Sample records for abrolhos islands western

  1. Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, David A.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900–2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. Conclusions/ Significance In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008–2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ?12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ?50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900–2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution. PMID:22952797

  2. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  3. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  4. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

  5. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    . RESULTS .............................................................................................................. 12 3.1 Cerro Azul Region ........................................................................................ 20 3.2 Le Cumbre... of the western Galapagos Islands ......................................................................... 7 3 Map of the Galapagos Islands with locations of Figures 4-33 ................... 11 4 Cerro Azul sidescan sonar data interpreted...

  6. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  7. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...0648-XA579 Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval...Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: National...Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office...Northern Mariana Islands with the concurrence...Governor of the Pacific Insular Area...

  8. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...0648-XA470 Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount...2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601...legally registered to Pacific Remote Island Area bottomfish...

  9. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  10. The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Fraser; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

    1995-01-01

    The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

  11. Western Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Mother and Calf Ecology Off Sakhalin Island 

    E-print Network

    Sychenko, Olga Aleksandrovna

    2012-07-16

    The western population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is endangered with approximately 130 individuals remaining. Many individuals return annually to the same feeding sites off northeastern Sakhalin Island, indicating a site...

  12. Uranium-series age of coral reef growth on Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Dating samples of corals and shell from the elevated coral reef terrace on Rottnest Island, Western Australia, indicate that in this region away from active plate boundaries the sea stood at least 3 m above present sea level 132,000 ?? 5,000 years ago. There is no geologic evidence of other ancient reef-forming periods on this island. ?? 1979.

  13. The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Fraser af; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

    1995-01-01

    The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon F'ursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsugu heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuju plicutu Dorm) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

  14. Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Nio/La Nia transitions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña 2013. [1] The biological response in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña transitions, Geophys

  15. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale. PMID:25261176

  16. Seismic stratigraphy and structure of the Barter Island sector of the Western Beaufort Sea 

    E-print Network

    Coffman, Jeffrey Dale

    1988-01-01

    SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE OF THE BARTER ISLAND SECTOR OF THE WESTERN BEAUFORT SEA A Thesis by JEFFERY DALE COFFMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE OF THE BARTER ISLAND SECTOR OF THE UESTERN BEAUFORT SEA A Thesis by JEFFERY DALE COFFMAN Approved as to style and content by: t ~g, Robert McCabe (Co...

  17. Influence of seismic surveys on western gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. WELLER; YULIA V. IVASHCHENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

    Western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) aggregate off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia during summer-autumn to feed on benthic and near-benthic prey. During summer 2001, 3D seismic surveys were conducted during a six-week period in known gray whale foraging areas off Sakhalin Island. To test the hypothesis that the distribution of gray whales on the feeding ground would shift

  18. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  19. Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003–2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

  20. Status of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, in 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. WELLER; AMANDA L. BRADFORD; AIMÉE R. LANG; HYUN WOO KIM; MAXIM SIDORENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

    A collaborative Russia-U.S. research program on western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) summering off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, has been ongoing since 1995 and has produced important new information on the present day conservation status of this critically endangered population. This paper reviews findings from 2007 research activities and combines such with data from previous years, in some cases ranging back

  1. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck...of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display. This action is necessary to provide...the hazards associated with fireworks display. Vessels will be prohibited from...

  2. The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull, western Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Philip Whitfield; David R. A. McLeod; Alan H. Fielding; Roger A. Broad; Richard J. Evans; Paul F. Haworth

    2001-01-01

    Summary 1. The afforestation of previously open habitats continues to involve conservation organizations in assessing effects on important species. We investigated the effects of commercial afforestation on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos on the island of Mull, western Scotland, using long-term data on eagle reproductive success and occupancy on 30 home ranges, largely during 1981-99. 2. We modelled home range parameters

  3. Status of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, in 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; MAXIM SIDORENKO; AMANDA L. BRADFORD; DAVID W. WELLER; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

    A collaborative Russia-U.S. research program on western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) summering off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, has been ongoing since 1995 and has produced important information on the present day conservation status of this critically endangered population. This paper reviews findings from 2008 research activities and combines such with data from previous years, in some cases ranging back to

  4. Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

  5. Coastal changes in sedimentary environments on Disko Island, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change affects Arctic coasts. A rising sea level, increasing fresh water fluxes from glaciers, and decreasing sea-ice extent increase the pressure on the sedimentary areas in these high-latitude regions. In Arctic coastal environments, permafrost, sea-ice, and fluvial input from glacial melt water have an impact in controlling the evolution of the coast. In this study we present the results of annual to decadal coastal changes (rates of change in shoreline positions) along the southern Disko Island in Greenland. These changes are detected and quantified using rectified aerial photos and satellite images. The oldest images used are from the 1940's and the most recent one was 2012. Additional field-measurements are made to identify the responsible processes that cause the coastal development in more detail. The southern coast of Disko Island includes two distinct sedimentary deltas: Skansen and Tuapaat. They consist of sandy, gravelly, and pebbly material. Lagoons, spits, and beaches are present on these deltas and our analyses reveal that these characteristic coastal features have undergone significant morphological changes within the last 60 years: The identified changes within the deltas show a migration of the delta mouths over more than 400 m in an eastward direction, and thus closure of the former inlets. These rapid coastal responses are probably caused by a combination of a shift in channel lobe on the delta plain after 1985, combined with a predominant wave-driven alongshore sediment transport to the east. The shift in delta channels is often recognized as the main responsible agent in controlling the evolution of the sedimentary sites.

  6. Seismic stratigraphy and structure of the Barter Island sector of the Western Beaufort Sea

    E-print Network

    Coffman, Jeffrey Dale

    1988-01-01

    -Chair of Committee) 1)i liam B yant (Co-Chair of Committee) Davis Fahlqu st (Member) Earl Hoskins (Head of Department) August 1988 111 ABSTRACT Seismic Stratigraphy and Structure of the Barter Island Sector of the Western Beaufort Sea. (August 1988) Jeffery... of the oldest sequence is unclear. Mapping of these sequences indicates that two structural uplifts increased the deposition of Tertiary sediments in Barter and Demarcation subbasins. Demarcation Ridge acted as a barrier to sediments which created...

  7. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; S. K. Meier; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. M. Nielson; V. L. Vladimirov; P. W. Wainwright

    2007-01-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of\\u000a the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius

  8. Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. Nielson; P. W. Wainwright

    2007-01-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August’ September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered\\u000a western gray whale

  9. Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R; Wainwright, P W

    2007-11-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located in the vicinity of the seismic survey. This paper presents data to assess whether western gray whale bottom feeding activity, as indicated by visible mud plumes, was affected by seismic operations. The mitigation and monitoring program associated with the seismic survey included aerial surveys during 19 July-19 November 2001. These aerial surveys documented the local and regional distribution, abundance, and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales. Data on gray whale feeding activity before, during and after the seismic survey were collected, with the whales assumed to be feeding on the benthos if mud plumes were observed on the surface. The data were used to assess the influence of seismic survey and other factors (including environmental) on feeding activity of western gray whales. A stepwise multiple regression analysis failed to find a statistically significant effect (alpha = 0.05) of the seismic survey on frequency of occurrence of mud plumes of western gray whales used as a proxy to evaluate bottom feeding activity in Piltun feeding area. The regression indicated that transect number (a proxy for water depth, related to distance from shore) and swell height (a proxy for sea state) were the only variables that had a significant effect on frequency of whale mud plumes. It is concluded that the 2001 seismic survey had no measurable effect (alpha = 0.05) on bottom feeding activity of western gray whales off Sakhalin Island. PMID:17680334

  10. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (< 850 BP). Field surveys along the coasts of Mallorca and Menorca islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  11. Sinkhole-like structures as bioproductivity hotspots in the Abrolhos Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Longo, Leila de L.; Bastos, Alex C.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Ghisolfi, Renato D.; Krüger, Ricardo; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Bruce, Thiago; Maia-Neto, Oswaldo; de O. Santos, Eidy; Iida, Tetsuya; Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2013-11-01

    We performed a biological survey in the novel system of sinkhole-like structures ("buracas") of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil. We found dissimilar benthic assemblages and higher nutrient concentration, microbial abundance (and activity) and fish abundance inside the buracas than in the surrounding rhodolith beds. Our results support the view that these cup-shaped structures trap and accumulate organic matter, functioning as productivity hotspots in the mid and outer shelf of the central portion of the Abrolhos Bank shelf, where they aggregate biomass of commercially important fishes. This distinctive system is being increasingly pressured by commercial fisheries and needs urgent management measures such as fishing effort control and representation in the network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAS).

  12. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  13. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

  14. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

  15. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  16. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  17. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S).

    PubMed

    Ross, Claire L; Falter, James L; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y(-1) and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ?6 °C (18.2°-24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31-2.02 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) and P. damicornis (0.34-0.90 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°-19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  18. Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the British Virgin Islands: first Western Hemisphere records, with records of a co-occurring lady beetle, Hyperaspis Scutifera (Mulsant)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi was collected on Guana Island, and nearby Beef Island and Tortola, in the British Virgin Islands (BVI). The records are the first in the Western Hemisphere for this potentially important Old World pest of sugarcane and certain other graminoid crops. Host plants on...

  19. Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

    1999-10-01

    A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

  20. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003.

    PubMed

    Meier, S K; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Wainwright, P; Maminov, M K; Yakovlev, Y M; Newcomer, M W

    2007-11-01

    In 2001-2003, >60,000 km of aerial surveys and 7,700 km of vessel surveys were conducted during June to November when critically endangered Korean-Okhotsk or western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were present off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Results of surveys in all years indicated gray whales occurred in predominantly two areas, (1) adjacent to Piltun Bay, and (2) offshore from Chayvo Bay, hereafter referred to as the Piltun and offshore feeding areas. In the Piltun feeding area, the majority of whales were observed in waters shallower than 20 m and were distributed from several hundred meters to approximately 5 km from the shoreline. In the offshore feeding area during all years, the distribution of gray whales extended from southwest to northeast in waters 30-65 m in depth. During all years, the distribution and abundance of whales changed in both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas, and both north-south and inshore-offshore movements were documented within and between feeding seasons. The discovery of a significant number of whales feeding in the offshore area each year was a substantial finding of this study and raises questions regarding western gray whale abundance and population levels, feeding behavior and ecology, and individual site-fidelity. Fluctuations in the number of whales observed within the Piltun and offshore feeding areas and few sightings outside of these two areas indicate that gray whales move between the Piltun and offshore feeding areas during their summer-fall feeding season. Seasonal shifts in the distribution and abundance of gray whales between and within both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas are thought, in part, to be a response to seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of prey. However, the mechanism driving the movements of whales along the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island is likely very complex and influenced by a multitude of factors. PMID:17703367

  1. Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-01-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  2. Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  3. Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  4. Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-04-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  5. Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

  6. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  7. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  8. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic singularities of the sponge fauna occurring in these deep-shelf bottoms strongly suggest these habitats to be considered within the environmental protection of the Nature 2000 Network. PMID:24870077

  9. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Carey, Steven N.

    2007-06-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation.

  11. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R M; Vladimirov, V L; Wainwright, P W

    2007-11-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located adjacent to the seismic block. The data presented here were collected as part of daily monitoring to determine if there was any measurable effect of the seismic survey on the distribution and abundance of western gray whales. Mitigation and monitoring program included aerial surveys conducted between 19 July and 19 November using the methodology outlined by the Southern California High Energy Seismic Survey team (HESS). These surveys provided documentation of the distribution, abundance and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales in relation to seismic survey sounds. From an operations perspective, the aerial surveys provided near real-time data on the location of whales in and outside the feeding area, and documented whether whales were displaced out of an area normally used as feeding habitat. The objectives of this study were to assess (a) temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of gray whales in relation to seismic survey, and (b) the influence of seismic survey, environmental factors, and other variables on the distribution and abundance of gray whales within their preferred feeding area adjacent to Piltun Bay. Multiple regression analysis revealed a limited redistribution of gray whales southward within the Piltun feeding area when the seismic survey was fully operational. A total of five environmental and other variables unrelated to seismic survey (date and proxies of depth, sea state and visibility) and one seismic survey-related variable (seg3d, i.e., received sound energy accumulated over 3 days) had statistically significant effects on the distribution and abundance of gray whales. The distribution of two to four gray whales observed on the surface (i.e., about five to ten whales in total) has likely been affected by the seismic survey. However, the total number of gray whales observed within the Piltun feeding area remained stable during the seismic survey. PMID:17899420

  12. Low-salinity-induced surface sound channel in the western sea of Jeju Island during summer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juho; Kim, Hansoo; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Bok, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Jongkil

    2015-03-01

    Surface salinity in the western sea of Jeju Island in Korea becomes low due to the inflow of the Chinese coastal waters during summer. One of the characteristics of low salinity water is the formation of a surface sound channel (SSC) due to the decrease in sound speed by salinity. However, a quantitative analysis between low salinity water and SSC has not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, a temperature-salinity (T-S) gradient diagram is introduced in order to assess SSC formation and its acoustic characteristics are also investigated through a case study of low salinity waters. Maximum angles of limiting rays were less than 4.6° and low frequency cutoffs were higher than 2.0?kHz for the SSCs formed in low salinity water. When the salinity gradients were large (>0.5?psu/m), a SSC was formed more efficiently than other cases whose salinity gradients were small. On the other hand, a SSC was not formed in spite of highly positive salinity gradients when the amount of temperature gradients was negatively high enough (<-0.5?°C/m). However, the acoustic energy transfer in the surface ducts was dependent on frequency and position of source. PMID:25786968

  13. Assessment of the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): from single to multi-species approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Guijarro; George Tserpes; Joan Moranta; Enric Massutí

    2011-01-01

    The bottom trawl fishery developed on the slope off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has been analysed from different\\u000a sources of information: (i) data obtained during experimental bottom trawl surveys developed annually since 2001; (ii) daily\\u000a sale bills from the bottom trawl fleet, available since 2000. Considering both hydrographical and geomorphologic conditions,\\u000a the study area was divided in four geographical sectors.

  14. Expansion of an invasive coral species over Abrolhos Bank, Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago J F; Pinheiro, Hudson T; Teixeira, João Batista; Mazzei, Eric F; Bueno, Leonardo; Hora, Mike S C; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto; Sampaio, Claudio L S; Rocha, Luiz A

    2014-08-15

    Invasive coral species of the genus Tubastraea have been increasingly recorded in Southwestern Atlantic waters since the 1980s. Their invasion and infestation are mainly related to port and oil exploration activities. For the first time the presence of Tubastraea tagusensis colonies is reported in Espírito Santo State, colonizing a port shore area, and incrusting oil/gas platform structures situated in the southern Abrolhos Bank, which is part of the most important coral reef system of the South Atlantic Ocean. Tubastraea colonies exhibit fast growth and high recruitment rates, and colonized 40% of the analyzed structures in just four years. The projection of port and oil/gas industry growth for the Espírito Santo State (more than 300%) highlights an alert to the dispersal of this alien species to natural areas. PMID:24975092

  15. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  16. Variations of the deep western boundary current in Wake Island Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Masaki; Yanagimoto, Daigo; Kitagawa, Shoji; Kuroda, Yoshifumi

    2005-07-01

    Two moorings were deployed at 168°30'E (Sta. WPW) and 169°30'E (WPE) on 18°20'N in Wake Island Passage (WIP) to measure the velocity of the eastern branch of the deep western boundary current (DWBC) in the North Pacific. We obtained hourly velocity data from eight current meters located at depths of 3020, 4020, 5020, and 5120 m (near-bottom) at WPW and 2000, 4000, 5000, and 5300 m (near-bottom) at WPE, and analyzed daily mean velocity data for 374 days from 10 February 1999 to 18 February 2000. The velocity of the DWBC and its variations are large near the ocean floor, at depths of 5000 m and more. The DWBC at WPE increases exponentially with depth, with the near-bottom mean velocity being 3.5 cm s -1, whereas the DWBC at WPW is almost uniform at the bottom layer with the mean velocity being 1.9 cm s -1. The direction of the DWBC in WIP is dominant between 15 and 55°T with a mean of approximately 35°T. This orientation is due to the direction of the bottom topography around 5000-m depth. The velocity and its variations decay markedly at 4000 m, indicating the characteristics of the eastern branch current of the DWBC, which is formed primarily by the portion of the DWBC below 4500 m. A peculiar property is that the velocity and its variations of the DWBC are much less in the western part (WPW) than in the eastern part (WPE) of WIP. The presence of several seamounts may decrease the velocity and modify the structure of the DWBC in the western half of WIP. On the other hand, the eastern half of WIP is deep and has no significant seamounts, which may enable the DWBC to flow smoothly there. The volume transport of the DWBC in WIP is estimated to be 3.6±1.3 Sv (10 6 m 3 s -1) northward on average, with a range of -5.3-14.8 Sv, although the uncertainty of the mean value must be larger than 1.3 Sv because of the estimation from just two moorings. The mean volume transport of the eastern branch current of the DWBC is found to be a little more than 3.6 Sv by adding the transport in the passages west of WIP. The velocity and volume transport of the DWBC vary markedly with a period of approximately four months. A pause of the DWBC occurs in relation to the four-month variation. At WPW, the velocity and its variations at 4020 m are similar to those at 3020 m. The variations are sinusoidal with a four-month period, being almost out of phase with those at WPE. These are interpreted to be an eddy that may be propagated by Rossby waves and trapped in WIP. The four-month variations of the DWBC may be due to interaction with the eddy.

  17. Seasonal and annual variation in body condition of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda L. Bradford; David W. Weller; Yulia V. Ivashchenko; Alexander M. Burdin; Robert L. Brownell

    The western gray whale population (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered and its potential for recovery is uncertain. Along with other natural and anthropogenic threats, western gray whales are susceptible to nutritional stress, known from regular observations of individual whales in compromised body condition. Thus, the ability to visually quantify the relative body condition of free-ranging western gray whales and evaluate

  18. Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of suprabenthic fauna in the NW Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.

    Stable isotope (? 13C and ? 15N) analyses were performed on suprabenthic fauna collected in the western Mediterranean (NW Balearic Islands), at depths ranging between 350 and 780 m. Samples were collected seasonally at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004, using a Macer-GIROQ suprabenthic sledge (0.5 mm mesh size). Twenty-four separate species (5 mysids, 12 amphipods, 2 cumaceans, 2 isopods, 1 euphausiid, 1 decapod and 1 fish) and bulk copepods were analyzed on a seasonal basis for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (? 15N) ranged from 2.3‰ (the amphipod Lepechinella manco in September 2003) to 13.0‰ (the amphipod Rhachotropis caeca in August 2003). ? 13C values ranged from - 24.2 (the cumacean Campylaspis sulcata in June 2004) to - 16.1 (the amphipod Bruzelia typica in November 2006). Both ? 13C and ? 15N values suggest that there are three trophic levels within the suprabenthic community. However, considering the bathymetric range of the species, the results suggest that the deepest assemblage supported only two trophic levels. The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values and confirmed a wide spectrum of feeding types (from filter-feeders to predators). In general, and in spite of the poor knowledge about diets available for most suprabenthic species, higher ? 15N were found for carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods. Low overlap for ? 13C and ? 15N values was observed, though ? 15N values where less variable than ? 13C, which suggests high resource partitioning in this assemblage. Seasonal variations in isotopic composition for both ? 13C and ? 15N were low (less than 1‰ and 3‰, respectively) and variable depending on species. Low correlations between ? 13C and ? 15N of suprabenthic fauna were found for all periods studied, though increasing from February 2004 to June 2004 (after the main peak of primary production in surface). C:N ratio (indicator of lipid content) showed higher values in summer than in winter. This suggests that lipid content may explain the seasonal patterns of ? 13C variability and, due to the increase of storage products in phytoplankton and zooplankton, it possibly indicates the peak of primary production at the surface.

  19. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  20. A survey of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hwan; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Eun-Hee; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children living on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, children (3-10 years) in 39 kindergartens and primary schools were examined using the cello-tape anal swab method, during July and August 2000. Of 1,661 children examined, 307 (18.5%) were found to be positive for E. vermicularis eggs. The highest infection rate (59.3%) was found in a kindergarten and a branch school of Shinyang primary school on Chujado, Jeju-do (Province). Remarkable differences in egg positive rates were observed in different localities. The egg positive rate for boys (21.3%) was significantly higher than that of girls (15.4%) (P = 0.02). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on age. The results of the present study show that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among pre-school and primary school children living on the western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, and indicate the need for efforts to control this infection. PMID:16340301

  1. A comparison of orogenic gold mineralisation in central Victoria (AUS), western South Island (NZ) and Nova Scotia (CAN): implications for variations in the endowment of Palaeozoic metamorphic terrains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P Bierlein; A. B Christie; P. K Smith

    2004-01-01

    The Palaeozoic western Lachlan Orogen in Victoria (SE Australia), the Buller Terrane (western South Island, New Zealand) and the Meguma Terrane (Nova Scotia, Canada) are remarkably similar in regard to their geological age and history, structural make-up, and the setting and formation of orogenic lode-and disseminated-style gold deposits within these fold belts. A comprehensive review of the principal characteristics of

  2. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  3. Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

    1996-01-01

    Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

  4. 3D modelling of magnetotelluric and gravity data of Mallorca island (Western Mediterranean)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaume Pous; Conxi Ayala; Juanjo Ledo; Alex Marcuello; Francesc Sabat

    1995-01-01

    A combined interpretation of magnetotelluric and gravity data recorded onland Mallorca is presented. The magnetoetelluric data consist of five stations along a NW-SE profile across the island which periods ranging from 256 Hz to 200 s. An electrical model has been obtained taking into account the 3D sea effect. The gravity data consist of the Bouguer anomaly from which the

  5. Coral record of paleoseismic uplifts at Ranongga Island, Western Solomon Islands megathrust: Was the 2007 Mw 8.1 event smaller than usual?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Thirumalai, K.; Shen, C.; WU, C.; Papabatu, A.; Lavier, L. L.; Bevis, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The timing and amount of vertical displacements associated with past megathrust earthquakes provide the best available insights into the amounts of interplate slip that have been accommodated as coseismic slip versus other mechanisms. At Ranongga Island, Western Solomon Islands, a Mw 8.1 earthquake in 2007 helps us to calibrate the relationship between a megathrust rupture and the geography and amounts of vertical displacement recorded by reef crest corals. Along the coasts of Ranongga, parts of which have uplifted at mean rates exceeding 5 mm/yr, we discovered corals that had been raised by a series of earthquakes in the millennia before the 2007 event. The penultimate earthquake (pre-2007), which occurred around 600 years ago (U-series calendar year), was manifest as a 'level' of raised corals about 1.6 m above the 2007 level. However, in the decades preceding the 2007 event (which had imposed a coseismic uplift of 1.3 m), rapid subsidence had subtracted significant amounts of uplift imposed by the penultimate earthquake. Similarly, the sequence of three additional uplift events, preceding the penultimate event, extending to elevations up to 16 m higher than the corals raised by the 2007 event, appear to have been larger uplifts than the 2007 event. This suggests two things: 1. Many previous megathrust events caused more uplift and perhaps involved greater interplate coseismic slip, and 2. There are too few megathrust rupture events to account for the approximately 80-100 m of plate convergence that must be processed each millennium. Thus, a significant amount of plate convergence must be accommodated by mechanisms other than coseismic slip.

  6. The Effectiveness of an Established Sanctuary Zone for Reducing Human Disturbance to Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca Cinerea ) at Carnac Island, Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Salgado P. Kent; Brett Crabtree

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a recently established sanctuary zone on Carnac Island (Western Australia) in reducing human disturbances to Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea). Several methods of recording behaviors were also tested to clarify their adequacy for detecting human disturbances. Observations made between March 2005 and September 2006 (98 observations over 16 days) indi- cated that a wireless

  7. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enric Massutí; Sebastià Monserrat; Pere Oliver; Joan Moranta; José Luis López-Jurado; Marta Marcos; Manuel Hidalgo; Beatriz Guijarro; Aina Carbonell; Pilar Pereda

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale

  8. Simultaneous Submarine and Subaerial Volcanic Activity on the Flanks of the Western Canary Islands La Palma and El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Schmincke, H. U.; Klügel, A.; Abratis, M.

    2003-12-01

    The westernmost and youngest Canary Islands La Palma (2.0 Ma) and El Hierro (1.1 Ma) are presently in their shield stages. The subaerial and submarine morphology of both islands is characterized by one or three elongated ridges, respectively, commonly interpreted as volcanic rift zones. Our investgations indicate that young submarine volcanic activity off the islands is not confined to the extensions of these rift zones, but is also dispersed along the island flanks. Fresh basaltic rocks dredged along these flanks (RV "Poseidon" cruise 270 in 2001, and RV "Meteor" cruise M43 in 1998) comprise basanites to tephrites and alkali basalts. Remarkably, the dredged lavas are geochemically more diverse than those of the Holocene subaerial ridges. Fresh basalts have been recovered from 21 young volcanoes on the submarine flanks of El Hierro at depths from 800 to 2300 m. Another 25 volcanic cones can be tentatively identified from morphologies similar to the dreged ones. These submarine volcanoes off El Hierro occur in a dispersed manner on the blunt noses representing the extensions of the postulated suabearial northeast and northwest rift zones but also off the rift axes. Young volcanoes also occur within the Las Playas and El Julan landslide scars, testifying to renewed volcanic activity following large landslides. On the east flank of La Palma, we recovered basaltic rocks from 8 volcanic cones at depths between 850 and 2200 m and at a distance of up to 30 km off the rift axis, recognizing another 20 possible volcanoes in the same area from high-resolution bathymetric data. Remarkably, young submarine volcanoes are comparatively rare on the western flank and the submarine extension of the Cumbre Vieja rift zone. The high density of apparently young volcanoes on the NE and NW slopes of El Hierro suggests that submarine volcanism is volumetrically important during subaerial growth stages of the Canary Islands. Our results indicate that a broad melting anomaly involving distinct sources must occur in the mantle beneath La Palma and El Hierro.

  9. Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

    2008-12-01

    Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

  10. Disturbance and recovery of the macroflora of a seagrass ( Halodule wrightii Ascherson) meadow in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil: an experimental evaluation of anchor damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel C Creed; Gilberto M Amado Filho

    1999-01-01

    Anchor damage due to tourist visitation is becoming increasingly intense in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil, and is probably detrimental to the biota associated with the seagrass beds. In this study the effects of anchor damage on an algal dominated seagrass (Halodule wrightii) bed in the national park were measured and assessed. The mean size of anchor scars was

  11. Life history and fishery of the common dentex ( Dentex dentex) in Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Morales-Nin; Joan Moranta

    1997-01-01

    Age, growth, mortality, maturity and diet were analysed for 210 common dentex from 17 to 83 cm TL collected off the island of Mallorca from 1993 to 1995. The length composition by sex showed no differences between females and males. The length-weight relationship was identical for both sexes: W = 0.011 TL3.06. Age at 50% maturity was reached between 2

  12. Island weathering: river sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. r. Sholkovitz; H. Elderfield; R. Szymczak; K. Casey

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on two of the largest rivers and estuaries of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Fly and Sepik and explores the degree to which river input and estuarine reactions affect the rare earth element (REE) composition of surface sea water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. The dissolved phases of the Fly and Sepik River waters have striking

  13. Calibrating and monitoring the western gray whale mitigation zone and estimating acoustic transmission during a 3D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rutenko, A N; Borisov, S V; Gritsenko, A V; Jenkerson, M R

    2007-11-01

    A 3D marine seismic survey of the Odoptu license area off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, was conducted by DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of Exxon Neftegas Limited and the Sakhalin-1 consortium during mid-August through early September 2001. The key environmental issue identified in an environmental impact assessment was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which spends the summer-fall open water period feeding off northeast Sakhalin Island in close proximity to the seismic survey area. Seismic mitigation and monitoring guidelines and recommendations were developed and implemented to reduce impacts on the feeding activity of western gray whales. Results of the acoustic monitoring program indicated that the noise monitoring and mitigation program was successful in reducing exposure of feeding western gray whales to seismic noise. PMID:17762974

  14. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...Regional Administrator, NMFS Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601...

  15. 78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, NMFS Pacific Islands Region (PIR), Sustainable...Archipelago, Amendment 2 to the Pacific Remote Island Areas FEP, Amendment 3...

  16. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments...in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments...Regional Administrator, NMFS Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601 Kapiolani...

  17. Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-02-01

    Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

  18. Composition and evolution of submarine volcanic rocks from the central and western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, M.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Hansteen, T. H.

    2002-08-01

    Submarine volcanic rocks dredged during RV Meteor cruise M43-1 comprise alkali basalts, basanites, nephelinites and their differentiates representing both basement-shield and young post-shield volcanics of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. The primitive lavas vary widely in trace element composition (e.g., Zr/Y=6.6-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-5.4, and Ba/Yb=71-311), and they are characterized by steep, rare-earth element patterns with mean (La/Yb)N=16, and by pronounced, positive primitive mantle-normalized Nb and Ta and negative K anomalies similar to HIMU-type basalts. Rocks from the submarine flanks west and north of Gran Canaria are isotopically and geochemically identical to rocks of the subaerial Miocene shield stage, but they are distinct from rocks of the post-shield stages (Zr/Nb=6.3-8.9, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70327-0.70332, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51289-0.51293, 206Pb/204Pb=19.55-19.88). Most rocks dredged from the submarine flanks of Tenerife are isotopically and geochemically similar to rocks of the adjacent subaerial shield remnants, but a few resemble rocks of the subaerial post-shield stages (total range in Zr/Nb=4.6-6.1, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70300-0.70329, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51281-0.51292, 206Pb/204Pb=19.51-19.96). Rocks from the southern submarine ridge of La Palma cover the entire compositional range of the subaerial rocks of that ridge. Additionally, they comprise a high Zr/Nb group which resembles rocks of the ca. 1-Ma-old Taburiente shield of northern La Palma (total range in Zr/Nb=3.0-6.4, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70297-0.70314, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51288-0.51296, 206Pb/204Pb=19.21-19.79). Rocks from the southern submarine ridge of El Hierro compositionally resemble subaerial rocks of the island (Zr/Nb=4.1-6.2, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70296-0.70314, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51291-0.51297, 206Pb/204Pb=19.25-19.91). The degree of melting in the subcanarian mantle is interpreted to decrease from east to west across the archipelago whereas the proportion of depleted mantle component in the melting anomaly increases, as illustrated by Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. The isotopic characteristics of the mantle source beneath the Canary Islands represents a mixture of HIMU, DMM and EM I. The overall isotopic signature is intermediate between that of Madeira to the north, which trends towards more depleted compositions, and that of the Cape Verde Islands to the south which shows a pronounced trend towards enriched mantle compositions. A clear trend towards the EM II component is only evident in more evolved rocks dredged from a seamount between Tenerife and Gran Canaria, some of which contain terrigenous sedimentary xenoliths. We propose a genetic model which relates similar mantle source signatures of volcanic archipelagos off West Africa to a common, large-scale lower mantle upwelling which, according to geophysical data, becomes more diffuse in the upper mantle. Narrow plumes or blobs feeding the volcanic centers along the passive margin may rise from this thermal anomaly due to upwelling in small, continent-parallel upper-mantle convection cells.

  19. Records of the hermit crab genus Pagurixus Melin, 1939 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from Europa Island, Western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Poupin, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Three species of the pagurid hermit crab genus Pagurixus Melin, 1939, are reported from Europa Island in the Mozambique Strait, western Indian Ocean: P. haigae Komai & Osawa, 2007, P. annulus n. sp., and P. europa n. sp. Pagurixus haigae is recorded from the western Indian Ocean for the first time. Pagurixus annulus n. sp. and P. europa n. sp. are referred to the P. boninensis (Melin, 1939) species group and P. anceps (Forest, 1954) group, respectively. Diagnostic characters of these two new species are discussed. PMID:24614462

  20. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  1. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Gailey; Bernd Würsig; Trent L. McDonald

    2007-01-01

    A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The\\u000a area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and\\u000a proximity to the

  2. Architecture and evolution of a fjord-head delta, western Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsell, Jeffrey E.; Clague, John J.; Best, Melvyn E.; Bobrowsky, Peter T.; Hutchinson, Ian

    2004-07-01

    The architectural framework and Holocene evolution of the Zeballos fjord-head delta on west-central Vancouver Island was established through a multidisciplinary field-based study. The Zeballos delta is a composite feature, consisting of an elevated, incised, late Pleistocene delta and an inset Holocene delta graded to present sea level. Both deltas have a classic Gilbert-type tripartite architecture, with nearly flat topset and bottomset units and an inclined foreset unit. Time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, borehole data, and gravel pit exposures provided information on the internal form, lithologies and substrate of both deltas. Both sets of deltaic deposits coarsen upward from silt in the bottomset unit to gravel in the topset unit. The TDEM survey revealed a highly irregular, buried bedrock surface, ranging from 20 m to 190 m in depth, and it delineated saltwater intrusion into the deltaic sediments.Late Quaternary sea-level change at Zeballos was inferred from delta morphology and the GPR survey. The elevated, late Pleistocene delta was constructed when the sea was about 21 m higher relative to the land than it is today. It was dissected when sea-level fell rapidly as a result of glacio-isostatic rebound. Relative sea-level reached a position about 20 m below the present datum during the early Holocene. Foreset beds that overlap and progressively climb in a seaward direction and topset beds that thicken to 26 m landward imply that the delta aggraded and prograded into Zeballos Inlet during the middle and late Holocene transgression. Sea-level may have risen above the present datum during the middle Holocene, creating a delta plain at about 4 m a.s.l. Remnants of this surface are preserved along the valley margins. Copyright

  3. Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation during 2009 - 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lin, K.; Ku, C.; Taylor, F. W.; Chen, Y.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    The plate boundary along the southern margin of the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific, is characterized by convergent tectonic processes between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The horizontal convergence rate between two plates is 135 mm/yr in the direction of N45°E. In terms of the structure, this subduction zone is relatively complicated because large seamounts are involved in subduction of extremely young lithosphere generated by the Woodlark spreading system. Hence, the crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural model that constitutes and operates the entire subduction system. For the purpose of monitoring crustal motion, we began to deploy continuous mode GPS stations in September 2009. All of them have been working for 1-3 yr. The total horizontal rates are 95±1, 52±3, 78±7, 120±14, 114±7, and 114±7 mm/yr for Sibo, Nusu, Lale, Husu, Tepa, and Sege respectively. However, the moving directions are N23°E, N63°W, N10°W, N65°W, N63°W, and N69°W. During 2009, the uplift rates are -31±8 and 50±17 mm/yr for Sibo and Nusu, but during 2010, the rate are 2±2 and 13±9 mm/yr. The larger slips may cause of the postseismic deformation of 2007 Mw8.1 Solomon Earthquake. It also shows the large uplift rates on Husu (98±36 mm/yr), Tepa (60±11 mm/yr) and Sege (33±10 mm/yr) after the 2010 Mw7.1 Solomon Earthquake; however, it still needs longer measuring time to confirm the tectonic behavior.

  4. Imaging rapidly deforming ocean island volcanoes in the western Galápagos archipelago, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Ruiz, Mario; Belachew, Manahloh

    2014-01-01

    Using local body wave arrival-time tomography methods to determine 3-D seismic velocity structure, we imaged the plumbing system of Sierra Negra Volcano, Galápagos. This hot spot volcanic chain includes some of the fastest deforming volcanoes in the world, making this an ideal location to study shield volcano plumbing systems. We inverted P and S wave arrivals recorded on a 15-station temporary array between July 2009 and June 2011 using an a priori 1-D velocity model constrained by offshore refraction studies. With local seismicity from nearby volcanoes as well as the ring fault system, the model resolution is good between depths of 3 and 15.5 km. The propagation of S waves throughout this volume argues against any large high-melt accumulations, although a shallow melt sill may exist above 5 km. We image a broad low-velocity region (>25 km laterally) below Sierra Negra at depths ~8-15 km. No large, regional velocity increase is found within the limits of good resolution, suggesting that crust is thicker than 15 km beneath the western Galápagos archipelago. Our results are consistent with crustal accretion of mafic cumulates from a large-volume magma chamber that may span the boundary between preplume and accreted crust. The similarity between our results and those of Hawaii leave open the possibility that the crust has also been thickened by under-plating.

  5. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level. PMID:17456231

  6. A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

    2007-11-01

    The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess residual impacts. Aerial and vessel-based surveys determined the distribution of whales before, during and after the seismic survey. Daily aerial reconnaissance helped verify whale-free areas and select the sequence of seismic lines to be surveyed. A scout vessel with MMOs aboard was positioned 4 km shoreward of the active seismic vessel to provide better visual coverage of the 4-5 km buffer and to help define the inshore edge of the 4-5 km buffer. A second scout vessel remained near the seismic vessel. Shore-based observers determined whale numbers, distribution, and behavior during and after the seismic survey. Acoustic monitoring documented received sound levels near and in the main whale feeding area. Statistical analyses of aerial survey data indicated that about 5-10 gray whales moved away from waters near (inshore of) the seismic survey during seismic operations. They shifted into the core gray whale feeding area farther south, and the proportion of gray whales observed feeding did not change over the study period. Five shutdowns of the air guns were invoked for gray whales seen within or near the buffer. A previously unknown gray whale feeding area (the Offshore feeding area) was discovered south and offshore from the nearshore Piltun feeding area. The Offshore area has subsequently been shown to be used by feeding gray whales during several years when no anthropogenic activity occurred near the Piltun feeding area.Shore-based counts indicated that whales continued to feed inshore of the Odoptu block throughout the seismic survey, with no significant correlation between gray whale abundance and seismic activity. Average values of most behavioral parameters were similar to those without seismic surveys. Univariate analysis showed no correlation between seismic sound levels and any behavioral parameter. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after allowance for environmental covariates, 5 of 11 behavioral parameters were statistically correlated with estimated seismic survey-related variables; 6 of 11 behavioral parameters wer

  7. Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

  8. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  9. Hydrographic conditions affecting two fishing grounds of Mallorca island (Western Mediterranean): during the IDEA Project (2003–2004)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. López-Jurado; M. Marcos; S. Monserrat

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrographic conditions observed during six surveys carried out during 2003 and 2004, in the framework of the “IDEA Project” (acronym for “Influence of oceanographic structure and dynamics on demersal populations in waters of the Balearic Islands”). The surveys were developed on the shelf and slope of Mallorca Island, in particular in two fishing grounds at the

  10. Fluid-present disequilibrium melting in Neoarchean arc-related migmatites of Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup

    2013-10-01

    The melting process of meta-igneous rocks was investigated via field, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Neoarchean (~ 2.51 Ga) migmatite complex in Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif. This complex consists primarily of garnet-free amphibolites and tonalitic migmatites, both of which contain hornblende, plagioclase and quartz as major constituents. Neosomes and leucosomes in the migmatite have dioritic-tonalitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic compositions, respectively. Compositions of hornblende (XFe = 0.39-0.42) and plagioclase (An24-27) vary little between the neosomes and leucosomes. The amphibolites show distinct depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti relative to large ion lithophile elements, suggesting an arc-related origin for their basaltic protolith. Leucosomes have lower contents of K2O, MgO, FeO*, TiO2, Zr, Rb, and rare earth elements (REE) than amphibolites and neosomes, but are higher in SiO2, Na2O, and Sr contents. Leucosomes and neosomes have positive [(Eu/Eu*)N = 1.32-7.26] and negative (0.71-0.97) Eu anomalies, respectively, which are attributed to the variable degree of plagioclase fractionation during the partial melting. The P-T condition for the migmatite formation was estimated to be ~ 700-730 °C and 4.7-5.5 kbar, primarily based on the hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry and phase equilibria. Various lines of textural evidence, such as the channel flow of melt along migmatitic layers and the segregation of melt into shear bands or boudin necks suggest a syn-deformation crystallization of melt. Chemical disequilibrium in migmatites is documented not only by petrographic and geochemical data but also by the REE modeling between melt product and source rock. Disequilibrium process is most likely attributed to the rapidity of melt extraction or migration, compared to chemical diffusion rate. In summary, the fluid-present disequilibrium melting of dioritic-tonalitic protoliths has produced tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosomes in a dynamic arc environment prevalent in the Neoarchean crust of the Korean Peninsula as well as the Shandong Peninsula, North China Craton.

  11. Subduction of very rugged seafloor topography imposes stronger interplate coupling and elevated mean stress levels at the Western Solomon Islands forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Lavier, L. L.; Bevis, M. G.; Frohlich, C. A.; Grand, S.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent large thrusting earthquakes in the context of paleoseismicity and GPS data indicate that only ~ 50 per cent of Australian plate convergence at the Western Solomon Islands forearc is accommodated by megathrust rupture. No instrumentally recorded events larger than M ~7.0 occurred in this region until the Mw 8.1 event of April 2007 and a Mw 7.1 event in January 2010. The 2007 event apparently ruptured to the base of the seismogenic zone with typical uplift of the outer forearc and subsidence of islands located greater than 40 km from the trench. The Mw 7.1 event of 2010 occurred to the east at the adjacent segment very near the trench where the Coleman seamount is impinging on the forearc. Just arcward of the epicenter, Rendova and Tetepare Islands subsided indicating that all of the coseismic slip occurred beneath the ~15 km strip separating these islands from the trench. This movement is opposite in direction to the geologic record of episodic uplifts of these islands at mean rates up to 7-8 mm/yr. Thus both the 2007 and 2010 earthquakes may have transferred stress to the deeper seismogenic zone arcward of the 2010 earthquake. The extremely rugged and young subducting seafloor at this margin resists subduction very strongly and induces very strong interplate coupling. Thus we propose that this margin operates at an elevated stress level. Such strong coupling impedes subduction and thus megathrust rupture occurs more rarely than if coupling were weaker. Forearc deformation as well as occasional megathrust ruptures may combine to accommodate plate convergence. We propose that initiation of rapid forearc uplift marked the beginning of the current episode of very strong interplate coupling and elevated forearc stress when some combination of seamounts and ridges on the downgoing plate began to impinge more forcefully on the forearc backstop.

  12. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  13. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW) in the study area, extending over the fishing grounds of this species. The proposed interactions can be useful to assess and manage these important demersal resources.

  14. Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

    2013-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

  15. Radionuclide tracer profiles at the CESAR Ice Station and Canadian Ice Island in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. N.; Ellis, K. M.

    Water column profiles of naturally-occurring ( 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra) and fallout ( 137Cs, 239,240Pu radionuclides measured at the Canadian Ice Island in 1985, 1986 and 1989 over the Arctic Ocean continental shelf were compared to profiles measured at the CESAR ice station in the central Arctic Ocean in 1983. Cesium-137 concentrations at CESAR decreased from a mean value of 4.2 Bq/m 3 in the surface mixed layer to less than 1.0 Bq/m 3 in the Atlantic layer and deep waters. Cesium-137 concentrations were similar to CESAR values in the surface mixed layer at the Ice Island, but in halocline water they were lower than values measured at comparable water depths at CESAR, indicating that the arrival of fallout 137Cs in the Ice Island halocline had been delayed compared to its arrival in the CESAR halocline. These data are consistent with a combination of mixing box and lateral advection models with mixing occurring over the Russian continental shelves followed by lateral advection through the interior halocline waters of the Canada Basin. Dissolved 210Pb and 210Po concentrations were higher in nutrient maximum water at the Ice Island compared to CESAR. Low values at CESAR are caused by scavenging of particle-reactive radionuclides during modification of Bering Sea water in continental shelf environments. The elevated 210Pb and 210Po concentrations measured in nutrient maximum water at the Ice Island are assumed to result from ingrowth of 210Pb from 226Ra during lateral advection of upper halocline water between the CESAR and Ice Island locations, a process that is estimated to take approximately 11 years. Plutonium-239,240 is also depleted, relative to 137Cs in the surface mixed layer and upper halocline at the Ice Island owing to its scavenging during modification of Pacific water in shelf environments. The 239,240Pu /137Cs ratio increases to values approaching fallout levels in lower halocline and Atlantic water owing to both reduced 239,240Pu removal in source waters and vertical transport of 239,240Pu with sinking particles.

  16. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  17. Holocene vegetation and land-use dynamics in the karstic environment of Inis O??rr, Aran Islands, western Ireland: pollen analytical evidence evaluated in light of the archaeological record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Molloy; Michael O’Connell

    2004-01-01

    A detailed Holocene pollen record, elaborated in the project TIMECHS, is presented from An Loch Mór, a deep lake at the north-eastern end of Inis O??rr, Aran Islands, western Ireland. Woodland development in the early Holocene is broadly comparable, as regards the general sequence of tree spread and overall woodland composition, to that known from mainland sites in the nearby

  18. Mesostructural observations along the Western coast of Bel'kovsky Island: preliminary results (North-Eastern Laptev Sea region, Russian Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzhbitsky, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    This study is based on the field works carried out by the Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas RAS in the central part of the Bel'kovsky island during 2002 August-September. In the tectonic sense the Bel'kovsky island is located in the eastern part of the Late Cretaceous (?) - Cenozoic Laptev Sea rift system and also is a part of extended Bel’kov horst, dividing Bel’kov Svyatoi Nos (in the east) and Anisin (in the west) rifts (e.g. Drachev et al, 1998). Mesostructural investigations included statistical measurments of kinematic indicators (cleavage planes, extensional veins, slickensides, axes of folds and bedding plains) in Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary formations and also slickensides in diabase magmatic complex (presumably of Late Paleozoic age). It is supposed, that this studies will allow to characterize the stages of regional tectonic processes: synsedimentary (slump) folds formation (1), NE-SW compression (2), which corresponds to the general (NW-SE trending) structural pattern of the island, E-W compression (3), expressed in N-S trending subvertical cleavage and associated strike-slips and thrust faults, NW-SE (4) and ENE-WSW - NE-SW (5) extension, expressed in strike-slip faults with different strike-slip component, and also, probably to specify the character of the recent tectonic processes near to the area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates. It is likely, that synsedimentary (slump) folds, identified in the Carboniferous clastic formation marks the paleoslope setting of New Siberian Islands Chukotka platform (block). Presumably, second of the determined stages corresponds to closing of the South Anyui Lyakhov paleooceanic basin in Neocomian; the last stage, expressed in wide-developed submeridional normal faults with sinistral strike-slip component along the western coast of the island, reflects the modern regional stress-field in area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates (e.g. Avetisov, 1999). The intermediate tectonic settings, presumably characterize various stages of Laptev Sea rift system development. This work is supported by INTAS-01-0762 (“NEMLOR”) project, “World Ocean” program of RAS and RFBR (00-15-98479).

  19. Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yan

    Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands Moreton Island GOLD COAST Gulf of Carpenteria Thursday Island Torres Strait Horn Island Maroochydore

  20. What do Pneumocystis organisms tell us about the phylogeography of their hosts? The case of the woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in continental Europe and western Mediterranean islands.

    PubMed

    Demanche, Christine; Deville, Manjula; Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  1. What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  2. Seasonal and interannual variability of zooplankton community in waters off Mallorca island (Balearic Sea, Western Mediterranean): 1994–1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Fernández de Puelles; Jean-Michel Pinot; Joaquin Valencia

    2003-01-01

    During 1994–1999, the mesozooplankton community was sampled monthly in the upper sea layer (up to 100 m) along a cross-shelf transect of three stations in waters off Mallorca island. Copepods formed the most abundant group (54%) followed by appendicularians (17%), cladocerans and meroplankton larvae (13%). The abundance of all these groups decreased in the offshore direction but it was not the

  3. A review on the effects of alien rodents in the Balearic (Western Mediterranean Sea) and Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Traveset; M. Nogales; J. A. Alcover; J. D. Delgado; M. López-Darias; D. Godoy; J. M. Igual; P. Bover

    2009-01-01

    Invasions of alien rodents have shown to have devastating effects on insular ecosystems. Here we review the ecological impacts\\u000a of these species on the biodiversity of the Balearic and the Canary Islands. A total of seven species of introduced rodents\\u000a (two rats, three mice, one dormouse, and one squirrel) have been recorded (six in the Balearics and four in the

  4. Oldest camarasauromorph sauropod (Dinosauria) discovered in the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) of the Khadir Island, Kachchh, western India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Moser; Umesh B. Mathur; Franz T. Fürsich; Dhirendra K. Pandey; Neera Mathur

    2006-01-01

    Fragmentary isolated remains of large (up to 20 m or more) sauropods from the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) Khadir Formation\\u000a of Khadir Island (Kachchh, W India) are described and compared in detail. Three of the bone fragments (a metacarpal, a first\\u000a pedal claw and a fibula) can be assigned with confidence to the Camarasauromorpha and represent the oldest known record of

  5. Sea floor morphology and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Mallorca Channel, Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Acosta; M. Canals; A. Carbó; A. Muñoz; R. Urgeles; A. Muñoz-Mart??n; E. Uchupi

    2004-01-01

    A complete multibeam coverage of the sea floor of Mallorca Channel, in the western Mediterranean, was recorded during the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone surveys in 1995, 1996 and 1997. These data, combined with previous high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, allow an assessment of the geomorphology of the area. The channel seafloor is disrupted by a fault complex and pockmarks. Motion along

  6. Prey fish consumption by Double-crested Cormorants in western Lake Erie near West Sister Island, Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Bur; William H. Edwards; Patrick M. Kocovsky; Michael J. Porta; Martin A. Stapanian

    The objectives for this study were to: 1) determine the diet of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, hereafter: cormorants) in western Lake Erie; 2) to determine if yellow perch (Perca flavescens) or walleye (Sander vitreus) were a noteworthy prey item; and 3) to determine if the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) are consumed. Diet of cormorants was determined from stomach contents

  7. Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher ?13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed ?13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ?C7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

  8. Surface Waves Observed in the Western Coast Plain of the Taiwan Island During the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake and its Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Tang, G.; Burbach, G.; Jackson, C. R.; Lin, Q.

    2004-12-01

    During the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its consequent aftershocks, significant surface waves were observed in the western coast plain of the Taiwan island. Ground-motion records from the 1999 Chi-Chi mainshock and its five aftershocks with magnitude larger than Mw 6.0 are analyzed in this study. The ground-motions in the western coast plain, which can be classified as NEHRP E site, were dominated by the surface wave in the period range larger than 1.0 second. The distance between the sources and the instruments in the western coast plain are about 20--45 km. We study the attenuation of the surface waves with distance to source. The Rayleigh waves attenuate faster than the Love waves in the coast plain. The amplitude of horizontal Rayleigh wave is about 1.5 time of that of the corresponding Love wave on average in the near-source area. The strong-motions observed in the coast plain are a mixture of P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves. S-wave was overlapped by the surface waves in a relative wide period range (0.5--1.5 sec). However, the body wave and the surface wave were separated quite well in some seismograms triggered by one aftershock (Sep. 20, 1999, 18:03:41.16, Mw 6.2) of the Chi-Chi mainshock. Based on a basic structural model of the studied area, we use 3D finite-difference modeling to study the special mechanism separating the body wave and surface wave. We find it is really difficult to generate the near-source seismograms with the body wave and surface wave being separated perfectly. Depth of the source and the azimuth of instrument to source are the two key elements that control the separating of the body wave and surface wave.

  9. Responses of stable bay-margin and barrier-island systems to Holocene sea-level highstands, western Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Blum, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The microtidal, wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Mexico displays a variety of Holocene geomorphic features indicating higher-than-present water levels that were previously attributed to storm processes while geoidal sea level was at its present position. Field and aerial-photograph examinations of bay margins, barrier islands, and beach-ridge plains following major hurricanes show that the elevated features are inundated periodically by high storm surge. Despite their inundation, these highstand features are not modified by modern storm processes. Instead, storm-related erosion and deposition are always seaward of and lower than the highstand features and are always limited to the extant shorezone, where elevations typically are less than 1.5 m above present sea level. Bay-margin and lagoonal highstand indicators include raised marshes and subtidal flats, wave-cut benches, abandoned wave-cut scarps with fringing marshes and/or beach ridges, and accretionary islands and recurved spits. Other emergent marine features include abandoned compound flood-tidal delta and washover fan complexes attached to barrier islands and anomalously high beach ridges within both the barrier-island complexes and beach-ridge plains. The highest beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and erosional scarps and benches are manifestations of one or more rising phases and highstands in sea level, whereas the lower marshes and accretionary topography are mainly products of the falling phases and shoreface adjustment to present sea level. Different elevations of beach-ridge sets, discordant truncation of beach ridges, and elevated marine- and brackish-water faunal assemblages preserved in beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and natural levees are compelling evidence of sea-level fluctuations of ±1 to 1.5 m from about 5500 to 1200 cal yr BP. Independent evidence from studies of geodynamic, climatic, and glacio-eustatic processes can explain the mid-Holocene highstands and late Holocene lowering of sea level that is observed in tectonically stable coastal regions far from former centers of glaciation.

  10. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142kg, were removed from 1km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. PMID:26024564

  11. Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral ?18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral ?18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana ?18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana ?18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

  12. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  13. Evidence for the subducting lithosphere under Southern Vancouver Island and Western Oregon from teleseismic P wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, C.A.

    1981-05-10

    Long-period teleseismic P waves recorded at VIC (Victoria, British Columbia) and COR (Corvallis, Orgeon) show anomalously large Ps conversions and later arriving P-to-S reverberations not observed from typical continental crustal sections or from previously proposed structures for these stations determined from refraction surveys. The timing and large amplitude of the Ps phase, relative to direct P, suggests a high velocity-contrast interface at 45 to 50 km depth under VIC and COR forming the base of a distinct low velocity zone. This interface is proposed to be the oceanic Moho which is being subducted under North America. Off azimuth Ps recorded at COR is consistent with a 20/sup 0/ eastward dip for the interface. Horizontal particle motion at both sites show evidence for lateral heterogeneity in local crustal structure. The distinct low velocity zone and its negative gradient with depth has important consequences for refraction interpretation in the region since the usual assumption of increasing velocity with depth is violated. Crustal thicknesses derived from such misinterpretation may be overestimated. In principle, this type of structure suggests a solution for the Vancouver Island crustal thickness problem in which the observed positive Bouguer gravity anomaly is inconsistent with the 50 km thick crustal thickness derived from previous refraction work.

  14. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

  15. Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

    2014-10-01

    The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water column, while postflexion stages presented a wide distribution at night, undergoing vertical displacement to the near-surface layers during the day. The roles of the position of the thermocline, the availability of food and light intensity as factors modulating these differences are discussed.

  16. Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2010-12-01

    A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

  17. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 ?g/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 ?g/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 ?g/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 ?g/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 ?g/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 ?g/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 ?g/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  18. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L

    2007-11-01

    A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher received sound energy exposure levels, whales traveled faster, changed directions of movement less, were recorded further from shore, and stayed under water longer between respirations. PMID:17616825

  19. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL < 30 mm; medium: CL between 30 and 40 mm; large: CL ? 40 mm). Off Cabrera, the highest fullness was recorded in November 2003 among small and medium shrimp, while only large specimens showed patterns similar to that found off Sóller. Off Sóller, the diet of both small (CL < 34 mm) and large (CL ? 34 mm) A. antennatus was mainly influenced by season, with three dietary groups corresponding to August-September 2003, to November 2003/February 2004, and to hauls from April to June 2004. Off Cabrera, hauls (representing diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of mesopelagic prey, was parallel to a significant increase of the gonad weight (GSI, fecundity) in June. Most individuals attain gonad development in the period May-June, after two months of the peak of primary production at the surface. The strong link found between pelagic resources and reproductive processes in a deep-sea species such as the shrimp Aristeus antennatus, situated near the top of the trophic web, suggests a rapid energy flow via mesopelagic fauna between surface primary production and bathyal megabenthic communities at oligotrophic insular areas. In contrast to mainland areas off the Catalan coasts submitted to the influence of submarine canyons, around the island of Mallorca the empoverishment of benthos biomass may enhance consumption of micronektonic prey and a possible accumulation of pre-reproductive females of A. antennatus in areas (e.g., steep slopes and persistent frontal systems found off Sóller) with high zooplankton aggregations.

  20. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Mesostructural observations along the Western coast of Bel'kovsky Island: preliminary results (North-Eastern Laptev Sea region, Russian Arctic)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Verzhbitsky

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on the field works carried out by the Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas RAS in the central part of the Bel'kovsky island during 2002 August-September. In the tectonic sense the Bel'kovsky island is located in the eastern part of the Late Cretaceous (?) - Cenozoic Laptev Sea rift system and also is a part

  2. San José Island Accommodation Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico: A Key to Onshore-Offshore Fault Relationships along the Western Margin of the Southern Gulf of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Drake; P. J. Umhoefer

    2003-01-01

    The two-stage evolution of the southern Gulf of California included protogulf orthogonal rifting from ˜12 to ˜6 Ma, followed by overprinting from ˜6 to 0 Ma by the highly oblique-divergent, modern plate boundary. The San José Island accommodation zone, located ˜70 km north-northwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur, represents the transition between strike-slip partitioning to the south and the

  3. Efficacy of three vaccines in protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from experimental infection with West Nile virus: implications for vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Reisen, William K; Boyce, Walter M

    2011-08-01

    The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator(®) DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek(®) equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  4. Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  5. Changes in Planktonic Diatoms and Water Transparency in Hatchery Bay, Bass Island Area, Western Lake Erie Since the Establishment of the Zebra Mussel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Holland

    1993-01-01

    Total planktonic diatoms were analyzed from water samples collected in 1984-1986 (pre- zebra mussel period) and 1990-1992 (post-zebra mussel period) in Hatchery Bay of western Lake Erie. Planktonic diatom abundances for one post-zebra mussel year, 3 April 1990-26 March 1991, and weekly April\\/May frustules for 1990, 1991, and 1992 were compared to counts from the 1980s and to counts in

  6. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W. (Canadian Stratigraphic Service Ltd., Calgary, Alberta); Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  7. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Jaume, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided. PMID:21998551

  8. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W; Jaume, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Psammogammarus wallaceisp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided. PMID:21998551

  9. Igneous history of the Koyukuk terrane, western Alaska: constraints on the origin, evolution, and ultimate collision of an accreted island arc terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Koyukuk terrane consists of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and plutonic rocks which range from Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age. The terrane crops out in a U-shaped belt which is roughly paralleled by outer belts of ultramafic rocks, oceanic plate basalts and cherts, and retrograded blueschist facies rocks of continental protolith. These rocks have been interpreted as components of a volcanic arc terrane that collided with the North American continental margin in Early Cretaceous time. The Koyukuk terrane consists of four time-stratigraphic units: (1) pre-Middle Jurassic basalts, (2) Middle and Late Jurassic granitic rocks, (3) lower Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks, and (4) upper Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Limited chemical data from the basalts of unit 1 indicate that they were erupted in a nonarc tectonic environment, possibly in an oceanic island or back arc setting. Units, 2, 3, and 4 have the characteristics of subduction-related volcanic rocks. -from Authors

  10. Island Biogeography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

    2005-12-16

    This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

  11. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  12. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  13. Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

    2010-12-01

    To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1?= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1?= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as <10-6 PAL. Sulfur isotope analysis revealed, based on the variable ?34S values (-1.9 ~ +26.8‰), that bacterial sulfate reduction was so extensive in the 3.2Ga deep marine environments that sulfate utilization by sulfate-reducers was near completion [8]. Production of bacteriogenic sulfide would have enhanced fixation of dissolved Mo into sulfide minerals in sediments. This is rather a common process occurring in oxygen-depleted environments in the modern ocean ([9]). A combined enrichment of Mo, Corg, and S, together with high ?34S values for a sedimentary formation may be used as a strong evidence for operation of modern-day style sedimentary Mo enrichment. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and (at least the surface) oceans was significant during deposition of the sediments, ~800Ma earlier than commonly thought ([10]). Operation of present-day style geochemical cycle of Mo in the Mesoarchean surface environments suggests early evolution of atmosphere, oceans, and microbial biosphere. References: [1] Kiyokawa et al, 2006, GSAB 118: 3-22. [2] Yamaguchi et al, 2009, Sci. Drill. 7: 34-37. [3] Yamaguchi, 2002, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State Univ. [4] Yamaguchi & Ohmoto, 2002, GSA Abstract [5] Naraoka et al, 2001, 4th Int'l Archaean Symp., Perth. [6] Anbar et al, 2007, Science 317: 1903-1906. [7] Vine & Tourtelot, 1970, Econ. Geol. 65: 253-272. [8] Sakamoto et al, 2010, Fall AGU Mtg. [9] Morford & Emerson, 1999, GCA 63: 1735-1750. [10] Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

  14. ISLAND SUBSIDENCE, HOT SPOTS, AND LITHOSPHERIC THINNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Detrick; S. Thomas Crough

    1978-01-01

    Drilling r%sults from several western Pacific atolls indicate the long-term subsidence of these islands is much more than would be expected from the cooling and thick- ening of the underlying lithosphere. This excess subsidence cannot be satisfactorily explained by isostatic adjustments to the weight of the volcano or the coral reef cap. It appears to be related to island formation

  15. Vernacular Literacy in the Touo Language of the Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Touo language is a non-Austronesian language spoken on Rendova Island (Western Province, Solomon Islands). First language speakers of Touo are typically multilingual, and are likely to speak other (Austronesian) vernaculars, as well as Solomon Island Pijin and English. There is no institutional support of literacy in Touo: schools function in…

  16. Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, R. K.; Beauzile, W.; Ma, N.; Clauson, K.

    2009-12-01

    Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem. As an initiative of broader study to understand the spatial and temporal variability of heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in this area, water and sediment samples are being collected periodically from three different sites capturing the wide range of flushing zones. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) by Lachet QuickChem 8500 and dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn) were measured by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). Temperatures, conductivity, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on site by YSI multiparameter probe (600 QS) and ranged from 25.7 to 27.1oC, 17.3 to 36.9 mS/cm, 8.1 to 8.4, 74.7 to 160.8 mV, and 5.1 to 9.2 mg/l respectively. The 15 cm sections of 76 cm depth auger samples were analyzed for a suite of 26 elements including major and trace elements by using XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Average Fe concentration was found to be 6.5 ± 2.9 g/kg and distributed consistently in increased concentration with depth which also agree with the observed sediment colors on site; more darker towards surface. The preliminary data from site A showed a consistency in trace metal concentrations in surface water and sediments. Higher aqueous concentrations of Cu (17.5 ± 4.1 ?g/l), Pb (39.1 ± 23.9 ?g/l), Zn (91.1 ± 36.8 ?g/l) correspond to their elevated level in the sediments [Cu (50 ± 10 mg/kg), Pb (30 ± 30 mg/kg), Zn (30 ± 20 mg/kg)]. Trace amount of As (3.3 ± 1.5 ?g/l) and Cd (3.9 ± 1.5 ?g/l) were found in dissolved phase where as no As and Cd was detected by XRF in sediments (LOD: 7 mg/kg). In both solid and liquid phases, significant variation in concentration of heavy metals was observed in meter scales. Limited variation (~ 5%) was observed in concentrations of dissolved Ortho-phosphorus, nitrite with an average concentration of 6.8 ± 0.3 ?M, 7.2 ± 0.4 ?M respectively. On other hand, concentration of nitrate-N (11.3 ± 3.1 ?M), ammonia-N (37.1 ± 10.1 ?M), silica (2.9 ± 0.5 ?M) varies 15-27%. This erratic distributions of heavy metals and nutrients observed in this preliminary set of data suggest that contaminations may be caused by both natural processes and local environmental influences.

  17. Earth Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

  18. Review Article Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of the

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Review Article Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of Patras, Seismological Laboratory, Patras, Greece b Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Zakynthos Island The April 2006 earthquake sequence near Zakynthos (Western Greece) is analysed to identify

  19. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  20. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  1. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune sands than others, a foremost candidate being Ammophila arenaria. It is concluded that active support for such plants should form part of any management strategy aiming to reduce and reverse coastal dune fragmentation processes.

  2. Defoliation of juvenile western hemlock by western blackheaded budworm in Pacific coastal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G Nealis; R Turnquist; R Garbutt

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of the western blackheaded budworm [Acleris gloverana (Walsingham)] defoliated 170,000ha of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada, between 1996 and 2001. Defoliation was first noted in mature forests in the southern portion of the archipelago, and was observed occurring progressively northward in subsequent years. Much of the defoliation occurred in

  3. Nihoa Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

  4. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Western Skink

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  7. Depauperate meme pool of vocal signals in an island population of singing honeyeaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MYRON C. BAKER

    1996-01-01

    The songs of singing honeyeater,Meliphaga virescens, populations on an island and the mainland of Western Australia were compared. For the island population as a whole, the pool of syllable types (memes) from which whole songs are constructed was smaller than for the mainland meme pool. The island population also had fewer song types, syllable types per song, total syllables per

  8. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Thermal Islands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

  10. Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Hay; D. C. Robertson

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased

  11. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Alcatraz Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    â??The Rockâ?, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâ??s most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâ??s best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâ??s most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâ??s past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous â??Battle of Alcatrazâ? and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

  14. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  15. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  16. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  17. New methanol plant for Kharg Island

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-08

    Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

  18. Rhode Island Transportation

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Rhode Island Transportation Fact Book Highlights Transportation Center #12;Transportation in Rhode Island University of Rhode Island Transportation Center 2 Road Conditions / Road Ownership Public Road Length by Ownership 2008 Road Conditions 2008 9% 17% 45% 18% 11% Rhode Island Road Condition (2008

  19. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea (Johnson et al., 1978; Macpherson et al., 1998). The past influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles ocean island basalts and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The lithosphere lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene was subsequently subducted. During the Oligo-Miocene the hotspot was traversed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, buoyancy differences between the IBM, supported by hot mantle, and older, colder lithosphere of the adjacent Pacific Plate may have provided a mechanism to propagate widespread subduction at the nascent IBM arc. Johnson RW, Smith IEM, &Taylor SR, BMR J. Aus. Geol. Geophys. 3, 55-69, (1978). Macpherson CG, Hilton, DR, Sinton, JM, Poreda RJ &Craig H. Geology 26, 1007-1010, (1998). Macpherson CG &Hall R, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 186, 215-230, (2001).

  20. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  1. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY...U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western...

  2. Species richness of small woodlands on the western Carpathian foothills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew Dzwonko; Stefania Loster

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-six small woodland islands (0.008–2.16 ha) isolated in the agricultural landscape of the Wierzbanówka valley (western Carpathian foothills) were investigated. Analysis of historical cartographic material showed that 60 woodland islands are most probably the remnants of ancient woodlands. Among them both woodlands associated with more than one type of soil, and those with homogeneous soil conditions, were identified; the latter

  3. Male and Female Parental Roles in the Western Gull under Different Environmental Conditions

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond

    1981-07-01

    I examined variation in parental care in the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), spending two seasons on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI), where the population was large and competition for breeding space appeared to be high. During the first season...

  4. Burrowing mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie, 1942-1944

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    1991-01-01

    These data, collected during 1942-1944 by Dr. David C. Chandler, describe the density, biomass, and growth of a now extinct population of burrowing mayfly nymphs (primarily Hexagenia limbata) that lived in the sediments of western Lake Erie near South Bass Island. The growth dynamics of this population have not previously been documented. Female nymphs grew faster than males and were about 4 mm longer than males at emergence each year. Significantly fewer nymphs were collected in 1943 than in 1942 or 1944. Before they were extinguished by low dissolved oxygen in 1953, mayfly nymphs were abundant (about 350 weighing 10 wet g m-2) near this island and throughout most of western Lake Erie. The western basin once supported a biomass of 9.6 t · km-2 or at least 17,600 metric tonnes of mayfly nymphs. If burrowing mayflies recolonize the sediments of western Lake Erie, these data could be used to assess the extent of their recovery.

  5. Galapagos Islands Flyby

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-03-13

    This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

  6. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  7. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  8. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  9. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  10. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  11. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Island Fox Paradox

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Levy (Freelancer; )

    2010-05-03

    Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

  13. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

  14. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Appalachian Mountains recorded in the Bay of Island Ophiolite Complex, Canada.

    E-print Network

    Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Appalachian Mountains recorded in the Bay of Island Ophiolite Fster095@uottawa.ca Introduction The Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex (BOIC) is an Early Ordovician ophiolite located on the western ultramafic belt of the northern Appalachians, Newfiundland, Canada

  15. Islands in Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Prance

    1996-01-01

    There are a number of habitats within the lowland Amazonian rainforest ecosystem that are functional islands. Those that are discussed are savannas, white sand campinas and caatingas, inselbergs and sandstone table mountains or tepuis. Each of these habitats is a series of isolated islands of vegetation and in some cases speciation has taken place between islands, especially the older tepuis,

  16. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  17. How Are Islands Formed?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

  18. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Mayr

    1965-01-01

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  19. Adaptive Units for Conservation: Population Distinction and Historic Extinctions in the Island Scrub-Jay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN S. DELANEY; ROBERT K. WAYNE

    2005-01-01

    The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis )i sf ound on Santa Cruz Island, California, and is the only insular bird species in the continental United States. We typed seven microsatellite loci and sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region of Island Scrub-Jays and their closest mainland relative, the Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), to assess levels of variability and effective

  20. 202 Western Birds 41:202230, 2010 SHORT-TAILED HAWKS NESTING IN THE SKY

    E-print Network

    Montana, University of

    the sky islands of Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora, and Chihuahua. In this report we summarize previously#12;202 Western Birds 41:202­230, 2010 SHORT-TAILED HAWKS NESTING IN THE SKY ISLANDS Mexico. Like other described nests of the species, both nests were placed near the tops of tall live

  1. Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris D. Metcalfel; Tracy L. Metcalfe; Geoffrey Riddle; G. Douglas Haffner

    1997-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCBs in zebra mussels were elevated to concentrations greater than 5,000 ng\\/g lipid and 15,000 ng\\/g lipid, respectively, at the Ambassador Bridge in the Detroit River and concentrations gradually declined at downstream locations, which included three stations in the western basin of Lake Erie (Middle Sister Island, East Sister Island, Pelee Island). PCB concentrations in

  2. Western Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image, collected on 16 January 2003, covers an area in Western Meridiani.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.9, Longitude 354.7 East (5.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Western Gusev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 January 2004

    Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.

    This image shows some of the far-western areas of Gusev Crater, and was captured on 27 June 2003, while Spirit was en-route to Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14, Longitude 174.8 East (185.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Application study of urban heat island effect in the Northwestern City based on MODIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongchun Peng; Haiying Li

    2009-01-01

    This article studied the urban heat island effect of a western city, the capital of Qinghai Province on the western plateau. This research was based on MODIS LST products from 2000 to 2008. The results showed: 1) the urban area had higher LST, the suburban and rural surroundings had lower LST; 2) the county with higher altitude had lower LST,

  5. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  6. AQUATIC FLOWERING PLANTS NEW TO THE ERIE ISLANDS1- 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD L. STUCKEY

    The aquatic Angiosperm flora of the islands at the western end of Lake Erie was in- tensively studied by A. J. Pieters and E. L. Moseley 60-70 years ago and 20 years ago by E. L. Core. Since then, additional species have been discovered, of which twenty-four are recorded here. Of these Phalaris canariensis, Scirpus acutus, Rorippa sylvestris, Hibiscus militaris,

  7. Geothermal exploration of Kos Island, Greece: Magnetotelluric and microseismicity studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lagios; A. Tzanis; N. Delibasis; J. Drakopoulos; G. K. J. Dawes

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of magnetotelluric (MT) and microseismicity studies, conducted as part of a multi-disciplinary project to explore the geothermal potential of the island of Kos, Greece. The MT survey, comprising 18 soundings, was carried out in the bandwidth 128 Hz-40 s, in order to determine the deep conductivity structure in the geothermally prospective western part of the

  8. Dartington: A Principal Source of Inspiration behind Aldous Huxley's "Island".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, David

    1987-01-01

    Describes Dartington Hall School in Devon, England, which between the 1920s and 1970s implemented an educational system combining traditional Hindu religious philosophy and ideals of living and Western scientific knowledge and work experience. Considers ways Dartington educationally and socially resembled Aldous Huxley's utopia in "Island." (AYC)

  9. Hidden costs of the accident at Three Mile Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N EVANS

    1982-01-01

    It has been possible to identify a significant drop in the performance of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) in the western world following the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Although there are indications that the magnitude of the load factor reduction was slightly larger in the U.S., there is nevertheless strong evidence to suggest that the response was felt in

  10. Dust rains in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean): Their occurrence and role in some recent geological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ll. A. Fiol; J. J. Fornós; B. Gelabert; J. A. Guijarro

    2005-01-01

    Dust rains were observed in Palma de Mallorca (Island of Mallorca, Western Mediterranean) on 253 days in the 22-year period from 1982 to 2003. These and other data from the Western Mediterranean show that dust rains are on the increase. Most occur in the warmest season of the year. Meteorological conditions associated with this phenomenon combine hot advection from the

  11. Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review

    E-print Network

    Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review whether a sustained outbreak of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris) in western Newfoundland America (Martineau, 1985) but the current outbreak on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland (Fig. 1

  12. Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

    2010-12-01

    The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

  13. Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole Western part of the

    E-print Network

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole #12;Haiti Western part of the Hispaniola island Shared;Haiti - History 1791 Haitian revolution in which black slaves rebelled and eventually succeeded #12;Haitian - Facts Spoken by about 12 million Haitians and by people of Haitian origin Became

  14. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  15. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  16. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, J.L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  17. Phylogeography of skinks (Chalcides) in the Canary Islands inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Pestano, J

    1998-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution was investigated in skinks of the genus Chalcides found in the Canary Islands (Ch. sexlineatus, Ch. viridanus and Ch. simonyi), together with some North African congenerics (Ch. polylepis and Ch. mionecton). Several sites were included within islands to cover areas of known within-island geographical variation in morphology. Skinks from the islands of El Hierro and La Gomera appear to be sister taxa. The relationships between this clade and the Tenerife and Gran Canarian skinks were not fully resolved, although the best working hypothesis indicated monophyly with the former, with the latter forming a closely related outgroup. Ch. simonyi from Fuerteventura was more distantly related to the Western Canary Island skinks and did not show close relationships with the North African species Ch. mionecton and Ch. polylepis. Possible colonization sequences for the four most Western Canary Islands were considered. El Hierro appears to have been colonized relatively recently from La Gomera, commensurate with the recent origin of this island, while dispersal between La Gomera and Tenerife and between Gran Canaria and Tenerife or La Gomera appears to have taken place considerably earlier. Substantial within-island haplotype divergence was found in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. This may be a result of recent periods of intense volcanic activity found within these two islands. Lower levels of within-island differentiation are found in La Gomera and El Hierro and may be explained by lower levels of volcanic activity during recent geological history and a more recent colonization, respectively. PMID:9734075

  18. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  19. Water resources of Ponape, Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    Ponape is the third largest island in the western Pacific, with a land area of 129 square miles. The island is volcanic, nearly circular in shape, and covered with lush tropical vegetation. The mountainous interior has the highest peaks in the western Pacific. Annual rainfall at Kolonia and other coastal areas is 191 inches. Inland at higher elevations, the rainfall is considerably higher. The upper Nanpil River basin averages about 340 inches annually. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for Ponapean streams show that about two thirds of the rain falling on the island runs off. Flow-duration curves show the similarity of the geology, vegetation, and rainfall of the drainage basins and indicate little ground-water contribution to surface runoff. Surface-water quality is excellent as shown by 53 chemical anlyses of water from 19 streams. Water of the Nanpil River, the source of water for the central water system, is especially low in dissolved elements and solids. This report summarizes in one volume all the hydrologic data collected and provides analyses that may be used by planning and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of their water resources. (USGS)

  20. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Yeh; Fumihiko Imamura; Costas Synolakis; Yoshinobu Tsuji; Philip Liu; Shaozhong Shi

    1993-01-01

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On

  1. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    ) of the Pacific-wide (western-central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Western University Rehabilitation Services

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    1 Western University Rehabilitation Services Transitional Accommodation Program Western by Rehabilitation Services and is updated at frequent intervals in order to: 1. confirm progression toward treatment information is held in the strictest confidence within Rehabilitation Services. Only capabilities

  4. New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

    1996-01-01

    The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

  5. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  6. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  7. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  8. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  9. El Niño related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bruno; C. Siddon; J. Witman; P. Colin; M. Toscano

    2001-01-01

    Mass coral bleaching is currently viewed as a major threat to the long-term health of coral reef communities. Here we quantify coral bleaching in Palau coincident with the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event and with local sea surface temperatures of 31 °C, which were 1.0-1.25 °C higher than long-term, satellite-derived climatological maximum monthly means for the region. We sampled

  10. Obsidian archaeological artefacts provenance studies in the Western Mediterranean basin: an approach by Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa B Scorzelli; Susana Petrick; Alexandre M Rossi; Gérard Poupeau; Giulio Bigazzi

    2001-01-01

    We studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and EPR 11 obsidian samples from the islands of Lipari, Palmarola, Pantelleria and Sardinia (Western Mediterranean), 26 obsidian artefacts from Italian Neolithic sites of known origin and eight artefacts from the two sites of the Lipari and Filicudi islands whose origins were not previously determined. We show that structural fingerprinting may be considered a

  11. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  12. Conservation Strategy for Sable Island

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

  13. Western Interior Seaway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U-Haul SuperGraphics

    The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

  14. Paleoecological analyses of lake sediments reveal prehistoric human impact on forests at Anthony Island UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Hebda, Richard J.

    2007-09-01

    Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of lake sediments from Anthony Island in the southern Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia, reveal 1800 yr of relatively stable temperate rainforest vegetation. Cupressaceae (cedar) pollen percentages and accumulation rates decline about 1000 cal yr BP, coincident with occupation of the island by Haida peoples, who use Thuja plicata (western red cedar) almost exclusively for house construction, dugout canoes, monumental poles, and many other items. Anthropogenic disturbance offers the most likely explanation for the decline of T. plicata.

  15. Using hydrogeochemical methods to evaluate complex quaternary subsurface stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Stone, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems in Hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant of the late Wisconsinan terminal moraine, located approximately 16 km south of the Rhode Island mainland. Two chemically distinct water types are recognized on the island: 1) high-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels in excess of 20 mg/L, bicarbonate greater than 30 mg/L and dissolved iron ranging from 1-20 mg/L; and 2) low-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels below 16 mg/L, bicarbonate less than 30 mg/L, and less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved iron. The spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter and the resulting redox conditions are believed to control the occurrence of highiron groundwater. The high-iron waters occur almost exclusively in the eastern half of the island and appear to coincide with the presence of allochthonous blocks of Cretaceous-age coastal-plain sediments that were incorporated into Pleistocene-age deposits derived from the Narragansett Bay-Buzzard's Bay lobe of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet. The low-iron waters occur in the western half of the island, where the occurrence of these Cretaceous-age blocks is rare and the sediments are attributed to a sublobe of the Hudson-Champlain lobe of the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  16. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  17. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  18. The Island Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

  19. Galveston Island and erosion 

    E-print Network

    Bolleter, Jim Mason

    1985-01-01

    ABSTRACT Galveston Island and Erosion. (May 1985) Jim Mason Bolleter, B. S. , Texas AM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. A. R. Benton Jr. Mid-term changes in the beach vegetation line on Galveston Island, I as well as the erosional effects... of recent hurri canes and tropical . storms, wer e documented with multi -date aerial photography. While ~ localized accretion has occurred on East Beach due to the shadowing effect of the South Jetty, West beach has fluctuated between erosion Major...

  20. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  1. Competing for the Island Lifeline: European Law, State Aid and Regional Public Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Bennett P. (2006) Competing for the island lifeline: European law, state aid and regional public services, Regional Studies40, 953–966. Ensuring the freedom to provide services in Europe often means that state subsidies for loss-making, but essential, services are subject to competitive tendering. For the past three decades ‘lifeline’ ferry services to the islands of Western Scotland have been operated by

  2. The most recent megalandslides of the Canary Islands: El Golfo debris avalanche and Canary debris flow, west El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgeles, Roger; Canals, Miquel; Baraza, Jesús; Alonso, BeléN.; Masson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    Two major landsliding events have been identified west of the island of El Hierro: The El Golfo debris avalanche and the Canary debris flow. These landslides were identified from swath bathymetry, seismic reflection, and TOpographic PArametric Sonar (TOPAS) data obtained in December 1994 during a cruise on board the Spanish R/V Hesperides. The El Golfo debris avalanche originated subaerially on the western flank of the island of El Hierro and has an associated 150 km3 rock debris deposit on the base of slope. The Canary debris flow, which dislocated some 400 km3 of sediment, resulted from a different failure originated between 3200 and 3700 m depth at the base of slope of the island of El Hierro. According to the studied data set, its source area seems to have been covered by the El Golfo debris avalanche deposit. The triggering of the El Golfo debris avalanche (between 136 and 21 ka) is related to tensional stresses on the rift zones of the island. These rift zones control the emplacement and morphology of the landslide scar. In the Canary Islands, a relation between landslide ages and island ages can be established, indicating a link between subsidence history, age of shield phases, and giant landslides.

  3. Western White Pine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  4. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  5. Rhynchelmis aleutensis n. sp. (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) from Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new lumbriculid worm, Rhynchelmis aleutensis, is described from streams on Adak Island, Alaska. The new species does not resemble other Alaskan or Siberian Rhynchelmis species. The paired spermathecal diverticula and the morphology of the male pores and atria suggest that it is more closely related to a species group known only from the western United States, south of Canada. The latter group has been associated with Sutroa Eisen, 1888. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  6. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

  7. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

  8. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently, there are no catch share in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC migrate across international

  9. Western Pacific Regional Summary Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    -central and eastern Pacific Ocean) total of Pacific bigeye tuna landings reported in 2007. Currently (WCPFC) is active in the western and central Pacific Ocean and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is active in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Species under the purview of the WCPFC and IATTC

  10. Western Hellenic subduction and Cephalonia Transform: local earthquakes and plate transport and strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sachpazi; A. Hirn; C. Clément; F. Haslinger; M. Laigle; E. Kissling; P. Charvis; Y. Hello; J.-C. Lépine; M. Sapin; J. Ansorge

    2000-01-01

    Focal parameters of local earthquakes in the region of the Ionian Islands of western Greece are constrained with a temporary dense array of three-component seismographs operated jointly offshore and onshore. Seismic deformation is documented to be confined to the east of the N20°E-striking steep continental slope west of Cephalonia island, the right-lateral Cephalonia Transform Fault, CTF, inferred from large earthquakes.

  11. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  12. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the 'Austronesian expansion,' which began 4,000-5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  13. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W., Jr.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the north to near Boxer Bay on the south. Headlands having rugged cliffs or narrow, boulder-strewn beaches characterize the southwest coastline. The geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island was prepared from published and unpublished field investigations carried out between 1966 and 1971 by W.W. Patton, Jr., Bela Csejtey, Jr., T.P. Miller, J.T. Dutro, Jr., J.M. Hoare, and W.H. Condon (Patton and Csejtey, 1971, 1980) and data from Ormiston and Fehlmann (1969). Fossils collected during these investigations are reported in the Alaska Paleontological Database (www.alaskafossil.org), and mineral resource information is summarized in the online Alaska Resource Data File (Hudson, 1998).

  14. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

  15. INTERBREEDING OF THE GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL AND WESTERN GULL IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael Scott

    1971-01-01

    The fifth edition of the A.O.U. Check-list (1957) states that the Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens} breeds from western Alaska south to Copalis Rocks, Washington. In the southern part of its breeding range (Vancouver Island to Copalis Rocks) it is sympatfic with the northernmost populations of the Western Gull (L. occiden- talis} (Pearse, 1946; Jewett et al., 1953). In the summers

  16. Body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from Western Isles of Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C G Isles; I Robertson; J A Macleod; T Preston; B W East; D J Hole; A F Lever

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the Western Isles Health Board, Glasgow area, and other parts of the Scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137Cs in patients from the Western Isles. DESIGN--Study of hypertensive patients having electrolyte concentrations measured, including 137Cs. Interview by questionnaire of island subjects about intake of foods likely to contain radiocaesium and the

  17. Merguerian, Charles, 1984, Revised stratigraphy of the Manhattan Schist, New York City. Field and petrographic data indicate that the "type" Manhattan Schist of Manhattan Island

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Merguerian, Charles, 1984, Revised stratigraphy of the Manhattan Schist, New York City. Field and petrographic data indicate that the "type" Manhattan Schist of Manhattan Island actually consists of three on Manhattan Island. This middle unit is equivalent to the Cambrian(?) Hoosac Formation of western

  18. Nectar Secretion and Bee Guild Characteristics of Yellow Star-Thistle on Santa Cruz Island and Lesvos: Where Have the Honey Bees Gone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared nectar secretion rates and bee guilds of yellow star-thistle, Centaurea solstitialis on Santa Cruz Island (USA) and the Northeast Aegean Island of Lesvos (Greece). This plant species is non-native and highly invasive in the western USA but native to Eurasia (including Lesvos). "Nectar ...

  19. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  20. Density compensation in island avifaunas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Joseph Wright

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors which determine the extent of density compensation on islands; i.e., is the summed population density of all species on an island equal to the summed mainland density? A graphical analysis allows quantitative comparisons of density compensation studies. Two hypotheses which are generally applicable predict the extent of density compensation on islands: (1) Niche theory predicts that

  1. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  2. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  3. Microfluidic Western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10–60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

  4. Three Mile Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

  5. Three Mile Island revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the

  6. URBAN EXTENTS Falkland Islands

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS BRAZIL CHILE PARAGUAY URUGUAY GRUMPv1 Falkland Islands A t l a n t i c O c e a n P Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Population Density. Palisades, NY: CIESIN Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries

  7. Atsena Otie Key Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

  8. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... energy balance, and directly sampled airborne dust and pollution particles while the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and ... for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft probed the environment near Oki island, in the upper left part of the images. At the same ...

  9. Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

  10. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  11. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  12. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. VI. The pioneer arthropod community of Motmot John S. Edwards1 and Ian W. B Wisdom which occupies the caldera of Long Island, Papua New Guinea. Methods Arthropod sampling by means studies on the pioneer biota of an emergent island, Motmot, in Long Island's freshwater caldera lake, Lake

  13. Investing 101: Your Western Pension

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    2/21/2013 1 Investing 101: Your Western Pension Western Staff & Leaders' Conference F b 21 2013 of the Western Retirement plans. It is not intended to constitute legal, tax, pension, or investment advice nor Contribution Pension Account Invested at your Deposit Invest Account y direction Contribution Made by Western

  14. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  15. Generation of Meteorological Tsunamis (Large Amplitude Seiches) Near the Balearic and Kuril Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander B. Rabinovich; Sebastian Monserrat

    1998-01-01

    Extreme atmosphere-induced seiche oscillations occasionally occur in specific inlets and bays of the world ocean causing severe damage to coastal areas, ships and port constructions. Ciutadella inlet (Menorca Island, Western Mediterranean) can be singled out as a place where such large seiches, locally known as rissaga, are quite common. Similar (although weaker) oscillations are also regularly observed in bays of

  16. Forest Age and Relative Abundance of Pileated Woodpeckers on Southeastern Vancouver Island1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L. Hartwig; Donald S. Eastman; Alton S. Harestad

    2002-01-01

    We estimated relative abundance of the pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) at four sites in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic zone, on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996-1997. The number of pileated woodpecker calls was correlated with age and structure of forests. Pileated woodpeckers did not use intensively managed forests < 80 years old that had low densities of dead wood (large

  17. Sharing the heritage of Kodiak Island with tourists: views from the hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. Vogt; Angela Kah; Chang Huh; Sarah Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Alaska has become a popular destination for travelers to experience wilderness and possibly some of the last US places representing the western frontier. The foundation of Alaska's heritage is the great outdoors including wilderness and frontier experiences, rugged landscapes, and a plethora of outdoor recreation. Kodiak Island is an interesting case study to examine shifts in livelihood from commercial fishing

  18. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National...using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species...or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the coral reef ecosystem...

  19. An Alert System for Beach Hazard Management in the Balearic Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amaya Alvarez-Ellacuria; Alejandro Orfila; Maitane Olabarrieta; Luís Gómez-pujol; Raúl Medina; Joaquín Tintoré

    2009-01-01

    A real-time beach hazard level associated with nearshore hydrodynamics is presented in this article. The suitability of the discussed alert system is illustrated via its application to fifteen beaches in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean Sea) providing nearshore safety conditions for beach safety manager. The system provides daily forecasts of nearshore wave conditions using the deep water wave forecasts. The

  20. Territory and Monogamy Among Kloss’ Gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in Siberut Island, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Tenaza

    1975-01-01

    Behavior of Kloss’ gibbons was studied from July 1 to October 7, 1972 in Siberut Island, off the coast of western Sumatra, Indonesia. Reproductive groups are monogamous families with a mean family size of 3.4 individuals (n = 11 families). Such families occupy territories averaging 6.7 ha. Adults defend their territories only against members of the same sex. This intrasexual

  1. IDEOLOGY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AFTER AD 1778

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Bayman

    Interpretations of European and American contact with Oceania often highlight the rapid changes that took place in the technologies and practices of its traditional socie- ties. In the Hawaiian Islands, for example, many scholars have assumed that stone adzes were quickly replaced with metal adzes, and that such change was an inevitable con- sequence of a more efficient western technology.

  2. Acclimation to sudden increase in light favoring an invasive over native trees in subtropical islands, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Yamashita; Atsushi Ishida; Hiromichi Kushima; Nobuyuki Tanaka

    2000-01-01

    Bischofia javanica Blume, an exotic tree, dominates many forest areas of the Bonin Islands in the western Pacific of Japan. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the success of B. javanica (a mid-successional plant species) is related to its high acclimation capacity to sudden light increase due to canopy gap formation. We compared its ecophysiological

  3. Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel

    E-print Network

    Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel mackerel and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is declining. Atka mackerel and Pacific cod are principal prey species for Steller sea lions in the Aleutian

  4. Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Weber; Benjamin Gilbert; C. E. Prescott

    2003-01-01

    Adrian Weber, Benjamin Gilbert, J.P. (Hamish) Kimmins, and C.E. Prescott Abstract: Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), a late successional species on northern Vancouver Island, has a low seedling survival in mature hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) - amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes) (HA) stands. Shade, moss competition, and substrate were tested

  5. Early Neolithic obsidians in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean): the Su Carroppu case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Lugliè; François-Xavier Le Bourdonnec; Gérard Poupeau; Enrico Atzeni; Stéphan Dubernet; Philippe Moretto; Laurent Serani

    2007-01-01

    All the obsidians from the undisturbed Early Neolithic (Cardial ware phase I) layer of the Su Carroppu rock-shelter (Sardinia island) were studied. Their elemental composition and that of obsidians from the Monte Arci (Sardinia) volcanic complex was determined by ion beam analysis (PIXE). A comparison between the composition of Su Carroppu artefacts, analysed non-destructively, and that of Western Mediterranean analysed

  6. New evidence from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the resubmergence of Bering Strait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. England; Mark F. A. Furze

    2008-01-01

    Widespread molluscan samples were collected from raised marine sediments to date the last retreat of the NW Laurentide Ice Sheet from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the head of Mercy Bay, northern Banks Island, deglacial mud at the modern coast contains Hiatella arctica and Portlandia arctica bivalves, as well as Cyrtodaria kurriana, previously unreported for this area. Multiple H.

  7. Overlap in Offshore Habitat Use by Double-crested Cormorants and Boaters in Western Lake Erie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin A. Stapanian; Michael T. Bur

    2002-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (? 8 m and>8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting\\/loafing area for cormorants (“refuge”), (2) reefs or

  8. Pine Island Iceberg Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    2002-01-10

    This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

  9. Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

  10. Terrestrial heat flow in western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Watanabe, Teruhiko

    1982-03-01

    Twenty heat-flow measurements were made in western South America (nine in Chile, one in Argentine, five in Peru, one in Ecuador, and five in Bolivia), using available holes. From the values obtained, combined with several others published previously, it may be concluded that the heat flow in this subduction plate boundary area resembles that of other trench-arc systems, with low heat flow prevailing closer to the trench and high heat flow prevailing on the volcanic arc. Due to the limited distribution of sites, the regional heat flow in the area landward of the volcanic zone cannot be assessed with confidence, although high heat flow, somewhat analogous to that observed in young back-arc basins of island arcs, might exist in Bolivia, but not in Argentine.

  11. Approximate Bayesian Computation Reveals the Crucial Role of Oceanic Islands for the Assembly of Continental Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark; Mardulyn, Patrick; Devos, Nicolas; Mateo, Rubén G; González-Mancebo, Juana M; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The perceived low levels of genetic diversity, poor interspecific competitive and defensive ability, and loss of dispersal capacities of insular lineages have driven the view that oceanic islands are evolutionary dead ends. Focusing on the Atlantic bryophyte flora distributed across the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Western Europe, and northwestern Africa, we used an integrative approach with species distribution modeling and population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation to determine whether this view applies to organisms with inherent high dispersal capacities. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in island than in continental populations, contributing to mounting evidence that, contrary to theoretical expectations, island populations are not necessarily genetically depauperate. Patterns of genetic variation among island and continental populations consistently fitted those simulated under a scenario of de novo foundation of continental populations from insular ancestors better than those expected if islands would represent a sink or a refugium of continental biodiversity. We, suggest that the northeastern Atlantic archipelagos have played a key role as a stepping stone for transoceanic migrants. Our results challenge the traditional notion that oceanic islands are the end of the colonization road and illustrate the significant role of oceanic islands as reservoirs of novel biodiversity for the assembly of continental floras. PMID:25713307

  12. Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

  13. Dauphin Island Sea Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

  14. Poetic Waves: Angel Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that â??â?¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â? Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

  15. Islands behind Islands: An Unappreciated Coastal Landform Category

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. G. Cooper; O. H. Pilkey; D. A. Lewis

    COOPER, J.A.G., PILKEY, O.H., and LEWIS, D.A. 2007. Islands behind islands: an unappreciated coastal landform category. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 907 - 911. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749-0208 The 15,000 plus barrier islands in sheltered or fetch-limited, nearshore marine waters have not achieved recognition as a distinct and important landform. As

  16. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

  17. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

  18. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...FWS-R4-R-2010-N051; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges...environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...

  19. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

  20. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix...FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622...Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management...

  1. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix...FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622...Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management...

  2. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  3. Geothermal exploration of Kos Island, Greece: Magnetotelluric and microseismicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lagios, E.; Tzanis, A.; Delibasis, N.; Drakopoulos, J. (Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Geophysics and Geothermics); Dawes, G.K.J. (Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1994-06-01

    This paper reports the results of magnetotelluric (MT) and microseismicity studies, conducted as part of a multi-disciplinary project to explore the geothermal potential of the island of Kos, Greece. The MT survey, comprising 18 soundings, was carried out in the bandwidth 128 Hz-40 s, in order to determine the deep conductivity structure in the geothermally prospective western part of the island, Rigorous dimensionality analysis has indicated that the geoelectric structure could adequately be approximated with 1-D interpretation tools. Two significant and seemingly communicating conductive zones of potential geothermal interest were found within the first 2 km. The first is extensive and shallow, detected at depths of 400--600 m; the second is deeper (1,000--1,300 m), but of considerably smaller lateral dimensions. A very deep relative conductor (< 25 [Omega]m) was also detected at depths of 7--10 km, which is thought to comprise part of an old magma chamber with brine-saturated rocks. The microseismicity studies revealed the partial or total attenuation of shear waves in many microearthquake records. The analysis of these observations determined the vertical and lateral extent of that attenuation zone, the greatest part of which is located underneath the marine area between western Kos and Nissyros island to the south, extending approximately from near the surface to about 1.5 km depth. The nature of this zone is discussed in terms of fluid concentration due to the geothermal system of the area.

  4. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, M.G.; Hapke, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dunebeach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ???4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites. Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast. National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human-induced modifications can affect park resources and beachdune response to storms. This study is the first to conduct a systematic analysis on how anthropogenic modifications affect resources at Fire Island National Seashore and provides essential information for effective management and preservation of coastal resources within the park. ?? 2012, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  5. Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

  6. The College of Staten Island Undergraduate Catalog

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    The College of Staten Island Undergraduate Catalog 2010-2011 2800 Victory Blvd Staten Island, NY 10314 718.982.2000 www.csi.cuny.edu Statement of Nondiscrimination The College of Staten Island of Staten Island/The City University of New York 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 #12;About

  7. Western Fence Lizard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is larger and prefers less open habitat than the related side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic isolation in both speci...

  8. WESTERN UNIVERSITY CURRICULUM VITAE

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    .) B.Sc., Department of Mathematics, 1976 #12;CURRICULUM VITAE J. Minác 2 PAST EMPLOYMENTWESTERN UNIVERSITY CURRICULUM VITAE NAME: Ján Minác DATE OF BIRTH: 1953/06/15 TENURED: July 1, 1991 _________________________________________________________________________ CURRENT EMPLOYMENT Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Professor, Department of Mathematics (2003

  9. Western South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A good deal of chlorophyll is visible in the waters of the upwelling zone of the western South African coast in this SeaWiFS image. The sediment plume of the Orange River is also visible at the border with Namibia.

  10. Active England Great Western

    E-print Network

    in 2003 with £94.8 million funding from the Big Lottery and Sport England (Sport England, 2009 in England. Five woodland projects were funded and Great Western CF was an important part of the Active of this research across the five woodland projects and these included: 1) On-site surveys to profile visitors

  11. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  12. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  13. 76 FR 16636 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs, Lee County, FL; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...FWS-R4-R-2010-N240; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...for the environmental assessment for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...notice, we finalize the CCP process for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay,...

  14. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  15. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  16. Submarine volcanic morphology of the western Galápagos based on EM300 bathymetry and MR1 side-scan sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Glass; Daniel J. Fornari; Hillary F. Hall; Allison A. Cougan; Heidi A. Berkenbosch; Mark L. Holmes; Scott M. White; Giorgio De La Torre

    2007-01-01

    A compilation of high-resolution EM300 multibeam bathymetric and existing MR1 side-scan sonar data was used to investigate the volcanic morphology of the flanks of the western Galápagos Islands. The data portray an assortment of constructional volcanic features on the shallow to deep submarine flanks of Fernandina, Isabela, and Santiago Islands, including rift zones and groups of cones that are considered

  17. Welcome to Western Since 1878,Western University has combined

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    the only "A" grade among large universities in the Globe and Mail University Report Card. resIdence GuWelcome to Western Since 1878,Western University has combined academic excellence with life-intensive university,Western challenges the best and brightest faculty, staff and students to commit to the highest

  18. Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand Term: January Term ESPM Track in New Zealand Visiting New Zealand was the most amazing experience of my life. You travel a lot and get to see every possible landscape of New Zealand - rainforests, mountains, caves, beaches, etc. The most we

  19. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  20. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

  1. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

  3. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

  4. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are...

  5. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are...

  6. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are...

  7. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are...

  8. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are...

  9. Beyond the island: epigenetic biomarkers of colorectal and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Savio, Andrea J; Bapat, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic dysregulation is a common feature across all cancer types. Epigenetic mechanisms, from DNA methylation to histone modifications, allow for a vast number of cellular phenotypes to be created from the same genetic material. Just as certain genetic changes play a key role in tumor initiation and progression, epigenetic changes may also set the course of tumor development and be required for malignant transformation. The most frequently studied epigenetic changes investigated thus far are global genomic DNA hypomethylation along with specific hypermethylation, predominantly at promoter CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes. In addition to DNA methylation changes at CpG islands, there is an abundance of other epigenetic alterations occurring within cancer cells including DNA methylation alterations outside of CpG islands, non-CpG methylation, changes in cytosine oxidative species (hydroxymethylcytosine, formylcytosine, carboxylcytosine) levels, and histone modifications. This chapter examines epigenetic alterations beyond the island, and summarizes recent findings in DNA-based epigenetic regulation of the two most commonly diagnosed cancers in the Western world: colorectal cancer and prostate cancer. PMID:25421657

  10. Hospital administrator broadens his horizons in Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Hume, S K

    1988-04-01

    The Mercy International Health Services (MIHS) has sponsored a 4- to 5-year project in the Republic of the Marshall Islands to improve the healthcare offered the Marshallese and to train them to take over their own facilities. The MIHS administers an 85-bed government hospital in Majuro, and a 35-bed hospital on Ebeye. The Mercies plan to turn the Majuro and Ebeye hospitals over to Marshallese administrators in about 2 years and, if necessary, to leave a consultant on the islands for a year after that. The program also provides healthcare for over 8,000 people affected by fallout from US atomic tests on several islands, including Bikini, that took place in the late 1940s and 1950s. Malnutrition and diabetes are common problems among the Marshallese. These problems are exacerbated by Western junk food. Infectious diseases are another serious health problem, largely caused by a poor sanitation system that affects the drinking water. Typhoid; hepatitis A, diarrheal diseases, and parasitic infections are the most common diseases among hospitalized patients. Steps are being taken to improve the water supply, but the islands' greatest need is for preventative healthcare, especially immunization of children. A lack of family planning, alcoholism, and a high suicide rate among teenage boys also call for counseling and prevention programs. PMID:10286452

  11. Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

  12. Three Mile Island assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniels

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the accident which occurred at Three Mile Island Unit Two (TMI-2) near Middletown, Pennsylvania, including the radioactivity released, consequences of off-site releases, and subsequent cleanup activities. Population dose estimates are presented from exposure to ⁸⁸Kr, ¹³³Xe, \\/sup 133m\\/Xe, ¹³⁵Xe, \\/sup 135m\\/Xe, and ¹³¹I. Based on animal studies and careful calculations, the health effects group has determined that

  13. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  14. Allelopathic potential of western bracken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Stewart

    1975-01-01

    In laboratory studies, water-soluble extracts from senescent western bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn var.pubescens Underw.) fronds reduced germination of western thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus Nutt.) and delayed germination of salmonberry (R. spectabilis Pursh.), but did not affect Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). In greenhouse studies, unincorporated western bracken litter reduced emergence of all three species but did not influence root

  15. 2, 105127, 2005 Western Iberian

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -series (1980­2001) of wind measurements from the Cape Carvoeiro lighthouse on the western Portuguese coast (39OSD 2, 105­127, 2005 Western Iberian winter wind indices E. Mason et al. Title Page Abstract-0822/osd/2005-2-105 European Geosciences Union Ocean Science Discussions Western Iberian winter wind

  16. Distribution Patterns of Babesia gibsoni Infection in Hunting Dogs from Nine Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

  17. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation defines island genetic reservoirs for reintroductions of an endangered Australian marsupial, Perameles bougainville

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Smith; Jane Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of the endangered western barred bandicoot (Perameles bougainville) now exist on only two islands in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Our aim was to investigate genetic diversity in natural,\\u000a reintroduced, and captive populations of the bandicoots and to assess the extent of divergence between the populations. The\\u000a contemporary isolation of the natural populations has resulted in heterogeneity of allele

  18. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Outfall site. ......................

  19. The Theory of Island Biogeography

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    The Theory of Island Biogeography Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson The young biologists" dominated by the collection of data. In The Theory of Island Biogeography they set out to change that by devel- oping a general mathema- tical theory that would make sense of a key ecological problem

  20. Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry L. Hunt

    2007-01-01

    Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become a paragon for prehistoric human induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse. A popular narrative recounts an obsession for monumental statuary that led to the island's ecological devastation and the collapse of the ancient civilization. Scholars offer this story as a parable of today's global environmental problems. In this paper, I review new and emerging

  1. south georgia & the falkland islands

    E-print Network

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    ANTARCTICA south georgia & the falkland islands Aboard the Clipper Adventurer January 13 ­ February Carcass Island Dear Princetonian © Peter Harrison is Antarctic expedition is ideally timed during into the natural wonders and historic legacy along the way. For Antarctica history buffs, birders, photographers

  2. Protein (western) blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Egger; Kurt Bienz

    1994-01-01

    The different steps involved in protein (Western) blotting and subsequent analysis of the proteins are reviewed. Electrophoretic\\u000a separation of proteins, procedures of transfer to membranes, immunological and nonimmunological protein detection systems,\\u000a and characterization of protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein interactions are described. Emphasis is on the sensitivity\\u000a of the methods described and on possible variations that allow the individual steps of

  3. Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

  4. Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

  5. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  8. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

  9. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations in the western Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Monserrat, S.; Ramis, C. (Universitat de les Illes Balears (Spain)); Thorpe, A.J. (Univ. of Reading (England))

    1991-02-01

    Pressure oscillations with unusually large amplitude of some 3 mb and periods of about 50 min have been registered in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean sea) during summer 1989. These large pressure oscillations are maintained over several hours and have been recorded on several occasions. The synoptic pattern and vertical structure of the atmosphere simultaneous with these oscillations is described. The large amplitude waves described here do not appear to be directly related to convective activity. Some of the characteristics of these waves are described, however, their source mechanism remains unclear.

  10. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  11. Westward shift of western North Pacific tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific or typhoons account for one third of all TCs in the world and the change of the mean TC genesis location can affect billions of people in Pacific islands and Asian countries. The annual mean TC genesis longitude is generally controlled by the east-west shift of the tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT). A pronounced westward shift in the TUTT is found in all of the available reanalysis data sets during 1979-2012, suppressing TC genesis in the eastern portion (east of 145°E) of the western North Pacific basin due to the enhanced vertical wind shear associated with the TUTT shift. As a result, the annual mean TC genesis longitude has significantly shifted westward since 1979. The westward shifting trends in the TUTT and TC genesis are associated with the enhanced tropical tropospheric warming, which is consistent with the response of the tropospheric temperature to global warming.

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  13. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  14. Effects of the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the Western Samoan coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, Beatriz; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tonini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The Samoa islands are located between 169.5°W to 172.9°W and at about 14°S. The main islands are Savaii, Upolu and Tutuila. The islands lay on the Pacific Plate, are of volcanic origin, rise sharply from the seafloor from depths of about 4000 m and are surrounded by smaller islands that are usually coral atolls. Upolu and Savaii are part of the Western Samoa while the Tutuila Island is an American territory. A regional tsunami was triggered on September the 29th 2009 by an offshore earthquake with Mw=8.1 and epicentre located at about 190 km south of Samoa, near the subduction zone between the Pacific and the Australian Plate. The tsunami waves struck severely the islands of Upolu, Manono and Savaii in Western Samoa, and their effects were also observed in Tutuila, Niuatoputapu in northern Tonga, Wallis and Funtuna. A few weeks after the event, a post tsunami field survey was organised by the UNESCO with the cooperation of the University of South Pacific and The Australian Tsunami Research Centre. The field survey had several tasks, including building damage assessment and measurement of tsunami run-ups and inundation along the Western Samoa coast. In this work, measured values of run-up and inundation along some land profiles are shown. The values vary from 0.7 to 6.5 meters, being the most affected zone the south east coast. The measurements have been taken using levelling procedures performed by the UNIBO-INGV team. Damage building assessment was also performed by the team, retrieving information of some structures such as type of material used, age of the structure, degree of exposure to the waves, content of damage and water depth when there were watermarks available.

  15. Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).

    PubMed

    Hugel, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.  PMID:25543745

  16. Evidence for two shield volcanoes exposed on the island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, R.T.; Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Sawyer, N.-L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The island of Kauai has always been interpreted as a single shield volcano, but lavas of previously correlated reversed-to-normal magnetic-polarity transitions on opposite sides of the island differ significantly in isotopic composition. Samples from west Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr 18.25; samples from east Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7037, ??Nd ??? 6.14, and 206Pb/204Pb < 18.25. Available data suggest that a younger eastern shield grew on the collapsed flank of an older western one.

  17. Review of geology of the New Siberian Islands between the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, North East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos'ko, M.; Korago, E.

    2009-09-01

    The New Siberian Islands comprise De Long Islands, Anjou Islands, and Lyakhov Islands. Early Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments and igneous rocks are known on the De Long Islands. Cambrian slate, siltstone, mudstone and silicified limestone occur on Bennett Island. Ordovician volcanogenic turbidites, lavas, and small intrusions of andesite-basalt, basalt, dolerite, and porphyritic diorite were mapped on Henrietta Island. The igneous rocks are of calc-alkaline island arc series. The Ordovician age of the sequence was defined radiometrically. Early Paleozoic strata were faulted and folded presumably in the Caledonian time. Early Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone are known on Bennett Island. They are overlain by a 106-124 Ma basalt unit. Cenozoic volcanics are widespread on the De Long Islands. Zhokhov Island is an eroded stratovolcano. The volcanics are mostly of picrite-olivine type and limburgite. Radiometric dating indicates Miocene to Recent ages for Cenozoic volcanism. On the Anjou islands Lower-Middle Paleozoic strata consist of carbonates, siliciclastics, and clay. A Northwest-southeast syn-sedimentary facies zonation has been reconstructed. Upper Paleozoic strata are marine carbonate, clay and siliciclastic facies. Mudstone and clay predominate in the Triassic to Upper Jurassic section. Aptian-Albian coal bearing deposits uconformably overlap lower strata indicating Early Cretaceous tectonism. Upper Cretaceous units are mostly clay and siltstone with brown coal strata resting on Early Cretaceous weathered rhyolite. Cenozoic marine and nonmarine silisiclastics and clay rest upon the older units with a transgressive unconformity including a weathering profile in the older rocks. Manifestations of Paleozoic and Triassic mafic and Cretaceous acidic magmatism are also found on these islands. The pre-Cretaceous structure of the Anjou islands is of a block and fold type Late Cimmerian in age followed by faulting in Cenozoic time. The Lyakhov islands are located at the western end of the Late Cimmerian South Anyui suture. Sequences of variable age, composition, and structural styles are known on the Lyakhov Islands. These include an ancient metamorphic sequence, Late Paleozoic ophiolitic sequence, Late Mesozoic turbidite sequence, Cretaceous granites, and Cenozoic sediments. Fold and thrust imbricate structures have been mapped on southern Bol'shoi Lyakhov Island. North-northwestern vergent thrusts transect the Island and project offshore. Open folds of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strata are characteristic of Stolbovoi and Malyi Lyakhov islands. Geology of the New Siberian Islands supports the concept of a circum Arctic Phanerozoic fold belt. The belt is comprised of Caledonian, Ellesmerian, Early Cimmerian and Late Cimmerian fold systems, manifested in many places on the mainland and on islands around the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the geology of the New Siberian Islands has been used to interpret anomalous gravity and magnetic field maps and Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) lines. Two distinguishing structural stages are universally recognized within the offshore sedimentary cover which correlate with the onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands. Dating of the upper structural stage and constituent seismic units is based on structural and stratigraphic relationships between Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic units in the archipelago. The Laptev Sea-western East Siberian Sea seismostratigraphic model for the upper structural stage has much in common with the seismostratigraphic model in the American Chukchi Sea.

  18. Clean Waters of Rhode Island Primary Investigators

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Clean Waters of Rhode Island Primary Investigators Harold Knickle Donald Gray #12;Final Report Clean Waters of Rhode Island By Harold Knickle and Donald Gray Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 May 2007 #12;Abstract There were two thrusts

  19. Origin of barrier islands on sandy coasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    Many barrier islands on the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico contain one or more nuclei; island growth has taken place more or less seaward from these nuclei, which are the oldest parts of the islands. The nuclei were, at one time, separate islands; the oldest beach ridges wrap around them on two or three sides, showing that they were

  20. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades. PMID:15515232

  1. Western Water Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

  2. Western habitats - Session summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determining the status of all habitats in the nine western states considered in this symposium is a difficult task. The authors of habitat status papers commented that the diversity of habitat classification systems limited their ability to relate habitat status to raptors. Differences of scale, objectives and survey design have hindered integration of habitat classification methods used by land managers with the habitat relationships understood by wildlife biologists, but examples now exist for successful integration of these methods. We suggest that land managers and wildlife biologists use common survey and classification schemes so that data can be combined and that results will be applicable over broader areas.

  3. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  4. Characterization of the seismogenic process in the Aleutian island arc: II. The large earthquakes of February 4, 1965, and November 17, 2003, in the Rat Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

    2009-03-01

    An interpretation of the parameters of earthquake sources is proposed for the two large earthquakes in the Rat Islands of February 4, 1965 ( M W = 8.7), and November 17, 2003 ( M W = 7.7-7.8), based on the analysis of focal mechanisms, the manifestation of aftershocks, and the specific features of the geological structure of the island slope of the Rat Islands. The source of the earthquake of 1965 is a reverse fault of longitudinal strike, with a length of ˜350 km. It is located in the lower part of the Aleutian Terrace and probably is genetically connected with the development of the Rat submarine ridge. The westward boundary of the earthquake source is determined by the Heck Canyon structures, and the eastward boundary is determined by the end of Rat Ridge in the region of ? ˜ 179°E-179.5°E. The source of the earthquake of 2003 is a steep E-W reverse fault extending for about 100 km. It is located in the eastern part of the Rat Islands, higher on the slope than the source of the earthquake of 1965. The westward end of the earthquake source is determined by Rat Canyon structures, and the eastward end is an abrupt change in isobaths in the region of ? ˜ 179°E. According to the aftershock hypocenters, the depth of occurrence of the reverse fault could reach ˜60 km. According to our interpretation, on the southern slope of the Rat and Near islands, there is a complex system of seismogenic faults that is caused by tectonic development of different structural elements. The dominant types of faults here are reverse faults, as in other island arcs. During earthquakes, reverse faults oriented along the island arc and also faults that intersect it exhibit themselves. The reverse faults of northeastern strike that intersect the arc characterize the type of tectonic motions in a series of canyons of the western part of the Aleutian Islands.

  5. Characteristics of pileated woodpecker ( Dryocopus pileatus) cavity trees and their patches on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Hartwig; D. S Eastman; A. S Harestad

    2004-01-01

    Cavity trees and cavity patches (areas around cavity trees) used by pileated woodpeckers were located in Coastal Western Hemlock and Coastal Douglas-fir forest types on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996 and 1997. Trees with active nests and with apparent pileated cavities (n=28) were larger than trees without cavities (n=200). Of the seven confirmed nest trees, three were grand fir (Abies

  6. A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

  7. The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

  8. The Messinian\\/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hara Drinia; Assimina Antonarakou; Theodora Tsourou; Evi Tzortzaki; Amalia Filippidi; Konstantinos Nikolaou

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval

  9. Three-Dimensional Model Simulations of Tides and Buoyancy Currents along the West Coast of Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. G. Foreman; Richard E. Thomson

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and seasonal buoyancy flows off the western and northern coasts of Vancouver Island. The model buoyancy currents and the harmonics of eight tidal constituents are compared with those from previous models, and those from tide gauge and current meter observations. The rms differences between observed and calculated sea

  10. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

  11. Western Soundscape Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    You can get a good sense of the American West by reading authors as diverse as Sherman Alexie, Mark Twain, John McPhee, but can they really accurately describe the sounds of a resting short-eared owl? Perhaps, but if you're looking to listen to the natural world of the Western states, you should probably click on over to the Western Soundscape Archive website. This aural database is housed at the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library and features recordings contributed by state and federal agencies, conservation groups, and dedicated volunteers. Started in 2007, the archive continues to grow, and currently they have representative sounds from approximately 80% of the West's bird species and 90% of the region's frog and toad species. Visitors can get started here by taking a listen to the "Featured Sound" on the homepage and then move on over to the search engine. The site also has weekly podcasts, and a number of thematic sound collections, like the "Sounds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge". Overall, it's a tremendously well-presented site, and one that will be of interest to naturalists, scholars, and many others.

  12. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  13. Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Massy Halbert

    This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

  14. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  15. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  16. AGE-STRUCTURED MODELING REVEALS LONG-TERM DECLINES IN THE NATALITY OF WESTERN STELLER SEA LIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Holmes; L. W. Fritz; A. E. York; K. Sweeney

    2007-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the western Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), inhabiting Alaskan waters from Prince William Sound west through the Aleutian Islands, has declined by over 80%. Changing oceanographic conditions, competition from fishing operations, direct human-related mortality, and predators have been suggested as factors driving the decline, but the indirect and interactive nature of their effects on sea lions have

  17. The Combined Sensor Program: An Air-Sea Science Mission in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madison J. Post; Christopher W. Fairall; Jack B. Snider; Yong Han; Allen B. White; Warner L. Ecklund; Klaus M. Weickmann; Patricia K. Quinn; Daniel I. Cooper; Steven M. Sekelsky; Robert E. McIntosh; Peter Minnett; Robert O. Knuteson

    1997-01-01

    Twelve national research organizations joined forces on a 30-day, 6800 n mi survey of the Central and Tropical Western Pacific on NOAA's Research Vessel Discoverer. The Combined Sensor Program (CSP), which began in American Samoa on 14 March 1996, visited Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and ended in Hawaii on 13 April, used a unique combination of in situ, satellite,

  18. Western Respirator Record Name (Print): Western ID#: Date

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    Western Respirator Record Name (Print): Western ID#: Date: E-mail: Phone Number: Part: Department: Reason for Respirator (tasks, materials, attach MSDS ­ required for trade named products) Bill to Account: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Part B - Issuing Respirator (Completed by OH&S) Person performing

  19. WATER QUALITY: WESTERN FISH TOXICOLOGY STATION AND WESTERN OREGON RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in water quality was compared for the Western Fish Toxicology Station (WFTS), Corvallis, OR, the adjacent Willamette River and approximately 40 major western Oregon rivers from 1972 through 1974. Water temperature patterns of the Willamette River and the WFTS w...

  20. SOUTHERN SEASCRUISE IN LUXURY ABOARD CRYSTAL SYMPHONY Easter Island | Pitcairn Island | Moora | Tahiti

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    SOUTHERN SEASCRUISE IN LUXURY ABOARD CRYSTAL SYMPHONY Easter Island | Pitcairn Island | Mooréa ethnologist, 1859-1920, "Easter Island," 1912 "Tahiti is lovely; the climate is perfect... The world actually

  1. 76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N222; 10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan,...

  2. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the...

  3. Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Letetrel, C.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A.; Delcroix, T.

    2012-01-01

    The western tropical Pacific is usually considered as one of the most vulnerable regions of the world under present-day and future global warming. It is often reported that some islands of the region already suffer significant sea level rise. To clarify the latter concern, in the present study we estimate sea level rise and variability since 1950 in the western tropical Pacific region (20°S-15°N; 120°E-135°W). We estimate the total rate of sea level change at selected individual islands, as a result of climate variability and change, plus vertical ground motion where available. For that purpose, we reconstruct a global sea level field from 1950 to 2009, combining long (over 1950-2009) good quality tide gauge records with 50-year-long (1958-2007) gridded sea surface heights from the Ocean General Circulation Model DRAKKAR. The results confirm that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have a strong modulating effect on the interannual sea level variability of the western tropical Pacific, with lower/higher-than-average sea level during El Niño/La Niña events, of the order of ± 20-30 cm. Besides this sub-decadal ENSO signature, sea level of the studied region also shows low-frequency (multi decadal) variability which superimposes to, thus in some areas amplifies current global mean sea level rise due to ocean warming and land ice loss. We use GPS precise positioning records whenever possible to estimate the vertical ground motion component that is locally superimposed to the climate-related sea level components. Superposition of global mean sea level rise, low-frequency regional variability and vertical ground motion shows that some islands of the region suffered significant 'total' sea level rise (i.e., that felt by the population) during the past 60 years. This is especially the case for the Funafuti Island (Tuvalu) where the "total" rate of rise is found to be about 3 times larger than the global mean sea level rise over 1950-2009.

  4. Three Mile Island revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lipford, B.L.; Cole, N.M.; Friderichs, T.J. (MPR Associates Inc., Washington, DC (US))

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the margin to failure of the lower head are of interest to the nuclear industry. In early 1988 the owner and operator of the TMI facility, had completed a large portion of the defueling work in the reactor core region and was preparing to remove the lower structural internals in order to defuel the area within the lower head. At that point the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (NRC-Res) in Washington, D.C., initiated a project to remove metallurgical specimens from the reactor vessel's lower head region. The goal was to determine the extent of damage to the pressure-retaining boundary in the lower head and to learn what happened during the accident.

  5. Bird predation by domestic cats on Hahajima Island, Bonin Islands, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Kawakami; Hiroyoshi Higuchi

    \\u000a The Bonin Islands are oceanic islands situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean 1,000 km south of the Japanese main island of\\u000a Honshu. These islands lacked terrestrial mammalian carnivores until human colonization in 1830. Early immigrants introduced\\u000a domestic cats Felis earns to the islands, some of which escaped from the island's residential area. Even by 1877 there were already reports of

  6. Validation of a New Rainbow Model Over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Adams, P. L.; Barckike, J.

    2012-12-01

    A new realistic model of the rainbow has been developed at the CNRM. It is based on the Airy theory. The main entry parameters are the droplet size distribution, the angle of the sun above the horizon, the temperature of the droplets and the wavelength. The island of Hawaii seems to be a perfect place for the validation of the rainbow model. Not only because of its famous rainbows, but also because of the convenient ring road along the coast. The older lower islands for more frequent viewing opportunities having to do with the proximity of clear sky to heavy rainfall. Both Oahu and Kauai as well as the western part of Maui have coastal roads that offer good access to rainbows. The best time to view rainbows is when the sun angle is lowest, in other words near the winter solstice. Figure 1 = Map of mean annual rainfall for the islands of Kauai and Oahu, developed from the new 2011 Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii. The base period of the statistics is 1978-2007. Figure 2 = Moisture zone map by Gon et al (1998). Blue areas are the wet ones. Green areas are the Mesic ones. Yellow areas are the dry ones.

  7. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  8. OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE IN PERSPECTIVE, STATEN ISLAND ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE IN PERSPECTIVE, STATEN ISLAND ON RIGHT - Outerbridge Crossing Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer-term comparisons (decadal) indicate that the beach is both widening and increasing in volume in the western study area (by 30-50%), which corresponds spatially to a persistent accretional cell that has been identified in current studies along this section of Fire Island.

  10. A new species of the genus Paralomis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae) from the Spiess seamount near Bouvet Island (Southern Ocean), with notes on habitat and ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassily Spiridonov; Michael Türkay; Wolf E. Arntz; Sven Thatje

    2006-01-01

    A new species of the genus Paralomis, Paralomis elongata, has been collected from the Spiess seamount near Bouvet Island in the Southern Ocean. The species shows close affinity with\\u000a P. anamerae Macpherson, 1988, from the Patagonian Shelf, P. africana Macpherson, 1987, from the south-western African shelf, and P. aculeata Henderson, 1888, from Crozet Islands. Morphological differences among the species and

  11. MURDOCH UNIVERSITY PERTH, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    E-print Network

    MURDOCH UNIVERSITY PERTH, WESTERN AUSTRALIA INAUGRATION CEREMONY 17TH SEPTEMBER, 1974 #12;ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS His Excellency the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, K.C.M.G., K. St. J., Q Murdoch University, the second university to be established in Western Australia, and the eighteenth

  12. WESTERN RESPONSES TO FENG SHUI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Mills

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui is a practice that has affected the development of traditional cultural landscapes in East Asia. It arises out of Chinese concepts regarding yin-yang theory and qi energy. Western reactions to the practice of feng shui have varied. In the nineteenth century, the general response was negative, and Westerners described the practice as superstitious, irrational, and unprogressive. In the

  13. Chemical Management of Western Snowberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Llewellyn L. Manske

    Western snowberry colonies invade and spread rapidly by means of extensive rhizome systems in pastures managed by traditional grazing practices that weaken the competitive abilities of grass plants. The aerial stem canopy cover of healthy western snowberry colonies shades sunlight from the grass understory, reducing the forage biomass production in a pasture and decreasing the livestock carrying capacity. Chemical management

  14. 2014 State of Western's Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-01-01

    In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

  15. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands.

    PubMed

    Millien, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic. PMID:21729049

  16. Canary Island great spotted woodpecker ( Dendrocopos major ) has distinct mtDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Garcia-del-Rey; Guillermo Delgado; Javier Gonzalez; Michael Wink

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) genes to elucidate the phylogenetic status (genetic variation) of Canary Island populations\\u000a of great spotted woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) that are on the western fringe of the distribution range. Based on these two genes, differences are found between a clade\\u000a from the Canaries and

  17. Habitat use of a multispecific seagrass meadow by green turtles Chelonia mydas at Mayotte Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katia Ballorain; Stéphane Ciccione; Jérôme Bourjea; Henri Grizel; Manfred Enstipp; Jean-Yves Georges

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the habitat use in green turtles exploiting a 13-ha multispecific seagrass meadow at Mayotte Island, south-western\\u000a Indian Ocean. A phyto-ecological survey shows the occurrence of eight seagrass species, dominated by Halodule uninervis and Syringodium isoetifolium, distributed according to four distinct seagrass communities along the depth gradient. Direct underwater censuses show that\\u000a green turtles occurred all over the meadow.

  18. Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dziak; H. Matsumoto; C. Fox; S. Byun; M. Fowler; J. Haxel; R. Embley

    2003-01-01

    For the past decade, NOAA\\/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored volcano-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc volcanoes using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed locations throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since

  19. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo [Geological Survey of Japan, Ibaraki (Japan); Kayanne, Hajime [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  20. ELISA/Western blot tests for HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV ELISA/Western blot is a set of blood tests used to diagnose chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... positive ELISA test is always followed by a Western blot test. A positive Western blot confirms an HIV ...

  1. Cretaceous and Tertiary rhyncholites from the western Atlantic Ocean and from Mississippi

    E-print Network

    Teichert, C.; Spinosa, C.

    1971-12-07

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS December 7, 1971 Paper 58 CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY RHYNCHOLITES FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN AND FROM MISSISSIPPI CURT TEICHERT and CLAUDE SPINOSA University of Kansas, Lawrence; Boise State.... OCCURRENCE.-Lower Cretaceous strata (Barremian- Hauterivian) at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, north- east of San Salvador Island. [Holotype KU62172 and two paratypes KU62173, 62174 were recovered from the base of a 139 cm long core (Core no. V 24...

  2. Genetic variation among mainland and island populations of a native perennial grass used in restoration

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Mazer, Susan J.; Hodges, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic marker studies can assist restoration practice through selection of seed sources that conserve historical levels of gene diversity and population genetic differentiation. We examined genetic variation and structure within and among mainland and island populations of Elymus glaucus, a perennial bunchgrass species native to western North American grasslands that is targeted for grassland restoration. Island populations of E. glaucus represent sensitive sites and potentially distinctive seed sources for reintroduction, and little is known of their genetic composition. Genetic diversity and structure were estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for 21 populations and 416 individuals distributed across two coastal California mainland locations and three California Channel Islands. Eight primer combinations resulted in 166 markers, of which 165 (99.4 %) were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands was significantly greater among mainland populations relative to island sites, and locally common alleles were present for each sampled island and mainland location. Population structure was high (62.9 %), with most variation (55.8 %) distributed among populations, 7.1 % between mainland and island locations, and the remainder (37.1 %) within populations. Isolation by distance was only apparent among islands. Using marker data to recommend appropriate seed sources for restoration, E. glaucus seeds are best derived within islands with collections representing a large number of individuals from matching environments. Given the limited gene flow and prior evidence of adaptive divergence among populations of this species, regional collections are recommended in all cases to maintain diversity and to avoid long-distance introductions of highly differentiated plant material. PMID:24790118

  3. The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Amir; Gidaszewski, Nelly; Albert, Béatrice; Hivert, Jean; David, Jean R.; Orgogozo, Virginie; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen drosophilid species belonging to seven genera and two subfamilies are reported from three coral islands (namely Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso) that belong to the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. Five species are cosmopolitan and five are African. Three are endemic to the insular Western Indian Ocean, including a presumably new Scaptodrosophila species. On the island of Juan de Nova, most captured flies had pollinia attached to the bases of their proboscis. DNA analysis using the rbcl gene revealed that these pollinia belong to the genus Leptadenia (Apocynaceae), of which a single species L. madagascariensis, endemic in Madagascar and Comoros, is present in this island. This is the first reported association between this plant and drosophilids. PMID:23222006

  4. Sex-linked and autosomal microsatellites provide new insights into island populations of the tammar wallaby

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, A J; FitzSimmons, N N; Chambers, B; Renfree, M B; Sarre, S D

    2014-01-01

    The emerging availability of microsatellite markers from mammalian sex chromosomes provides opportunities to investigate both male- and female-mediated gene flow in wild populations, identifying patterns not apparent from the analysis of autosomal markers alone. Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), once spread over the southern mainland, have been isolated on several islands off the Western Australian and South Australian coastlines for between 10?000 and 13?000 years. Here, we combine analyses of autosomal, Y-linked and X-linked microsatellite loci to investigate genetic variation in populations of this species on two islands (Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Garden Island, Western Australia). All measures of diversity were higher for the larger Kangaroo Island population, in which genetic variation was lowest at Y-linked markers and highest at autosomal markers (?=3.291, 1.208 and 0.627 for autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked data, respectively). Greater relatedness among females than males provides evidence for male-biased dispersal in this population, while sex-linked markers identified genetic lineages not apparent from autosomal data alone. Overall genetic diversity in the Garden Island population was low, especially on the Y chromosome where most males shared a common haplotype, and we observed high levels of inbreeding and relatedness among individuals. Our findings highlight the utility of this approach for management actions, such as the selection of animals for translocation or captive breeding, and the ecological insights that may be gained by combining analyses of microsatellite markers on sex chromosomes with those derived from autosomes. PMID:24169646

  5. Fleas of small mammals on Reunion Island: diversity, distribution and epidemiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

  6. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  7. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST FAÇADE AND BLAST WALL, DATE UNKNOWN - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  1. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 21. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. ORIGINAL HORIZONTAL SHAFTING OF GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

  4. Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

  5. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  6. Geological features of a collision zone marker: The Antique Ophiolite Complex (Western Panay, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Tamayo, Rodolfo A.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.

    2013-03-01

    The Antique Ophiolite Complex exposed along the western side of Panay Island, central Philippines was derived from the Jurassic to Cretaceous proto-South China Sea oceanic leading edge of the Palawan microcontinental block. The subduction and ultimate closure of this ocean basin resulted in the emplacement and exposure of this lithospheric fragment along the collisional boundary of the microcontinental block and the oceanic- to island arc-affiliated Philippine mobile belt. The ophiolite complex has volcanic rocks having normal- to transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to island arc tholeiitic (IAT) geochemistry consistent with the transitional MORB-IAT characteristics of its peridotites. The chromitites manifest subduction signature suggestive of the involvement of water in its generation. All of these would be consistent with generation in a supra-subduction zone environment, specifically in a subduction-related marginal ocean basin. The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt along western Panay resulted, aside from ophiolite emplacement, into arc curvature, island rotation, serpentinite diapirism and thrusting along the forearc side. The offshore bathymetric expression of the microcontinental block along the collision zone shows the leading edge of this oceanic bathymetric high to have spread laterally. This is indicative of its being buoyant resulting to non-subduction as supported by available earthquake hypocenter data.

  7. Diversity and distribution of avian haematozoan parasites in the western Indian Ocean region: a molecular survey.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Farah; Beadell, Jon S; Warren, Ben H; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    The genetic diversity of haematozoan parasites in island avifauna has only recently begun to be explored, despite the potential insight that these data can provide into the history of association between hosts and parasites and the possible threat posed to island endemics. We used mitochondrial DNA sequencing to characterize the diversity of 2 genera of vector-mediated parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in avian blood samples from the western Indian Ocean region and explored their relationship with parasites from continental Africa. We detected infections in 68 out of 150 (45·3%) individuals and cytochrome b sequences identified 9 genetically distinct lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 7 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. We found considerable heterogeneity in parasite lineage composition across islands, although limited sampling may, in part, be responsible for perceived differences. Two lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 2 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. were shared by hosts in the Indian Ocean and also on mainland Africa, suggesting that these lineages may have arrived relatively recently. Polyphyly of island parasites indicated that these parasites were unlikely to constitute an endemic radiation and instead probably represent multiple colonization events. This study represents the first molecular survey of vector-mediated parasites in the western Indian Ocean, and has uncovered a diversity of parasites. Full understanding of parasite community composition and possible threats to endemic avian hosts will require comprehensive surveys across the avifauna of this region. PMID:22075855

  8. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Ángel Francisco González; Sierra, Ángel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  9. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Angel Francisco González; Sierra, Angel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  10. The Last Western Flyer the Western Auto Century

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    life. Western Auto Christmas Layaway Sale circular, 1953 While the kids from wealthier families got to sewing machines, from batteries to refrigerators, from lawn mowers to fishing tackle to women's stockings

  11. Western Fuels Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Western Fuels, "an especially aggressive industry player," offers alternative interpretations of the threat of global warming and warn against unnecessary regulations on US industry. Recently, delegates from 160 countries commenced a ten day conference in Kyoto, Japan to agree on a strategy to cut the world's emissions of greenhouse gases, which are thought to cause global warming. Any agreement, however, will be difficult, as large divisions between nations were apparent even before the conference began. The two most important disagreements concern the amount of greenhouse gas cuts and the standards for developing nations. The European Union seeks a 15% cut in gases while the US government, lobbied hard by business groups, wants no reduction at all for at least ten years. The other major sticking point is whether developing countries should have to reach the same targets as the developed world, which is responsible for the vast majority of the emissions. Little progress is projected until the last phase of the conference, when senior representatives, including Vice-President Al Gore, arrive in Kyoto.

  12. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  13. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  14. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  15. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

  16. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... twice as likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this population is very ... had asthma, 2012 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White ...

  17. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Parking Lot site................

  18. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. According to ... or Other Pacific Islander populations in 2011 were Hawaii (359,000) and California (329,000) . The Native ...

  20. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

  1. A major pulse of late Eocene/early Oligocene submarine and subaerial magmatism in the central and western Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jicha, B. R.; Kay, S. M.; Kay, R. W.; Tibbetts, A. K.; Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty four new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb zircon ages from eight Central and western Aleutian Islands supplement existing geochronologic data and provide new information on the history and evolution of the early central and western Aleutian arc. A clast from a volcanic sequence in southeastern Adak in the Finger Bay Volcanic Formation, interpreted to be the oldest unit on central Aleutian Islands, yields an age of 38.19 × 0.53 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Finger Bay Volcanics are virtually indistinguishable from new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb zircon ages from the Finger Bay pluton. This age is similar to previous ages from this unit and to new 38-39 Ma lavas on Kiska and Amchitka islands. It is important to note that the Finger Bay Volcanics on Adak are not related to the initiation of the central Aleutian arc as these rocks have meteoric not sea water alteration and thus the arc must have been built above sea level when these lavas erupted. In contrast, the 39-31 Ma lavas on Kiska, Ulak, Amatignak, and Attu islands in the west central Aleutians, west of Adak have elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios (up to 0.7045) in association with Epsilon Nd values of +7.5 to 9. We interpret this to reflect hydrothermal alteration of lavas that were submarine eruptions as the western Aleutian arc had not yet reached sea level. Northeast of Adak Island, lavas previously mapped as the Finger Bay Volcanics group on southern Great Sitkin Island range from 10.2 to 3.2 Ma in accord with northward migration of the arc front with time. A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 34.35×0.05 Ma for a granodiorite in the calc-alkaline Hidden Bay pluton on Adak is in accord with new U/Pb zircon ages in this sample, which also importantly shows no evidence of older zircons. The central Adak Gannett Lake pluton, which was assumed to have an age like the ~14 Ma Kagalaska Island pluton to the east, yields an age of 31.68 × 0.06 Ma. Thus, the new age determinations indicate that calc-alkaline plutonism lasted for more than 3 Ma on Adak Island and is part of a 38-29 Ma arc-wide period of volcanism and plutonism. The presence of continental like calc-alkaline plutons dominated by granodiorite after ~35 Ma and a lack of low-K island arc tholeiites and boninites paints a very different picture for the evolution of the central Aleutian arc than for western Pacific arcs.

  2. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  3. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  4. Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yi-Leng

    Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP YANG island-scale circulations over the island of Hawaii during the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP, 11 July

  5. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section... § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from...thence to the northeasternmost extremity of Little Talbot...

  6. Circulation in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island Sound, and Adjacent Waters, with Emphasis on Subsurface Flows

    E-print Network

    Codiga, Daniel L.

    Circulation in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island Sound, and Adjacent Waters, with Emphasis on Subsurface Flows Daniel L. Codiga, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Presentation for Rhode Island Sea Grant Ronald C. Baird Symposium 2008 Abstract Subsurface flows

  7. ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

  8. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben C. Rick; Jon M. Erlandson; René L. Vellanoweth; Todd J. Braje; Paul W. Collins; Daniel A. Guthrie; Thomas W. Stafford Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The island fox (Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and\\/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of

  9. At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

  10. Flooding of regular islands by chaotic states

    E-print Network

    A. Bäcker; R. Ketzmerick; A. G. Monastra

    2005-02-02

    We introduce a criterion for the existence of regular states in systems with a mixed phase space. If this condition is not fulfilled chaotic eigenstates substantially extend into a regular island. Wave packets started in the chaotic sea progressively flood the island. The extent of flooding by eigenstates and wave packets increases logarithmically with the size of the chaotic sea and the time, respectively. This new effect can be observed for island chains with just 10 islands.

  11. Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P < 0.01). Except for one Y short tandem repeat lineage (Y-STR), seen in two unrelated Yami families, no other Y-STR lineages were shared between villages, whereas mtDNA haplotypes were indiscriminately distributed throughout Orchid Island. The genetic affinity seen between Yami and Taiwanese aborigines or between Ivatan and the Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP. PMID:21281460

  12. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least 60 ka at the southeastern end of the island, inside the scar left by a fourth sector collapse towards the SE, which affected most previous complexes. Contemporaneously, parasitic strombolian cones formed all over the island. Despite the location of Graciosa inside the active Terceira Rift, the new data indicate that the evolution of the island has been driven by a competition between volcano growth and repeated destruction by catastrophic sector collapses, rather than by slow incremental faulting associated with the tectonics of the rift.

  13. University of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode Island Graduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of Oceanography

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    University of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode of Rhode Island ­ Graduate School of Oceanography. © Copyright 2002-2008 by University of Rhode Island by the University of Rhode Island ­ Graduate School of Oceanography is warranted against defective components

  14. University of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode Island Graduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of OceanographyGraduate School of Oceanography

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    University of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode IslandUniversity of Rhode Island ­ Graduate School of Oceanography. © Copyright 2002-2007 by University of Rhode Island ­ Graduate by the University of Rhode Island ­ Graduate School of Oceanography is warranted against defective components

  15. Seasonal and interannual variability of dissolved oxygen around the Balearic Islands from hydrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Aparicio-González, A.; Serra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Oceanographic data obtained between 2001 and 2011 by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO, Spain) have been used to characterise the spatial distribution and the temporal variability of the dissolved oxygen around the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea). The study area includes most of the Western Mediterranean Sea, from the Alboran Sea to Cape Creus, at the border between France and Spain. Dissolved oxygen (DO) at the water surface is found to be in a state of equilibrium exchange with the atmosphere. In the spring and summer a subsurface oxygen supersaturation is observed due to the biological activity, above the subsurface fluorescence maximum. Minimum observed values of dissolved oxygen are related to the Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW). An unusual minimum of dissolved oxygen concentrations was also recorded in the Alboran Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone. The Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (WMDW) and the Western Intermediate Waters (WIW) show higher values of dissolved oxygen than the Levantine Intermediate Waters due to their more recent formation. Using these dissolved oxygen concentrations it is possible to show that the Western Intermediate Waters move southwards across the Ibiza Channel and the deep water circulates around the Balearic Islands. It has also been possible to characterise the seasonal evolution of the different water masses and their dissolved oxygen content in a station in the Algerian sub-basin.

  16. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the stream

  17. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  18. November 2011 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    November 2011 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND Eligibility for InState Tuition and Fees Based Upon Rhode Island High School Attendance Guidance for Students and Families If you are a student, including an undocumented student, who currently attends or plans to attend the University of Rhode Island

  19. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

  20. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    42) ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1961 Marine Biological. McKeman, Director ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1961--Fisheries No. 421 Washington, D. C. April 1962 #12;Rock Island Dam, Columbia River, Washington ii #12;CONTENTS

  1. Island wakes in the Southern California Bight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

    2005-01-01

    Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

  2. Heat island development in Mexico City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Jauregui

    1997-01-01

    The present paper describes the climatology of the near surface urban heat island of Mexico City, using hourly data from two recently installed automatic stations at a rural and an urban site. The results show that the nocturnal heat island was more frequent (75% of the time for the period examined) than daytime cases (25%). The maximum nocturnal heat island

  3. Threats to Avifauna on Oceanic Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEATHER S. TREVINO; AMY L. SKIBIEL; TIM J. KARELS; F. STEPHEN DOBSON

    2007-01-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we

  4. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    The majority of islands in the tropical western Pacific are coral atolls. Most are inhabited by indigenous Micronesian populations. Local people have over the millennia developed coping strategies and response mechanisms to difficult natural conditions, including typhoons, erosion, giant swells, and flooding, as well as ensuing famines and epidemics. However, since 1990s residents of atolls in the region have been appealing for help. They indicate that their islands are being rapidly eroded along coastlines, land areas are becoming smaller, and taro patches and other vegetation are being damaged. Such concerns were corroborated by one sweeping assessment by South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission in 1998, as well as various isolated field observations since. Evidence of recent coastal erosion is found locally on many islands, both on windward and leeward sides and ocean and lagoon facing shores. Examples include retreating modern beaches, exhumed beachrock, scouring and undercutting of vegetation, overhanging scarps, etc. In addition, a considerable number of uninhabited islets have been completely obliterated by storms in the recent past; unusually high tides and swells have swept over large populated islands, destroying homes and harming agriculture; and at least one atoll has been abandoned due to irrecoverable typhoon damage. Those problems have received much worldwide media coverage, in which they are generally presented as "sinking" of islands due to global climate change and accompanying sea level rise. In reality, modern atolls are now known to be artifacts of the Pacific mid-Holocene High-Stand, and no first-hand data are available from Pacific islands to discern what proportion of observed erosional phenomena are 1) due to local natural and anthropogenic coastal processes as opposed to global and regional changes, and 2) caused by continuous natural dynamics as opposed to episodic extreme events. It is clear that some islands are faring better than others, and that land is not always eroding but in some cases accreting. We are currently engaged in a systematic survey of islands across the region in order to differentiate local problems from wide-ranging phenomena and gain insight into the temporal and geospatial "big picture." The direct aim is to comprehensively and more precisely assess coastal erosion and quantify changes in land area of different islands over the past 50 years. The project consists of fieldwork and GIS analyses, and it is the first to employ such methods to evaluate shoreline transformation in the western Pacific. We visit each island, interview local people regarding recent land changes and events, and carry out site investigations and mapping. Each inhabited island is circumambulated on foot, and beach slopes and scarps are measured, sediments examined, human activities and vegetation damage noted, etc. More importantly, the entire coast of each island is mapped using MobileMapper PRO portable units capable of generating GIS shapefiles in the field. Created coverages include the actual shoreline, sandy banks, vegetated areas, coastal engineering, control points, etc. Data collected on the ground is imported into ArcGIS and rectified using remote sensing imagery. It is then compared to all available historical maps, notably US Army Corps of Engineers 1960s topographic charts, which were previously assembled, digitized, and georeferenced for the purposes of this project. Any discrepancies in island outline and land area would have occurred over the past half a century. Due to the vastness of western Pacific region and logistical obstacles to working on remote islands, data are accumulated gradually. Ultimately, this island-by-island approach will allow documentation of historical and regional erosion patterns, contribute to understanding of local and global components of recent coastal changes, and deliver recommendations for environmental management and emergency avoidance on atolls and other oceanic low islands.

  5. Western Arcadia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a Mars Odyssey visible color image of an unnamed crater in western Arcadia Planitia (near 39 degrees N, 179 degrees E). The crater shows a number of interesting internal and external features that suggest that it has undergone substantial modification since it formed. These features include concentric layers and radial streaks of brighter, redder materials inside the crater, and a heavily degraded rim and ejecta blanket. The patterns inside the crater suggest that material has flowed or slumped towards the center. Other craters with features like this have been seen at both northern and southern mid latitudes The distribution of these kinds of craters suggests the possible influence of surface or subsurface ice in the formation of these enigmatic features. The image was taken on September 29, 2002 during late northern spring. This is an approximate true color image, generated from a long strip of visible red (654 nm), green (540 nm), and blue (425 nm) filter images that were calibrated using a combination of pre-flight measurements and Hubble images of Mars. The colors appear perhaps a bit darker than one might expect; this is most likely because the images were acquired in late afternoon (roughly 4:40 p.m. local solar time) and the low Sun angle results in an overall darker surface.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Western Blotting and ELISA Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Yang; Hongbao Ma

    2009-01-01

    Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the two most useful and sensitive methods to measure the ng\\/ml to pg\\/ml ordered materials in the solution, such as serum, urin e and tissue\\/cultured cell supernat ant, and they are especially widely used in protein detection. Western bl otting and ELISA have widely application in scientific researches, industry and medical prac

  7. Chemical geodynamics of Western Anatolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramananda Chakrabarti; Asish R. Basu; Arundhuti Ghatak

    2011-01-01

    We report major and trace element concentrations and Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic data of 10 post-collisional volcanic domains in Western Anatolia, a seismically active part of the Alpine–Himalayan belt in the Aegean extensional province. Our objective is to provide geochemical constraints for tectono-magmatic processes shaping the late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of Western Anatolia.Calc-alkaline volcanic rocks occurring to the north of the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan

  8. Chemical geodynamics of Western Anatolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramananda Chakrabarti; Asish R. Basu; Arundhuti Ghatak

    2012-01-01

    We report major and trace element concentrations and Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic data of 10 post-collisional volcanic domains in Western Anatolia, a seismically active part of the Alpine–Himalayan belt in the Aegean extensional province. Our objective is to provide geochemical constraints for tectono-magmatic processes shaping the late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of Western Anatolia.Calc-alkaline volcanic rocks occurring to the north of the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan

  9. Three Mile Island population registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Goldhaber; G. K. Tokuhata; E. Digon; G. G. Caldwell; G. F. Stein; G. Lutz; D. Gur

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and

  10. The Three Mile Island crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Houts; P. D. Cleary; T. W. Hu

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample

  11. Pacific Islands Region News Release

    E-print Network

    Braun, contract marine mammal veterinarian for the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. The mother at weaning. Hence, the need for additional food provided in a captive situation to increase their chances and NOAA Fisheries Service personnel where they will begin a week of marine debris cleanup on and around

  12. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  13. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  14. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    PubMed

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

  15. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  16. A Fighter on Long Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Superintendent Dan Domenech unsuccessfully battled New York's governor and legislature about a cut in state funding. Long Island has only 16 percent of the state's population but is being earmarked for 50 percent of the cuts. Domenech's earlier successes included a preschool for disadvantaged children, a full-day kindergarten, and a before- and…

  17. The flora of Antipodes Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Godley

    1989-01-01

    The history of botanical exploration of Antipodes Island begins in 1890 and is outlined up to 1985. The numbers of terrestrial species now known are algae (3), fungi (2), lichens (17), liverworts (37), mosses (21), lycopods (3), ferns (17), and flowering plants (52). Three of the latterare adventive (Poa annua, Stellaria media, Sonchus asper). The 20 species of indigenous monocotyledons

  18. Glacial geology, glacial recession, proglacial lakes, and postglacial environments, Fishers Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkin, L. (Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)); Funk, R.E. (New York State Museum, Albany, NY (United States). Anthropological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    The Fishers Island Moraine, a complex of three parallel ice margin depositional trends, forms the west-central segment of a major recessional moraine of the Connecticut-Rhode Island Lobe of the late Wisconsinan glacier. As such, the moraine links the Orient Point Moraine of eastern Long Island and the Charlestown Moraine of western Rhode Island and marks a prominent recessional ice margin. The moraine is correlative with the Roanoke Point Moraine of the Connecticut Lobe of northeastern Long Island. Pollen stratigraphy of >13,180 ka bog sediments begins early in the spruce (A) pollen zone with evidence of a cold, late-glacial climate. The pine (B) pollen zone, beginning prior to 11,145 ka, and the oak (C) pollen zone, dating from about 9,000 ka with hickory and hemlock subzones, are well represented. However, after about 2,000 ka, the stratigraphic record in the bog sections is missing in most cases due to peat harvesting. Pollen spectra from several archeological sites fall within the late oak pollen zone, well within the land clearing interval with evidence of hardwood forests and locally holly and cedar. Evidence of cultigens in the pollen record is sparse. Marine deposits over fresh water bog and proglacial lake sediments show that some coastal bogs were drowned by sea level rise.

  19. Seismic evidence of a regional sublithospheric low velocity layer beneath the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Helffrich, George; Garcia, Alicia

    2013-11-01

    We report the finding of a regional sub-lithospheric low velocity layer through the analysis of P-receiver functions in the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the east central Atlantic. The Moho discontinuity deepens towards the east, varying in depth from 11.5 to 12.5 km beneath the western islands up to 20-30 km beneath the eastern islands. The low velocity layer underneath the lithospheric mantle is located about 45-65 km of depth. This layer produces a delay of the arrival times of the converted phases at 410- and 660-discontinuities relative to the standard earth models. Other than the delays induced by the shallow low velocity material, there is no evidence of thickness variations in the mantle transition zone, indicating no upper mantle thermal perturbations. Beneath the majority of the islands, the low velocity layer is characterized by VP/VS greater than 1.81, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of melt (higher than 3%) beneath the islands. Our results support geodynamic models for the Canaries region that include a low velocity layer in the upper mantle, without a thermal anomaly perturbing the mantle transition zone discontinuities (410 and 660 km).

  20. Geomorphologic Indices for Transition from Subduction to Arc-Continent Collision in Sumba Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authemayou, C.; Delcaillau, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Molliex, S.; Nexer, M.; Pedoja, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Sumba Island lies in a key area to study the eastern Indonesia geodynamics. It is located in the Sunda-Banda fore-arc in the area of transition from subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere (W) beneath the Sunda-Banda arc to arc-continent collision between the Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda arc (E). East of the Sumba Island, the western boundary of the Savu basin originated during Middle Miocene by the southeastward slab retreat below the Sunda-Banda arc (Rigg and Hall, 2001). Previous studies has detected a global uplift of the island accommodating the Australian plate - South West Banda Arc convergence (Fleury et al., 2009). This uplift is associated with northeastward tilting and gravitational collapse to the South. Analyses of various geomorphic markers (perched low relief landscapes, rockyshore platform, coral reef terraces, drainages) and of morphometric indices allowed us to localise new structures (faults and folds), to determine the chronology of their activation and to better constraint the uplift history of Sumba Island. These results aim to understand the evolution of the deformation in Sumba Island in regard with its geodynamic context from Middle Miocene to present-day.

  1. Differing Eocene floral histories in southeastern North America and Western Europe: influence of paleogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1995-01-01

    Pollen data show that in southeastern North America, the Eocene angiosperm flora attained its maximum relative diversity some 8 m.y. after the late early Eocene to earliest middle Eocene to earliest middle Eocene climatic maximum. Increasing diversity resulted in part from the flora's position on a large continent which allowed easy migration. In western Europe, the floral diversity began decreasing even before the climatic maximum. Paleogeography played large roles in this diversity decrease. In western Europe, terrestrial floras were on islands and peninsulas in the sea, so that the floras underwent increasing isolation and partial local extermination. Temperate plants generally did not migrate to western Europe, because of a lack of nearby uplands, lack of northern terrestrial source areas for these plants, and presence of the Turgai Straights barrier. -from Authors

  2. Nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Through three-dimensional finite element modeling, it is demonstrated that the nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands is strongly dependent on the shape of the nano-island and the depth of indentation. For indentations that are relatively deep (i.e., greater than 5% of the height of the islands), the substrate's elastic and plastic properties have a strong influence on the indentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands with substrate plasticity resulting in a significant reduction in the mechanical and electrical indentation stiffness. The predictions of the finite element models compare well with experiments on nano-islands of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate.

  3. Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

  4. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission risk to human. PMID:21943096

  5. SSW-directed low-angled extension on Makronisos, Western Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. H. N.; Huet, B.; Grasemann, B.; Soukis, K.; Tschegg, C.

    2012-04-01

    Makronisos is the most northwesterly island in the Western Cycladic archipelago, lying only a few kilometres from the Attica mainland port of Lavrion. The island is pencil-shaped, 13 km long (NNE-SSW) by 2.5 km wide, with a single axial ridge irregularly rising from 120 m in the south to 260 m in the north. Most of the island comprises a sequence of schists and interlayered blue-grey marbles that exhibit chocolate-tablet pinch-and-swell. The tectonostratigraphically highest level of the central to northern parts of the island consists of pale coloured calcite ultramylonites overlying cataclastically deformed schists. These form outliers on the crest of the island and also crop-out along the west and east coasts. Stretching lineations in all units trend NNE-SSW and all shear criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense (S-C-?, asymmetric porphyroclasts). Large-scale (~0.35 km wavelength) upright folds, with axes parallel to the stretching direction, control the overall outcrop pattern. The style of deformation is consistent with that found in more southeasterly parts of the W. Cyclades (Kea, Kythnos, Serifos) and also to that seen in the adjacent Attica mainland and confirms the continuity of top-to-SSE extension in that part of the Aegean. These observations allow the tectonostratigraphy of the mainland to be correlated with that of the W. Cyclades and hence a scenario for the exhumation of the metamorphic units in this region to be proposed.

  6. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  7. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  8. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  9. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  10. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  11. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  12. Barrier Island Failure During Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallenger, A.; Howd, P.; Stockdon, H.; Wright, C. W.; Fauver, L.; Guy, K.

    2006-12-01

    Classical models of barrier-island response to storms predict that wave runup can periodically overtop an island and transport sand from its seaside to its bayside, forcing the island to migrate landward. While this process can destroy fixed human developments, the island survives with little net change in form or dimensions. In contrast, we find that Louisiana's Chandeleur Islands during Hurricane Katrina were not periodically overtopped by waves, but were continuously inundated by storm surge. When such inundation occurs locally on a barrier island, it can force the erosion of a narrow breach that connects sea and bay. However, little is known about the response of a barrier island when it is entirely submerged. Here, we show that the Chandeleur Islands approached complete failure, losing 84% of their surface area. Their Gulf of Mexico shorelines retreated landward an average of 268 m, the largest retreat ever reported for a storm. Sand was stripped from the islands, reducing their peak elevation from >6 m to <3 m and exposing them to further degradation and potential failure by future hurricanes of less intensity than Katrina. Further, the islands that survived Katrina were marsh remnants composed of mud and vegetation that relatively small waves diminished following the storm. The Chandeleur Islands are prone to failure because of their location on the Mississippi delta where small sand supply and large sea-level rise (induced locally by land subsidence) limit natural rebuilding of the islands following a storm. The response of the delta's barrier islands during Hurricane Katrina provides a warning of how the world's barrier islands might respond to storm-surge inundation should predictions of accelerated global sea level rise prove accurate.

  13. First Joint U.S.Canada Polar Expedition for Educators, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada: Planetary Analogue Research and Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Williamson; W. H. Pollard; C. M. McKay; L. Coe; M. Steinberg; J. Clement

    2008-01-01

    From July 20 to August 2, 2008, joint activities sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA - Space Learning) and NASA (Spaceward Bound) were carried out at the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) in the Canadian High Arctic. Established in 1960, MARS consists of two sites located on western Axel Heiberg Island along the shore of Expedition Fiord (lower camp),

  14. The decline of native Pacific island faunas: changes in status of the land snails of Samoa through the 20th century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Cowie; A. C. Robinson

    2003-01-01

    The highly diverse and endemic Pacific island biota is disappearing and being replaced by a relatively small number of widespread alien species. The land snail fauna of Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) contains at least 72 species (58 native, 10 alien, four cryptogenic—of unknown origin). In 1992–1994 we surveyed the fauna in order to evaluate its status and, by comparison with

  15. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ~1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot. PMID:21265514

  16. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination, and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  17. Réunion (Indian Ocean) Oceanic Island Volcanism: Seismic Structure and Heterogeneity of the Upper Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, A.

    2002-12-01

    Réunion island in the Indian Ocean is commonly considered as the recent and active expression of the hotspot that formed the Deccan traps, although both the hypothesis of recent small hotspots for both Reunion and Mauritius, or of relation with the plate heterogeneity have been proposed. Structural studies by seismic methods, from the scale of the upper cone of the active Fournaise volcano to that of the crust 100 km around, have been carried out. At this scale significant departures appear from the Hawaiian case to which it is traditionally compared, with the seismic signature of active volcanism showing differences too. Refraction-reflection seismics do not see a geometry of the top of the underlying plate towards the island, expected in plate flexure modelling by analogy with other hotspot island. Where it is sampled, doming is suggested instead. There appears to be less magmatic products than if there was a large amount buried in a flexural depression. The velocity structure resolved for the volcanic island, apart from high velocity cores under the volcanoes leads to smaller overall density than usually considered in flexure modelling. The same appears to hold for the material of the cone of about 120 km radius rising above the regional sea-bottom level to the 30 km radius island, from coincident reflection and refraction seismics on several lines radial to the southeastern half of the island. At the crust-mantle level, there is evidence from reflection-refraction line extending 150 km either side of the island for a layer of velocity intermediate between normal crust and mantle values. Two radial reflection line to the SSW, close to each other detect a differences in depth of the oceanic basement. This may coincide with a fracture zone suggested from the reconstruction of the sea-floor spreading history from the magnetic anomaly pattern. The latter has been interpreted previously to indicate that the western part of Réunion developed atop a Paleogene fossil accretionary center. This has also been suggested for Mauritius island, the two fossil accretionary center having been active on different sides of a triple junction, and carried away from each other along the later fracture zone in-between. The available seismic data sample only from the top of the island to the top of the mantle. At this scale they evidence a departure of Réunion from an idealized oceanic hotspot volcanic islands model, as well as the relation of its location with a structural heterogeneity of the underlying lithosphere that appears inherited from its complex origin. These partly unexpected results suggest that the case deserves further sampling at the broader regional scale including Mauritius, and deeper into the mantle

  18. New insights on the relative sea level change during Holocene along the coasts of Tunisia and western Libya from archaeological and geomorphological markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anzidei; F. Antonioli; K. Lambeck; A. Benini; M. Soussi; R. Lakhdar

    2011-01-01

    New data of sea level changes for the Mediterranean region along the coasts of northern Africa are presented. Data are inferred from archaeological sites of Punic-Roman age located along the coast of Tunisia, between Tunis and Jerba island and along the western coast of Libya, between Sabratha and Leptis Magna. Data are based on precise measures of presently submerged archaeological

  19. Monsoon variability and deep oceanic circulation in the western equatorial Pacific over the last climatic cycle: Insights from sedimentary magnetic properties and sortable silt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Kissel; Carlo Laj; Markus Kienast; Timothé Bolliet; Ann Holbourn; Paul Hill; Wolfgang Kuhnt; Pascale Braconnot

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic and grain size properties of a sediment core located in the western equatorial Pacific, off the southeastern tip of the Philippine island of Mindanao, are presented in an effort to reconstruct past changes in the East Asian Monsoon and deep ocean circulation during the last 160 kyrs. The sedimentary concentration of magnetic particles, interpreted to reflect past changes in

  20. Greenstone and diabase utilization in the stone age of western Norway: Technological and socio?cultural aspects of axe and adze production and distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asle Bruen Olsen; Sigmund Alsaker

    1984-01-01

    The subject of this article is the production and distribution of stone axes and adzes originating from two large Stone Age quarries in western Norway: the greenstone quarry on the small island of Hespriholmen, Bømlo kommune, Hordaland fylke, and the diabase quarry at Stakaneset, Flora kommune, Sogn og Fjordane Fylke. The identification of production sites and distributed products associated with

  1. Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

  2. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  3. Palaeo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: the case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae).

    PubMed

    Mairal, M; Sanmartín, I; Aldasoro, J J; Culshaw, V; Manolopoulou, I; Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Geographical isolation by oceanic barriers and climatic stability has been postulated as some of the main factors driving diversification within volcanic archipelagos. However, few studies have focused on the effect that catastrophic volcanic events have had on patterns of within-island differentiation in geological time. This study employed data from the chloroplast (cpDNA haplotypes) and the nuclear (AFLPs) genomes to examine the patterns of genetic variation in Canarina canariensis, an iconic plant species associated with the endemic laurel forest of the Canary Islands. We found a strong geographical population structure, with a first divergence around 0.8 Ma that has Tenerife as its central axis and divides Canarian populations into eastern and western clades. Genetic diversity was greatest in the geologically stable 'palaeo-islands' of Anaga, Teno and Roque del Conde; these areas were also inferred as the ancestral location of migrant alleles towards other disturbed areas within Tenerife or the nearby islands using a Bayesian approach to phylogeographical clustering. Oceanic barriers, in contrast, appear to have played a lesser role in structuring genetic variation, with intra-island levels of genetic diversity larger than those between-islands. We argue that volcanic eruptions and landslides after the merging of the palaeo-islands 3.5 Ma played key roles in generating genetic boundaries within Tenerife, with the palaeo-islands acting as refugia against extinction, and as cradles and sources of genetic diversity to other areas within the archipelago. PMID:26096229

  4. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  5. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    PubMed

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  6. How to Trace Island Freeboard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Alexandre dos Santos Ramalho

    \\u000a The vertical movements affecting island edifices have a direct effect on the evolutionary history of those edifices. During\\u000a the seamount stage, the height of the edifice relative to the ocean’s surface—a parameter that mostly depends on the volcanic\\u000a activity and the uplift\\/subsidence of the edifice—has a strong impact on the dominant eruptive style. This happens because\\u000a the height of the

  7. The Three Mile Island crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI.

  8. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  9. Salmon poisoning disease in dogs on southern vancouver island.

    PubMed

    Booth, A J; Stogdale, L; Grigor, J A

    1984-01-01

    Salmon poisoning disease in dogs has previously been reported in North America only along the western coast of the U.S.A. This paper presents the findings from eight affected dogs recently diagnosed on Vancouver Island, Canada. The clinical signs shown by these dogs were lethargy, anorexia, pyrexia and lymph node enlargement. The causative agent, Neorickettsia helminthoeca was observed in macrophages obtained from lymph node aspirates. This organism is transmitted to dogs in cysts of the fluke Nanophyetus salmincola salmincola within the tissues of the salmon or trout. The presence of fluke eggs in the feces of dogs showing typical signs is very suggestive of a diagnosis of salmon poisoning disease. Appropriate treatment, including chloramphenicol or oxytetracycline and fluid therapy, resulted in recovery. Prevention of salmon poisoning disease in endemic areas can be achieved by advising owners against allowing their dogs to eat raw salmon or trout. We suggest, based on the diagnoses made in these eight dogs, that Vancouver Island now be considered an endemic area for salmon poisoning disease. PMID:17422349

  10. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  11. Floating Cities, Islands and States

    E-print Network

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-04-04

    Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The best solution to this problem, however, is the provision of floating cities, islands, and states. The author idea is to use for floating cities, islands, and states a cheap floating platform created from a natural ice field taken from the Arctic or Antarctic oceans. These cheap platforms protected by air-film (bottom and sides) and a conventional insulating cover (top) and having a cooling system can exist for an unlimited time. They can be increased in number or size at any time, float in warm oceans, travel to different continents and countries, serve as artificial airports, harbors and other marine improvements, as well as floating cities and industrial bases for virtually any use. Author researches and computes parameters of these ice floating platforms, other methods of building such floating territory, compares them and shows that the offered method is the most cheap and efficient means of ocean colonization.

  12. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  13. Hydrodynamic comparison between the north and south of Mallorca Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Monserrat, Sebastià

    2014-10-01

    A hydrodynamic comparison between two zones of fishing interest, one located to the north and the other to the south of Mallorca Island (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) was done. The comparison was conducted using the data from two moorings, one placed in the middle of the Balearic Current, in the Balearic subbasin (herein, Sóller) and the other in the Mallorca Channel, near the Algerian subbasin (called Cabrera). The instruments moored, continuously recorded the temperature, salinity and currents at different depths, for over 15 months. The data analysis suggests that Sóller is hydrodynamically more active than Cabrera, at least during the time of recording the measurements. The mean currents were higher at Sóller than at Cabrera at all depths, also showing greater maximum speeds and variability. In addition, the presence of more mesoscale eddies in Sóller became evident from the altimetry data. These eddies were not only significantly more energetic near the surface, they also generally reached to greater depths, affecting the velocities of the seabed currents. Subsequent to each significant eddy episode, strong changes in temperature and/or salinity were observed, along the entire water column. Spectral analysis revealed the presence of high frequency oscillations with periods of a few hours. One energy peak, with a period around 3.7 h, was observed at both locations, probably related to trapped waves around Mallorca or the Balearic Islands, while others (3 h and 2 h) were reflected only in Sóller, suggesting they could be associated with some standing resonance waves between the Iberian Peninsula and Mallorca.

  14. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The field observations in the Santa Cruz Islands present an important dataset to assess tsunami impact in the near-source region. The tsunami was also recorded at deep-ocean tsunameters and tide gauges throughout the Pacific. These observations allow us to further investigate the physics of tsunami generation caused by the seismic process (or other non-seismic mechanisms). We use numerical model MOST to analyze the large runup and complex impact distribution caused by the Santa Cruz tsunami. Source models obtained using seismic data / tsunami data are carried out to initialize the tsunami model. MOST uses two sets of numerical grids to investigate both the near- and far-field aspects of the tsunami. The basin-scale modeling results are computed using a spatial resolution of 4 arc min (approx. 7,200 m) and compared with measurements at deep-ocean tsunameters. The near-field modeling is carried out using a series of telescoped grids up to a grid resolution of tens of meters to compare with the tsunami runup and flooding extent obtained through the field survey in the Solomon Islands. The modeling results emphasize the contrast between the tsunami impact on the exposed coastline and the sheltered Lata Bay stressing the problematic interpretation of a tsunami in progress based solely on near-source tide-gauge measurements. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the

  15. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Central Rhode Island Sound Southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Nadeau, M.A.; Wood, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study sea-floor environments off the northeast coast of the United States. During 2008, NOAA survey H11996 collected multibeam echosounder data in a 65-square kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island. During 2010, the USGS collected bottom photographs and sediment samples from 25 stations in this study area. The bathymetry, photography, and sediment data are used to interpret sea-floor features including scour depressions, sand waves, trawl marks, and dredge spoils. Scour depressions cover the bathymetric highs in much of the study area. Sand waves are located mostly in the southwest, and trawl marks tend to be in the northern regions. Dredge spoils are located at a disposal site in a bathymetric low in the western end of the study area. Most stations have a sea-floor surface of sand or silty sand, but eight of the stations have boulders to pea-sized gravel or gravelly sediment on the surface. Photographs show sandy areas typically have scattered burrows, shells, amphipod communities, and worm tubes. Boulders and cobbles are commonly overgrown with hydrozoans and anemones.

  16. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  17. Biology and invasive species in the western U.S

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of environments that characterizes the West is responsible for the region's rich biological heritage. This ecological diversity also means that opportunities for invasive species are many, varied, and complex. Island ecosystems are notoriously vulnerable to invaders as demonstrated in Hawaii and West Coast offshore islands. Aquatic invaders impose high economic and environmental costs in systems as varied as San Francisco Bay and desert springs in the Great Basin. Although the West's arid and montane ecosystems may seem resistant to plant and animal invaders, we now know that ex-otic species have altered physical processes related to fire and hydrology in a manner favoring further expansion and persis-tence of invaders. Natural resource managers value analytical, mapping, and genetics tools developed by USGS scientists to monitor invasive species and help conserve biological systems. USGS biologists conduct research to assist land and water managers' efforts to control invasive species and restore natural systems. Throughout the West, the USGS carries out studies for early detection and rapid assessment of invaders. The following are some examples of how the USGS is making a difference in the western United States.

  18. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

  20. Adaptive Decision Modeling in Wisconsin River Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, R.; Greb, S. R.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Block, P.

    2014-12-01

    River islands in Wisconsin are of high ecological significance. Understanding of climate change impacts and appropriate management alternatives in these islands are of great interest to all stakeholders, including the State of Wisconsin and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) who have jurisdiction of these islands in WI. We use historical areal imagery to describe island dynamics and river morphometry, such as changes in island shape and size. Relationships of related changes are explored with concurrent changes in river flow regimes. In an effort to integrate climate change uncertainties into decision making, we demonstrate an application of a multistage adaptive decision making framework to Wisconsin River islands, with a particular emphasis on flood management and planning. The framework is comprised of hydro-climatic ensemble projections generated from CMIP5 climate model outputs and multiple hydrologic models, including statistical and physically based approaches.