began in 1993 at six sites. The analysis of the relationship between fog and several meteorological parameters was conducted at the site located at Anaga. Anaga is located at the summit of a mountain range, at an altitude of 842 m and 3.5 km away from the north-western coastline of the island.

María Victoria Marzol

2008-01-01

266

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

267

Adaptation and diversification on islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other

Jonathan B. Losos; Robert E. Ricklefs

2009-01-01

268

Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

1984-01-01

269

Costly island for Arctic drilling  

SciTech Connect

The largest artificial island in the frigid Beaufort Sea was recently completed. The $140-million teardrop-shaped island, the largest of 17 built in the Beaufort Sea, sits in 50-ft. of water, 20 miles northwest of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields on Alaska's North Slope. The problems encountered in constructing the island are discussed.

Not Available

1983-12-01

270

OCEANIC ISLANDS: MODELS OF DIVERSITY  

E-print Network

OCEANIC ISLANDS: MODELS OF DIVERSITY Rosemary G. Gillespie University of California, Berkeley I. Introduction II. Characteristics of Biodiversity III. Island Dynamics IV. Species Loss V. The Future of Biodiversity on Oceanic Islands GLOSSARY adaptive radiation Evolution of ecological and phe- notypic diversity

Gillespie, Rosemary

271

Turk Islands DominicaDominica  

E-print Network

® Martinique Caracas Turk Islands Aruba S t. Kitts Trinidad Caracas Guadeloupe DominicaDominica Antigua Turk Islands Barbados Grenada Aruba Barbuda S t. Kitts Montserrat Anguilla S t. Croix Trinidad S S E R ANTILLE S GR E ATE R ANTILLE S 20° 5° at 15N = 535 km (863 mi) (750 nm) Virgin Islands Original

272

Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

2014-01-01

273

Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

Ford, M.

2012-12-01

274

Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin

2006-02-01

275

Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2006-02-15

276

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

2010-12-01

277

Western Hellenic subduction and Cephalonia Transform: local earthquakes and plate transport and strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal parameters of local earthquakes in the region of the Ionian Islands of western Greece are constrained with a temporary dense array of three-component seismographs operated jointly offshore and onshore. Seismic deformation is documented to be confined to the east of the N20°E-striking steep continental slope west of Cephalonia island, the right-lateral Cephalonia Transform Fault, CTF, inferred from large earthquakes.

M. Sachpazi; A. Hirn; C. Clément; F. Haslinger; M. Laigle; E. Kissling; P. Charvis; Y. Hello; J.-C. Lépine; M. Sapin; J. Ansorge

2000-01-01

278

Bacular variation and allometry in the western marten Martes caurina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sexually-selected structures are variable and positively allometric relative to body size. For the western martenMartes caurina Merriam, 1890 from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, we investigated variation in the baculum compared with other bones\\u000a and allometry of bacular to body size. Carcass length did not differ, and humeral and mandibular lengths differed little (<\\u000a 1 and 2%, respectively), between age

Edward H. Miller; David W. Nagorsen

2008-01-01

279

LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

Sallenger, Jr. , Asbury, H.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John, R.

1987-01-01

280

Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results  

SciTech Connect

The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

None

2013-09-01

281

Microfluidic Western blotting.  

PubMed

Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10-60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

2012-12-26

282

Microfluidic Western blotting  

PubMed Central

Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10–60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

2012-01-01

283

Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

2014-02-01

284

When Might Barrier Island Chains 'Collapse'? An Initial Model Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been recent speculation that, in response to the accelerated sea-level rise and intensified storms expected over the coming century, barrier island chains such as those found on the US Atlantic and Gulf coastlines, could develop large (10-kilometer-scale) gaps in their most narrow stretches, or might disappear completely (Riggs, S. R., 2001). Such a collapse along the North Carolina Outer Banks barrier island chain, for example, would leave the mainland vulnerable to direct hits from Western Atlantic storm systems, and also would dramatically alter the estuarine system it encloses with potentially devastating effects to marine life. Concern for the future of the Outer Banks is also motivated by the decimation of the Chandeleur Islands in 2005 from Hurricane Katrina. We will present a series of initial numerical modeling experiments addressing how barrier island morphodynamics respond to the sudden creation of kilometer-scale gaps. Large-scale barrier island evolution is influenced by sea-level rise and barrier island overwash, alongshore sediment transport, tidal currents, and the availability of mobile sediment. Barrier islands transgress towards the mainland in response to sea-level rise through overwash: ocean-facing shorelines provide sediment that is transported onto the island to maintain its subaerial height and behind the island to maintain its width, while gradients in alongshore sediment transport typically dictate the large-scale shape of a coastline over long time frames (decades to millenia). Tidal currents also tend to scour inlet channels; the relative strength of this effect depends in part upon the width of the inlet channel. Our exploratory model includes both a one-line alongshore transport component and a cross-shore overwash component, as well as representations of underlying geology (weathering rates and material compositions). In our modeling experiments, we test the effects of perforating a 30 km barrier island chain with variable-sized gaps, ranging between 2.5-10 km. In preliminary model experiments, where we do not limit the availability of mobile sediment nor include tidal inlet dynamics, large gaps tend to close under all of the erosion rate scenarios and gap sizes. The ends of barrier islands extend to fill in the gaps and recurve landward. The rate of closure of gaps is unaffected by sea-level rise rates even under the most extreme cases; alongshore sediment fluxes exceed those associated with sea-level rise as highly curved isolated islands migrate rapidly landward before coalescing into an island chain again at a new location. In a natural setting, the overwash and spit-growth that maintain sub-aerial islands and tend to knit them back together (respectively) could be inhibited by a lack of mobile sediment. The shoreface of the Outer Banks, for example, consists of sometimes patchy Holocene sands perched atop a semi-lithified, sometimes more muddy Pleistocene substrate. Weathering of the Pleistocene substrate over long timescales generates mobile sediment consisting of both sands and muds. The fine-grained material, however, is typically lost to the nearshore system. The shoreface may not be able to weather fast enough to keep up with rapidly migrating islands. This effect, combined with that of substrate composition, will tend to limit the rate that sediment can be liberated, and, in turn, could prevent island-chain recovery. We conduct a series of model experiments to determine the combinations of geological parameters (weathering rates, composition) and forcing parameters (rate of sea-level rise, frequency of storms) that prevent barrier-island-chain recovery.

Slott, J. M.; Murray, A. B.

2007-12-01

285

Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic, earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

2013-12-01

286

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

287

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

288

Charge Islands Through Tunneling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

Robinson, Daryl C.

2002-01-01

289

Kodiak Island, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

2002-01-01

290

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that âÂÂâ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

291

Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

2013-05-01

292

August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

2010-01-01

293

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion Numbers are Low Sylvie Guénette1,2 , Sheila J.J. Heymans1 lions since the late 1970s in the central and western Aleutian Islands. We also sought to understand why

294

INTERBREEDING OF THE GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL AND WESTERN GULL IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fifth edition of the A.O.U. Check-list (1957) states that the Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens} breeds from western Alaska south to Copalis Rocks, Washington. In the southern part of its breeding range (Vancouver Island to Copalis Rocks) it is sympatfic with the northernmost populations of the Western Gull (L. occiden- talis} (Pearse, 1946; Jewett et al., 1953). In the summers

J. Michael Scott

1971-01-01

295

The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in western Lake Erie  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine whether biota in western Lake Erie are exposed to elevated concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors collected biota along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie and determined concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebra mussels, and levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile of freshwater drum and gizzard shad. In addition, they deployed semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) at various locations along this corridor to monitor for PAHs in water. PAHs were elevated in SPMDs and zebra mussels from the Detroit River, and PAH concentrations declined from west to east in Lake Erie. There were elevated levels of bile FACs in drum and gizzard shad from highly contaminated regions of the Detroit River. These data are consistent with the Detroit River being a significant source of PAH contamination in western Lake Erie. Since the ratios of concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in zebra mussels did not vary throughout the study area, it appears that both classes of aromatic contaminants are distributed by similar mechanisms throughout western Lake Erie.

Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Koenig, B.G. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program; Haffner, G.D. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Great Lakes Inst.

1995-12-31

296

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista  

E-print Network

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara P. P´erez-Lantero § J. Urrutia¶ I S is called an island of S, if I is the intersection of S and a convex set C. In this paper we give an O(n3 )-time algorithm to find a monochromatic island of maximum cardinality. Our approach also optimizes other

Urrutia, Jorge

297

The origin of the western Lake Erie grooves, Ohio: implications for reconstructing the subglacial hydrology of the Great Lakes sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streamlined grooves and s-forms cover the western Lake Erie Islands, Ohio, as well as the channels between the islands, and the adjacent mainland. Although previous interpretations advocate direct glacial ice erosion, we offer the alternative interpretation that forms were eroded by meltwater, specifically by plucking, sediment abrasion, and cavitation in high velocity, sediment-laden flows. We base our arguments on detailed

Mandy J. Munro-Stasiuk; Timothy G. Fisher; Christopher R. Nitzsche

2005-01-01

298

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

299

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

300

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

301

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

302

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.  

PubMed

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies. PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

2010-06-01

303

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

PubMed Central

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2012-01-01

304

Western Aeronautical Test Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

Sakahara, Robert D.

2008-01-01

305

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

306

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

307

Pathogenicity islands: the tip of the iceberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity islands represent distinct genetic elements encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenicity islands belong to the class of genomic islands, which are common genetic elements sharing a set of unifying features. Genomic islands have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In recent years many different genomic islands have been discovered in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic

Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2001-01-01

308

Three Mile Island assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the accident which occurred at Three Mile Island Unit Two (TMI-2) near Middletown, Pennsylvania, including the radioactivity released, consequences of off-site releases, and subsequent cleanup activities. Population dose estimates are presented from exposure to ⁸⁸Kr, ¹³³Xe, \\/sup 133m\\/Xe, ¹³⁵Xe, \\/sup 135m\\/Xe, and ¹³¹I. Based on animal studies and careful calculations, the health effects group has determined that

Daniels

1983-01-01

309

Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

1988-01-01

310

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

311

Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

1992-01-01

312

Islands in the landscape  

E-print Network

The string theory landscape consists of many metastable de Sitter vacua, populated by eternal inflation. Tunneling between these vacua gives rise to a dynamical system, which asymptotically settles down to an equilibrium state. We investigate the effects of sinks to anti-de Sitter space, and show how their existence can change probabilities in the landscape. Sinks can disturb the thermal occupation numbers that would otherwise exist in the landscape and may cause regions that were previously in thermal contact to be divided into separate, thermally isolated islands.

T. Clifton; Andrei Linde; Navin Sivanandam

2007-01-10

313

Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S. health care policies…

McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

1998-01-01

314

Do 'Quiet' Places Make Animals Placid? Island vs. Mainland Tiger Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most animals that possess potent venom display a wide variety of warning messages to discourage predators. Tiger snakes are large and highly venomous elapids that exhibit these anti-predator behaviours. We compared the anti- predator behaviours of two neighbouring and genetically indistinguishable populations in Western Australia (Herdsman Lake, HL and Carnac Island, CI). CI is free from human, native and feral

X. Bonnet; F. Aubret; O. Lourdais; M. Ladyman; D. Bradshaw; S. Maumelat

2005-01-01

315

77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National...using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species...or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the coral reef ecosystem...

2012-02-29

316

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

317

Tornadoes and waterspouts in the Balearic Islands: phenomena and environment characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Balearic Islands, located in the Western Mediterranean, 27 tornadoes and 54 waterspouts have been recorded during the period 1989–1999. A climatology focusing, which focuses on path length, F-scale velocity, season and time of occurrence, is presented. September and October appear to be the months with the highest frequency of appearance. The environment in which thunderstorm producing tornadoes and

M. Gayà; V. Homar; R. Romero; C. Ramis

2001-01-01

318

? 13 C stratigraphy of the Proterozoic Bylot Supergroup, Baffin Island, Canada: implications for regional lithostratigraphic correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bylot Supergroup, northern Baffin Island, contains >1500 m of platform, shelf, and slope carbonates deposited between ?1270 and ?723 Ma. Limited chronostratigraphic data have led to the broad correlation of the Bylot Supergroup with predominantly Neoproterozoic successions in northern and western Laurentia; yet, detailed correlation has been impossible given biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic limitations. Carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy represents a potential dataset

Linda C. Kah; Anne G. Sherman; Guy M. Narbonne; Andrew H. Knoll; Alan J. Kaufman

1999-01-01

319

IDEOLOGY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AFTER AD 1778  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretations of European and American contact with Oceania often highlight the rapid changes that took place in the technologies and practices of its traditional socie- ties. In the Hawaiian Islands, for example, many scholars have assumed that stone adzes were quickly replaced with metal adzes, and that such change was an inevitable con- sequence of a more efficient western technology.

James M. Bayman

320

Dissolved metal contamination in the East River–Long Island sound system: potential biological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cu and Pb), inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4), and chlorophyll a was measured along a 55 mile transect from the East River into western and central Long Island Sound. The main objectives of this study were to determine the relative levels of contamination from sewage, and to assess its possible biological impact on

Alison Sweeney; Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

2004-01-01

321

PRIBILOF ISLAND ALEUT COMMUNITY St. George Island / Traditional Council  

E-print Network

PRIBILOF ISLAND ALEUT COMMUNITY 01 St. George Island / Traditional Council P.O. BOX 940 ST. GEORGE Traditional Council is a federally recognized tribal government by the United States Government, and WHEREAS, the St. George Traditional Council is the governing body of the St. George Tribe, and WHEREAS

322

Open Sea -Cayman IslandsOpen Sea -Cayman Islands 0 50 100 150 20025  

E-print Network

Open Sea - Cayman IslandsOpen Sea - Cayman Islands 0 50 100 150 20025 Kilometers Cayman Islands Exclusive Economic Zone - Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Cuba Jamaica Honduras #12;Coral Reefs - Grand CaymanCoral Reefs - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity Action Plan www

Exeter, University of

323

Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure  

PubMed Central

High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

324

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

325

Western Europe's America Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

Markovits, Andrei S.

2007-01-01

326

Western Policy Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

2009-01-01

327

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

328

Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Islander Americans Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life ... the disease. PDF Version (1,036 KB) * Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Diabetes (from the Office on ...

329

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

2014-07-01

330

40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and...

2014-07-01

331

Development of the western Idaho ultramafic belt  

SciTech Connect

The 164-mile-long western Idaho ultramafic belt contains small bodies of dunite, serpentinite, metaharzburgite, and clinopyroxenite that mainly lie near the suture zone joining the Blue Mountains island arc accreted terrane and the pre-Cretaceous continental crust. The main ultramafic areas are: (1) in the Cuddy Mountain-Sturgill Peak region, where sheared serpentinite occurs along a high-angle reverse fault zone between two subterranes of the Blue Mountain terrane, (2) in the New Meadows tectonic block where dunites, harzburgites, and chromitites occur with metamorphosed cherts, greywackes, and exhalative rocks, (3) near Riggins where serpentinite occurs in metasedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic-age Riggins Group, (4) in the South Fork Clearwater River region where anthophyllite metaharzburgites and Cr-rich clinopyroxenites are enclosed within gneissic equivalents of the Riggins Group and in Cretaceous-age felsic plutonic rocks, and (5) in the Lowell-Kamiah-Dworshak Reservoir region where additional anthophyllite metaharzburgites occur in Proterozoic-age metasedimentary rocks. After the ultramafic rocks were formed, plate convergence led to their obduction onto the Mesozoic margin of North America. Compression accompanying the docking of the Blue Mountains island arc and then the emplacement of the Idaho batholith metamorphosed most of the ultramafic bodies to the greenschist and amphibolite facies and remobilized them along faults to their present locations within host rocks of widely varying ages.

Bonnichsen, B. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Idaho Geological Survey); Godchaux, M.M. (Mount Holyoke Coll., South Hadley, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

332

Solar energy for Beaver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beaver Island is the largest of a string of islands extending into Lake Michigan from Michigan's upper peninsula. About 12 miles long and 5 miles across at its widest point, it has been permanently inhabited for over 150 years. It presently has about 350 year-round residents, but the population swells to over 1500 in the summer. In the fall of

Heins

2009-01-01

333

Ellis Island: The Immigrants' Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson where the students participate in a simulation of the process at Ellis Island in order to understand the feelings people underwent during immigration. Explains that the students choose and research a character, either fictional or a relative, and act out the experience of entering Ellis Island. (CMK)

Koman, Rita G.

1999-01-01

334

Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become a paragon for prehistoric human induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse. A popular narrative recounts an obsession for monumental statuary that led to the island's ecological devastation and the collapse of the ancient civilization. Scholars offer this story as a parable of today's global environmental problems. In this paper, I review new and emerging

Terry L. Hunt

2007-01-01

335

Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the

K. Garbesi; H. Akbari; P. Martien

1989-01-01

336

The Theory of Island Biogeography  

E-print Network

The Theory of Island Biogeography Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson The young biologists" dominated by the collection of data. In The Theory of Island Biogeography they set out to change that by devel- oping a general mathema- tical theory that would make sense of a key ecological problem

Landweber, Laura

337

Volcanic Island Appears Near Tonga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volcano known as Home Reef is now believed to be the source of a small island that appeared recently in Tonga, accordingto scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program who had initially placed the location of the eruption and resulting island at nearby Metis Shoal. Mariners onboard the yacht Maiken

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

338

Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuerteventura is the oldest island in the Canaries archipelago; following the growth of a pre-Miocene seamount, its shield stage began 20.6 Ma ago, and ended in the mid-Miocene. There followed a very extended period of quiescence, then very minor Quaternary post-erosional volcanism. The shield stage produced volcanoes up to 3000 m above sea level which were rapidly eroded by 17.5 Ma. Both Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, the older eastern-most islands, are in a post-erosional stage and have subdued topography with elevations rarely rising above 400 m. The western islands, La Palma and El Hierro, together with Tenerife, are the youngest in the archipelago, and are still in their shield stage which began at most 7.5 Ma ago. They have a rugged topography with peaks rising to several thousand metres. Volcanic activity persists in these islands and in Lanzarote. The shield-stage construction of the volcanically active western islands demonstrates that recent eruptive activity has concentrated in volcanic centres aligned in well-defined rift zones in which major dyke emplacement has taken place, and that volcano flank collapse has occurred with giant landslides initiated on the rifts. In Fuerteventura, most of the shield-stage volcanic rocks have been removed; however, evidence has now been advanced to show that major dyke swarms were emplaced in the Oligocene and Miocene. These belonged to a line of intrusive complexes above which, by the early to mid-Miocene, volcanic peaks had been constructed. Three volcanic centres have been identified and in the central one, a peak as high as the present Mount Teide on Tenerife was rapidly denuded in less than 2 Ma. In the west of the island, this erosion has exposed a window of more than 300 km 2 of submarine volcanics and sediments belonging to the pre-shield phase seamount. The principal mechanism of erosion seems to have been the generation of giant landslides analogous to those seen in the younger islands. These appear to have removed some 3500 km 3 of lavas and volcaniclastics, stripping the western sectors of the Miocene volcanoes down to the pre-shield phase "Basal Complex", and transporting the mass of volcanic material into the Atlantic ocean as debris flows. Remnants of the shield volcanoes still exist in the eastern part of the island. Present day topographic variation indicates that the Miocene base level of erosion is still visible in a "Central Depression" which runs through the axis of the island, the eastern hills are composed of the Miocene shield-stage volcanics which still preserve a drainage pattern initiated on these peaks, and the "Basal Complex" in the west has a juvenile landscape suggesting incision on a post-Miocene domal uplift of the volcano core. Structural links between intra-island volcano-tectonic events and the South Atlas Fault zone are not thought to be likely.

Stillman, C. J.

1999-12-01

339

Rapid tectonic exhumation, detachment faulting and orogenic collapse in the Caledonides of western Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision of the oceanic Lough Nafooey Island Arc with the passive margin of Laurentia after 480 Ma in western Ireland resulted in the deformation, magmatism and metamorphism of the Grampian Orogeny, analogous to the modern Taiwan and Miocene New Guinea Orogens. After ?470 Ma, the metamorphosed Laurentian margin sediments (Dalradian Supergroup) now exposed in Connemara and North Mayo were cooled

Peter D. Clift; John F. Deweysupbs; Amy E. Draut; David M. Chew; Maria Mange; Paul D Ryan

2004-01-01

340

Overlap in Offshore Habitat Use by Double-crested Cormorants and Boaters in Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (? 8 m and>8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting\\/loafing area for cormorants (“refuge”), (2) reefs or

Martin A. Stapanian; Michael T. Bur

2002-01-01

341

The bog landforms of continental western Canada in relation to climate and permafrost patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continental western Canada, discontinuous permafrost is almost always restricted to ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs). Bogs occur mostly as islands or peninsulas in large, often complex fens or are confined to small basins. Permafrost may be present in extensive peat plateaus (or more locally as palsas) and was preceded by a well-developed layer of Sphagnum that served to insulate the peat

D. H. Vitt; L. A. Halsey; S. C. Zoltai

1994-01-01

342

Status and Genetic Structure of Nesting Populations of Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of researchers, managers, and tribal leaders with extensive local knowledge from Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua, Indonesia, provided new information on the status of leatherback nesting populations in the western Pacific Ocean. Twenty- eight nesting sites were identified, of which 21 were previously unknown or poorly described. Although data are still incomplete, we estimate a

Peter H. Dutton; Creusa Hitipeuw; Mohammad Zein; Scott R. Benson; George Petro; John Pita; Vagi Rei; Levi Ambio; Jacob Bakarbessy

2007-01-01

343

New evidence from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the resubmergence of Bering Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread molluscan samples were collected from raised marine sediments to date the last retreat of the NW Laurentide Ice Sheet from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the head of Mercy Bay, northern Banks Island, deglacial mud at the modern coast contains Hiatella arctica and Portlandia arctica bivalves, as well as Cyrtodaria kurriana, previously unreported for this area. Multiple H.

John H. England; Mark F. A. Furze

2008-01-01

344

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

345

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

346

Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

Talavera, Maria; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

2013-01-01

347

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

theory; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; educationFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada Assistant or Associate Professor in Educational Leadership The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for a full

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

348

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

theory; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; educationFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada Assistant or Associate Professor in Educational Leadership The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for two full

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

349

Different fates of island brooms: contrasting evolution in Adenocarpus, Genista, and Teline (Genisteae, Fabaceae) in the Canary Islands and Madeira.  

PubMed

Analysis of sequence data from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 5.8S region of nuclear ribosomal DNA show that Canarian and Madeiran brooms (Genisteae) of the genera Teline, Adenocarpus, and Genista are related to Mediterranean species and not to species from adjacent parts of Morocco. Each separate colonization of the islands has resulted in contrasting patterns of adaptation and radiation. The genus Teline is polyphyletic, with both groups (the "T. monspessulana group" and the "T. linifolia group") separately nested within Genista. Genista benehoavensis (La Palma) and G. tenera (Madeira) form, with G. tinctoria of Europe, a single clade characterized by vestigially arillate seeds. The Canarian species of Adenocarpus have almost identical sequence to the Mediterranean A. complicatus and are likely to be the result of island speciation after a very recent colonization event. This Canarian/Mediterranean A. complicatus group is sister to the afrotropical montane A. mannii which is probably derived from an earlier colonization from the Mediterranean, possibly via the Red Sea hills. The independent colonization and subsequent radiation of the two Teline groups in the Canary Islands make an interesting comparison: the phylogenies both show geographical structuring, each with a central and western island division of taxa. Within the "T. monspessulana group" there is some evidence that both continental and Madeiran taxa could be derived from the Canary Islands, although it is likely that near contemporaneous speciation occurred via rapid colonization of the mainland and islands. The finding of two groups within Teline also has implications for patterns of hybridization in those parts of the world where Teline species are invasive; in California members of the T. monspessulana group hybridize readily, but no hybrids have been recorded with T. linifolia which has been introduced in the same areas. PMID:21665686

Percy, Diana M; Cronk, Quentin C B

2002-05-01

350

Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

351

Muklu Island. [Muklu Island is an artificial island used as an offshore drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

Mukluk Island, emerging from 48 ft of water, is destined to become the largest and most expensive artificial island in the Alaska Beaufort Sea. The field is believed to contain geologic structures similar to those at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska's megagiant oil field to the southeast. After completion Mukluk will measure 350 ft above water. Five test wells will drill to determine the structures reserves.

Not Available

1983-10-01

352

Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

2014-09-01

353

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

354

Allelopathic potential of western bracken  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory studies, water-soluble extracts from senescent western bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn var.pubescens Underw.) fronds reduced germination of western thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus Nutt.) and delayed germination of salmonberry (R. spectabilis Pursh.), but did not affect Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). In greenhouse studies, unincorporated western bracken litter reduced emergence of all three species but did not influence root

R. E. Stewart

1975-01-01

355

Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview of Kos'ko et al. (1993, Geol. Surv.Canada Bull. 461). In 2006, an international team of geologists (S.Sokolov, M.Tuchkova, V.Verzhbitsky, E.Miller and V.Pease) visited the island with the help and logistic support of the director and scientific staff of the Wrangel Island Wildlife Preserve. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed and metamorphosed, but may match part of the section described for the Hannah Trough, Alaska (Sherwood et al., 2002 GSA Spec.Paper 360): Coarse clastic strata overlie late Precambrian basement (630-700 Ma Kos'ko et al. (1993)), followed by a succession of mid to Late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks. Wrangel Island differs from the N.Slope and Brooks Range in that a thick sequence of basinal Triassic clastics constitutes the upper part of the section. Comparison of single grain U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Triassic of Wrangel to the Russian Arctic mainland and to the Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity and similar source regions between these three regions (but not the N. Slope) in the Triassic. Single grain ages as young as 215 Ma validate the inferred Triassic age of these sediments on Wrangel Island. Penetrative deformation, increasing in strain and metamorphic grade with depth in the section, is defined by a foliation that dips south and a pronounced N-S mineral elongation or stretching lineation. The structural style of deformation is unlike the style of folding and thrusting in the external (northern) part of the Brooks Range, but similar to that of the internal (southern) zone of the Brooks Range. Limited thin section observations suggest that this deformation may have been superimposed on an earlier, lower strain event but its evidence has been largely obliterated. The main foliation is axial planar to tight to isoclinal folds in all units; these folds (and associated thrust faults) intricately involve the sediment-basement interface (no brittle detachment). Low-angle faults and map-scale boudinage omit section and structurally thin the stack of folded rocks. Low greenschist facies metamorphism (chlorite-white mica) transitional to mid-greenschist (biotite) accompanied deformation. Fifteen oriented thin sections show that the high strain in these rocks was accompanied by formation of mylonitic textures in quartz: subgrain formation, grain size reduction, grain boundary migration and syn-tectonic recrystallization. Fabrics indicate mostly flattening perpendicular to foliation and stretching in a NS direction; they are not highly asymmetric. The excellent preservation of deformation-related structures in quartz suggests that the observed deformation may be related to unroofing rather than to (thrust) burial. Apatite fission track ages from structurally deepest crystalline basement rocks (samples provided by M. Cecile, GSC) are 82.9 +/- 6.7 and 82.5 +/- 6.4 Ma (1 sigma errors) and have relatively long (14 micron) unimodal track lengths, supporting this possibility.

Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.; Soloviev, A.

2007-12-01

356

Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

357

Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

358

Topographic enhancement of tidal motion in the western Barents Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-resolution numerical lattice is used to study a topographically trapped motion around islands and shallow banks of the western Barents Sea caused both by the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves. Observations and model computations in the vicinity of Bear Island show well-developed trapped motion with distinctive tidal oscillatory motion. Numerical investigations demonstrate that one source of the trapped motion is tidal current rectification over shallow topgraphy. Tidal motion supports residual currents of the order of 8 cm/s around Bear Island and shallow Spitsbergenbanken. The structures of enhanced tidal currents for the semidiurnal components are generated in the shallow areas due to topographic amplification. In the diurnal band of oscillations the maximum current is associated with the shelf wave occurrence. Residual currents due to diurnal tides occur at both the shallow areas and the shelf slope in regions of maximum topographic gradients. Surface manifestation of the diurnal current enhancement is the local maximum of tidal amplitude at the shelf break of the order of 5 to 10 cm. Tidal current enhancement and tidally generated residual currents in the Bear Island and Spitsbergenabanken regions cause an increased generation of ice leads, ridges and, trapped motion of the ice floes.

Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. YU.

1995-01-01

359

Long-term (17 Ma) turbidite record of the timing and frequency of large flank collapses of the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

turbidites on the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of large-volume volcanic island flank collapses from the Canary Islands. This long-term record spans 17 Ma, and comprises 125 volcaniclastic beds. Determining the timing, provenance and volumes of these turbidites provides key information about the occurrence of mass wasting from the Canary Islands, especially the western islands of Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. These turbidite records demonstrate that landslides often coincide with protracted periods of volcanic edifice growth, suggesting that loading of the volcanic edifices may be a key preconditioning factor for landslide triggers. Furthermore, the last large-volume failures from Tenerife coincide with explosive volcanism at the end of eruptive cycles. Many large-volume Canary Island landslides also occurred during periods of warmer and wetter climates associated with sea-level rise and subsequent highstand. However, these turbidites are not serially dependent and any association with climate or sea level change is not statistically significant.

Hunt, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Clare, M. A.; Jarvis, I.; Wynn, R. B.

2014-08-01

360

Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

2013-04-01

361

Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices  

E-print Network

Highlights Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices Notes from the Office Manners, Culture, & Grammar TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! Islands of Adventure is a theme park in Orlando: The cost of transportation is $20 for a seat on the bus. Islands of Adventure tickets cost $92. What

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

362

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Theme Park at the Universal Studios Orlando Resort. Islands of Adventure is a wonderful world of fantasyHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun This Saturday, February 7th, the ELI is headed to Islands of Adventure

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

363

Long Island Solar Farm Project Overview  

E-print Network

and construct arrays ~ 2 years of output (88,000 MWh equivalent) Long Island Solar Farm #12;Other PollutantsLong Island Solar Farm #12;Project Overview The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a 32-megawatt solar photovoltaic power plant built through a collaboration including BP Solar, the Long Island Power

Ohta, Shigemi

364

Further evidence for the Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Makronisos lies ~3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion and is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The geology of the Cyclades and the adjacent part of Attica is dominated by low-angle detachments caused by Miocene top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the Western Cycladic Detachment System in this area. Although extension is well documented both in the other islands of the Western Cyclades and on the Attica mainland, the geology of Makronisos is very poorly known, due to its historical background, and is a "missing link" in the area. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the tectonostratigraphic position of Makronisos in relation to the other Western Cycladic islands. Most of Makronisos consists of schists interlayed with blue-grey (mylonitic) marbles, with quartzites forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasite outcrops are present as small bodies along the east side of the island and are massively developed in the southeast. All thin-sections made of metabasites, from the whole length of the island, contain blue amphiboles, although often only as relicts after retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The tectonostratigraphically highest level of the island consists of white to pale-reddish ultramylonites, of up to ~40 meter thickness. These are mainly located on the ridge of the island, but also, due to large-scale upright folding, along the coast. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 metres of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and shear criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analysis shows the same consistent shear-sense. The available data suggest that Makronisos underwent a similar geological history as the Western Cyclades to the SW and that the detachment mapped is a component of the Western Cycladic Detachment System, with the white to pale-red ultramylonites forming the uppermost part of the footwall. We are conducting low-temperature thermochronology and expect late Miocene cooling ages preserved in the footwall assemblages, consistent with ages reported for Kea and on Attica.

Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Neville Rice, Alexander Hugh; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

2013-04-01

365

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

366

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2005 ­ May 31, 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by Christopher N. Elkinton Anthony L. Rogers Anthony F. Ellis

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

367

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2004 ­ February 28, 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Anthony F. Ellis April 13, 2005 Renewable Energy Research Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

368

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by James F. Manwell Anthony F. Ellis Christopher N. Elkinton

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

369

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by James F. Manwell Anthony F. Ellis Christopher N. Elkinton

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

370

No Company Is An Island  

E-print Network

No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

Maddox, A.

371

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Halbert, Massy; Lyon, Jim; Yasutake, Mike; Lyon

372

Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island biogeography K. C. Burns1,2 *, Jenny Berg1 , Ada Bialynicka-Birula1 , Sabrina Kratchmer1 in a temperate island archipelago. The theory of island biogeography (ToIB) predicts that island area affects

373

URBAN HEAT ISLAND  

E-print Network

We are all familiar with the fact that cities are generally warmer than the surrounding, more rural areas. We see it referenced most nights in our television weather reports. It is especially significant on nights with clear skies and light winds which favor radiational cooling. This is most significant in the rural areas but in the city, the excess heat absorbed during the day and the local heat sources maintain higher nighttime readings. During the days or nights with strong winds and clouds the differences are minimized due to mixing and the advective cooling of the city by the winds. Because of this relative warmth, a city may be referred to as an urban heat island. The reason the city is warmer than the country comes down to a difference between the energy gains and losses of each region. There are a number of factors that contribute to the relative warmth of cities according to Ackerman: During the day in rural areas, the solar energy absorbed near the ground evaporates water from the vegetation and soil. Thus, while there is a net solar energy gain, this is compensated to some degree by evaporative cooling. In cities, where there is less vegetation, the buildings, streets and sidewalks absorb the

unknown authors

374

URBAN HEAT ISLAND  

E-print Network

We are all familiar with the fact that cities are generally warmer than the surrounding, more rural areas. We see it referenced most nights in our television weather reports. It is especially significant on nights with clear skies and light winds which favor radiational cooling. This is most significant in the rural areas but in the city, the excess heat absorbed during the day and the local heat sources maintain higher nighttime readings. During the days or nights with strong winds and clouds the differences are minimzed due to mixing and the advective cooling of the city by the winds. Because of this relative warmth, a city may be referred to as an urban heat island. The reason the city is warmer than the country comes down to a difference between the energy gains and losses of each region. There are a number of factors that contribute to the relative warmth of cities according to Ackerman: During the day in rural areas, the solar energy absorbed near the ground evaporates water from the vegetation and soil. Thus, while there is a net solar energy gain, this is compensated to some degree by evaporative cooling. In cities, where there is less vegetation, the buildings, streets and sidewalks absorb the

unknown authors

375

Urban heat islands in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 1954–1983 surface temperature from 42 Chinese urban (average population 1.7*106) and rural (average population 1.5*105) station pairs to study the urban heat island effects. Despite the fact that the rural stations are not true rural stations, the magnitude of the heat islands was calculated to average 0.23 °C over the thirty-year period with a minimum value during the

Wei-Chyung Wang; Zhaomei Zengl; Thomas R. Karl

1990-01-01

376

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115

D. S. Holland; D. R. Lammlein; J. B. Leedy

1988-01-01

377

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

378

Western Water Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

379

Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

Varekamp, J.C.; Bucholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

2000-01-01

380

Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's second Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) site in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region was established on the island of Nauru as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Analysis of data taken during the Nauru99 intensive field experiment indicated that the cloud and radiation measurements at the ARCS site were being affected by a cloud plume, which was induced by the island due to diurnal heating relative to the ocean and the predominantly easterly flow of the tradewinds. The Nauru Island Effects Study (NIES) was developed to identify times when the island cloud effect occurs and to quantify the effect on the ARCS measurements. The Nauru cloud plume is found to be highly correlated with surface wind direction. During suppressed conditions the plume heading is predominantly to the west because of the consistency of the easterly trade winds. During El Nino conditions, the cloud plume can occur with almost any heading due to the variability of the surface winds. During suppressed conditions the cloud plume was observed in 60% of the visible satellite images after 10:30 LST. During active conditions, the plume was observed in only 25% of the satellite images and only half of the observed plumes were downwind of the ARCS site. This study indicates that the absolute increase in low cloud frequency due to the cloud plume is on the order of 10% and the effect of the cloud plume on the average daily surface radiation is around 50-60 wm. By installing a simple measurement platform consisting of surface meteorological instruments and a global shortwave radiometer at a site on the opposite side of the island, the effect of the cloud plume on the radiation field at the ARCS site can be quantified on a long term basis.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Donna M.

2005-07-01

381

Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified in eight cores at higher tidal and freshwater sites, date from about 1.5 ka and 2.0 ka, respectively. A younger silty sand bed, <10 cm beneath the now-eroding low marsh around the lagoon, may record the 1964 tsunami. Correlations of two to three other sandy beds are too uncertain to infer their deposition by tsunamis. Stratigraphic contacts found only in cores and outcrops of the <0.8- to 1-ka tidal section fringing the lagoon may mark coseismic uplift (peat over tidal mud, sometimes with intervening sand) or subsidence (tidal mud over peat, sometimes with intervening sand). We collected samples of modern tidal foraminifera along three elevational transects for the baseline dataset needed to use fossil assemblages to measure the amount of uplift or subsidence recorded by contacts. Foraminiferal assemblages above and below one contact confirm rapid uplift a few hundred years before the 1788 tsunami, but cores are too few to correlate this contact with any of the sandy beds that we infer were deposited by tsunamis farther inland. These initial results demonstrate the promise of this previously unexplored island and similar sites for using stratigraphic evidence of sudden land-level changes and high tsunamis to map prehistoric ruptures of the Aleutian-Alaskan megathrust.

Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

2012-12-01

382

Seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-I infection in French Polynesia, Cook Islands and Fiji.  

PubMed

Different population groups of French Polynesia, Cook Islands and Fiji were screened for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) antibodies. Among 1487 individuals sampled in French Polynesia, twelve were considered Western Blot (WB) indeterminate and one was considered WB-positive for HTLV-I infection. This positive subject originated from France and was a blood donor. Out of 196 Polynesians of the Cook Islands, one was WB-indeterminate. Among populations sampled in Fiji, one of 222 Melanesians was found WB-indeterminate and one of 211 Indians was WB-indeterminate. PMID:8405324

Chungue, E; Boutin, J P; Le Marchand, L; Philippon, G; Le Guellec, A; Chanteau, S; Cartel, J L; Gras, C; Martin, P M; Roux, J F

1993-05-01

383

Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

2014-09-01

384

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

385

Western Regional Climate Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of six regional climate centers in the United States, the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) was created in 1986. The WRCC is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and is overseen by the National Climatic Data Center. Covering the area from Colorado to the boundary of the continental US (along with the states of Hawaii and Alaska), this website is a true trove of valuable historical climate information and current atmospheric observations and frequently updated forecasts. Along with providing information for scientists and researchers, the site also has a number of educational pages for teachers and young people. Here they can find answers to common questions about climate change and learn about some basic terms and definitions in the field of climatology. The site is rounded out with a nice selection of material about current projects sponsored by the WRCC, including the Yucca Mountain climate data project and a webcam view from its headquarters in Reno.

386

Propagation of Big Island eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using satellite altimetry data, we have observed a series of anticyclonic eddies as they form at the Big Island of Hawaii and have tracked them as they move away from the island. While similar eddies have been observed near the Hawaiian Islands in previous studies, the fate of the anticyclonic eddies has previously been unclear. The eddies that we observed initially propagated to the southwest but consistently changed propagation direction to the northwest later in their lifetimes. This was intriguing to us, as theoretically, the decay of isolated anticyclonic eddies on a ? plane should cause them to continually move toward the southwest. Such isolated eddy dynamics are unable to account for the observed change to northwestward eddy propagation, and the presence of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current turns out to be important to the Big Island eddy dynamics. The eddies are not passively advected by the North Equatorial Current; rather, the mean flow changes the propagation characteristics of the eddies. An existing theory that includes meridionally varying, purely zonal mean flow is shown to account for the observed propagation of the Big Island eddies if the zonal variation of the mean flow is considered.

Holland, Christina L.; Mitchum, Gary T.

2001-01-01

387

ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

2005-01-01

388

The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

Matsumoto, Kazuko

2010-01-01

389

Birds, Broom, Bunnies, and Biplanes: Conserving a Remnant Population of Coastal Vesper Sparrows at the Nanaimo Airport, Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Abstract: The coastal vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus affinis) forms a disjunct population of the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), and breeds from southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia (B.C.) south through western Washington and Oregon to the extreme northwest of California (Beauchesne 2003). This subspecies was probably never common in British Columbia, and it is assumed that prior to European settlement,

TRUDY CHATWIN

2004-01-01

390

A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

391

Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes  

PubMed Central

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

2014-01-01

392

The American Experience: Coney Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before Lawrence Ferlinghetti entitled his famous book of Beat poems A Coney Island of the Mind, the amusement park located on "a tiny spit of land at the foot of Brooklyn, NY" had come to represent a quintessential American desire for mechanized, manic fun. This companion site to the PBS airing this week of the American Experience provides a history of the amusement park, a substantial essay on the history of roller coasters, an enhanced transcript of the broadcast (available July 26), a gallery of Coney Island images, historical film clips of the park in action, a teacher's guide (which was not yet available when we visited), and an essay comparing Coney Island to the Internet. Watch out for that first hyperlink!

393

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

394

Rotating Accelerator-Mode Islands  

E-print Network

The existence of rotating accelerator-mode islands (RAIs), performing quasiregular motion in rotational resonances of order $m>1$ of the standard map, is firmly established by an accurate numerical analysis of all the known data. It is found that many accelerator-mode islands for relatively small nonintegrability parameter $K$ are RAIs visiting resonances of different orders $m\\leq 3$. For sufficiently large $K$, one finds also ``pure'' RAIs visiting only resonances of the {\\em same} order, $m=2$ or $m=3$. RAIs, even quite small ones, are shown to exhibit sufficient stickiness to produce an anomalous chaotic transport. The RAIs are basically different in nature from accelerator-mode islands in resonances of the ``forced'' standard map which was extensively studied recently in the context of quantum accelerator modes.

Oded Barash; Itzhack Dana

2006-12-24

395

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

396

CLARK'S GREBE IN WESTERN WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until 1985, when the two taxa were formally split by the American Ornithologists' Union (1985), Clark's Grebe (Aechmophorus clarkii) was long considered conspecific with the Western Grebe (A. occidentalis). As field identification of Clark's and Western Grebes can be difficult, the status and distribution of these species, particularly the less numerous Clark's, is still being worked out (cf. Marshall et

STEVEN G. MLODINOW

397

2014 State of Western's Assets  

SciTech Connect

In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

none,

2014-01-01

398

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

399

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; education financeFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for a full-time Limited-Term faculty position in the area of Educational

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

400

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

401

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

402

Pacific Islands The National Bycatch Report: Pacific Islands Region  

E-print Network

Reduction Success Stories Annual incidental take limits for two species of sea turtles (leatherback loggerhead and leatherback sea turtle bycatch. Circle hooks are also used by many participants in the Hawaii turtles) bycatch estimates were available for 2 fisheries and 23 species/groups in 2005. Pacific Islands

403

Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer-term comparisons (decadal) indicate that the beach is both widening and increasing in volume in the western study area (by 30-50%), which corresponds spatially to a persistent accretional cell that has been identified in current studies along this section of Fire Island.

Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

2007-12-01

404

STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

1993-01-01

405

Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages and Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Selected Plutonic Rocks from Western Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Across the Salmon River suture in western Idaho, where allochthonous Permian to Cretaceous oceanic rocks are juxtaposed against Proterozoic North American rocks, a wide variety of plutonic rocks are exposed. Available data indicate much variation in composition, source, and structural state of these plutons. The plutonic rocks were long described as the western border zone of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith but limited pre-existing age data indicate more complicated origins. Because the affinity and age of the plutonic rocks cannot be reliably determined from field relations, TIMS U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic studies of selected plutons across the suture in western Idaho were undertaken. The data indicate three general groups of plutons including (1) those that intruded the island arc terranes during the Triassic and Jurassic, those that intruded near the western edge of oceanic rocks along the suture in the Early Cretaceous, and the plutons of the Idaho batholith that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks in the Late Cretaceous. Plutons that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks commonly include xenocrystic zircons and in several cases, ages could not be determined. The least radiogenic Sr and most radiogenic Nd are found among the Blue Mountains superterrane island arc samples. Suture-zone plutons have isotopic characteristics that span the range between Idaho batholith and island arc samples but mostly follow island arc signatures. Plutons of the Idaho batholith have the most radiogenic initial Pb and Sr ratios and the least radiogenic Nd of the samples analyzed.

Unruh, Daniel M.; Lund, Karen; Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

2008-01-01

406

Basal ice facies and supraglacial melt-out till of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacially-deformed massive ice and icy sediments (MI IS) in the Eskimo Lakes Fingerlands and Summer Island area of the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, show, in the same stratigraphic sequences, features characteristic of both basal glacier ice and intrasedimental ice. Basal-ice features comprise (1) ice facies and facies groupings similar to those from the basal ice layers of contemporary glaciers

J. B. Murton; C. A. Whiteman; R. I. Waller; W. H. Pollard; I. D. Clark; S. R. Dallimore

2005-01-01

407

Major changes in ice stream dynamics during deglaciation of the north-western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victoria Island lies at the north-western limit of the former North American (Laurentide) Ice Sheet in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and displays numerous cross-cutting glacial lineations. Previous work suggests that several ice streams operated in this region during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation and played a major role in ice sheet dynamics and the delivery of icebergs into the Arctic Ocean.

Chris R. Stokes; Chris D. Clark; Robert Storrar

2009-01-01

408

Phylogeography of surfclams, Spisula solidissima , in the western North Atlantic based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn), is broadly distributed in sandy sediments of the western North Atlantic between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Gulf of Mexico. In the United States, a substantial commercial fishery between Long Island and Cape Hatteras harvests offshore populations of one subspecies, S. s. solidissima. A smaller coastal form, S. s. similis Say (also

M. P. Hare; J. R. Weinberg

2005-01-01

409

Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of islands in the tropical western Pacific are coral atolls. Most are inhabited by indigenous Micronesian populations. Local people have over the millennia developed coping strategies and response mechanisms to difficult natural conditions, including typhoons, erosion, giant swells, and flooding, as well as ensuing famines and epidemics. However, since 1990s residents of atolls in the region have been

Danko Taborosi; Mojca Zega; John W. Jenson

2010-01-01

410

Age, Growth, Maturity, and Sex Composition of the American Smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), of Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 4,561 smelt collected in Chequamegon Bay, the Apostle Islands, the Brule River, and Superior Harbor, all in western Lake Superior. Commercial production in the Great Lakes (U. S. and Canada combined) reached a peak of nearly 16 million pounds in 1960. Production in Lake Superior has generally been small but increased during the 1950's to

Merryll M. Bailey

1964-01-01

411

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

412

Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... but they are twice as likely to have stomach cancer. Although Asian/Pacific Islander women are 30% less ... are almost three times as likely to have stomach cancer. Both Asian/Pacific Islander men and women have ...

413

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Pacific Islander individuals in the United States. States with the largest Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations in 2011 were Hawaii (359,000) and California (329,000) . The Native ...

414

Western Fuels Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Western Fuels, "an especially aggressive industry player," offers alternative interpretations of the threat of global warming and warn against unnecessary regulations on US industry. Recently, delegates from 160 countries commenced a ten day conference in Kyoto, Japan to agree on a strategy to cut the world's emissions of greenhouse gases, which are thought to cause global warming. Any agreement, however, will be difficult, as large divisions between nations were apparent even before the conference began. The two most important disagreements concern the amount of greenhouse gas cuts and the standards for developing nations. The European Union seeks a 15% cut in gases while the US government, lobbied hard by business groups, wants no reduction at all for at least ten years. The other major sticking point is whether developing countries should have to reach the same targets as the developed world, which is responsible for the vast majority of the emissions. Little progress is projected until the last phase of the conference, when senior representatives, including Vice-President Al Gore, arrive in Kyoto.

1997-01-01

415

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING OVERHANGS (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

416

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST CORNER FROM ACROSS TARMAC (12/25/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

417

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

418

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST SIDE SHOWING FLAG, GUN, ENGINES (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

419

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER FROM BEHIND CONTROL TOWER (12/28/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

420

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST AT WEST FAÇADE WITH SCALE POLE (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

421

75 FR 77889 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands have been designated as adversely...this major disaster: The island of St. Croix for Public Assistance. All islands in the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are eligible to...

2010-12-14

422

Canary Island great spotted woodpecker ( Dendrocopos major ) has distinct mtDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) genes to elucidate the phylogenetic status (genetic variation) of Canary Island populations\\u000a of great spotted woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) that are on the western fringe of the distribution range. Based on these two genes, differences are found between a clade\\u000a from the Canaries and

Eduardo Garcia-del-Rey; Guillermo Delgado; Javier Gonzalez; Michael Wink

2007-01-01

423

The effect of the Athens heat island on air conditioning load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the summer heat island of the western part of the Greater Athens area on cooling energy and peak power is investigated using the building energy estimating software DOE2.1.E [DOE2.1.E User's Guide, Lawrence Berkely Lab., CA, USA] and measured values of temperature and other meteorological data at selected sites. A very large difference between the cooling energy and

S. Hassid; M. Santamouris; N. Papanikolaou; A. Linardi; N. Klitsikas; C. Georgakis; D. N. Assimakopoulos

2000-01-01

424

Expansion of Canopy-Forming Willows Over the Twentieth Century on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy-forming shrubs are reported to be increasing at sites around the circumpolar Arctic. Our results indicate expansion\\u000a in canopy cover and height of willows on Herschel Island located at 70° north on the western Arctic coast of the Yukon Territory.\\u000a We examined historic photographs, repeated vegetation surveys, and conducted monitoring of long-term plots and found evidence\\u000a of increases of each

Isla H. Myers-Smith; David S. Hik; Catherine Kennedy; Dorothy Cooley; Jill F. Johnstone; Alice J. Kenney; Charles J. Krebs

2011-01-01

425

Contaminant Exposure and Biomarker Responses in Spectacled Eiders ( Somateria fischeri ) from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Effects of chemical contaminant exposure may be contributing to the decline of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) nesting in coastal areas of western Alaska. We evaluated chemical exposure and potential effects in 20 male eiders collected\\u000a near St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Analytes included metals, trace elements, chlorinated organics, and\\u000a 137Cesium (137Cs). Effects of contaminant exposure were evaluated using histopathology and

K. A. Trust; K. T. Rummel; A. M. Scheuhammer; I. L. Brisbin Jr.; M. J. Hooper

2000-01-01

426

Estuarine sediment transport by gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer, Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of sidescan-sonar imagery provides evidence that down-slope gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer\\u000a constitutes an important mode of transporting sediment into the basins of north-central Long Island Sound, a major US East\\u000a Coast estuary. In the Western Basin, this transport mechanism has formed dendritic drainage systems characterized by branching\\u000a patterns of low backscatter on the seafloor that exceed 7.4 km

L. J. Poppe; K. Y. McMullen; S. J. Williams; J. M. Crocker; E. F. Doran

2008-01-01

427

Observations on the birds of Kwajalein Atoll, including six new species records for the Marshall Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kwajalein is the largest atoll in the world and is located in the western chain of the Marshall Islands. As part of a team of biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I conducted bird surveys from 7-20 October 2004 on seven islets in Kwajalein Atoll that are leased by the U.S. Army. This proved to be exceptionally rich

ERIC A. VANDERWERF

428

Flooding of regular islands by chaotic states  

E-print Network

We introduce a criterion for the existence of regular states in systems with a mixed phase space. If this condition is not fulfilled chaotic eigenstates substantially extend into a regular island. Wave packets started in the chaotic sea progressively flood the island. The extent of flooding by eigenstates and wave packets increases logarithmically with the size of the chaotic sea and the time, respectively. This new effect can be observed for island chains with just 10 islands.

A. Bäcker; R. Ketzmerick; A. G. Monastra

2004-09-14

429

Islands geologi frn Tertir till recent  

E-print Network

1 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent #12;2 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent Erik Sturkell Framsidan: Riftzonen på norra Island. En graben som går igenom Dalfjall som ligger inom Kraflas vulkansystem. Bilden är tagen från riksväg 1 norrut. © Erik Sturkell #12;3 Innehållsförteckning Island i

Ingólfsson, �lafur

430

Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago  

E-print Network

Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara P. P´erez-Lantero § J, an island I(S, C) S is the inter- section of S and a convex region C. We study the problem of finding a maximal island according to cer- tain criterium. For instance, a largest monochromatic island I(S, C

Urrutia, Jorge

431

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

Kinsinger, Anne E.

2009-01-01

432

46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section...Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn...thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.2? N....

2010-10-01

433

Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at the extreme margin of the Indo-West Pacific biotic province, the four islands of the isolated Pitcairn Group hold interest for biogeographers and archaeologists alike. Human settlement may have been as early as the 8th century AD for the uplifted limestone island of Henderson, the most pristine island of its kind. An archaeological survey of the Pitcairn Islands is

MARSHALL I. WEISLER

1995-01-01

434

How can endemic proboscideans help us understand the “island rule”? A case study of Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain size-change processes in terrestrial vertebrates on islands and in island-like ecosystems. Extinct endemic insular proboscideans are especially appropriate subjects for investigating this issue, given the frequency with which proboscideans colonised islands, and the multiple patterns in size reduction experienced by endemic taxa on different islands, as well as on a single one. To

Maria Rita Palombo

2007-01-01

435

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands  

E-print Network

plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an islandTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatricka magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid

Fitzpatrick, Richard

436

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I -Isolated islands  

E-print Network

. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel ra- dially from one sideTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I - Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid veloc

Fitzpatrick, Richard

437

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2013-07-01

438

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2012-07-01

439

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2010-07-01

440

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2011-07-01

441

A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands  

E-print Network

Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands Rebekah Shirley , Christopher Jones, Daniel Kammen Energy and Resources Group, University xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions

Kammen, Daniel M.

442

The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands  

E-print Network

The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands by Joseph ^ Corresponding author: e-mail, jpedlosky@whoi.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT The flow around planetary scale islands is examined when the island possesses a topographic skirt representing a steep continental shelf. The model

Pedlosky, Joseph

443

Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs  

SciTech Connect

Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

Matsunaga, Tsuneo [Geological Survey of Japan, Ibaraki (Japan); Kayanne, Hajime [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1997-06-01

444

Traditional medical practices and medicinal plant usage on a Bahamian island.  

PubMed

The traditional medical system of a small Bahamian island is explored through a health survey of 83% of the population and an analysis of the activities and materials of the two main native health 'professionals'--the healing specialist and the 'herbalist'. The present findings suggest that the Bimini medical system has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management of many health problems on the island. Part of the success may be attributed to the resourceful utilization of indigenous medicinal plant species, several of which contain chemical substances that may be curatively effective against a number of diseases as claimed. In recent years the island has experienced a relatively smooth process of medical modernization including the increased availability of 'westernized' health care and the gradual supplementation of the herbal remedies by imported patent and prescription medications. PMID:710170

Halberstein, R A; Saunders, A B

1978-06-01

445

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

446

UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

447

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

448

The Virgin Islands robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Etelman Observatory of the University of the Virgin Islands is the southernmost and easternmost optical observatory in the United States. The observatory is located at an elevation of 420 meters on the island of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. The site has exceptionally good seeing (frequently better than 1 arc-second), dark skies, and the ability to reach deep into the southern hemisphere and to plug the northern-hemisphere longitude gap between the US and Europe. Astronomers at the College of Charleston, South Carolina State University, and the University of the Virgin Islands have formed a consortium to refurbish the facility, conduct detailed site surveys, purchase a 0.5-meter telescope and instrumentation, and operate the facility robotically. The telescope, instrumentation, and dome have all been installed, and we are remotely obtaining commissioning observations. Our operations mode (manual, remote-controlled, or fully robotic) will simultaneously support our research, participation in multi-site campaigns, and the educational and outreach missions of our institutions. Further details are available at http://astro.uvi.edu/.

Neff, J. E.

2004-10-01

449

Chaos in easter island ecology.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

Sprott, J C

2011-10-01

450

Sipuncula from Hainan Island (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sipunculans from shallow depths ranging from 0 to 44 m, collected by two Chinese-German expeditions to Hainan Island (China) during the years 1990 and 1992, are recorded. Seventeen species in eight genera and five families are recognized from the total 271 individuals collected. An analysis of the sipunculan literature has shown that 10 of these species are new records for

S. Pagola-Carte; J. I. Saiz-Salinas

2000-01-01

451

Birds are islands for parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

2014-08-01

452

The formation of island ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island ecosystems are formed from the same generic building blocks as continental ecosystems. These can be reduced to five: (1) the terrestrial habitat (soil-parent material and topography), (2) the regional and local climate, (3) the regional biota with differential restrictions of accessibility, (4) the ecological roles assumed by the species including their potential for adaptation, and (5) the overriding dimensions

Dieter Mueller-Dombois

1992-01-01

453

Genetic variation among mainland and island populations of a native perennial grass used in restoration  

PubMed Central

Genetic marker studies can assist restoration practice through selection of seed sources that conserve historical levels of gene diversity and population genetic differentiation. We examined genetic variation and structure within and among mainland and island populations of Elymus glaucus, a perennial bunchgrass species native to western North American grasslands that is targeted for grassland restoration. Island populations of E. glaucus represent sensitive sites and potentially distinctive seed sources for reintroduction, and little is known of their genetic composition. Genetic diversity and structure were estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for 21 populations and 416 individuals distributed across two coastal California mainland locations and three California Channel Islands. Eight primer combinations resulted in 166 markers, of which 165 (99.4 %) were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands was significantly greater among mainland populations relative to island sites, and locally common alleles were present for each sampled island and mainland location. Population structure was high (62.9 %), with most variation (55.8 %) distributed among populations, 7.1 % between mainland and island locations, and the remainder (37.1 %) within populations. Isolation by distance was only apparent among islands. Using marker data to recommend appropriate seed sources for restoration, E. glaucus seeds are best derived within islands with collections representing a large number of individuals from matching environments. Given the limited gene flow and prior evidence of adaptive divergence among populations of this species, regional collections are recommended in all cases to maintain diversity and to avoid long-distance introductions of highly differentiated plant material. PMID:24790118

Hufford, Kristina M.; Mazer, Susan J.; Hodges, Scott A.

2014-01-01

454

Heat island development in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the climatology of the near surface urban heat island of Mexico City, using hourly data from two recently installed automatic stations at a rural and an urban site. The results show that the nocturnal heat island was more frequent (75% of the time for the period examined) than daytime cases (25%). The maximum nocturnal heat island

Ernesto Jauregui

1997-01-01

455