Science.gov

Sample records for abrolhos islands western

  1. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. ); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  2. The Last Interglacial sea level change: new evidence from the Abrolhos islands, West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, A.; Zhu, Z. R.; Collins, L. B.; Wyrwoll, K. H.; Eichstätter, R.

    U-series ages measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) are reported for a Last Interglacial (LI) fossil coral core from the Turtle Bay, Houtman Abrolhos islands, western Australia. The core is 33.4m long the top of which is approximately 5ma.p.s.l. (above present sea level). From the 232Th concentrations and the reliability of the U-series ages, two sections in the core can be distinguished. Calculated U/Th ages in core sectionI (3.3ma.p.s.l to 11mb.p.s.l) vary between 124+/-1.7kaBP (3.3ma.p.s.l.) and 132.5+/-1.8ka (4mb.p.s.l., i.e. below present sea level), and those of sectionII (11-23mb.p.s.l.) between 140+/-3 and 214+/-5kaBP, respectively. The ages of core sectionI are in almost perfect chronological order, whereas for sectionII no clear age-depth relationship of the samples can be recognised. Further assessments based on the ∂234U(T) criteria reveal that none of the samples of core sectionII give reliable ages, whereas for core sectionI several samples can be considered to be moderately reliable within 2ka. The data of the Turtle Bay core complement and extend our previous work from the Houtman Abrolhos showing that the sea level reached a height of approximately 4mb.p.s.l at approximately 134kaBP and a sea level highstand of at least 3.3ma.p.s.l. at approximately 124kaBP. Sea level dropped below its present position at approximately 116kaBP. Although the new data are in general accord with the Milankovitch theory of climate change, a detailed comparison reveals considerable differences between the Holocenand LI sea level rise as monitored relative to the Houtman Abrolhos islands. These observation apparently add further evidence to the growing set of data that the LI sea level rise started earlier than recognised by SPECMAP chronology. A reconciliation of these contradictionary observations following the line of arguments presented by Crowley (1994) are discussed with respect to the Milankovitch theory.

  3. Targeted demersal fish species exhibit variable responses to long-term protection from fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornt, Katrina R.; McLean, Dianne L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural fluctuations in the abundance and length of targeted fish are often disrupted by acute environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. Long-term assessments of targeted fish populations inside and outside areas closed to fishing are often necessary to elucidate these effects, yet few of these studies extend over long time periods. We assessed trends in the abundance and length of six targeted fish species in areas open and closed to fishing on seven occasions spanning a 9-year period (2005-2010 and 2013) at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Shallow (8-12 m) and deep (22-26 m) coral-dominated reef sites were sampled across four geographically separated island groups using baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUV). Between 2005 and 2010, populations of Lethrinus miniatus, Lethrinus nebulosus, Plectropomus leopardus, and Chrysophrys auratus became increasingly dominated by larger individuals, potentially indicative of an ageing population. Between 2010 and 2013, however, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smaller L. miniatus, L. nebulosus, and P. leopardus in both open and closed areas, reflecting increased recruitment perhaps due to changing environmental conditions associated with a marine heat wave anomaly. This recruitment pulse was not observed for the other species in this study ( Chr. auratus, Choerodon rubescens, and Glaucosoma hebraicum). Lethrinus miniatus, L. nebulosus, Chr. auratus, and P. leopardus were larger in closed areas relative to open areas; however, they were not more abundant. These complex responses to protection also varied across sampling years for certain species (e.g., P. leopardus). Monitoring changes over the long-term in areas open and closed to fishing provides a sound basis for separating environmental variability from that associated with fishing mortality, which is crucial for optimising fisheries management.

  4. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Kathryn L.; Abdo, Dave A.; Evans, Scott N.; Bosserelle, Cyprien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of ‘heat tolerant’ coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them. PMID:26812259

  5. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kathryn L; Abdo, Dave A; Evans, Scott N; Bosserelle, Cyprien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of 'heat tolerant' coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them. PMID:26812259

  6. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  7. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  8. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

  9. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  10. Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

  11. Social integration and suicide in the Western Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2008-06-01

    In the Western Pacific Islands, the rate of suicide was more common in those islands with faster growing populations, but not among the islands with larger total populations or with greater population densities. This offers partial support for some of the propositions of Durkheim and Lester. PMID:18763436

  12. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  13. Residual circulation in western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fribance, Diane Bennett; O'Donnell, James; Houk, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Current, salinity and temperature measurements from repeated ship transects, complemented by observations from long duration current profilers, are used to characterize the variability and structure of subtidal flow in western Long Island Sound, a region prone to seasonal hypoxia. Subtidal flow plays a leading role in the transport of oxygen and organic matter and must, therefore, be simulated as accurately as possible. We show that during periods of light wind in March and July, the subtidal along-sound flow is vertically and horizontally sheared with lower salinity water in the top 7 m moving eastward toward the ocean at approximately 10 cm s-1 with a counterflow of similar magnitude elsewhere. Velocity contours were found to slope downward to the south, and maximum eastward velocities were found near the surface on the southern half of the section. We find that there is a net transport in the direction of the East River (westward.) The velocity distribution is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions for the steady, frictional, baroclinic pressure gradient driven flow modified by Coriolis acceleration, despite its neglect of advective effects which were found to be important in the present observational analysis. Our estimates of the pressure gradient, the Coriolis acceleration and stress divergence have similar magnitudes. Observation-based estimates of terms in the momentum balance suggest that advection is more important to along-estuary momentum than across-estuary momentum. Along-estuary advection is overestimated in recent hydrodynamic simulations when compared to observed values at sampling locations.

  14. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:21295427

  15. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  16. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  17. Magmatic Evolution of the Western Azores Islands (Corvo and Flores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea, P.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Widom, E.; Lago, M.; França, Z.; Tierz, P.

    2012-12-01

    Corvo and Flores islands belong to the western group of the Azores archipelago, to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Several studies have proposed a common magmatic evolution for both islands. However, most of these studies focus on other Azorean islands. In order to investigate the processes that control the evolution of Corvo and Flores we have studied representative samples of the whole volcanostratigraphical sequence in both islands, including lava flows and dikes. Similarly to other oceanic islands, Corvo and Flores are made up of an alternation of porphyritic rocks and microlitic rocks. The former are picrobasalts and basalts with 5 to 60 volume fraction of large (2-15 mm), primitive antecrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The latter are Mg-poor hawaites to trachytes. The Mg-rich composition of the porphyritic rocks is due to the accumulation of primitive antecrysts within a more evolved groundmass. In contrast, the composition of the microlitic rocks provides information on the differentiation processes that controlled the evolution of both islands. The microlitic rocks present holocrystalline to hypocrystalline textures with a mineral assemblage mainly composed of microcrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene opaque minerals and accessory amphibole and apatite. Their major element whole rock composition can be best modeled by a polybaric fractional crystallization process (MELTS software) starting at 500 MPa with cooling steps of 5 degrees Celsius and a water content of 1 %, starting from the most primitive analyzed microlitic rock (MgO: 9.04%; Cr: 630 ppm; Ni: 200 ppm). Hence, we confirm that both islands derived from a common primary magma. The crystallization of the antecrysts included in the porphyritic rocks was probably related to the initial stages of the differentiation process. On the other hand, the microlitic rocks and the groundmass of the porphyritic rocks are related to the residual melts of the polybaric fractional crystallization process, probably at shallower magmatic chambers (< 15 km). In conclusion, the processes of fractional crystallization and accumulation of antecrysts control the composition of the products of Corvo and Flores volcanic islands.

  18. Paleoseismological investigations in northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiang, H.-W.; Min, S.; Than, O.; Tun, S. T.

    2012-04-01

    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate, and produces a series of deformation belts with a lot of seismic activities. The active deformation is evident by wide-spread marine terraces along the coast of western Myanmar. According to several previous studies, the lowest marine terrace formed during the 1762 Arakan earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of about 7.5. From the ages of the marine terraces, these studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years. Near the town of Kyauk-Pyu in northern Ramree Island, a major coastal island in western Myanmar, we found several levels of sea-notches on a sandstone ridge next to the coast. The lowest notch is about 1 m above the present sea-notch, and it has been shown that this lowest notch represents the co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. Since there are up to four levels of uplifted sea-notches above the 1762 notch and each has a ~1 m elevation difference, we suggest that there have been several paleo-earthquake events prior to the 1762 earthquake, and those events had similar magnitude to the 1762 Arakan earthquake. Unfortunately, we were unable to find age constraints for those paleo-earthquake events at this site. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, we found many coral colonies on the wave-cut platform. Except for the present-day living corals, there are three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations. U-Th ages of the uplifted corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. The other two groups of corals suggest that there were at least one event before and after the 1762 earthquake, respectively. The possible event after 1762 has not been reported anywhere else in western Myanmar, thus it may represent a minor, local event. Furthermore, since all of these three uplifted coral groups are lower than the lowest marine terrace, a step of marine terrace may require more than one earthquake event to form in this area. Therefore, the previous studies, which only used the ages of marine terraces, may have overestimated the earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar.

  19. Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins de Barros, M M; Castro, C B; Pires, D O; Segal, B

    2000-12-01

    The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter) randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites) also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata), however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests). Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors. PMID:11487922

  20. Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

  1. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  2. Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, D. G.; Watts, A. B.; Gee, M. J. R.; Urgeles, R.; Mitchell, N. C.; Le Bas, T. P.; Canals, M.

    2002-01-01

    Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the adjacent ocean basins. At least 14 large landslides have occurred on the flanks of the El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, the majority of these in the last 1 million years, with the youngest, on the northwest flank of El Hierro, as recent as 15 thousand years in age. Older landslides undoubtedly occurred, but are difficult to quantify because the evidence is buried beneath younger volcanic rocks and sediments. Landslides on the Canary Island flanks can be categorised as debris avalanches, slumps or debris flows. Debris avalanches are long runout catastrophic failures which typically affect only the superficial part of the island volcanic sequence, up to a maximum thickness of 1 to 2 km. They are the commonest type of landslide mapped. In contrast, slumps move short distances and are deep-rooted landslides which may affect the entire thickness of the volcanic edifice. Debris flows are defined as landslides which primarily affect the sedimentary cover of the submarine island flanks. Some landslides are complex events involving more than one of the above end-member processes. Individual debris avalanches have volumes in the range of 50-500 km 3, cover several thousand km 2 of seafloor, and have runout distances of up to 130 km from source. Overall, debris avalanche deposits account for about 10% of the total volcanic edifices of the small, relatively young islands of El Hierro and La Palma. Some parameters, such as deposit volumes and landslide ages, are difficult to quantify. The key characteristics of debris avalanches include a relatively narrow headwall and chute above 3000 m water depth on the island flanks, broadening into a depositional lobe below 3000 m. Debris avalanche deposits have a typically blocky morphology, with individual blocks up to a kilometre or more in diameter. However, considerable variation exists between different avalanche deposits. At one extreme, the El Golfo debris avalanche on El Hierro has few large blocks scattered randomly across the avalanche surface. At the other, Icod on the north flank of Tenerife has much more numerous but smaller blocks over most of its surface, with a few very large blocks confined to the margins of the deposit. Icod also exhibits flow structures (longitudinal shears and pressure ridges) that are absent in El Golfo. The primary controls on the block structure and distribution are inferred to be related to the nature of the landslide material and to flow processes. Observations in experimental debris flows show that the differences between the El Golfo and Icod landslide deposits are probably controlled by the greater proportion of fine grained material in the Icod landslide. This, in turn, relates to the nature of the failed volcanic rocks, which are almost entirely basalt on El Hierro but include a much greater proportion of pyroclastic deposits on Tenerife. Landslide occurrence appears to be primarily controlled by the locations of volcanic rift zones on the islands, with landslides propagating perpendicular to the rift orientation. However, this does not explain the uneven distribution of landslides on some islands which seems to indicate that unstable flanks are a 'weakness' that can be carried forward during island development. This may occur because certain island flanks are steeper, extend to greater water depths or are less buttressed by the surrounding topography, and because volcanic production following a landslide my be concentrated in the landslide scar, thus focussing subsequent landslide potential in this area. Landslides are primarily a result of volcanic construction to a point where the mass of volcanic products fails under its own weight. Although the actual triggering factors are poorly understood, they may include or be influenced by dyke intrusion, pore pressure changes related to intrusion, seismicity or sealevel/climate changes. A possible relationship between caldera collapse and landsliding on Tenerife is not, in our interpretation, supported by the available evidence.

  3. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  4. Preliminary Geology of Gareloi Volcano, Western Aleutian Islands (Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, B. L.; Coombs, M.; Larsen, J.

    2004-12-01

    Gareloi Island consists of Gareloi volcano (1573 m elevation), and is located nearly 2000 km west of Anchorage and 120 km west of Adak in the western Aleutian (Andreanof) Islands. A geologic mapping operation was combined with the installation of a seismic monitoring network in September of 2003 by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This work provided the first direct observations of Gareloi volcano since Robert Coats' four-day visit in 1945. Gareloi volcano is a stratovolcano 10 km by 8 km in diameter at its base with two summit craters separated by a narrow saddle. The southern crater is a 300-m-wide amphitheater formed by the partial collapse of its southern crater wall, and contains several active fumaroles. The northern crater is enclosed, although the intra-crater eruptive stratigraphy is abruptly interrupted by near-vertical local unconformities on the northwest wall, suggesting the occurrence of a sector collapse sometime in the past. Gareloi volcano is principally composed of intercalated trachytic lava flows, ranging from 0.5 m to more than 10 m in thickness. Two prominent valleys composed of thick lava flow packages on the SW flank are clearly U-shaped, suggesting that the oldest sequence of lava flows is of at least late Pleistocene age. Lavas erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene range from basaltic trachyandesite to basaltic andesite in composition and contain plagioclase and clinopyroxene, with minor olivine, and rare hornblende. An explosive eruption in 1929 formed a SSE trending fissure of thirteen aligned craters, ranging from 80 to 1600 m in diameter. These craters extend from sea level up to the amphitheater of the southern crater (1160 m). Fall deposits from the 1929 eruption are interbedded with thin, laterally discontinuous pyroclastic flow deposits that are mainly limited to the island's southeastern flanks. Despite an abrupt change in color from light beige pumice clasts at the base of the 1929 fall deposit to black scoria at the top, the unit is homogeneous trachyandesite. Following the explosive phase of the eruption, 4 blocky trachyandesite lava flows emerged from craters below 600 m asl. All 1929 eruptive products contain plagioclase and clinopyroxene with scarce olivine. An effusive eruption during the 1980's from the center of the south crater amphitheater produced an elaborate blocky lava flow that extends 800 m in elevation down the SE flank. This lava flow is basaltic trachyandesite, and contains abundant coarsely sieved plagioclase phenocrysts with minor clinopyroxene and olivine. The majority of Gareloi lavas contain anomalously high concentrations of K, Na, and Rb and low concentrations of Mg compared to reported findings from other Aleutian lavas, including those of the western portion of the arc. This suggests that Gareloi magmas may be unique with respect to their source region and possibly storage conditions compared to other Aleutian volcanoes.

  5. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... fireworks display on the waters of western Long Island Sound, Mamaroneck, NY, no rain date is scheduled...

  6. A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks.

    PubMed

    Newmark, W D

    In recent years, a number of authors have suggested several geometric principles for the design of nature reserves based upon the hypothesis that nature reserves are analogous to land-bridge islands. Land-bridge islands are islands that were formerly connected to the mainland and were created by a rise in the level of the ocean. Land-bridge islands are considered supersaturated with species in that the ratio of island to mainland species numbers is higher than expected from the area of the island. As a result, the rate of extinction should exceed the rate of colonization on a land-bridge island, resulting in a loss of species that is suggested to be related to the size and degree of isolation of the island. If nature reserves are considered to be similar to land-bridge islands, because most are slowly becoming isolated from their surroundings by habitat disturbance outside the reserves, several predictions follow. First, the total number of extinctions should exceed the total number of colonizations within a reverse; second, the number of extinctions should be inversely related to reserve size; and third, the number of extinctions should be directly related to reserve age. I report here that the natural post-establishment loss of mammalian species in 14 western North American national parks is consistent with these predictions of the land-bridge island hypothesis and that all but the largest western North American national parks are too small to retain an intact mammalian fauna. PMID:3808043

  7. Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale. PMID:25055095

  8. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of this interpretation will help to further constrain regional studies over the northwestern Caribbean.

  9. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale. PMID:25261176

  10. Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

  11. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  12. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Vanessa Moura; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013–2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  13. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  14. Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Michault, Alain; Bourhy, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

  15. Spatial and Temporal Isotopic Gradients in the Western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. K.; Carracedo, J. C.; Badiola, E. R.; Hamilton, A.; Guetschow, H.

    2005-12-01

    The westernmost Canary Islands (La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro) are erupted on Jurassic oceanic crust away from chemical influence by African continental crust or its sedimentary apron. These islands are in their shield-building or post-shield gap stage of growth, and expose thick volcanic sections that have excellent absolute age constraints. Although on a reconnaissance scale magmas from these islands are isotopically homogeneous, relatively dense sampling and new Nd-Sr-Hf and Pb isotope data indicate subtle temporal and spatial shifts in isotopic compositions that have not been resolved previously. The overall range in isotopic composition is small (e.g., ɛNd = +4.5 to +6.5). All Pb isotope compositions plot below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line, with 206Pb/204Pb ranging from 19.40 to 20.10. However, especially in the high-precision MC-ICP-MS Pb data (>100 new analyses), we observe some changes in average composition with age. The oldest subaerial eruptions on La Palma (Garafia and Taburiente volcanism; 1.5 - 0.4 Ma) have 207Pb/204Pb less radiogenic than subsequent eruptions (Bejenado and Cumbre Vieja; 0.4 Ma to present). At a finer scale, within a single volcano, there are some systematic temporal variations at the millennial or hundred-year time scale (Taburiente and Cumbre Vieja, respectively) but it is not consistent throughout the life of the volcano. La Palma magmas show no resolvable temporal patterns in Nd and Sr compositions. Spatial variability is manifested in basalt from El Hierro, which erupted contemporaneously with Cumbre Vieja. El Hierro basalts are slightly, though consistently, more radiogenic in Nd (approximately 1 ɛ-unit) for a given Sr composition, and on average have less radiogenic Pb compositions than La Palma basalt. La Gomera has a more restricted range in Hf and a larger range in Sr isotope compositions than La Palma and El Hierro. The overall isotopic homogeneity of these islands contrasts strongly with hot spots such as Hawaii and Iceland. The variation that is resolvable is either on a large spatial scale (distinct sources for El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera) or on a very fine scale when short (<100 kyr) stratigraphic sections are examined. This is consistent with the Hoernle and Schmincke (1993) model of individual ``blobs'' within the plume feeding different volcanoes approximately simultaneously. In addition, there must be some chemical heterogeneity within these individual volumes that may be sampled in systematically changing proportions with progressive melting to generate isotopic trends on a short (10 - 105 yr) time scale. K. Hoernle and H.-U. Schmincke, J. Petrol. 34, 599 (1993).

  16. Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003–2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

  17. Physical forcing mechanisms controlling the variability of chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

  18. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

  19. Sedimentation in the coastal reefs of Abrolhos over the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. S.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Costa, A. B.; Souza, J. R. B.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reefs of the coastal area of Abrolhos are located in an environment with a high influx of terrigenous sediments that are carried out to the sea, either as a result of natural processes (river output, coastal erosion, and torrents) or due to anthropogenic influences (deforestation, coastal development, and dredging). Excessive terrigenous sediment in coastal areas has been identified as one of the major threats to coral reefs, leading to their worldwide decline. The present study assessed the evolution of sedimentation in the Abrolhos coastal reefs during the past decades by analyzing samples from sediment cores collected near the reefs of Coroa Vermelha (located 15 km from the coast), Pedra de Leste (located 12 km from the coast) and Popa Verde (located 35 km from the coast). The purpose of this assessment was to observe whether the previously described pattern of surficial bottom sediment distribution in Abrolhos, which consisted of terrigenous mud in the nearshore reefs, to carbonate-dominant sediments towards the offshore reefs, is still a prevalent feature. Sediment color, texture, CaCO3 percentage, biogenic compounds and clay minerals, as well as the sedimentation rate and the geochronology of the sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed indications of an increase in the deposition of terrigenous mud, over the last decade, in the vicinity of the reefs nearest to the coast, though this does not yet constitute a definitive evidence of such a change. However, this observation therefore suggests that local processes resulting from anthropogenic actions are most likely causing an increase of the sedimentation rate of continent-derived sediment runoff in the Abrolhos coastal areas. To minimize this situation, there is an urgent need for the development of new management strategies to protect the already disturbed Abrolhos coastal reefs, especially during times of global changes.

  20. Field observations of recent transgression on northern and eastern Melville Island, western Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Patrick; Hanson, Michelle A.

    2008-11-01

    After ~ 11,000 years of glacio-isostatically induced forced regression, geomorphological evidence indicates that the coastline of eastern Melville Island, western Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is now being transgressed. Recently developed coastal features associated with this transgression include: drowned gullies and small estuaries, barriers and lagoons, barrier islands, erosional notches, backstepping beaches, and drowned tundra vegetation and vehicle tracks dating from the 1970s. We mainly attribute this relative sea-level rise to the eastward migration of a peripheral crustal forebulge. Furthermore, the reported transgression also includes a component from recent eustatic sea-level rise during the 20th century. Recent earthquakes recorded in the Gustav-Lougheed Arch Seismic Zone located in Byam Martin Channel, 70 km east of Melville Island, suggest that neotectonics could also be involved in local relative sea-level adjustments. Other factors associated with global warming, especially the formation of an earlier shore-ice lead coupled with increased storm activity might also be responsible for some of the coastal changes. Our study indicates that the current zero isobase, separating areas of net transgression from those of net regression, is now located off the east coast of the island. Our field observations support recent glacio-isostatic modelling that shows the island is presently undergoing a transgression.

  1. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (< 850 BP). Field surveys along the coasts of Mallorca and Menorca islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  2. History of Contamination and Coastal Hazards in Western Long Island Sound, N.Y.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Pant, H.; Varekamp, J.; Marchese, P.; Charles, T.; Bowman, A.; Vargas, W.; Balbas, A.; Boteju, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Long Island Sound, estuary borders metropolitan New York at its western end where it has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities and natural hazards such as storm surges and floods. The waters and sediments of western Long Island Sound (LIS) accumulate many pollutants including heavy metals and organic matter loadings. Seasonal hypoxic conditions are a major water quality problem, not only with regards to the damage to its ecosystems, but also for the important fishing industry that LIS sustains. On June 2006, we surveyed LIS from 73°30'W to 73°50'W from the R/V Hugh Sharp collecting high-resolution subbottom seismic (chirp) profiles, multibeam bathymetric data and 25 gravity cores (up to 3 m long). The total organic carbon (TOC) and mercury contents measured in the sediments confirm that their concentrations systematically increase from east to west towards New York City. Mercury concentrations increase westward from 700 to 1200 ppb with pre-industrial values of 50 ppb. In contrast, TOC concentrations indicate that eutrophied conditions did exist in western LIS prior to industrialization with pre-industrial concentrations of 3.8% in the west. These concentrations increased due to anthropogenic activities to values in excess of 10%. High-resolution chirp and sonar data reveal that bottom circulation in western LIS is constrained by bedrock some of which outcrops near 73°45'W. The LIS western outlet to the East River at 73°55'W is controlled by the narrow, shallow sill of Hell Gate. The funnel shape of LIS and these bedrock constrictions contribute to significantly decrease tidal and wind induced currents from east to west (60 to10 cm/s). We propose that this decrease in flow velocity leads to sediment deposition and to the concentration of pollutants. We further suggest that hypoxic conditions possibly existed prior to anthropogenic activities due to the basin morphology and decreased circulation. Previous studies based on stable O and C isotopes do indeed indicate that it was hypoxic to anoxic. Finally, our measurements indicate that storms/floods also lead to erosion and deposition of pollutants in western LIS. We are developing a chronology to link erosional surfaces and peak abundances in heavy metals to the historical record of storms, and to a longer-term record to document their recurrence intervals. This will form a basis to assess future potential detrimental effects that storms may have on the Long Island Sound estuary due to climate change.

  3. Nobody asked the mother: women and maternity on Simbo, western Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Dureau, C

    1993-09-01

    This article's focus is on the role of mothers in Simbo, one of the New Georgia islands in the western Solomon Islands. Mother's role is examined from the standpoint of the actual experiences of motherhood and mother's perceptions and reactions to child rearing, child care, burdensome tasks, and social participation. Anthropological studies emphasize non-Western notions of maternity or romanticize the primitive. Obscured in the process is who these women really are. Western feminist accounts of Third World women emphasize the oppression and uniformity of the "natural" mother. This characterization of Simbo women is presented as a single non-Western view and is unrelated to a global vision. Simbo women as mothers feel oppressed and are envious of Western notions of parenting, yet at the same time feel that Western child rearing deprives the child. Maternity is a state of ambivalence, where women feel both love for and oppression by children, spouses, and other women. The tasks and responsibilities of childbearing are more difficult because of increased fertility and changes in social practices. Women without children are viewed with sympathy and mild condescension. Changes in social practices are in part due to the presence of missionaries after 1903 and the over 200 year involvement of the islands in world trading. The most significant impact on women post-Christianity is the change from the emphasis on female-child relationships to male-female relationships. Pre-Christianity, marriage ceremonies stressed equality of spouses and their kin groups. New customs emphasize brideprice and the husband's authority over women's bodies. The change in power affects fertility levels, child care, women's work, and contraception. Men today do less labor relative to women and, when husbands are absent due to temporary labor migration, women may not have any help. The nuclear family is responsible for all labor. Women specifically tend the gardens and house, care for children, and care for ill members of the family. The concept of maternity changes with the stage in the life cycle. The first child is the easiest because grandmothers help with infant care. Children are both indulged and then resented when the demands interfere with activities or the children are too difficult. PMID:12289922

  4. Characterization of nitrate contamination in groundwater in Gosan, western part of Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E.; Kaown, D.; Kang, B.; Oh, S.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Jeju Isalnd, composed of porous volcanic rocks, is located about 140 km south of the Korean peninsula. The annual mean rainfall of the island (1,975 mm) is about 600 mm higher than that of Korean mainland. Groundwater in Jeju Island is vulnerable to contamination sources in surface land because surface water easily percolates into groundwater when the rainfall event occurs. The western part of the island, where proportion of agricultural area is higher, nitrate contamination in groundwater has been observed. It is important to characterize nitrate contamination in the western part of the island to preserve the groundwater resources. In Gosan, located in the western part of Jeju Island, agricultural fields are broadly distributed resulting from readjustment of arable land in 1970s. Shallow perched groundwater is observed at the top soil layer with depth to water table range of 0.25 ~ 2.68. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration of the shallow groundwater is observed as 8.24 ~ 59.96 mg/l. The deep groundwater is distributed with depth to water table from 12.47 m to 29.11 m and the nitrate-nitrogen concentration is distributed between 0.10 ~ 29.16 mg/l. Such high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the shallow groundwater might cause continuous nitrate contamination of deep groundwater in the study area. Analysis of stable isotope, δ 15N and δ18O of nitrate, in both shallow and deep groundwater was conducted to identify sources of nitrate and transformation processes of nitrogen. Shallow groundwater has broad ranges of δ 15N and δ18O values (δ 15N: 2.3 ~ 26.1‰, δ18O: 2.5 ~ 15.8‰) contrast to deep groundwater, which has limit ranges (δ 15N: 3.1 ~ 5.0‰, δ18O: 0.5 ~ 4.7‰). The source of nitrate in the deep groundwater was identified as the ammonium fertilizer and organic soil and in the shallow groundwater, complex source such as chemical fertilizer, organic soil and denitrification was consider to affect the nitrate contamination in the study area.

  5. Influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies on zooplankton distribution south of the western Aleutian Islands during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yasuda, I.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Imai, I.

    2013-12-01

    Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed south of the Aleutian Islands located between the Bering Sea and the subarctic Pacific. Eddies farther east, in the Gulf of Alaska, are known to transport coastal water and coastal zooplankton to offshore open ocean. The impacts of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed south of the western Aleutian Islands (Aleutian eddies) on the zooplankton community are not fully understood. In the present study, we describe zooplankton population structures within an Aleutian eddy and outside the eddy during July 2010. Our field study was conducted at seven stations along 51°15‧N from 171°21‧E to 174°38‧E (western line) and at four stations along 50°40‧N from 176°24‧E to 178°44‧E (eastern line) on 7-8 July 2010. At each station, environmental data (temperature, salinity and fluorescence were measured by CTD/XCTD. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tow of 150 m depth to the surface using 100 μm mesh size plankton net. Based on the sea level anomaly (SLA), the western line crossed an anticyclonic eddy but the eastern line did not cross the eddy (Fig. 1). This Aleutian eddy was formed south of Attu Island (52°54‧N, 172°54‧E) in mid-February 2010, and it moved southeastward in the next five months. The SLA near the eddy center, representing the strength of the eddy, continuously increased, and the area oscillated at one to two month periods overlain on a general increase from ~7,000 to ~18,000 km2. Large oceanic copepods, Neocalanus cristatus, Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica were more abundant inside the eddy than the outside. Inside the eddy, the life stage distribution of N. cristatus was advanced than that outside, and Neocalanus spp. had accumulated more lipids. These conditions probably reflect the greater primary production in the eddy, production enhanced by nutrients advected into the eddy. Since the Aleutian eddy was formed in offshore waters and/or eddy-eddy interaction occurred after its formation, it contained mostly oceanic copepods. The sufficient food condition in the eddy presumably induced higher growth and survival rates of these oceanic copepods, resulting in the greater abundance, advanced development stages and greater lipid accumulation. Fig. 1. Sea level anomaly along the sampling lines on 7 July 2010 south of the western Aleutian Islands.

  6. Sinkhole-like structures as bioproductivity hotspots in the Abrolhos Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Longo, Leila de L.; Bastos, Alex C.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Ghisolfi, Renato D.; Krüger, Ricardo; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Bruce, Thiago; Maia-Neto, Oswaldo; de O. Santos, Eidy; Iida, Tetsuya; Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2013-11-01

    We performed a biological survey in the novel system of sinkhole-like structures ("buracas") of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil. We found dissimilar benthic assemblages and higher nutrient concentration, microbial abundance (and activity) and fish abundance inside the buracas than in the surrounding rhodolith beds. Our results support the view that these cup-shaped structures trap and accumulate organic matter, functioning as productivity hotspots in the mid and outer shelf of the central portion of the Abrolhos Bank shelf, where they aggregate biomass of commercially important fishes. This distinctive system is being increasingly pressured by commercial fisheries and needs urgent management measures such as fishing effort control and representation in the network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAS).

  7. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

  8. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to increase aerosol lifetimes in the lower free troposphere downwind, as they are above the boundary layer and therefore less likely to be lost by wet or dry deposition. It is also likely to change the role they play in the semi-direct and direct aerosol effects. The long chain of islands extending from Malaysia to Australia may all similarly be expected to present an orographic barrier to low level mean flow. This would lead to significant transport of aerosol into the tropical free troposphere across the Western Pacific region.

  9. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  10. Estimates of horizontal fluxes of oxygen, heat, and salt in western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James

    2014-10-01

    The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bottom waters of western Long Island Sound decreases to hypoxic levels between April and July. Since the rate of decline of DO is considerably less than measured respiration, there must be significant vertical transport of DO from oxygen richer waters near the surface and/or horizontal transport from the central Sound. Simple model budgets with either of these sources are able to provide predictions of the seasonal rate of decline that are consistent with the observed values. Although prior budget estimates indicated that vertical fluxes were a significant portion of the resupply of DO, these were not able to discount the possible importance of horizontal fluxes, nor have there been any measurements of horizontal fluxes in this region. We present an analysis of time series of moored conductivity, temperature, DO, and current observations in the hypoxic area of Long Island Sound during the summers of 2005 and 2006. We estimate the near-bottom along-channel flux divergences of salt, heat, and DO as 0.11 ± 0.08 g kg-1 d-1, -5 ± 6 W m-3, and 4 ± 6 μM d-1, respectively. Since this horizontal DO transport is only 25% of the magnitude of the mean rate of respiration, we conclude that vertical transport by mixing forms the bulk of the physical resupply of DO to the hypoxic zone of the western Sound.

  11. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  12. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study. PMID:26900749

  13. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (≤70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  14. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S).

    PubMed

    Ross, Claire L; Falter, James L; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y(-1) and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°-24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31-2.02 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) and P. damicornis (0.34-0.90 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°-19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  15. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S)

    PubMed Central

    Falter, James L.; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y−1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1) and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  16. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  17. The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

  18. Late Miocene/Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): an update.

    PubMed

    Bover, Pere; Rofes, Juan; Bailon, Salvador; Agustí, Jordi; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Torres, Enric; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate fossil record from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has improved considerably over the past decade, especially in Mallorca and Menorca. In Menorca, the Pliocene terrestrial fauna was updated by the discovery and description of the large-sized leporid Nuralagus, several reptiles and an amphibian. In Mallorca, paleontological exploration yielded 2 deposits with a Late Miocene/Early Pliocene chronology, Caló den Rafelino (CdR) and Na Burguesa-1 (NB-1). So far, 4 new mammalian taxa and 2 new reptiles have been identified for the CdR deposit, whereas the faunal assemblage from the recently discovered deposit (Apr 2012) of NB-1 is currently composed of, at least, 6 terrestrial mammals, 8 reptiles and an amphibian. Its faunal composition and some primitive characteristics of the obtained taxa suggest that the chronology of this deposit is slightly earlier than the CdR. The terrestrial vertebrates recorded in these 2 Mallorcan deposits are changing the view of the paleofaunal assemblage previously known for the Plio-Pleistocene of the island. Morphological characteristics displayed by some of the taxa suggest that these faunas would be at the beginning of an isolated evolution. In this paper we present a preliminary report on the fossils recovered from the NB-1 deposit, as well as some unpublished data from CdR, and we analyze the whole fauna from both Mallorcan deposits, focusing on taxonomical and paleobiogeographical aspects. PMID:24673762

  19. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Navas, A; Soto, J; Lpez-Martnez, J

    2005-05-01

    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter. PMID:15763489

  20. Late Wisconsinan glaciation and postglacial relative sea-level change on western Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Thomas R.; England, John H.

    2013-07-01

    The study revises the maximum extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) during the last glaciation and documents subsequent ice sheet retreat and glacioisostatic adjustments across western Banks Island. New geomorphological mapping and maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages indicate that the northwest LIS inundated western Banks Island after ~ 31 14C ka BP and reached a terminal ice margin west of the present coastline. The onset of deglaciation and the age of the marine limit (22-40 m asl) are unresolved. Ice sheet retreat across western Banks Island was characterized by the withdrawal of a thin, cold-based ice margin that reached the central interior of the island by ~ 14 cal ka BP. The elevation of the marine limit is greater than previously recognized and consistent with greater glacioisostatic crustal unloading by a more expansive LIS. These results complement emerging bathymetric observations from the Arctic Ocean, which indicate glacial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to depths of up to 450 m.

  1. Influenza A virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  2. Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-01-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  3. Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

  4. Three dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. The view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar image on a TOPSAR digital elevation map. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of the shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flowas as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43913.

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Typhoon - and Tsunami - Induced Deposits from Western Kyushu Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamaru, K.; Woodruff, J. D.; Kundu, S.; Cook, T.

    2014-12-01

    Western Kyushu Island is a region of Japan frequently impacted by typhoon landfalls. This region is relatively tectonically stable with few active faults and therefore known for far fewer great earthquakes when compared to the Nankai Trough region. Only a few studies have examined the history of tsunamis impacting the region. Hence, studies from western Kyushu provide a unique opportunity to study tsunami deposits in a broader geographic context in order to delineate regional typhoon impacts. This study presents results from both modern analogue from Typhoon Neoguri in 2014 and legendary Kamikaze Typhoons from 13th century. The initial coring was conducted in 2010. Total of 9 sediment cores were collected from two natural freshwater lakes along the western coast of Kyushu: Lake Daija (32.248°N, 129.985°E) and Lake Kawahara (32.624°N, 129.831°E). In order to further understand the characteristics of typhoon deposits, we collected 4 additional sediment cores from Kawahara in July of 2014, approximately one week after landfall of Typhoon Neoguri. We use a multi-proxy approach to identify event deposits. These approaches include loss on ignition, X-Ray fluorescence, X-radiograph, grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and SEM/EDS analyses. Initial results yielded commonalities between the two lakes. Linear interpolation of the most prominent event deposits within multiple cores, presenting highs in Sr and Ca intensities, constrain the dates of deposits of interest to the late 13th century—consistent with the Mongol invasions. Here we present preliminary geochemical results from Lake Kawahara, which further constrain the typhoon deposits, and use this as a reference event for comparison to tsunami deposits found in other regions.

  6. Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

  7. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  8. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  9. Seismic Stratigraphy Of The Ross Island Flexural Moat Under Western Mcmurdo-Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, H.; Naish, T.; Bannister, S.; Balfour, N.; Wilson, G.; Finnemore, F.

    2003-04-01

    Ross Island is a volcanic complex that began forming with the emplacement Mount Bird around 5 million years ago, though it has developed most significantly within the last 1 million years with the emplacement of the c. 4km high Mount Erebus. Throughout this time, loading of the lithosphere by this volcanic complex has warped the underlying crust into a subcircular submarine depression that has been accumulating sediment in series of flexural moat basins around the periphery of the island. Due to the depth of the floor of the depression (800-1000 m below sea level today), the sediment fill has largely escaped subsequent erosion by grounded ice of the McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves (MRIS) and Ross Ice Sheet. Our interest is in the 1.5 km-thick sedimentary record that now lies beneath the deepest part of the depression and is covered by the MRIS. The sediments here have the potential to provide a continuous and high resolution (10^2-10^3 year) record back to 5 million years of the past behaviour of the MRIS and its influence on bottom water production in Ross Sea. The flexural moat basin-fill between the volcanic complexes of Ross and White Islands, which because of its remoteness is only now being investigated for the first time, is in a key location beneath the north western corner of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) where it flows into the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). This site forms one of the 4 objectives of the ANDRILL Programme and is scheduled for drilling in 2005. Here we present new multi-channel seismic reflection data from over-ice shelf surveys conducted between 2001-2003, that elucidate the geometry and stratigraphy of the flexural-moat basin-fill and its relationship to the adjacent volcanics. We illustrate the proposed drill sites and make an initial prognosis of the sedimentary fill. The uppermost c. 500 m of the sedimentary succession is expected to be fine-grained muds with occasional glacigene sediment and layers of volcanic ash. Underlying strata may become progressively more glacigene in character as they were deposited at a time when the depression was shallower and the ice shelf may have been grounded.

  10. The Channel Islands Thrust Fault, Southern California: Structure at the Juncture Between the Western Transverse Ranges and the Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.

    2004-12-01

    Potential-field data over the northern Channel Islands and Santa Barbara basin and seismic reflection data collected near these islands show the crustal structure near the tip of the Channel Island thrust fault. This fault dips north to underlie the Santa Barbara basin and is part of the regional fault system that separates the western Transverse Ranges from the California Continental Borderland. Our investigation focuses on Santa Cruz Island, where a local exposure of mainly Jurassic ophiolitic basement rocks includes the Willows Plutonic Complex. These mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks produce strong magnetic and gravity anomalies, showing that fragments of the Willows Plutonic Complex have been carried northwestward into or below the basin by sinistral translation of hanging-wall blocks in the thrust system. The potential-field anomalies indicate a cumulative left-lateral offset of about 20 km along what is probably the Santa Cruz Island fault. This fault is known from onshore trenching to be primarily a left-lateral strike-slip fault that was active during late Quaternary time. Seismic-reflection data show that where the Santa Cruz Island fault projects into the offshore a fault-bend fold deforms stratified rock in the Santa Barbara basin. Slip along this fault is partitioned into strike-slip and southwest-vergent reverse components. The Santa Cruz Island fault formed where structures of the California Borderland terminate to the northwest against the rocks that make up the northern Channel Islands. Structures developed at this termination may be similar to ones that formed where the Newport-Inglewood and the San Pedro Basin faults end to the northwest against the Santa Monica Mountains. These terminating faults pose a considerable earthquake hazard, and findings from the area of Santa Cruz Island may help elucidate this hazard.

  11. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land installation.

  13. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  14. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  15. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

  16. Spatio-temporal variations in deep-sea demersal communities off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moranta, Joan; Quetglas, Antoni; Massutí, Enric; Guijarro, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Manuel; Diaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of deep-sea megafaunal assemblages from the western Mediterranean are analysed in the present paper. The assemblages from two locations of the Balearic Islands situated 120 km apart were compared using data collected seasonally on a bathymetric stratum covering the 150-750 m depth range during six bottom-trawl surveys. The assemblage structure, in terms of species composition, species dominance and population sizes, was differentially affected by the spatio-temporal variables analysed (depth, location and fishing period). Although depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, the differences obtained between the two locations were also relevant. On the upper slope these between-location differences in the dynamics of megafaunal assemblages were found to be related to the effect of fishing exploitation. Population size-based metrics and biomass spectra were good predictors of meso-scale fishing effects, and were mainly reflected by elasmobranchs and demersal teleosts. Nevertheless, the effects of fishing depended on the species considered. Two dominant large-sized fish species found on the upper slope in both localities, Galeus melastomus and Phycis blennoides, had higher biomass values associated with lower fishing effort. Although the mean body weight (MBW) of both species and also the mean maximum body weight (MMBW) of G. melastomus agreed with this pattern, the P. blennoides MMBW did not. This last case could be indicative of natural size-trends such as the bigger-deeper phenomenon which refers to the displacement of large individuals towards the deeper limit of their bathymetric distribution, beyond the maximum depth sampled in this study for this species. By contrast, the target species of the upper slope fishery, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, was not negatively affected by the direct impact of fishing activity and other environmental factors, such as the presence of specific water masses could also be important.

  17. Synoptic flow patterns and decadal variations of wind-induced mixing over western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Sean D.; Colle, Brian A.; Wilson, Robert E.

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the large-scale atmospheric flow patterns that favor mixing events within western Long Island Sound (wLIS) and how interannual and interdecadal variations in surface winds relate to bottom dissolved oxygen (DOb) variability. DOb data from the wLIS Coastal Observing System buoy were used in conjunction with the surface winds at La Guardia Airport and National Buoy Data Center buoy to identify criteria for water column ventilation and mixing from June to September. It is shown that mixing for a 36 h period after onset is favored when a majority of the surface wind observations for a day (starting at 00 UTC) are from 30° to 110° (NE to ESE) and ≥ 4 m s-1. This criterion was used to develop a synoptic climatology and the trend in potential mixing events from 1950 to 2009. These mixing events were categorized based on three synoptic patterns: high pressure, low pressure, and a hybrid high and low. High-pressure patterns, which include a hybrid system with a high building from the north/west and low to the south, result in the largest percentage of potential mixing events (76.9%). The number of potential mixing events increases from the 1950s to 1990s (full season and July-August) primarily from an increasing number of high-pressure systems; however, the seasonal DOb decreased during this period. There was a slight decrease in the number of July-August potential mixing events from 1990 to 2009, mainly from a decrease in the number of low-pressure systems.

  18. Internal tides and tidal cycles of vertical mixing in western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James; Souza, Alejandro J.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2016-02-01

    In estuaries, tidal period variations in the rate of vertical mixing have been observed to result from various causes: in Liverpool Bay and the York River, they have been attributed to tidal straining of the along-channel density gradient modulating stratification; in the Hudson River they arise from tidal modulation of the height of the tidal current bottom boundary layer (BBL). Along continental shelves, tidal period fluctuations in mixing have been observed to result from the dissipation of internal waves (IWs). Western Long Island Sound (WLIS) moored instrument records indicate that large near-bottom increases in dissolved oxygen (DO) and heat and a decrease in salt occur during the middle of the flood tide: an analysis of water mass signatures indicates that the transport involved is vertical and not horizontal. Temperature data from a vertical thermistor array deployed in the WLIS for 16 days in August 2009 clearly show a tidal cycle of IW activity creating a mean thermocline depression at midflood of approximately 25% of the water depth with individual IW thermocline depressions of as much as 50% of the water depth. Contemporaneous ADCP measurements show increases in shear due to IWs during the flood. Near-bottom internal wave activity is maximal at and after midflood and is correlated with near-bottom temperature and DO tendencies at both tidal and subtidal scales. We conclude that internal tides are an important vertical mixing mechanism in the WLIS through both increased shear from IWs and displacement of the pycnocline into the region of high shear in the BBL.

  19. Expansion of an invasive coral species over Abrolhos Bank, Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago J F; Pinheiro, Hudson T; Teixeira, João Batista; Mazzei, Eric F; Bueno, Leonardo; Hora, Mike S C; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto; Sampaio, Claudio L S; Rocha, Luiz A

    2014-08-15

    Invasive coral species of the genus Tubastraea have been increasingly recorded in Southwestern Atlantic waters since the 1980s. Their invasion and infestation are mainly related to port and oil exploration activities. For the first time the presence of Tubastraea tagusensis colonies is reported in Espírito Santo State, colonizing a port shore area, and incrusting oil/gas platform structures situated in the southern Abrolhos Bank, which is part of the most important coral reef system of the South Atlantic Ocean. Tubastraea colonies exhibit fast growth and high recruitment rates, and colonized 40% of the analyzed structures in just four years. The projection of port and oil/gas industry growth for the Espírito Santo State (more than 300%) highlights an alert to the dispersal of this alien species to natural areas. PMID:24975092

  20. Spatial patterns of benthic megahabitats and conservation planning in the Abrolhos Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Secchin, Nélio Augusto; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Freitas, Matheus Oliveira; Minte-Vera, Carolina Viviana; Teixeira, João Batista; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Dutra, Guilherme Fraga; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Guth, Arthur Zigliatti; Lopes, Rubens Mendes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso

    2013-11-01

    Application of sidescan sonar at the regional scale of the Abrolhos Bank, with ground-truthing by remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas diving operations, revealed a much more complex habitat mosaic than previously recognized. The regional benthic habitat map indicates 8844 km2 of reefs (earlier estimates from remote sensing were around 500 km2) and 20,904 km² of rhodolith habitat—the world's largest continuous bed. Integration of the regional megahabitat map with spatially explicit data on the distribution of marine protected areas (<0.2% of each benthic megahabitat area) and economic activities with the highest potential of environmental impact (fishing, mining, oil and gas exploitation and dredging) reveals the need of a regional scale spatial planning process engaging conflicting sectors.

  1. Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation and D_InSAR during 2009 - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y. T.; Ku, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y. N. N. N.; Chen, Y. G.; Lin, K. C.; Huang, B. S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Taylor, F. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Solomon Islands are located in the southwestern Pacific, where the Australian Plate underthrusts the Solomon Plate towards ~N70 E at a rate of ~100 mm/yr. The Coleman seamount on the Australian plate is impinging on the forearc at Rendova Island and may cause both the seismicity and tectonic behavior to be more complicated than usual. Hence, an understanding o f the ongoing crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural framework that controls the entire subduction system, particularly earthquake generation on the megathrust fault and possible subsidiary faults. Based on the results from GPS and D_InSAR, the horizontal velocity profiles across the trench for areas of the forearc to the west and to the east of the impinging Coleman seamount show different characteristics. The eastern profile shows convergence rates of ~100 mm/yr only 10 km from the trench at the western end of the Tetepare Island, and the western profile reaches 70 mm/yr at 30 km from the trench. This difference might be caused by the shallow locked depth consistent with co-seismic slip located extremely close to the trench during the Mw 7.1 Solomon Earthquake on 3rd January, 2010. We have a hypothesis to argue that the behavior of the fault geometry should be very different on the two sides of the seamount. However, the coupling ratio could be realized by further detailed analysis.

  2. A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1

    PubMed Central

    Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

  3. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis. PMID:26244685

  4. Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens. PMID:22679480

  5. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  6. Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of suprabenthic fauna in the NW Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.

    Stable isotope (δ 13C and δ 15N) analyses were performed on suprabenthic fauna collected in the western Mediterranean (NW Balearic Islands), at depths ranging between 350 and 780 m. Samples were collected seasonally at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004, using a Macer-GIROQ suprabenthic sledge (0.5 mm mesh size). Twenty-four separate species (5 mysids, 12 amphipods, 2 cumaceans, 2 isopods, 1 euphausiid, 1 decapod and 1 fish) and bulk copepods were analyzed on a seasonal basis for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15N) ranged from 2.3‰ (the amphipod Lepechinella manco in September 2003) to 13.0‰ (the amphipod Rhachotropis caeca in August 2003). δ 13C values ranged from - 24.2 (the cumacean Campylaspis sulcata in June 2004) to - 16.1 (the amphipod Bruzelia typica in November 2006). Both δ 13C and δ 15N values suggest that there are three trophic levels within the suprabenthic community. However, considering the bathymetric range of the species, the results suggest that the deepest assemblage supported only two trophic levels. The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values and confirmed a wide spectrum of feeding types (from filter-feeders to predators). In general, and in spite of the poor knowledge about diets available for most suprabenthic species, higher δ 15N were found for carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods. Low overlap for δ 13C and δ 15N values was observed, though δ 15N values where less variable than δ 13C, which suggests high resource partitioning in this assemblage. Seasonal variations in isotopic composition for both δ 13C and δ 15N were low (less than 1‰ and 3‰, respectively) and variable depending on species. Low correlations between δ 13C and δ 15N of suprabenthic fauna were found for all periods studied, though increasing from February 2004 to June 2004 (after the main peak of primary production in surface). C:N ratio (indicator of lipid content) showed higher values in summer than in winter. This suggests that lipid content may explain the seasonal patterns of δ 13C variability and, due to the increase of storage products in phytoplankton and zooplankton, it possibly indicates the peak of primary production at the surface.

  7. Geochemical and geological evidence bearing on the origin of the Bay of Islands and Coastal Complex ophiolites of western Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. F.; Elthon, D. L.; Siroky, F. X.; Karson, J. A.; Sullivan, J.

    1985-06-01

    Suggestions that ophiolitic rocks of the Bay of Islands Complex (BOIC) and Coastal Complex (CC) of southwestern Newfoundland were formed at a seafloor spreading center are supported by: (1) whole-rock trace and major element data from diabases and basalts, (2) spinel mineral chemistry from ultramafic rocks, (3) the internal geology of the ophiolite terranes, and (4) regional geologic and tectonic constraints in the western Newfoundland Appalachians. Diabase and basalt samples from the BOIC and the northern CC massifs are tholeiitic and geochemically indistinguishable from present-day mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). Many diabases from the Lewis Hills massif (the southernmost part of the CC) are also identical to MORBs, but there is also an unusual suite of diabases from the Lewis Hills that is unlike any other suite yet reported from a variety of tectonic settings including island arcs, ocean islands or spreading centers. This suite is interpreted to have been produced by unusual magma generation processes in the deep structural levels of an oceanic ridge-ridge transform fault. Approximately 90% of spinels from ultramafic rocks in the BOIC and CC have Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios that are less that 0.60, comparable to those values reported from ultramafic rocks of the present-day ocean basins. These geochemical constraints, in combination with previously-described geological relationships within the ophiolite terranes and regional tectonic relationships in the western Newfoundland Appalachians, suggest that the BOIC and CC ophiolites formed within a main ocean basin (i.e., the early Paleozoic Iapetus Ocean) along a seafloor spreading center and ridge-ridge transform fault, respectively. There is little evidence to suggest formation in either an island arc or back-arc basin tectonic setting. As such, the BOIC and CC ophiolites are probably well suited for detailed petrologic, structural and geophysical studies to determine the processes involved in the generation and evolution of contemporary oceanic crust and upper mantle.

  8. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster...

  9. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  10. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  11. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  12. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189±4 ka. Then the activity was followed by the construction of the Mte Terrione at 168±4 ka (Gillot 1987), which is matched by High K-Ca andesites emplaced in the Chiumento crater. Therefore, two different magmatic series took place in only 15 ka. The last eruption of Filicudi built the High K-CA dacite lava dome of Mte Montagnola. For Lipari island, the same event is observed around 120-100 ka. In fact, the emitted products evolved from CA andesitic basalts, that emplaced from 256±8 ka (Monte Chirica) to 119±7 ka (Monterosa), to High K-CA andesite after 100 ka. The rocks becam more and more differentiated to achieve High K-CA rhyolite composition during the last 40 ka. At the same time, the Monte Fossa delle Felci of Salina island shows a geochemical "excursion" around 100 ka, characterised by High K-CA dacite. The lower limit of Pollara explosive eruption, that emitted High K-CA rhyolite products, is constrain by a Monte dei Porri lava flow affected by Pollara crater and dated at 13±2 ka. Thus, all these magmatic changes correlate with morphological and volcanic variations. Finally, our first results confirm that the Aeolian arc volcanism is generated in a complex source, with important roles of both arc-type and anorogenic-type compositions. Datings on key samples show that role of different mantle sources change within a very short time span, especially in the central portion of the arc, along the TL lithosheric fault system. This work also gives new geochronological constrains on the duration of magmatic evolution and eruptive phases.

  13. Trace Element Geochemical Signature of Basalts and Diabases from the Bay of Islands Ophiolite in Western Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Bay of Islands Ophiolite in western Newfoundland lies along the Appalachian Orogenic Belt and records the generation and destruction of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean from the Late-Precambrian to the middle Ordovician Taconic Orogeny. In previous geochemical studies, Jenner et al. (1991) analyzed mainly andesites and trondhjemites dominantly from Coastal Complex, which is not considered part of the Bay of Islands Ophiolite proper. He showed that these fractionated rocks mainly contained negative Nb anomalies on multi-element variations diagrams and attributed the petrogenesis of the Coastal Complex and by extension the Bay of Islands Complex to formation within arc or supra-subduction zone environment. Likewise Elthon's (1991) analyses of diabase from the North Arm Mountain Massif of the Bay of Islands Complex showed similar, but more moderately negative Ta anomalies. In this study, 50 diabases and basalts from the \\label{OLE_LINK1}North Arm Mountain and Blow Me Down Mountain massifs in the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex (proper)were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. When our existing XRF major and trace element geochemical data were supplemented by a more complete ICP-MS trace element data set from the Bay of Islands Complex (proper), it is quite clear that the Blow Me Down samples appear more MORB-like with very small negative Nb-Ta anomalies when compared to the North Arm samples, which have somewhat more negative Nb and Ta anomalies, relative to La and Th. The mafic assemblages from the ophiolite most likely include a mixture of what are referred to as MORB-like and arc-like (or suprasubduction zone) signatures. However, the North Arm and Blow Me Down Massif basalts and diabases signatures may be similar to some MORB with arc-like signatures. We review the ambiguities created by the use of Nb-Ta anomalies in interpreting tectonic setting and classifying ophiolites. We also review the validity of using Nb-Ta anomalies in highly fractionated andesites and plagiogranites as descriminators of tectonic environment.

  14. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. PMID:22141900

  15. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances. PMID:24751287

  16. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  17. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vinicius J; Luiz, Osmar J; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management. PMID:26614350

  18. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2003-07-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ≥30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (≥30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ≥30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

  19. User-driven science: earthquake and tsunami scenarios for the Mentawai Islands, western Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Qiang, Q.; Huang, Z.; Hill, E. M.; Natawidjaja, D.; Sieh, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Following recovery from a large tsunami on 25-Oct-2010 that killed over 500 people, the government of the Mentawai Regency turned its attention to developing a regional disaster-risk-reduction plan. Geodetic and coral studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust, yet there had not been any tsunami-inundation maps produced for the Mentawai Islands based on this scenario. By request from the Mentawai government, we will develop such tsunami-inundation maps for populated areas. Uncertainties in the source models include whether the accumulated strain on the Sunda megathrust is released in one great earthquake or in a series of large earthquakes, limited scientific understanding of the seismic potential of the Mentawai backthrust that lies inboard (east) of the islands, and whether these sources would rupture to the surface in a particular earthquake. Low-resolution bathymetry adds uncertainty to our modeled tsunami flow depths and runups. Because the Mentawai government is currently planning for disaster risk reduction, we chose to produce the inundation map now. However, we may have a communication challenge if, a few years in the future, further research leads to significant revisions of the inundation map. We will communicate the results and uncertainty to the Mentawai government and partner local NGOs through an in-person workshop. Monitoring and evaluation will inform further communication efforts. However, the remote location of the Mentawai Islands and limited internet and phone service significantly limits our ability to communicate with end-users at the community level. Since our maps are likely to be parceled out and distributed to villages in hard copy, we need to include key information for each location, including uncertainty, on a single sheet. With local partners, we will investigate the best way to frame this information in the local context.

  20. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  1. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe

    2014-05-01

    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the presence of upper-plate splay fault events suggests that the proposed earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar may be overestimated.

  2. Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

  3. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  4. Folly Island Panorama

    A panorama from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  5. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  6. Modelling of wave propagation and attenuation in the Osaka sedimentary basin, western Japan, during the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.

  7. Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  8. A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation during 2009 - 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lin, K.; Ku, C.; Taylor, F. W.; Chen, Y.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    The plate boundary along the southern margin of the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific, is characterized by convergent tectonic processes between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The horizontal convergence rate between two plates is 135 mm/yr in the direction of N45°E. In terms of the structure, this subduction zone is relatively complicated because large seamounts are involved in subduction of extremely young lithosphere generated by the Woodlark spreading system. Hence, the crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural model that constitutes and operates the entire subduction system. For the purpose of monitoring crustal motion, we began to deploy continuous mode GPS stations in September 2009. All of them have been working for 1-3 yr. The total horizontal rates are 95±1, 52±3, 78±7, 120±14, 114±7, and 114±7 mm/yr for Sibo, Nusu, Lale, Husu, Tepa, and Sege respectively. However, the moving directions are N23°E, N63°W, N10°W, N65°W, N63°W, and N69°W. During 2009, the uplift rates are -31±8 and 50±17 mm/yr for Sibo and Nusu, but during 2010, the rate are 2±2 and 13±9 mm/yr. The larger slips may cause of the postseismic deformation of 2007 Mw8.1 Solomon Earthquake. It also shows the large uplift rates on Husu (98±36 mm/yr), Tepa (60±11 mm/yr) and Sege (33±10 mm/yr) after the 2010 Mw7.1 Solomon Earthquake; however, it still needs longer measuring time to confirm the tectonic behavior.

  10. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  11. Imaging rapidly deforming ocean island volcanoes in the western Galápagos archipelago, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Ruiz, Mario; Belachew, Manahloh

    2014-01-01

    Using local body wave arrival-time tomography methods to determine 3-D seismic velocity structure, we imaged the plumbing system of Sierra Negra Volcano, Galápagos. This hot spot volcanic chain includes some of the fastest deforming volcanoes in the world, making this an ideal location to study shield volcano plumbing systems. We inverted P and S wave arrivals recorded on a 15-station temporary array between July 2009 and June 2011 using an a priori 1-D velocity model constrained by offshore refraction studies. With local seismicity from nearby volcanoes as well as the ring fault system, the model resolution is good between depths of 3 and 15.5 km. The propagation of S waves throughout this volume argues against any large high-melt accumulations, although a shallow melt sill may exist above 5 km. We image a broad low-velocity region (>25 km laterally) below Sierra Negra at depths ~8-15 km. No large, regional velocity increase is found within the limits of good resolution, suggesting that crust is thicker than 15 km beneath the western Galápagos archipelago. Our results are consistent with crustal accretion of mafic cumulates from a large-volume magma chamber that may span the boundary between preplume and accreted crust. The similarity between our results and those of Hawaii leave open the possibility that the crust has also been thickened by under-plating.

  12. Role of the Wan-Na fault system in the western Nansha Islands (Southern South China Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-ling; Yan, Pin; Zhang, Bo-you; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Shu, Liang-shu; Qiu, Xue-lin; Guo, Ling-zhi

    2004-05-01

    Since 1987, the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has acquired about 20,000 km of seismic data in Nansha (Spratly) Islands waters, southern South China Sea (SCS). Interpretation and correlation of the profiles crossing the western part of the waters, indicate that the Wan-Na Fault Zone is a dextral strike-slip system composed of the following: (1) Ranai-Sarawak strike-slip-contractional imbricate fan at its southern segment, (2) a strike-slip-extensional imbricate fan at its northern segment in the southwestern end of the Southwest subbasin (SWSB) of the South China Sea, and (3) a strike-slip-pull-apart duplex of the Wan'an basin in the central segment. The northern segment is characterized by the faults that tend to converge toward the side of the Wan-Na fault zone to the southwest and splay toward the Southwest subbasin to the northeast, down-faulted step by step. Lithospheric delamination beneath the South China-Indochina continental margins and seafloor spreading of the South China Sea led to the development of the Wan-Na fault zone as a plate-bounding tectonic element in the region. As a whole, its major activity occurred during the Eocene to Early Miocene. The strike-slip system and pull-apart duplex directly resulted in the generation of the Wan'an basin.

  13. The northward tectonic transport in the southern Apennines: examples from the Capri Island and western Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Tramparulo, Francesco D'Assisi; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Amore, Filomena Ornella; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Laiena, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed a thrust fault system located in the western Sorrento Peninsula and Capri Island (southern Italy) where several mesoscale structures related to the main thrusts, such as Riedel shear planes, overturned folds, minor thrust and back-thrust faults, suggest a dominant northward tectonic transport. Major and minor thrust faults, generally characterized by a ramp-flat geometry, involved the Mesozoic Apennine carbonates, the Middle Miocene foredeep, and the unconformable thrust-top basin deposits. The biostratigraphic analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages on the thrust-top basin sediments indicates an age not older than late Tortonian. We propose that this out-of-sequence thrusting stage was related to a regional tectonic event widespread in the entire southern Apennines, probably occurred in the Pliocene time simultaneously with the activity of deep-seated thrust faults that involved the buried carbonates of the Apulian platform. These out-of-sequence thrust faults, here referred to as "envelopment thrusts," were enucleated in a lower structural level with respect to the allochthonous wedge, representing the W-E segments of large regional arcuate structures.

  14. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level. PMID:17456231

  15. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Salwa; Sheppeard, Vicky; Peacock, Alisa; Scott, Caroline; Flego, Kristina; Forssman, Bradley; Seale, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (n = 12) and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (n = 7) in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 7–33 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization. PMID:26306217

  16. The BIG'95 event, Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea: numerical simulation of the possibly generated tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Canals, M.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Iglesias, O.; Lastras, G.

    2009-04-01

    The BIG'95 debris flow that occurred ~11 kyrs BP affected an area of about 2200 km2 of the Ebro margin, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The debris flow originated at the upper continental slope and involved a sediment volume of ~26 km3. After a total runout of 110 km the distalmost deposits resulting from this mass movement partly filled the upper course of the Valencia Channel at 2000 m depth. Multibeam bathymetry and backscatter maps, deep-towed side scan images, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, submarine video records, sedimentological and mass physical properties measurement on sediment cores, and in situ geotechnical tests constitute a valuable dataset providing the basis to model the landslide evolution. Different observational elements in this data set jointly with numerical modelling simulations suggest that the downslope mass movement was rather fast (i.e. peak velocities of 50 ms-1 and 20 ms-1 have been reported for the loose sediment fraction and individual blocks, respectively). It was subsequently inferred that the BIG'95 could have generated a tsunami potentially impacting the Balearic and the Spanish coasts. In this work we explore the tsunamigenic potential of the BIG'95 by applying numerical codes that have been developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team. The code UBO-BLOCK is used for the simulation of the slide motion on a Lagrangian grid moving along with the body: the mass is split into a set of interacting blocks, that conserve the volume but can change their shape. The movement of the mass on the sea bottom generates tsunami impulses that are calculated and interpolated on the static tsunami computational grid by the intermediate code UBO-TSUIMP. The tsunami propagation is computed via the code UBO-TSUFE, solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow water approximation on the computational domain, constituted by triangles whose dimension depends on the local sea depth. This work has been performed in the framework of the EU-funded project TRANSFER, dealing with the study of tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea, from the possible sources to the assessment of the risk along the coasts.

  17. Avian influenza in the Western Hemisphere including the Pacific Islands and Australia.

    PubMed

    Senne, D A

    2003-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2001, there was one report of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Western Hemisphere and Pacific Basin. In 1997, in New South Wales, Australia, an outbreak caused by avian influenza (AI) virus subtype H7N4 involved both chickens and emus. All other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in the region pertained to low pathogenicity (LP) AI virus. Animal Health Officials in Canada reported isolations of subtypes H1, H6, H7, and H10 from domestic poultry and subtypes H3 and H13 from imported and wild bird species. In Mexico, the H5N2 LPAI virus, the precursor of the HPAI outbreak in 1994-95, was isolated from poultry in each year from 1997 to 2001. Since 1997, Mexico has used approximately 708 million doses of a killed H5N2 vaccine and an additional 459 million doses of a recombinant fowlpox-H5 vaccine in their H5N2 control program. In Central America, avian influenza was diagnosed for the first time when H5N2 LPAI virus was isolated from chickens in Guatemala and El Salvador in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The H5N2 virus was genetically similar to the H5N2 virus found in Mexico. Surveillance activities in the United States resulted in the detection of AI virus or specific antibodies in domestic poultry from 24 states. Eleven of the fifteen hemagglutinin (H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, H10, H11, and H13) and eight of the nine neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N4, N6, N7, N8, and N9) subtypes were identified. Two outbreaks of LPAI virus were reported in commercial table-egg producing chickens; one caused by H7N2 virus in Pennsylvania in 1996-98 and the other caused by H6N2 virus in California in 2000-01. In addition, isolations of H5 and H7 LPAI virus were recovered from the live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeast United States. PMID:14575067

  18. Distribution of fallout and environmental radionuclides in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandra; Schuller, Paulina; Dercon, Gerd; Nguyen, Minh-Long; Navas, Ana; Ramírez, Paola; López, César

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is progressing at a rate which is several times the global average in Western Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula region has experienced a rise of ca. 3°C for surface air temperature over the last 50 years; and 87% of 244 glaciers along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated in the last 50 years. Examining the impacts of climate change in Antarctic landscapes, in particular in the soils at the foot of retreating glaciers, can provide a better understanding of the future impacts of climate change on landscape dynamics (including land degradation and resulting changes in land, water and ecosystem quality) in the higher mountainous cold regions of the world. In this paper, results of an exploratory assessment of soil movement and identification of sediment sources and sediment sinks by investigating the distribution of fallout (FRN's) and environmental radionuclides (ERN's) in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica) are discussed. This assessment has been carried in the context of an Instituto Antártico Chileno project, and supported by the IAEA Technical Cooperation, studying land degradation in the cold regions of South America. To this purpose soil profiles were sampled at depth increments at three different control sites. In addition, topsoil (0-1 cm depth) samples were collected from areas identified as potential soil sources and from others identified as sinks of sediments. The soil profiles at the control sites showed distinctive patterns in the depth distribution of the FRN's and ERN's. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity mass concentration (Bq kg-1) were highest in the topsoil and penetration depth was less than 8 and 25 cm, respectively. The depth distribution of 226Ra and 232Th in the soil profiles was quite homogeneous and greater variation was found for 40K and 238U, possibly related to differences in the mineralogical composition of soils. Average mass activity values of 137Cs and 210Pbex at the source areas were significantly lower than those found at sink areas, suggesting that processes of soil movement are relatively important. The knowledge gained with this research provided baseline information to establish future sampling strategies intended to ensure minimal intervention in the environment. Furthermore, the values of the areal activity density (Bq m-2) of 137Cs, 210Pbex and 7Be in soils and sediments proved the potential for using FRN's to study the redistribution of soil and sediments associated to the process of glacier retreat.

  19. High Resolution Geophysical Survey of Western Long Island Sound Offshore New York: A Seafloor Morphology Shaped by Glacial Features, Tidal Currents, and Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, W. I.; Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.

    2007-05-01

    Western Long Island Sound, near metropolitan New York, averages 16m in water depth, with elongated depressions up to 40m deep occurring around its axis. These depressions are currently interpreted as ancient drainage channels that were cut into lake deposits some 15,500 years ago, when glacial Lake Connecticut occupied the Long Island Sound estuary and completely drained away. In June 2006, as part of a geoscience educational project, we surveyed a 17km2 area of Long island Sound just off Stamford, CT, with the R/V HUGH SHARP, using its high resolution multibeam bathymetric sonar and a chirp seismic profiler that imaged the Holocene sedimentary strata. Preliminary analysis details fields of sand waves, scour marks, outcropping moraines, pipelines and other human artifacts. Together, this data suggest that the eastward deepening trough within the study area exposes a glacial-sculpted surface, and that tidal currents produce long E-W drift in the shadow of a shallow outcrops (possibly, some moraine block). This interpretation is consistent with that proposed by Poppe et al. [Geo-Marine Letters, 26, 59-68,2006] for Eastern Long Island Sound based on a similar high resolution survey, and may characterize most of Long Island Sound. Grain size analysis for 9 gravity cores collected within the survey area will test the energy of the current regime, and confirm (or not) this interpretation.

  20. Raindrop size distribution of easterly and westerly monsoon precipitation observed over Palau islands in the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, U. V. Murali; Reddy, K. Krishna; Seela, Balaji Kumar; Shirooka, Ryuichi; Lin, Pay-Liam; Pan, Chen-Jeih

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of raindrop spectra in terms of raindrop size distribution (RSD) using 4 years of Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer data over Palau islands (7o 20‧ N, 134o 28‧ E) in Western Tropical Pacific ocean. The RSD characteristics are studied in two seasons (easterly monsoon-EM and westerly monsoon-WM) using three (stratiform, deep convection, and shallow convection) rain types identified from collocated 1290-MHz wind profiler radar (WPR). In addition to the ground-based sensors observations, TRMM and MODIS satellite-derived rain parameters and atmospheric parameters are utilized to study RSD characteristics. RSD characteristics stratified on the basis of rainrate show that the mean values of raindrop concentrations of small (medium and larger) drops are same (more) in WM compared to EM season. Normalized gamma distribution of RSD shows that the mean value of mass-weighted mean diameter, Dm (normalized intercept parameter, log10Nw), is higher (lower) in WM than the EM season. In addition, the mean value of Dm (log10Nw) is higher (lower) in deep convective precipitation as compared to the other two types of precipitation (stratiform and shallow convection) in both monsoon periods. In conjunction with the remote sensing data (MODIS & TRMM), RSD shows that the presences of cold clouds which extend to deeper altitudes are responsible for the higher Dm during WM season. The immediate significance of the present work is that (1) it contributes to our understanding of seasonal variations of RSD and distribution of different rain types, and (2) it provides information which is useful for quantitative estimation of rainfall from weather radar observations.

  1. Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-02-01

    Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

  2. Shoreline changes in a rising sea level context: The example of Grande Glorieuse, Scattered Islands, Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testut, Laurent; Duvat, Virginie; Ballu, Valérie; Fernandes, Rui M. S.; Pouget, Frédéric; Salmon, Camille; Dyment, Jérome

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides baseline data on absolute and relative sea level variations and shoreline changes in the Scattered Islands region of the Indian Ocean, based on aerial image analysis, satellite altimetry and field observations and in situ measurements from the 2009 and 2011 TAAF scientific expeditions. The analysis shows the importance of regular observations and monitoring of these islands to better understand reef island responses to climate stressors. We show that Grande Glorieuse Island has increased in area by 7.5 ha between 1989 and 2003, predominantly as a result of shoreline accretion: accretion occurred over 47% of shoreline length, whereas 26% was stable and 28% was eroded. Topographic transects and field observations show that the accretion is due to sediment transfer from the reef outer slopes to the reef flat and then to the beach. This accretion occurred in a context of sea level rise: sea level has risen by about 6 cm in the last twenty years and the island height is probably stable or very slowly subsiding. This island expansion during a period of rising sea level demonstrates that sea level rise is not the primary factor controlling the shoreline changes. This paper highlights the key role of non-climate factors in changes in island area, especially sediment availability and transport. We also evidence rotation of the island, underscoring the highly dynamic nature of reef islands.

  3. Deformation kinematics along oblique convergent plate boundary zones in the western United States, Japanese Islands, and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen-Tu, Bingming

    Horizontal velocity gradient tensor field in the western U.S is estimated using moment tensors of earthquakes between 1850 to 1995. The velocity vectors obtained from the integration of the seismic strain rates across the entire plate boundary lie within 5° of the NUVEL-1A Pacific-North American plate motion direction. The magnitude of the earthquake-related velocity is 62% of the NUVEL-1A total Pacific-North American plate motion. The total velocity obtained from the Quaternary fault slip rate data across the entire plate boundary is within 2 mm/yr of the NUVEL-1A predicted Pacific (PA)-North American (NA) plate motion velocity, but directions are 6° anticlockwise of directions given by NUVEL-1A. The total velocity obtained from inversion of recent geodetic data is 2°--3° anticlockwise from the NUVEL-1A NA-PA velocity, but the difference between the two is not significant at the 95% confidence level. Relative motions within the deforming Japanese Islands with respect to the Sea of Japan are determined using earthquake records over the last 414 years, slip rates on Quaternary faults, and angular change rates obtained from triangulation in the last century. The directions of the principal strain axes obtained from seismic, geological, and geodetic data are in general agreement with each other, with the maximum shortening axis oriented in a WNW direction. Intraplate deformation in southwestern Japan determined from the seismic data accommodates a velocity of 5.5 +/- 2 (1sigma) mm/yr in a direction parallel to the Nankai trough, which is about 25% of the plate motion velocity component parallel to the Nankai trough between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. A comparison of shear strain rates, principal strain rates, and velocity fields determined from geodetic data with those calculated from the elastic dislocation models involving interplate motion at the Japan trench indicates that the geodetic strain field in northern Honshu is primarily elastic strain transmitted from the Japan trench. Horizontal strain rate and velocity field that accommodate India-Eurasia plate motion in Pakistan are determined based on constraints from geological and geodetic information in the region. The optimal model that yields a strain rate field consistent with observed geologic, seismologic, and geodetic data gives 17--28 mm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip motion along the Chaman fault zone, 3--6 mm/yr of east-west convergence and 5--14 mm/yr of north-south left-lateral shear across the roughly NS trending Sulaiman Range. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-04-01

    The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

  5. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie A.

    2016-06-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976-2005), mid-century, and end-century time periods for the December-February and June-August seasons. The December-February regional wave climate is dominated by strong winds and large swell from extratropical cyclones in the north Pacific while the June-August season brings smaller waves generated by the trade winds and swell from Southern Hemisphere extratropical storms. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~ 10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing RCP 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing RCP 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-century June-August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December-February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June-August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell. The results of this study underscore that December-February large wave events will become smaller and less frequent in most regions, reducing the likelihood and magnitude of wave-driven flooding at these island locations over the 21st century. However, relatively large increases in the mean of the top 5% of significant wave heights and large changes to the mean direction of these waves in the June-August season at several islands within 150-180° E will drive greater flooding and island morphological change along previously more stable shorelines. The reported results herein project large changes to tropical Pacific island wave climates that will be necessary for assessing island vulnerability under climate change in future studies.

  6. Stewart Head from Folly Island

    Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

  7. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... published proposed specifications that are finalized here, and a request for public comments (76 FR 46719... and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch...

  8. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... accountability measures; that process is codified at 50 CFR 665.4 (76 FR 37285, June 27, 2011). The regulations... and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch...

  9. Generic delimitations, biogeography and evolution in the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), endemic to Madagascar and the smaller islands of the western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Plunkett, Gregory M; Edwards, Molly B; Buerki, Sven

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (including all the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean region). Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses supported (i) the monophyly of the tribe, (ii) the monophyly of Phylloctenium, Phyllarthron and Rhodocolea and (iii) the paraphyly of Colea due to the inclusion of species of Ophiocolea. The latter genus was also recovered paraphyletic due to the inclusion of two species of Colea (C. decora and C. labatii). The taxonomic implications of the mutual paraphyly of these two genera are discussed in light of morphological evidence, and it is concluded that the two genera should be merged, and the necessary new nomenclatural combinations are provided. The phylogenetic framework shows Phylloctenium, which is endemic to Madagascar and restricted to dry ecosystems, as basal and sister to the rest of the tribe, suggesting Madagascar to be the centre of origin of this clade. The remaining genera are diversified mostly in humid ecosystems, with evidence of multiple dispersals to the neighboring islands, including at least two to the Comoros, one to Mauritius and one to the Seychelles. Finally, we hypothesize that the ecological success of this tribe might have been triggered by a shift of fruit-dispersal mode from wind to lemur. PMID:26712485

  10. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  11. Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with γ-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

  12. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

  13. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW) in the study area, extending over the fishing grounds of this species. The proposed interactions can be useful to assess and manage these important demersal resources.

  14. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  15. Island shadow effects and the wave climate of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) inferred from altimetry and numerical model data.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Queffeulou, Pierre; Le Gendre, Romain

    2012-01-01

    To implement a numerical model of atoll lagoon circulation, we characterized first the significant wave height (Hs) regime of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago and the local attenuation due to the protection offered by large atolls in the south Tuamotu. Altimetry satellite data and a WAVEWATCH III two-way nested wave model at 5 km resolution from 2000 to 2010 were used. Correlation between altimetry and model was high (0.88) over the period. According to the wave model, the archipelago inner seas experienced attenuated Hs year-long with a yearly average Hs around 1.3m vs a minimum of 1.6m elsewhere. The island shadow effect is especially significant in the austral winter. In contrast with southern atolls, Western Tuamotu experienced only few days per year of Hs larger than 2.5m generated by very high Hs southern swell, transient western local storms, strong easterly winds, and during the passage of distant hurricanes. PMID:22795488

  16. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1557, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR...

  17. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The proclamations...: Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument'' (74...

  18. Seasonal and short spatial patterns in European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) recruitment process at the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): The role of environment on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Cartes, Joan; Lloret, Josep; Oliver, Pere; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluates the link between the recruitment process of European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and the environmental and physiological conditions. Spatio-temporal variation of abundance and condition of fish were evaluated at two locations each with different oceanographic conditions, one in the north (Sóller, SO) and another in the south (Cabrera, CA) of Mallorca Island. Environmental variables explored were hydrography, sediment characteristics, phytoplankton pigment concentration (ppc) and the trophic resources of hake. Individuals were divided in three life stages: recruits, post-recruits and young adults. Hepatosomatic index (HSI), relative condition index (K n), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fullness index (FI) were analysed for the three life stages. Recruitment starts in February with the incorporation of smaller hakes, and it can be followed through spring and early summer with a peak in April. However, some spatial heterogeneity in the recruitment process has been found between north and south of the Island. The main pulse of recruitment occurred at a different time in the two areas. Spatial heterogeneity was also consistent with the condition of hake recruits, with higher values of K n and HSI at SO than at CA. Maximum values of K n were found in February at SO and in April at CA, coinciding with the start of the different recruitment pulses to the fishing grounds. Post-recruits and young adults also showed higher condition at SO than at CA. The arrival in spring of the Western Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) drives the spatial-temporal variation in abundance and condition of hake. Ppc was highly correlated with recruit abundance with a time lag of two months, while for post-recruits the time lag was three months. The observed differences in the condition of hake between areas could be a consequence of the fact that the waters to the north of Mallorca are comparatively more under the seasonal influence of WIW which is formed in more productive areas. Thus, this study characterises the short temporal and spatial variability in the hake recruitment process off the Balearic Islands, both in terms of abundance and fish condition. This pattern is explained on the basis of the mesoscale environmental variability observed between north and south of Mallorca and the ecological adaptive strategy of recruiting in the optimal environmental season.

  19. Mesostructural observations along the Western coast of Bel'kovsky Island: preliminary results (North-Eastern Laptev Sea region, Russian Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzhbitsky, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    This study is based on the field works carried out by the Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas RAS in the central part of the Bel'kovsky island during 2002 August-September. In the tectonic sense the Bel'kovsky island is located in the eastern part of the Late Cretaceous (?) - Cenozoic Laptev Sea rift system and also is a part of extended Bel’kov horst, dividing Bel’kov Svyatoi Nos (in the east) and Anisin (in the west) rifts (e.g. Drachev et al, 1998). Mesostructural investigations included statistical measurments of kinematic indicators (cleavage planes, extensional veins, slickensides, axes of folds and bedding plains) in Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary formations and also slickensides in diabase magmatic complex (presumably of Late Paleozoic age). It is supposed, that this studies will allow to characterize the stages of regional tectonic processes: synsedimentary (slump) folds formation (1), NE-SW compression (2), which corresponds to the general (NW-SE trending) structural pattern of the island, E-W compression (3), expressed in N-S trending subvertical cleavage and associated strike-slips and thrust faults, NW-SE (4) and ENE-WSW - NE-SW (5) extension, expressed in strike-slip faults with different strike-slip component, and also, probably to specify the character of the recent tectonic processes near to the area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates. It is likely, that synsedimentary (slump) folds, identified in the Carboniferous clastic formation marks the paleoslope setting of New Siberian Islands Chukotka platform (block). Presumably, second of the determined stages corresponds to closing of the South Anyui Lyakhov paleooceanic basin in Neocomian; the last stage, expressed in wide-developed submeridional normal faults with sinistral strike-slip component along the western coast of the island, reflects the modern regional stress-field in area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates (e.g. Avetisov, 1999). The intermediate tectonic settings, presumably characterize various stages of Laptev Sea rift system development. This work is supported by INTAS-01-0762 (“NEMLOR”) project, “World Ocean” program of RAS and RFBR (00-15-98479).

  20. Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

    2013-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

  1. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  2. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  3. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... period October 6, 2009, through October 6, 2011 (74 FR 25710, May 29, 2009). Dated: August 8, 2011. Emily... MCP are available from http://www.regulations.gov , or the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... conservation plan (MCP) providing details on uses for any funds collected by the Secretary under the PIAFA....

  4. What do Pneumocystis organisms tell us about the phylogeography of their hosts? The case of the woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in continental Europe and western Mediterranean islands.

    PubMed

    Demanche, Christine; Deville, Manjula; Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  5. What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  6. Thirteen years of observations on biomass burning organic tracers over Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific: An outflow region of Asian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing; Zhu, Chunmao

    2015-05-01

    East Asia is the world's greatest source region for the emission of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors due to the rapid industrialization and intensive biomass burning (BB) activities. BB emits specific organic tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and then transported downwind to the western North Pacific by westerly winds. Here we present long-term observations of BB tracers over the remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific (WNP) from 2001 to 2013. Elevated concentrations of BB tracers by an order of magnitude were found in midautumn to midspring with winter maxima, which are strongly involved with the atmospheric transport by westerly winds from the Asian continent to the WNP, as supported by backward trajectory analyses. Throughout the observations, we found an increase in the averaged concentrations of BB tracers from 2006 to 2013, which is mainly caused by enhanced BB events in Asian urban and rural areas, as supported by enhanced fire/hot spots in East Asia via satellite images. We also found that the period of the high concentrations was prolonged from 2006 to 2013. Comparison between monthly averaged concentrations of BB tracers and backward air mass trajectories clearly demonstrates that the winter/spring maxima over Chichijima are involved with the seasonal shifting of atmospheric circulation followed by downwind transport of BB aerosols to the WNP. High abundances of BB tracers over the WNP indicate that BB-laden air masses can be transported to remote marine environments.

  7. Responses of stable bay-margin and barrier-island systems to Holocene sea-level highstands, western Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Blum, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The microtidal, wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Mexico displays a variety of Holocene geomorphic features indicating higher-than-present water levels that were previously attributed to storm processes while geoidal sea level was at its present position. Field and aerial-photograph examinations of bay margins, barrier islands, and beach-ridge plains following major hurricanes show that the elevated features are inundated periodically by high storm surge. Despite their inundation, these highstand features are not modified by modern storm processes. Instead, storm-related erosion and deposition are always seaward of and lower than the highstand features and are always limited to the extant shorezone, where elevations typically are less than 1.5 m above present sea level. Bay-margin and lagoonal highstand indicators include raised marshes and subtidal flats, wave-cut benches, abandoned wave-cut scarps with fringing marshes and/or beach ridges, and accretionary islands and recurved spits. Other emergent marine features include abandoned compound flood-tidal delta and washover fan complexes attached to barrier islands and anomalously high beach ridges within both the barrier-island complexes and beach-ridge plains. The highest beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and erosional scarps and benches are manifestations of one or more rising phases and highstands in sea level, whereas the lower marshes and accretionary topography are mainly products of the falling phases and shoreface adjustment to present sea level. Different elevations of beach-ridge sets, discordant truncation of beach ridges, and elevated marine- and brackish-water faunal assemblages preserved in beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and natural levees are compelling evidence of sea-level fluctuations of ±1 to 1.5 m from about 5500 to 1200 cal yr BP. Independent evidence from studies of geodynamic, climatic, and glacio-eustatic processes can explain the mid-Holocene highstands and late Holocene lowering of sea level that is observed in tectonically stable coastal regions far from former centers of glaciation.

  8. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. PMID:26024564

  9. Paleomagnetic investigation of seamounts in the vicinity of Ogasawara Fracture Zone northwest of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.-G.; Lee, S.-M.; Moon, J.-W.; Lee, K.

    2003-06-01

    Nine seamounts located northwest of the Marshall Islands near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone were inverted for their uniform magnetization using total field magnetic anomaly and detailed bathymetric data. The paleomagnetic poles of most of the seamounts in our study area generally cluster around the Pacific Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP). However, those that deviate significantly from the APWP are located south of the fracture zone. The seamounts in our study area can also be divided into two groups on the basis of complexity of the observed magnetic field anomaly. In general, simple conical seamounts exhibit a dipole-like field anomaly pattern with a paired anomaly low and high, and can be explained to a large extent by a uniformly magnetized source. On the other hand, those with complex morphology are larger in size, show multiple magnetic lows and highs and lie very close to or within the fracture zones, suggesting that they were formed by multi-stage volcanism.

  10. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre-Holocene unit. Grain-size analysis shows that medium- to fine-grained sand makes up most (68-99%) of the surficial sediments. Gravel exists in trace amounts up to 19%. Silt ranges between 3% and 42% and clay ranges from 1% to 10%.The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughts is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic un

  11. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  12. Radiocarbon variability in the western equatorial Pacific inferred from a high-resolution coral record from Nauru Island

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T.P.; Schrag, D.P.; Kashgarian, M.; Southon, J.

    1998-10-01

    We have generated a high resolution coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record spanning the last 50 years to document the seasonal and interannual redistribution of surface waters in the western tropical Pacific. Prebomb (1947{endash}1956) {Delta}{sup 14}C values average {minus}63{per_thousand} and have a total range of 30{per_thousand}. Values begin to increase in 1957, reaching a maximum of 137{per_thousand} in mid-1983. Large interannual variability of up to 80{per_thousand} closely follows the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During each ENSO warm phase, {Delta}{sup 14}C values begin to increase, reflecting the reduction of low-{sup 14}C water upwelling in the east and the invasion of subtropical water into the western equatorial tropical Pacific. Maximum {Delta}{sup 14}C values are in phase or lag the corresponding sea surface temperature maxima in the eastern tropical Pacific, whereas the rapid return to more negative {Delta}{sup 14}C is in phase with eastern Pacific ENSO indices. The highest-amplitude excursions occur during the 1965/1966 and 1972/1973 events, when the {sup 14}C contrast is highest between the eastern Pacific and subtropics. The 1982/1983 El Ni{tilde n}o, although a larger ENSO event, has a lower {Delta}{sup 14}C amplitude, reflecting the penetration of bomb radiocarbon into the equatorial undercurrent and the reduced contrast in {Delta}{sup 14}C between thermocline and subtropical surface waters at that time. This coral record demonstrates the potential for using similar radiocarbon time series for documenting variability in Pacific shallow circulation over interannual and decadal timescales. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  13. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  14. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  15. San José Island Accommodation Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico: A Key to Onshore-Offshore Fault Relationships along the Western Margin of the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, W. R.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    The two-stage evolution of the southern Gulf of California included protogulf orthogonal rifting from ˜12 to ˜6 Ma, followed by overprinting from ˜6 to 0 Ma by the highly oblique-divergent, modern plate boundary. The San José Island accommodation zone, located ˜70 km north-northwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur, represents the transition between strike-slip partitioning to the south and the oblique-divergent structural overprinting to the north. The accommodation zone includes San José and San Francisquito islands, the San José Canal, and a 4 to 6 km wide belt along the coast of the Baja California peninsula. The accommodation zone separates the La Paz rift segment to the south from the Timbabichi rift segment to the north. The El Carrizal fault bounds the La Paz rift segment, and likely splays onshore in the southernmost accommodation zone. Kinematic data, fault mapping, and geomorphologic and bathymetric observations along the shoreline suggest the presence of en echelon, offshore faults in the San José Canal between the Baja peninsula and islands. The main faults in the southern San José Canal appear to be a series of right-stepping, east-dipping normal faults branching northward from the El Carrizal fault. Based on onshore fault trends in the northern accommodation zone, the northern Canal faults form a left-stepping link to the main bounding fault of the Timbabichi rift segment. The faults bounding the western edge of the islands are likely left-stepping, west-dipping normal faults. Steep, triangular facets and cliffs characterize the western edge of San José Island and suggest that the western island-bounding faults are active. The Pliocene basin, basin-bounding fault, and line of steep coastal cliffs on the eastern side of San José Island are likely associated with the northern end of the Espíritu Santo normal fault, which experienced a major earthquake in 1995. The basin and faults also may be the termination of a series of faults related to the fracture zone emanating from the Alarcón spreading ridge. A similar relationship between basin and accommodation zone development and the evolution of strike-slip/fracture zone systems has been demonstrated in other rifts. Formation of San José and San Francisquito islands along normal faults may be a result of (1) the latest Miocene-early Pliocene tectonic reorganization to oblique rifting, and (2) active normal faulting in the San José Island accommodation zone and southward.

  16. Three-dimensional geometry and evolution of a composite, multilevel salt system, western Eugene Island, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, M.G.; Weimer, P.; Flemings, P.B.

    1994-09-01

    Seismic data from southwestern Eugene Island (EI) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been interpreted to determine the three-dimensional geometry of allochthonous salt. The main feature is a multilevel salt weld consisting of numerous lows separated from each other by ramps and saddles. Shallow portions of the weld surface often overhang deeper portions of the same weld system, producing a complex, almost spiraling geometry. Isolated salt diapirs are connected by the weld system and are usually found either over the saddles or near the edges of the shallow overhangs. Major normal faults, including those bounding the EI-330 mini-basin, are preferentially located over the ramps in the weld surface. The observed geometry was combined with the results of sequential restoration of several N-S profiles to determine a model for the three-dimensional evolution of the salt system. A fundamental component of the model is that the lows in the weld surface mark the location of original, isolated salt bodies. These formed salt glaciers at the sea floor during periods of slow sedimentation and/or fast salt flow. Once the deep salt source was exhausted, the topographically elevated salt fountains collapsed gravitationally, initiating basin formation and salt withdrawal; thus, the original salt bodies became the locations of major depocenters flanked by growth faults rising from the ramps in the weld surface. Displaced salt moved up and laterally to higher levels, forming amalgamated sheets at the sea floor, which in turn became segmented into diapirs through a combination of extension and differential loading.

  17. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests. PMID:26126504

  18. Discovery of a recent, natural whale fall on the continental slope off Anvers Island, western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Singh, Hanumant; Amsler, Margaret O.; Vos, Stephanie C.; McClintock, James B.; Brothers, Cecilia J.; Brown, Alastair; Ellis, Daniel; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Aronson, Richard B.

    2014-08-01

    Whale falls provide a substantial, nutrient-rich resource for species in areas of the ocean that may otherwise be largely devoid of food. We report the discovery of a natural whale fall at 1430 m depth in the cold waters of the continental slope off the western Antarctic Peninsula. This is the highest-latitude whale fall reported to date. The section of the carcass we observed-the tail fluke-was more complete than any previously reported natural whale fall from the deep sea and in the early stages of decomposition. We estimate the entire cetacean to measure 5-8 m in length. The flesh remained almost intact on the carcass but the skin was missing from the entire section except for the end of the fluke, clearly exposing blubber and soft tissue. The absence of skin indicates rapid and Homogeneous loss. The dominant macrofauna present were crustaceans, including most prominently the lithodid crab Paralomis birsteini, and zoarcid fish typical of the ‘mobile-scavenger' successional stage. The density of mobile macrofauna was greatest on the carcass and declined to background levels within 100 m, indicating that they were attracted to the whale fall. This whale fall offers an important opportunity to examine the decomposition of a carcass under deep-sea conditions at polar latitudes.

  19. Genetic diversification without obvious genitalic morphological divergence in harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Sclerobunus robustus) from montane sky islands of western North America.

    PubMed

    Derkarabetian, Shahan; Ledford, Joel; Hedin, Marshal

    2011-12-01

    The southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent Intermontane Plateau Highlands region of western North America is a geographically diverse area with an active geologic history. Given the topological complexity and extensive geologic activity, organisms inhabiting this region are expected to show some degree of morphological and genetic divergence, especially populations found on the southern montane 'sky islands' of this region. Here we examine the phylogeographic history and diversification of a montane forest inhabiting harvestmen, Sclerobunus robustus, using a combination of genetic and morphological data. Divergence time estimates indicate that much of the diversification within and between major groups S. robustus predate the Pleistocene glacial cycles. The most widespread subspecies, Sclerobunus robustus robustus, is recovered as six genetically distinct, geographically cohesive mitochondrial phylogroups. Gene tree data for a single nuclear gene reveals congruent, albeit slightly more conservative, patterns of genetic divergence. Despite high levels of genetic divergence throughout their distribution, phylogroups show extreme conservation in somatic and reproductive morphology. This uncoupling of morphological and genetic differentiation may be due to morphological conservatism associated with a conserved microhabitat preference. Based on these data, it is obvious that S. robustus has undergone some level of cryptic diversification. PMID:21864691

  20. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massut, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

  1. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  2. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents’ knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents’ knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  3. Tests of pleistocene speciation in montane grasshoppers (genus Melanoplus) from the sky islands of western North America.

    PubMed

    Knowles, L L

    2000-08-01

    There has a been a resurgence of debate on whether the Pleistocene glaciations inhibited speciation. This study tests a model of Pleistocene speciation, estimating the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of 10 species of montane grasshoppers, genus Melanoplus, using 1300 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Based on average pairwise distances (corrected for multiple substitutions using Kimura's two-parameter model), all species appear to have originated within the Pleistocene. Sequence divergences between species are less than 4%, corresponding to divergence times less than 1.7 million years ago. Branching patterns among the species suggest that speciation was associated with more than one glacial-interglacial cycle. A likelihood-ratio test rejected a model of simultaneous species origins, the predicted branching pattern if species arose from the fragmentation of a widespread ancestor. These grasshoppers live in an area that was previously glaciated and, as inhabitants of the northern Rocky Mountain sky islands, underwent latitudinal and probably altitudinal shifts in distribution in response to climatic fluctuations. Given the repeated distributional shifts and range overlap of the taxa, there most likely has been ample opportunity for population mixing. However, despite periodic glacial cycles, with more than 10 major glaciations over the past million years and climatic fluctuations over as short a time scale as 10(3) to 10(4) years, the dynamic history of the Pleistocene did not preclude speciation. Although relationships among some taxa remain unresolved, these grasshopper species, even with their recent origins, exhibit genetic coherence and monophyletic or paraphyletic gene trees. The frequency of glacial cycles suggests that the speciation process must have been extremely rapid. These species of grasshoppers are morphologically very similar, differing primarily in the shape of the male genitalia. These characters are posited to be under sexual selection, may play an important role in reproductive isolation, and are known to diverge rapidly. This suggests the rapidity of evolution of reproductive isolation may determine whether species divergences occurred during the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:11005300

  4. Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

    2014-10-01

    The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water column, while postflexion stages presented a wide distribution at night, undergoing vertical displacement to the near-surface layers during the day. The roles of the position of the thermocline, the availability of food and light intensity as factors modulating these differences are discussed.

  5. Volcano-tectonic evolution of the Santa Maria Island (Azores): Implications for paleostress evolution at the western Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Costa, A. C. G.

    2015-01-01

    The growth and decay of oceanic volcanoes developed close to plate boundaries are intrinsically related to a competition between construction and destruction processes, partly controlled by tectonic strain and stresses. From morphologic, stratigraphic, tectonic and new high-precision K-Ar data, we present a comprehensive picture of the volcano-tectonic evolution of Santa Maria, and discuss its significance regarding the stress evolution and regional deformation in the Azores. Our new data show that: (1) the western flat portion of the island is mostly composed of west-dipping volcanic rocks here dated between 5.70 ± 0.08 and 5.33 ± 0.08 Ma, which we consider the remnants of an Older Shield Volcano; (2) more than half of this early volcanic complex has been removed by an east-directed large-scale sector collapse; (3) a second volcano, here coined the Younger Shield Volcano, grew rapidly on the collapse scar between at least 4.32 ± 0.06 and 3.94 ± 0.06 Ma; (4) more than half of this new volcano was removed by a second large-scale sector collapse most probably around 3.6 Ma, based on the ages of Parasitic Scoria Cones sitting unconformably on the Younger Shield Volcano; (5) the latest parasitic volcanic activity is here dated at 2.84 ± 0.04 Ma, extending significantly the known eruptive history of Santa Maria. Morpho-structural data (shape of the island, faults, dikes, and distribution of volcanic cones) show a significant control of construction and destruction along the N045° and N150° directions. The age of the lavas intruded by dikes suggests that the N045° and the N150° trends are ca. 5.3 Ma old and younger than ca. 4.3 Ma, respectively. Based on the new data, we conclude that a change in the regional stress field occurred between 5.3 and 4.3 Ma, most likely associated with a major reconfiguration of the Eurasia/Nubia plate boundary in the Azores.

  6. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  7. Hygroscopic properties of particles nebulized from water extracts of aerosols collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific: An outflow region of Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreddy, S. K. R.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Jung, Jinsang

    2014-01-01

    present 2 year measurements of hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) extracted from marine aerosols from remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during 2001-2002. Hygroscopic growth factors (g) of WSM were measured by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer with initial dry particle diameter of 100 nm. The observed g at 90% relative humidity (RH), g(90%), ranged from 1.42 to 1.89 with an average of 1.79 ± 0.11. The g values are significantly lower than that of seawater (2.1) and slightly lower than those previously reported for marine aerosols (>1.8), probably due to the atmospheric processing associated with chlorine depletion; mean Cl-/Na+ molar ratio (1.10 ± 0.23) was smaller than seawater (1.18), and organometal interaction (e.g., formation of water-insoluble calcium oxalate, g(90%) < 1). Inorganic salts accounted for 87-98% of WSM. Na+ and Cl- are two major species, contributing 63% of total inorganic ion mass. The calculated aerosol water content (Vw/Vdry) at 85% RH during hydration experiment ranged from 1 to 3.66 (mean of 2.75 ± 0.81). Vw/Vdry is negatively correlated with organic mass fraction, indicating that organics may suppress the hygroscopicity of the marine aerosol particles. The declined g(90%) and Cl-/Na+ molar ratio and increased abundance of water-soluble organics in spring demonstrated that the atmospheric mixing of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., NO3, SOx) and water-soluble organics can decrease the growth factor of marine aerosols. The two case studies of spring aerosols demonstrated that Asian dusts were internally mixed with hygroscopic species in different ways, depending on their transport pathway.

  8. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL < 30 mm; medium: CL between 30 and 40 mm; large: CL ⩾ 40 mm). Off Cabrera, the highest fullness was recorded in November 2003 among small and medium shrimp, while only large specimens showed patterns similar to that found off Sóller. Off Sóller, the diet of both small (CL < 34 mm) and large (CL ⩾ 34 mm) A. antennatus was mainly influenced by season, with three dietary groups corresponding to August-September 2003, to November 2003/February 2004, and to hauls from April to June 2004. Off Cabrera, hauls (representing diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of mesopelagic prey, was parallel to a significant increase of the gonad weight (GSI, fecundity) in June. Most individuals attain gonad development in the period May-June, after two months of the peak of primary production at the surface. The strong link found between pelagic resources and reproductive processes in a deep-sea species such as the shrimp Aristeus antennatus, situated near the top of the trophic web, suggests a rapid energy flow via mesopelagic fauna between surface primary production and bathyal megabenthic communities at oligotrophic insular areas. In contrast to mainland areas off the Catalan coasts submitted to the influence of submarine canyons, around the island of Mallorca the empoverishment of benthos biomass may enhance consumption of micronektonic prey and a possible accumulation of pre-reproductive females of A. antennatus in areas (e.g., steep slopes and persistent frontal systems found off Sóller) with high zooplankton aggregations.

  9. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Population dynamics of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Short spatio-temporal differences and influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Díaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus is one of the target species of the bottom trawl fishery of the Balearic Islands. The objective of the present paper is to study the short spatial and temporal differences of this important economic resource between two different locations off Mallorca (Cabrera: CA; Sóller: SO), where a fleet mobility pattern has been detected, and to study the influence of environmental conditions on this species. Six simultaneous bottom-trawl and oceanographic surveys were carried out at these two locations in order to collect data from the demersal species, hydrography (temperature and salinity), trophic resources and sediment characteristics. The commercial fleet from both locations was monitored by monthly on-board sampling, log-books and daily landings obtained from sales slips. Additional data was obtained from other fishing surveys. Short spatial and temporal differences have been detected between both locations. The population at CA was more demographically homogeneous, while that at SO showed important variations, like high abundance of juveniles recruiting to fishing grounds in autumn-winter and high abundance of large females during summer. Several differences have also been found in the biology of the species between locations, such as males were more abundant in SO than in CA. Also, the reproductive period started sooner in SO than in CA, and the condition of pre-spawning females was better in SO. The percentage of total lipids in the hepatopancreas was minimal during the spawning period, showing their importance as a reserve of energy for the ovary ripening. Water masses could play an important role in these differences, the characteristics of water masses being more stable in CA than in SO. Red shrimp adult females seemed to be more correlated with the warmer and more saline Levantine Intermediate Waters, while juveniles (males and females) and adult males were more correlated with the colder Western Mediterranean Deep Waters, detected only in SO during autumn-winter. Two different hypothesis of mobility patterns for the species are discussed in relation to these observed differences.

  11. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

  12. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  14. An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

    1991-01-01

    Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

  15. Murre Colony on Prince Island

    A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

  16. Efficacy of three vaccines in protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from experimental infection with West Nile virus: implications for vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Reisen, William K; Boyce, Walter M

    2011-08-01

    The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator(®) DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek(®) equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  17. Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers from Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean: Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Boring of the carbonate sequence at the northern end of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, was conducted in 1985, as part of the Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program. The overall goal of the program was to characterize physical effects of large-scale nuclear blasts, which were conducted in the early 1950's, on the sediments of the atoll. In the report the authors document the occurrences of stratigraphically diagnostic planktic microfossils in samples from Enewetak (generally referred to as core) and outline the rationale for incorporating all available diagnostic planktic assemblages into a composite sequence that was used to date the Enewetak benthic zonation.

  18. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  19. The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the number of alien marine crustacean species has increased over the past two decades. However, knowledge about small alien marine crustaceans, like caprellid amphipods, is still very scarce. To understand the role of marinas and recreational boating in the early step of the invasion process by non-indigenous caprellids, we studied the recreational boating pressure and the spatial distribution of caprellid species in Mallorca Island. We collected caprellids from 14 marinas and 9 exposed intertidal rocky shores between November 2011 and April 2012 and we analyzed the differences in habitat use of native and exotic caprellids. Eight caprellid species, six native and two exotic, were found. Alien caprellids were only present in marinas, reaching high densities of population. The analysis of recreational boating pressure reveals that Palma-Migjorn is the area that is subject to the highest potential risk of introduction of exotic species via ship fouling. In the secondary dispersal of alien caprellids, the study reflects that recreational boating seems effective as a secondary vector in the transport of exotic species from marinas to marinas but not from marinas to natural and exposed areas. An illustrated key of caprellids from Balearic Island is provided to differentiate native and non-indigenous species.

  20. Effects of productivity, glaciation, and ventilation on late Quaternary sedimentary redox and trace element accumulation on the Vancouver Island margin, western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Alice S.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2014-07-01

    Variations in chalcophile and redox-sensitive trace elements are examined at high-resolution intervals from a ~50 kyr long sediment core (MD02-2496) from the Vancouver Island margin. Enrichments of Ag, Cd, Re, U, and Mo above lithogenous levels, signifying sedimentary suboxia and anoxia, occurred during the early Holocene and Bølling/Allerød, and during warm interstadial events of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Down-core trace element profiles co-vary with productivity proxy records (opal, CaCO3, and marine organic carbon), and with sedimentary nitrogen isotope ratios, which reflect variably enriched nitrate upwelled from intermediate waters that were transported northward from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. The similarity of the MD02-2496 record with records from the southern portion of the California Current System (CCS), and to the Greenland ice core oxygen isotope record during warm climate intervals, suggests that sedimentary redox conditions along the California Current responded to local productivity, to North Atlantic climate change and to tropical Pacific surface water processes via long-distance teleconnections. Concentrations of trace elements and productivity proxies were relatively depleted during the Younger Dryas, cool stadial events of MIS 3, and in two episodes of glaciomarine sedimentation from ~14.7 to 30.5 kyr BP (last glacial maximum, LGM), and from 44 to 50.4 kyr BP. Cordilleran Ice Sheet advancement onto the Vancouver Island continental shelf during the LGM led to intervals of increased terrigenous sedimentation and greatly reduced productivity not seen in the southern portion of the CCS, and along with ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters, resulted in brief sedimentary oxic conditions.

  1. Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

  2. Multi-proxy evidence for Holocene lake-level and salinity changes at An Loch Mór, a coastal lake on the Aran Islands, Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Jones, Richard; Nicolas Haas, Jean; McDermott, Frank; Molloy, Karen; O'Connell, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Curves for Holocene lake levels and salinity changes are presented for An Loch Mór, a small oligohaline lake on the Aran Islands off the west coast of Ireland, based on palaeoecological investigations of a 12 m long, lake-sediment core. New insights are also provided into Holocene sea-level change in the Galway Bay region. Particular emphasis has been placed on the ostracod fauna, both past and present. Salinity and lake-level changes were reconstructed from the fossil ostracod assemblages, based on the known tolerances of individual species and on the assemblages as a whole. Additional evidence was provided by other proxies including strontium-isotope ratios derived from ostracod shells and other carbonates, plant macrofossil and pollen analyses, and sedimentological changes. The early Holocene (pre-Boreal, i.e. 11.5-10 ka) was characterised by low lake levels and slightly elevated salinity values, probably the result of high evapotranspiration and low precipitation rather than elevated sea levels. Early Holocene plant and animal migration to the island does not seem to have been impeded but relative sea levels were not necessarily so low (below -40 m a.s.l.) that landbridges were present to the mainland. Between ca 10 and 8.5 ka, relatively high lake levels prevailed. At 8.3 and 7.5 ka, minor fluctuations (lowering) of the lake level occurred that are assumed to relate to early Holocene abrupt events. Beginning at 7.05 ka, lake levels declined sharply. A general trend towards rising lake levels started at ca 6.4 ka and accelerated at ca 5.6 ka as runoff increased as a result of Neolithic clearances. At ca 4.8 ka, lake levels began to rise once again, probably in response to changes in rainfall and/or evapotranspiration and runoff. Lower lake levels during the first half of the 1st millennium AD were probably a response to decreased runoff as a result of a drier climate coupled with regeneration of woody vegetation. The sharpest rise in both lake levels and salinity began during the ninth century AD, which is attributed to a rapid rise in relative sea level.

  3. Southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the western Pacific during the late Tertiary: Evidence from ferromanganese crusts on seamounts west of the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonguk; Hyeong, Kiseong; Jung, Hoi-Soo; Moon, Jai-Woon; Kim, Ki-Hyune; Lee, Insung

    2006-12-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts were dredged from four seamounts in the western Pacific, OSM7, OSM2, Lomilik, and Lemkein, aligned in a NW-SE direction parallel to Pacific Plate movement. The crusts consist of four well-defined layers with distinct textural and geochemical properties. The topmost layer 1 is relatively enriched in Mn, Co, Ni, and Mo compared to the underlying layer 2, which is relatively enriched in Al, Ti, K, and Rb and Cu, Zn, and excess Ba. Textural and geochemical properties of layer 2 suggest growth conditions under high biogenic and detrital flux. Such conditions are met in the equatorial Pacific (i.e., between the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and equatorial high-productivity zone). Layer 2 likely formed when each seamount was beneath the equatorial Pacific along its back track path. On the other hand, layer 1 probably started to grow after seamounts moved northwest from the ITCZ. This interpretation is consistent with the thickness of layer 1 across the four crusts, which increases to the northwest. Ages of the layer 1-layer 2 boundary in each crust, a potential proxy for northern margin of the ITCZ, also increase to the northwest at 17, 11, 8, and 5 Ma for OSM7, OSM2, Lomilik, and Lemkein, respectively. Assuming Pacific Plate motion of 0.3°/Myr, the seamounts were located at 12°N, 11°N, 9°N, and 8°N at the time of boundary formation. This result suggests that the north edge of the ITCZ has shifted south since the middle Miocene in the western Pacific, which agrees with information from the eastern Pacific.

  4. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    PubMed

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. PMID:25563383

  5. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  6. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  7. Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

    2010-12-01

    To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1σ= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1σ= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as <10-6 PAL. Sulfur isotope analysis revealed, based on the variable δ34S values (-1.9 ~ +26.8‰), that bacterial sulfate reduction was so extensive in the 3.2Ga deep marine environments that sulfate utilization by sulfate-reducers was near completion [8]. Production of bacteriogenic sulfide would have enhanced fixation of dissolved Mo into sulfide minerals in sediments. This is rather a common process occurring in oxygen-depleted environments in the modern ocean ([9]). A combined enrichment of Mo, Corg, and S, together with high δ34S values for a sedimentary formation may be used as a strong evidence for operation of modern-day style sedimentary Mo enrichment. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and (at least the surface) oceans was significant during deposition of the sediments, ~800Ma earlier than commonly thought ([10]). Operation of present-day style geochemical cycle of Mo in the Mesoarchean surface environments suggests early evolution of atmosphere, oceans, and microbial biosphere. References: [1] Kiyokawa et al, 2006, GSAB 118: 3-22. [2] Yamaguchi et al, 2009, Sci. Drill. 7: 34-37. [3] Yamaguchi, 2002, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State Univ. [4] Yamaguchi & Ohmoto, 2002, GSA Abstract [5] Naraoka et al, 2001, 4th Int'l Archaean Symp., Perth. [6] Anbar et al, 2007, Science 317: 1903-1906. [7] Vine & Tourtelot, 1970, Econ. Geol. 65: 253-272. [8] Sakamoto et al, 2010, Fall AGU Mtg. [9] Morford & Emerson, 1999, GCA 63: 1735-1750. [10] Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

  8. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  9. Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, R. K.; Beauzile, W.; Ma, N.; Clauson, K.

    2009-12-01

    Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem. As an initiative of broader study to understand the spatial and temporal variability of heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in this area, water and sediment samples are being collected periodically from three different sites capturing the wide range of flushing zones. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) by Lachet QuickChem 8500 and dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn) were measured by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). Temperatures, conductivity, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on site by YSI multiparameter probe (600 QS) and ranged from 25.7 to 27.1oC, 17.3 to 36.9 mS/cm, 8.1 to 8.4, 74.7 to 160.8 mV, and 5.1 to 9.2 mg/l respectively. The 15 cm sections of 76 cm depth auger samples were analyzed for a suite of 26 elements including major and trace elements by using XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Average Fe concentration was found to be 6.5 ± 2.9 g/kg and distributed consistently in increased concentration with depth which also agree with the observed sediment colors on site; more darker towards surface. The preliminary data from site A showed a consistency in trace metal concentrations in surface water and sediments. Higher aqueous concentrations of Cu (17.5 ± 4.1 μg/l), Pb (39.1 ± 23.9 μg/l), Zn (91.1 ± 36.8 μg/l) correspond to their elevated level in the sediments [Cu (50 ± 10 mg/kg), Pb (30 ± 30 mg/kg), Zn (30 ± 20 mg/kg)]. Trace amount of As (3.3 ± 1.5 μg/l) and Cd (3.9 ± 1.5 μg/l) were found in dissolved phase where as no As and Cd was detected by XRF in sediments (LOD: 7 mg/kg). In both solid and liquid phases, significant variation in concentration of heavy metals was observed in meter scales. Limited variation (~ 5%) was observed in concentrations of dissolved Ortho-phosphorus, nitrite with an average concentration of 6.8 ± 0.3 μM, 7.2 ± 0.4 μM respectively. On other hand, concentration of nitrate-N (11.3 ± 3.1 μM), ammonia-N (37.1 ± 10.1 μM), silica (2.9 ± 0.5 μM) varies 15-27%. This erratic distributions of heavy metals and nutrients observed in this preliminary set of data suggest that contaminations may be caused by both natural processes and local environmental influences.

  10. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Vernacular Literacy in the Touo Language of the Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Touo language is a non-Austronesian language spoken on Rendova Island (Western Province, Solomon Islands). First language speakers of Touo are typically multilingual, and are likely to speak other (Austronesian) vernaculars, as well as Solomon Island Pijin and English. There is no institutional support of literacy in Touo: schools function in…

  12. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  13. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  14. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune sands than others, a foremost candidate being Ammophila arenaria. It is concluded that active support for such plants should form part of any management strategy aiming to reduce and reverse coastal dune fragmentation processes.

  15. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  16. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... the Philippine Sea plate creates a series of island arc volcanoes and the Earth's deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known ... Mariana of Austria, the widow of Spanish King Philip IV. Japan took control of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War ...

  17. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  18. Western Skink

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  19. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  20. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  1. 78 FR 65292 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (WPFMC) Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Management of Bottomfish Fishery Resources within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Mariana Islands. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fisheries Management Council (Council) will convene public informational scoping... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC949 Western Pacific Fishery Management...

  2. Mass spawning of corals on a high latitude coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, R. C.; Wills, B. L.; Simpson, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is presented that at least 60% of the 184 species of scleractinian corals found on reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Western Australia) participate in a late summer mass spawning. These populations are thus reproductively active, despite most species being at the extreme southern limit of their latitudinal range (28° 29°S). In the present study, coral mass spawning occurred in the same month on both temperate (Houtman-Abrolhos) and tropical (Ningaloo) reefs of Western Australia, despite more than two months difference in the timing of seasonal temperture minima between the two regions. This concurrence in the month of spawning suggests that temperature does not operate as a simple direct proximate cue for seasonal spawning synchrony in these populations. Seasonal variation in photoperiod may provide a similar and more reliable signal in the two regions, and thus might be more likely to synchronize the seasonal reproductive rhythms of these corals. Also there is overlap in the nights of mass spawning on the Houtman Abrolhos and tropical reefs of Western Australia, despite significant differences in tidal phase and amplitude between the two regions. This indicates that tidal cycle does not synchronize with the night(s) of spawning on these reefs. Spawning is more likely to be synchronised by lunar cycles. The co-occurrence of the mass spawning with spring tides in Houtman Abrolhos coral populations may be evidence of a genetic legacy inherited from northern, tropical ancestors. Micro-tidal regimes in the Houtman Abrolhos region may have exerted insufficient selective pressure to counteract this legacy.

  3. 8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  4. Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

  5. Island Panoramic

    A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

  6. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  7. Western USA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in ... were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot) shaded relief Digital ...

  8. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Microdiamonds in a megacrystic garnet websterite pod from Bardane on the island of Fjørtoft, western Norway: Evidence for diamond formation in mantle rocks during deep continental subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roermund, Herman L. M.; Carswell, D. Anthony; Drury, Martyn R.; Heijboer, Tjerk C.

    2002-11-01

    We report the startling discovery of in situ microdiamonds in a mantle-derived peridotite lens from Bardane, Fjørtoft, western Norway. Diamonds occur within multiphase solid-inclusion assemblages within spinels that are, in turn, inclusions within garnets. Euhedral inclusion-host morphologies of spinel and mineral chemistries all indicate diamond growth from infiltrating fluids at ultrahigh pressure (P) and moderate temperature. These results imply that the Bardane peridotite lens was present within a continental subduction zone at depths of ≥130 km. This paper not only documents the first discovery of in situ microdiamonds within the Caledonian ultrahigh-pressure terrane of western Norway, but also represents the first known global occurrence of subduction-related diamond formation within mantle rocks that have been incorporated into a major continental plate collision zone.

  10. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  11. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  12. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  15. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  16. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  17. Barrier island evolution and reworking by inlet migration along the Mississippi-Alabama gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, J.B.; Snowden, J.O. )

    1990-09-01

    The five barrier islands along the Mississippi-Alabama coast are located 10 to 14 mi (16 to 23 km) offshore and separate Mississippi Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The barrier islands in the chain are, from east to west: Dauphin Island, Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, Ship Island, and Cat Island. The islands are low sand bodies situated on a relatively broad Holocene sand platform that extends 70 mi (113 km) from Dauphin Island on the east to Cat Island on the west. The platform varies in thickness from 25 to 75 ft (7.6 to 23 m) and rests on Holocene marine clays or on Pleistocene sediments. The barrier island chain predates the St. Bernard lobe of the Mississippi delta complex, which began to prograde about 3,000 years ago, and continued until it was abandoned approximately 1,500 years ago. In contrast to the other islands, Cat Island at the western down-drift end of the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain is characterized by more than 12 prominent east west-oriented progradational linear ridges. The ridge system of Cat Island is interpreted as a relict of an earlier stage in the life cycle of the barrier platform when there was a more robust littoral drift system and an abundant sediment supply During the Pre-St. Bernard Delta period of vigorous sedimentation, all of the islands in the barrier chain probably exhibited progradational ridges similar to those now found only on Cat Island. Presently, only vestigial traces of these progradational features remain on the islands to the east of Cat Island. Unlike Cat Island, which has been protected and preserved by the St. Bernard Delta, the other barrier islands have been modified and reworked during the past 1,500 years by processes of island and tidal inlet migration, accompanied by a general weakening of the littoral drift and a reduction of the available sediment supply.

  18. Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

    This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of Mari" (Charlie Gibuma); "Islanders:…

  19. Demographic History of a Recent Invasion of House Mice on the Isolated Island of Gough

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J.; White, Michael A.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ryan, Peter G.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century, and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behavior. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences, and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution. PMID:24617968

  20. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc magmatism in the Early Jurassic. Early Eocene plutons that intruded the accretionary complex outboard of the arc on Baranof Island are attributed to anatectic melting of trench sediments resulting from subduction of a spreading center. Oligocene intrusive rocks on Baranof Island correlate in age and composition with intrusive rocks in the Kano Plutonic Suite on Haida Gwaii, and similar magmatic sources are inferred.

  1. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Kawamura, K.; Lazaar, M.; Kunwar, B.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 μm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC) and major ions. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant species followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 μm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 μm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. These results imply that water-soluble species in the marine aerosols could act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific Rim. The organic species are likely produced by a combination of gas-phase photooxidation, and aerosol-phase or in-cloud processing during long-range transport. The coarse mode peaks of malonic and succinic acids were obtained in the samples with marine air masses, suggesting that they may be associated with the reaction on sea salt particles. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest their production by photooxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids via heterogeneous reactions on sea salt particles.

  2. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  3. Overwash on Assateague Island

    Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  4. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  6. Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Robin, V V; Gupta, Pooja; Thatte, Prachi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation of species that live in naturally patchy metapopulations such as mountaintops or sky islands experiences two levels of patchiness. Effects of such multilevel patchiness on species have rarely been examined. Metapopulation theory suggests that patchy habitats could have varied impacts on persistence, dependent on differential migration. It is not known whether montane endemic species, evolutionarily adapted to natural patchiness, are able to disperse between anthropogenic fragments at similar spatial scales as natural patches. We investigated historic and contemporary gene flow between natural and anthropogenic patches across the distribution range of a Western Ghats sky-island-endemic bird species complex. Data from 14 microsatellites for 218 individuals detected major genetic structuring by deep valleys, including one hitherto undescribed barrier. As expected, we found strong effects of historic genetic differentiation across natural patches, but not across anthropogenic fragments. Contrastingly, contemporary differentiation (D(PS)) was higher relative to historic differentiation (F(ST)) in anthropogenic fragments, despite the species' ability to historically traverse shallow valleys. Simulations of recent isolation resulted in high D(PS)/F(ST) values, confirming recent isolation in Western Ghats anthropogenic fragments and also suggesting that this ratio can be used to identifying recent fragmentation in the context of historic connectedness. We suggest that in this landscape, in addition to natural patchiness affecting population connectivity, anthropogenic fragmentation additionally impacts connectivity, making anthropogenic fragments akin to islands within natural islands of montane habitat, a pattern that may be recovered in other sky-island systems. PMID:26133900

  7. Overwash on Assateague Island

    Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  8. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the island is visible within a relatively clear area of open ocean. In the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by ... Steep cliffs surrounding most sides of the island also made access difficult, and after various attempts, a landing was made in 1822 by an ...

  9. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack - Duration: 2 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  10. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  11. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  12. 77 FR 23654 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Modification of American Samoa Large Vessel Prohibited Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Swain's Island and one around Tutuila, the Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll (67 FR 4369, January 30, 2002... Rose Atoll Marine National Monument (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The monument comprises Rose Atoll... of the Western Pacific Region. Subsequent Presidential Proclamation 8337 (74 FR 1577; January...

  13. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  14. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

  15. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  16. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 9495. The image covers an area of 369 kilometers x 567 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 58 to 64 within World Reference System-2 path 181.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  18. 75 FR 43491 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...The Western Pacific Fisheries Management Council (Council) will convene public informational scoping meetings in Guam and CNMI to solicit comments on the management of the bottomfish fishery within the EEZ of the Mariana Islands. The scope meeting will, among other things, describe the existing federal management regime for bottomfish species, examine the current performance of the fishery and......

  19. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  20. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  1. Seismicity and tectonics of the Philippine Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, H. K.; Aggarwal, Y. P.

    1980-06-01

    Seismic and volcanic activity in the Philippine Islands was examined in an attempt to decipher the tectonics of this region. Several new fault plane solutions for shallow, intermediate, and deep focus earthquakes were determined. This study has revealed the presence of a zone of eastward underthrusting in the western Philippines which is well developed near Negros Island. Fault plane solutions of several shallow earthquakes in the western Philippines show thrust faulting with slip vectors toward east or northeast. As active eastward subduction of the Eurasian plate is also taking place along the Manila trench near west central Luzon, it suggests that the underthrusting of the Eurasian plate may have occurred at one time along the western Philippines from Taiwan to Sulawesi in the Molucca Sea. Subduction has ceased along sections where continental crust is present. This interpretation is consistent with the geology and gravity anomalies in the area. Near the eastern Philippines the westward subduction of the Philippine Sea plate occurs (1) along the Philippine trench and (2) in a localized zone near the western edge of the Benham rise. The Philippine Islands are therefore flanked in the east and west by active but disjointed subduction systems. Left lateral strike slip faulting has been deduced near one end of several of these active trench systems and suggests movement on transverse features. Seismic activity on the Philippine fault is concentrated in the zone between 10°N and 15°N and appears to be due to stresses generated by opposing movements of the Philippine and Eurasian plates which are not released in underthrusting. Fault plane solutions of shallow earthquakes associated with the Philppine fault show left lateral strike slip motion consistent with field observations. Our study suggests that the extent and magnitude of earthquake activity on the Philippine fault forms one component of movement between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate.

  2. Dartington: A Principal Source of Inspiration behind Aldous Huxley's "Island".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, David

    1987-01-01

    Describes Dartington Hall School in Devon, England, which between the 1920s and 1970s implemented an educational system combining traditional Hindu religious philosophy and ideals of living and Western scientific knowledge and work experience. Considers ways Dartington educationally and socially resembled Aldous Huxley's utopia in "Island." (AYC)

  3. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  4. Phylogeography of skinks (Chalcides) in the Canary Islands inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Pestano, J

    1998-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution was investigated in skinks of the genus Chalcides found in the Canary Islands (Ch. sexlineatus, Ch. viridanus and Ch. simonyi), together with some North African congenerics (Ch. polylepis and Ch. mionecton). Several sites were included within islands to cover areas of known within-island geographical variation in morphology. Skinks from the islands of El Hierro and La Gomera appear to be sister taxa. The relationships between this clade and the Tenerife and Gran Canarian skinks were not fully resolved, although the best working hypothesis indicated monophyly with the former, with the latter forming a closely related outgroup. Ch. simonyi from Fuerteventura was more distantly related to the Western Canary Island skinks and did not show close relationships with the North African species Ch. mionecton and Ch. polylepis. Possible colonization sequences for the four most Western Canary Islands were considered. El Hierro appears to have been colonized relatively recently from La Gomera, commensurate with the recent origin of this island, while dispersal between La Gomera and Tenerife and between Gran Canaria and Tenerife or La Gomera appears to have taken place considerably earlier. Substantial within-island haplotype divergence was found in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. This may be a result of recent periods of intense volcanic activity found within these two islands. Lower levels of within-island differentiation are found in La Gomera and El Hierro and may be explained by lower levels of volcanic activity during recent geological history and a more recent colonization, respectively. PMID:9734075

  5. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  6. El Nio related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, J.; Siddon, C.; Witman, J.; Colin, P.; Toscano, M.

    2001-09-01

    Mass coral bleaching is currently viewed as a major threat to the long-term health of coral reef communities. Here we quantify coral bleaching in Palau coincident with the 1997/1998 El Nio Southern Oscillation event and with local sea surface temperatures of 31 C, which were 1.0-1.25 C higher than long-term, satellite-derived climatological maximum monthly means for the region. We sampled nine sites, including protected lagoon and fringing reefs, vertical reef walls, and exposed barrier reefs. The percentage of living scleractinian coral tissue that was bleached was 53.46.2 (range: 32.3-79.3, n=8 sites) at 3-5 m depth and 68.96.2 (45.7-91.7, n=6 sites) at 10-12 m and did not differ significantly between depths. The overall mean percent cover of bleached scleractinians was 18.91.5 (mean1 SE, n=9 sites), while the cover of healthy corals was only 15.62.0. Nearly half (48%) of 946 surveyed colonies belonging to 20 scleractinian taxa were totally bleached, while 15% were partially bleached. Overall, the results indicate that the 1998 coral bleaching episode in Palau was relatively severe and widespread across depths, sites, habitats, and coral taxa.

  7. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  8. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  9. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  10. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  11. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and

  12. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in

  13. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  14. Barnacles on Folly Island

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  15. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  16. Rhode Island Seafloor

    This photograph is of the seafloor on the Rhode Island coast and shows a skate on a fine-grained, likely silty or muddy seafloor. This photograph was collected to support research and management activities (e.g., wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf....

  17. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  18. MISR Views the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Big Island of Hawaii. The images have been rotated so that north is at the left.

    Upper left: April 2, 2000 (Terra orbit 1551) Upper right: May 4, 2000 (Terra orbit 2017) Lower left: June 5, 2000 (Terra orbit 2483) Lower right: June 21, 2000 (Terra orbit 2716)

    The first three images are color views acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. The last image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the aftward cameras viewing at 60.0 and 70.5 degree look angles. It requires red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye.

    The color images show the greater prevalence of vegetation on the eastern side of the island due to moisture brought in by the prevailing Pacific trade winds. The western (lee) side of the island is drier. In the center of the island, and poking through the clouds in the stereo image are the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, each peaking at about 4.2 km above sea level. The southern face of a line of cumulus clouds off the north coast of Hawaii is also visible in the stereo image.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

    1996-01-01

    The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

  20. The source of 90-day oscillations at Wake Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchum, Gary T.

    1995-01-01

    Energetic 90-day oscillations of sea level have been intermittently observed at Wake Island in the western tropical Pacific during the past 2 decades. The oscillations tend to occur about 1.5 years after El Nino-Southern Oscillation events, to have amplitudes of 10-15 cm, and to persist for about 1 year. Sea surface heights from the Geosat altimeter are used to establish that these signals take the form of Rossby waves and have an energy source near the Big Island of Hawaii, which lies 40 deg of longitude to the east. Sea level and upper layer currents from an eddy-resolving numerical model are examined and suggest that the energy source is eddies generated off the Big Island of Hawaii. These eddies appear to be associated with westward currents that intermittently impinge on the island. Several alternate hypotheses are also discussed and rejected.

  1. Invertebrate macrobenthos of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1969-01-01

    The present report contributes to knowledge of the relative abundance of major groups of benthic invertebrates in western Lake Superior, primarily in the Apostle Islands region. Observations are made on the depth habitation of certain species, and some of the fauna are compared to that in some of the other Great Lakes. Also included is a note on the catch of benthic organisms in a plankton-net tow, and a note on Oligochaeta from Chequamegon Bay and the harbors of Duluth and Superior.

  2. Island-arc magmatic processes beneath South Pagan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The island-arc volcanoes that make up the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most historically active stratovolcanoes along the Pacific plate, yet they have been poorly studied due to their remote location and difficult accessibility. One of the least studied areas in the Northern Mariana Islands is Pagan Island, located near the center of the Mariana ridge. Pagan Island consists of two Holocene stratovolcanoes, Mount Pagan and South Pagan. Remarkably little is known about South Pagan including its eruptive history, potential volcanic hazards, and geochemical evolution due to a small population of inhabitants, a short and intermittent recorded history, and few geological studies. There is abundant evidence that eruption of South Pagan could pose significant hazards to both residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and to aircraft flying in the western Pacific. For example, following Mount Pagan's most recent explosive eruption (VEI = 4) in 1981, destructive rain-triggered volcanic debris flows buried large tracts of land, including the site of a village that contained a school, dispensary, church, and power generating buildings. Preliminary field studies in May 2006 by the USGS showed that a full spectrum of hazardous phenomena originated from South Pagan in the past, including pyroclastic flows and surges, caldera collapses, and volcanic debris flows. Two previously unrecognized active fumaroles near the summit of South Pagan were discovered suggesting that potential volcanic hazards currently exist in this area. A majority of the new lava samples are vesicular, clinopyroxene-plagioclase basalts with minor plagioclase xenocrysts and gabbroic xenoliths. The purpose of this study is to understand the compositional history of South Pagan and how it relates to the crustal and mantle magmatic processes beneath the central Northern Mariana Islands. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, major and trace element abundances, and mineral chemistry were determined and will be presented.

  3. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. PMID:25937559

  4. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  5. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  6. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that

  7. Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Minakawa, Noboru; Beier, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic structure of island Anopheles gambiae populations is important for the current tactics in mosquito control and for the proposed strategy using genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMM). Genetically-isolated mosquito populations on islands are a potential site for testing GMM. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of A. gambiae populations on the islands in Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Methods The genetic diversity and the population genetic structures of 13 A. gambiae populations from five islands on Lake Victoria and six villages from the surrounding mainland area in the Suba District were examined using six microsatellite markers. The distance range of sampling sites varied between 2.5 and 35.1 km. Results A similar level of genetic diversity between island mosquito populations and adjacent mainland populations was found. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.3 for the island populations and 6.8 for the mainland populations. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.32 and 0.28 for the island and mainland populations, respectively. A low but statistically significant genetic structure was detected among the island populations (FST = 0.019) and between the island and mainland populations (FST = 0.003). A total of 12 private alleles were found, and nine of them were from the island populations. Conclusion A level of genetic differentiation between the island and mainland populations was found. Large extent of gene flow between the island and mainland mosquito populations may result from wind- or human-assisted dispersal. Should the islands on Lake Victoria be used as a trial site for the release program of GMM, mosquito dispersal between the islands and between the island and the mainland should be vigorously monitored. PMID:15581429

  8. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  9. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  11. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  12. Teaching the Western.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  13. Western White Pine

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  14. What Is Western Civilization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  15. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  16. Development of Pabelokan Island

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral island named Pabelokan Island has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the island include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the island facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral island for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral islands for similar purpose.

  17. Effects of island geometry in postdeposition island growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Oana; Family, Fereydoon; Amar, Jacques G.

    2000-11-01

    The results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic model of postdeposition island growth that takes into account the spatial extent of islands are presented. Simulations were carried out on one- and two-dimensional substrates for different values of the critical island size i and were compared with previous results for a point-island model. The use of a realistic island geometry results in enhanced island aggregation and coalescence. This leads to an increase in the average island size S as well as the exponent z describing the dependence of S on coverage. The shape of the island-size distribution for i=3 also changes dramatically due to the existence of ``magic'' islands.

  18. What are the Spratly Islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be interpreted as an integral part of Sundaland. Post-MMU dredged samples are predominantly deep-water calcareous mudstones typified by the draping strata of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1143 cored from Recent to Late Miocene.

  19. Using hydrogeochemical methods to evaluate complex quaternary subsurface stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Stone, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems in Hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant of the late Wisconsinan terminal moraine, located approximately 16 km south of the Rhode Island mainland. Two chemically distinct water types are recognized on the island: 1) high-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels in excess of 20 mg/L, bicarbonate greater than 30 mg/L and dissolved iron ranging from 1-20 mg/L; and 2) low-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels below 16 mg/L, bicarbonate less than 30 mg/L, and less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved iron. The spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter and the resulting redox conditions are believed to control the occurrence of highiron groundwater. The high-iron waters occur almost exclusively in the eastern half of the island and appear to coincide with the presence of allochthonous blocks of Cretaceous-age coastal-plain sediments that were incorporated into Pleistocene-age deposits derived from the Narragansett Bay-Buzzard's Bay lobe of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet. The low-iron waters occur in the western half of the island, where the occurrence of these Cretaceous-age blocks is rare and the sediments are attributed to a sublobe of the Hudson-Champlain lobe of the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  20. Cancer incidence in Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    Paksoy, N; Bouchardy, C; Parkin, D M

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the first data on cancer incidence in Western Samoa, which has one of the largest Polynesian communities in the world. Incidence estimates are based on a systematic retrospective survey of cancer cases identified in the laboratory of pathology, and from hospital records, for the period January 1980 to June 1988. The overall incidence rates are low in both sexes (age-standardized incidence rates are 93.7 for males and 95.7 per 100,000 for females). Although cases may have been missed, it seems likely that incidence rates among Samoans are substantially lower than those recorded in Polynesian populations elsewhere. It is notable that cancers related to tobacco are responsible for less than 17% of all cancers in males, compared to more than 30% in other Polynesians. Stomach cancer remains the most common cancer in males. In females, breast and cervix are equally common and make up almost 40% of all cancers. Liver cancer occurs more commonly in males, and the rates are slightly lower than those of other Polynesians. The high incidence of thyroid cancer seen in some Pacific Island populations is not seen among Samoans. PMID:1955247

  1. Paleoecological analyses of lake sediments reveal prehistoric human impact on forests at Anthony Island UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Hebda, Richard J.

    2007-09-01

    Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of lake sediments from Anthony Island in the southern Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia, reveal 1800 yr of relatively stable temperate rainforest vegetation. Cupressaceae (cedar) pollen percentages and accumulation rates decline about 1000 cal yr BP, coincident with occupation of the island by Haida peoples, who use Thuja plicata (western red cedar) almost exclusively for house construction, dugout canoes, monumental poles, and many other items. Anthropogenic disturbance offers the most likely explanation for the decline of T. plicata.

  2. Controls of barrier island morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, V.; Pilkey, O.H.; Keysworth, A.

    1988-08-01

    A study of 530 barrier islands from around the world has been made to determine broad physical and geologic controls on island occurrence and morphology. A total of 74 island chains, consisting of three or more islands each, was included in the investigation. Data for the study were derived from geologic and topographic maps and navigation charts. Environmental parameters considered include wind direction and velocity, mean significant wave height and storm-wave height, and tidal range. Island parameters include length, width, elevation, shape, volume, inlet width, tidal delta length, shoreface slope, coastal plain slope, and continental shelf slope. Most island chains (42%) occur along Amero-trailing edges of continents. Marginal seacoasts are second in importance (32%), and 22% of all island chains are found on collision coasts. Most islands (70%) are found in microtidal (< 2 m mean tide range) environments, with only 1% of individual islands occurring under macrotidal conditions (> 4 m mean tide range). According to the second-order coastal classification of Inman and Nordstrom, most barrier islands are found on either mountainous (32%) or wide shelf plains (32%). Next in importance are barrier islands on deltaic coasts (15%). Tidal range does not seem to play a strong role in determining island length (or inlet frequency). Islands are mostly less than 20 km in length, regardless of tidal range, although virtually all long islands (> 20 km) are found on microtidal coasts.

  3. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  4. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  5. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  6. Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California's Channel Islands.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Braje, Todd J; Casperson, Molly; Culleton, Brendan; Fulfrost, Brian; Garcia, Tracy; Guthrie, Daniel A; Jew, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J; Moss, Madonna L; Reeder, Leslie; Skinner, Craig; Watts, Jack; Willis, Lauren

    2011-03-01

    Three archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands show that Paleoindians relied heavily on marine resources. The Paleocoastal sites, dated between ~12,200 and 11,200 years ago, contain numerous stemmed projectile points and crescents associated with a variety of marine and aquatic faunal remains. At site CA-SRI-512 on Santa Rosa Island, Paleocoastal peoples used such tools to capture geese, cormorants, and other birds, along with marine mammals and finfish. At Cardwell Bluffs on San Miguel Island, Paleocoastal peoples collected local chert cobbles, worked them into bifaces and projectile points, and discarded thousands of marine shells. With bifacial technologies similar to those seen in Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition assemblages of western North America, the sites provide evidence for seafaring and island colonization by Paleoindians with a diversified maritime economy. PMID:21385713

  7. Western Glacier Stonefly

     The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  8. Western Glacier Stonefly

    The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  9. Peritonitis the Western experience

    PubMed Central

    Malangoni, Mark A; Inui, Tazo

    2006-01-01

    Peritonitis is a common surgical emergency. This manuscript will provide an overview of recent developments in the management of peritonitis in the Western world. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of new treatments and their impact of outcomes. PMID:16953882

  10. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  11. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

  12. Microfluidic Western blotting.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

    2012-12-26

    Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The μWestern blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the μWestern blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NFκB). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10-60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex μWestern blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the μWestern blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

  13. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  14. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  15. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and pyroclastic flows. Capelo Complex, which is partially contemporary to the previous formation, comprises the western fissural volcanism and the historical eruptions of Cabeço do Fogo and Capelinhos. Groundwater occurs in two main aquifer systems: (1) the basal aquifer that corresponds to the freshwater lens floating over underlying salt water and (2) perched water bodies. 15 drilled wells and 10 hand dug wells extract water from the basal aquifer and about 80 springs drain the volcanic edifices at different altitudes. In what concerns hydrodynamic characterisation, an estimate of the recession constant of the springs yielded values from 2x10-3 to 14.2x10-3. Calculated transmissivity values for the basal aquifer and a perched aquifer are within the range of 9.5x10-3 to 3x10-2 m2/s. Hydraulic diffusivity estimated from tidal effect measurements has a value of 2634 m2/d. Physical and chemical water analysis shows that they are cold, except for two of them. Four water samples show high CO2 contents. Water from springs and from wells not contaminated by salt water intrusion are bicarbonated and sodium rich in composition while water from contaminated wells has higher chloride and magnesium contents. Geochemical modelling indicates that the major mineralizing processes are silicate dissolution and salt water intrusion.

  16. Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  18. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  19. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  20. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  1. Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island

    Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  2. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the 'Austronesian expansion,' which began 4,000-5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  3. Surficial sediments on the western Canadian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, Brian D.; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    1991-08-01

    The active continental margin off western Canada is characterized in the south by convergence between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca Plates and the America Plate, and in the north by transform fault motion between the Pacific and America Plates along the Queen Charlotte Fault. Except in some of the deepest troughs and basins shelf sediments are dominated by immature lithic arenites reflecting this tectonic setting. The Vancouver Island shelf is from 5 to 75 km wide and displays complex topography on the inner shelf and a relatively featureless mid- and outer shelf. An exception is the area off southwestern Vancouver Island where large basins bounded by morainal deposits extend more than two-thirds of the distance across the shelf. The shelf edge varies from 180 to 225 m depth and is indented by numerous canyons. Nearshore sediments consist mainly of gravels and boulders and become finer offshore such that muds are slowly accumulating in depths greater than 100 m. Off northwestern Vancouver Island calcareous sediments are abundant with carbonate values often exceeding 75%. High wave and current energies and efficient sediment trapping in coastal fiords have resulted in low rates of accumulation. Olive, glauconitic, Holocene muds and muddy sands are generally less than 0.3 m thick and accumulate only on the outer shelf over an extensive stiff, gray, glaciomarine sandy mud. Queen Charlotte Sound exhibits three broad, shallow, glacially scoured troughs, filled mainly with clayey silts and fine sands and separated by sand and gravel covered banks. Hecate Strait, between the Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland, consists of a prominent southward-opening trough along the east side of the Strait bounded by Dogfish and Laskeek Banks on the west adjacent to Graham and Moresby Islands, respectively. The trough below 200 m is filled by silts. The banks are covered by discontinuous sands and gravels of variable calcareous content. The bank edges often display megaripples and sand waves. Shore-parallel and oblique sand and gravel ridges occur along northernmost Dogfish Bank. Except for the inshore area (less than 100 m) off northern Graham Island little is known of the sediment distribution in Dixon Entrance. Off northwestern Graham Island the near shore zone is dominated by bedrock and discontinuous sands and gravels made up of up to 90% skeletal carbonate. Off northeastern Graham Island sandy sediments predominate in the nearshore. No studies have been undertaken on the narrow shelf off the western Queen Charlotte Islands.

  4. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: What is a heat island? What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  5. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  6. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  7. The World Revolution of Westernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Laue, Theodore H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of westernization from a global perspective. Analyzes the reasons for perceived Western "superiority," how these reasons contributed to the buildup of western power, and its attractiveness to non-Western cultures. Indicates the necessity for a trans-national, culturally non-specific view of history to meet this age of global…

  8. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  9. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  10. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  11. Atsena Otie Key Island

    Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

  12. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime between November 4 and 12, 2001. Images of the glacier were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging ... decades. The newly hatched berg represents nearly seven years of ice outflow from Pine Island Glacier released to the ocean in a single ...

  13. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,

  14. Plum Island Seafloor

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Plum Island coast and shows spider crabs on seabed characterized by coarse sand, gravelly sediment and shell fragments. This photograph was collected as part of a collaborative seafloor mapping program between the USGS and the Connecticut Department of Envi...

  15. Block Island Seafloor

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  16. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  17. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

  18. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  19. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  20. /sup 7/Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboe, E.; Dion, E.P.; Turekian, K.K.

    1981-04-20

    /sup 7/Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in /sup 7/Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments. A possible sink for the missing /sup 7/Be may be the salt marshes or tidal mud flats ringing Long Island Sound.

  1. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Rat Islands and Delarof Islands and Tanaga Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Gravity observations were made both east and west of the international dateline in the Aleutian Islands during 1970. A total of 280 gravity observations were made in the Rat Islands to the west and the Delarof Islands and Tanaga Island to the east. The principal facts and explanatory information for these data are included herein. These data have not been adjusted to the 1971 International Gravity Standardization Network datum.

  2. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

  3. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  4. Identity of Cypripedium calceolus (Orchidaceae) in Rebun Island: comparative DNA analysis of related species.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H; Nakamura, T; Mizukami, H; Kawano, S; Sano, H; Katsumi, M

    2001-06-01

    Cypripedium calceolus was found in 1980 in Rebun Island off the north coast of Hokkaido, Japan, but the origin of this plant has been a controversial issue. In this study, we have made a comparative study by chloroplast DNA sequencing analysis among C. calceolus which occurs in Rebun Island and populations of C. calceolus from western Europe, China and far eastern Russia (Nakhodka), and also as references, C. macranthos in Japan and other Cypripedium species in North America. A Cypripedium cf. "calceolus", found recently in eastern Hokkaido, was also included in this analysis. The C. calceolus samples analyzed were categorized into three groups, i.e., those from Western Europe, from China and far eastern Russia, and from Rebun Island. The C. calceolus in Rebun Island was clearly different from the others in terms of DNA sequence and morphological features. The C. cf. calceolus from eastern Hokkaido and one sample from Nadhodka, Russia, were also classified into the same group as those from Rebun Island, although some differences in their morphological features were observed. It is concluded that the C. calceolus found in Rebun Island is not identical with those growing in Europe and China. In addition, it was found that it may be possible to classify C. macranthos into two groups, namely groups which include or do not include var. rebunense. An unidentified Cypripedium species found in Rebun Island falls into the same group as var. rebunense. PMID:11569501

  5. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  6. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  7. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic, earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

  8. Nectar Secretion and Bee Guild Characteristics of Yellow Star-Thistle on Santa Cruz Island and Lesvos: Where Have the Honey Bees Gone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared nectar secretion rates and bee guilds of yellow star-thistle, Centaurea solstitialis on Santa Cruz Island (USA) and the Northeast Aegean Island of Lesvos (Greece). This plant species is non-native and highly invasive in the western USA but native to Eurasia (including Lesvos). "Nectar ...

  9. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  10. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  11. Western Fence Lizard

    The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is larger and prefers less open habitat than the related side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic isolation in both speci...

  12. Einstein in Western Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Francis M.

    2005-04-01

    Albert Einstein vacationed for two weeks in September 1946 at Deep Creek Lake in western Maryland. It was a well-kept secret. This paper describes his ordinary and yet so extraordinary visit, its historical context, his daily routine, and some interesting stories that reveal his simplicity, humanity, and unique sense of humor.

  13. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  14. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  15. Complex population genetic structure in the endemic Canary Island pine revealed using chloroplast microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; González-Martínez, S C; Collada, C; Climent, J; Gil, L

    2003-10-01

    The Canary archipelago, located on the northwestern Atlantic coast of Africa, is comprised of seven islands aligned from east to west, plus seven minor islets. All the islands were formed by volcanic eruptions and their geological history is well documented providing a historical framework to study colonization events. The Canary Island pine ( Pinus canariensis C. Sm.), nowadays restricted to the westernmost Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro), is considered an old (Lower Cretaceous) relic from an ancient Mediterranean evolutionary centre. Twenty seven chloroplast haplotypes were found in Canary Island pine but only one of them was common to all populations. The distribution of haplotypic variation in P. canariensis suggested the colonization of western Canary Islands from a single continental source located close to the Mediterranean Basin. Present-day populations of Canary Island pine retain levels of genetic diversity equivalent to those found in Mediterranean continental pine species, Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis. A hierarchical analysis of variance (AMOVA) showed high differentiation among populations within islands (approximately 19%) but no differentiation among islands. Simple differentiation models such as isolation by distance or stepping-stone colonization from older to younger islands were rejected based on product-moment correlations between pairwise genetic distances and both geographic distances and population-age divergences. However, the distribution of cpSSR diversity within the islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria pointed towards the importance of the role played by regional Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic activity and long-distance gene flow in shaping the population genetic structure of the Canary Island pine. Therefore, conservation strategies at the population level are strongly recommended for this species. PMID:14523525

  16. Leprosy on Reunion Island, 2005-2013: Situation and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Lafarge, Sophie; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Gerber, Anne; Pouderoux, Nicolas; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Manaquin, Rodolphe; Larrieu, Sophie; Vilain, Pascal; Huiart, Laetitita

    2016-01-01

    Background Reunion Island is a French overseas territory located in the south-western of Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar. Leprosy first arrived on Reunion Island in the early 1700s with the African slaves and immigration from Madagascar. The disease was endemic until 1980 but improvement of health care and life conditions of inhabitants in the island have allowed a strong decrease in new cases of leprosy. However, the reintroduction of the disease by migrants from endemic neighbouring countries like Comoros and Madagascar is a real and continuing risk. This observational study was then conducted to measure the number of new cases detected annually on Reunion Island between 2005 and 2013, and to describe the clinical features of these patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected over two distinct periods. Incident cases between 2005 and 2010 come from a retrospective study conducted in 2010 by the regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (CIRE of Indian Ocean), when no surveillance system exist. Cases between 2011 and 2013 come from a prospective collection of all new cases, following the implementation of systematic notification of all new cases. All patient data were anonymized. Among the 25 new cases, 12 are Reunion Island residents who never lived outside Reunion Island, and hence are considered to be confirmed autochthonous patients. Registered prevalence in 2014 was 0.05 /10 000 habitants, less than the WHO’s eradication goal (1/10 000). Conclusions/Significance Leprosy is no longer a major public health problem on Reunion Island, as its low prevalence rate indicates. However, the risk of recrudescence of the disease and of renewed autochthonous transmission remains real. In this context, active case detection must be pursued through the active declaration and rapid treatment of all new cases. PMID:27082879

  17. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  18. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  19. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  20. Leyte Island, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991, three weeks prior to the taking of this photo can still be seen on Leyte, (10.5N, 125.0E). Flash floods and mud slides triggered by the heavy rainfall and aggravated by logging operations on the mountain slopes, added to the general destruction caused by the storm. Fresh water runoff (lens) into the ocean are still evident as numerous bright semi circles around the island perimeter.

  1. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island since the late Miocene.

  2. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  3. 78 FR 32628 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...The Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council's (Council) will convene meetings of its Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam and Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands (CNMI) Archipelagic Advisory Panels (APs) and the Hawaii Regional Ecosystem Advisory Committee (REAC). See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for specific times, dates, and agenda...

  4. 77 FR 4822 - Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative: Designation of an Approved Native American Tribal Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... known as the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) at U.S. land and sea ports of entry. See 73 FR... Caribbean Sea, except Cuba.'' This definition applies to 8 CFR 212.1 and 235.1. Upon the designation by the... members entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at land and sea ports...

  5. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally. PMID:26767360

  6. Determining rates of Quaternary uplift across the Santa Rosa Island Fault, Channel Islands National Park, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, A.; Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Channel Islands, southern California, form the southern margin of the western Transverse Ranges. They constitute a roughly east-west trending emergent ridge uplifted as a result of south-vergent shortening and left-lateral slip, mostly on west-striking, north-dipping faults. Late Quaternary uplift of these islands is recorded by two prominent wave-cut platforms, which occur at elevations of ~5-7 and ~6-24 meters above sea level, have been attributed by previous workers to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5a (~80ka) and 5e (~120 ka), and indicate low and somewhat spatially variable, uplift rates of 0.1-0.2 mm/yr. We have documented evidence of older, higher marine features, such as shoreline angles, beveled surfaces buried by aeolian sand, and pholad borings, in the interior of Santa Rosa Island. Our simple steady uplift models indicate that the highest of these paleo shore line markers, which occur at ~275 m, could be anywhere from ~1.2 Ma to ~2.7 Ma. However, despite their importance for understanding longer term uplift rates associated with the Santa Rosa Island fault and/or other faults, their ages remain unknown. As part of a cooperative effort with the National Park Service to complete a new Quaternary geologic map of the northern Channel Islands, we collected samples of quartz-bearing rock and sediment at seven locations on Santa Rosa Island, representative of 6 paleo shorelines spanning elevations between ~65 and ~275 meters above sea level, from both sides of the Santa Rosa Island fault. Rock samples were collected from moderately indurated fossiliferous marine sands that either contain pholad-bored clasts or overlie a beveled bedrock surface in order to determine 10Be exposure ages. Sediments were collected from where they directly overlie shoreline angles for determination of 10Be-26Al burial ages. Ages of these paleo sea level markers will enable us to test previous assumptions of steady island uplift, as well as allow us to test hypotheses related to the timing of differential uplift across the Santa Rosa Island fault as documented by differential GPS surveys of the MIS platform edges. The timing and distribution of long-term uplift rates will allow us to distinguish between ramp-flat or listric models of deep, low-angle thrusts responsible for the long-term uplift of Santa Rosa Island.

  7. Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenderup, Vibeke

    This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

  8. First breeding records of whooping swan and brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Sonneborn, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    We document the first breeding records of Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) in Alaska and North America on Attu Island in the Western Aleutians in the spring of 1996. Five cygnets were seen with adults and the nest located, and a territorial pair of Bramblings was observed and a nest with eggs found.

  9. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  10. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel...

  11. Annotated Satellite Image of southern Alaska Showing Anchorage and Kodiak Island

    This MODIS Aqua 1-km-resolution, true-color satellite image shows a resuspended ash cloud generated from high winds scouring the dry, unvegetated deposits in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The cloud stretches across Shelikof Strait to western Kodiak Island. Location: south-central Alaska, from...

  12. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the designated low-use... regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the...

  13. Origins of Western diseases

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Recent gynaecological studies show that childbirth, constipation, trauma and surgery cause injuries to autonomic nerves at different anatomical sites in the female pelvis resulting in endometriosis, adenomyosis and fibroids. Re-growth of abnormal nerves causes allodynic symptoms (‘light touch causing pain or discomfort’) some years later including vulvodynia, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, irritative bladder and bowel symptoms. Further consequences of autonomic denervation include tissue hypoplasia and hyperplasia, visceral dysfunction, susceptibility to infection, alcohol, tobacco and drugs, as well as pain with sensitization of the central nervous system. The ‘autonomic denervation’ view extrapolates these observations from the female pelvis to the varied anatomy of branches of the cardiac and coeliac plexi to provide primary mechanisms for many forms of Western disease. This account sets out the autonomic denervation view, identifies features of autonomic denervation in extrapelvic organs, and, contrasts it with prior accounts of chronic Western diseases including those of DP Burkitt, PRJ Burch and DP Barker. PMID:22048676

  14. Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  15. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  16. Approximate Bayesian Computation Reveals the Crucial Role of Oceanic Islands for the Assembly of Continental Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark; Mardulyn, Patrick; Devos, Nicolas; Mateo, Rubén G; González-Mancebo, Juana M; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The perceived low levels of genetic diversity, poor interspecific competitive and defensive ability, and loss of dispersal capacities of insular lineages have driven the view that oceanic islands are evolutionary dead ends. Focusing on the Atlantic bryophyte flora distributed across the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Western Europe, and northwestern Africa, we used an integrative approach with species distribution modeling and population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation to determine whether this view applies to organisms with inherent high dispersal capacities. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in island than in continental populations, contributing to mounting evidence that, contrary to theoretical expectations, island populations are not necessarily genetically depauperate. Patterns of genetic variation among island and continental populations consistently fitted those simulated under a scenario of de novo foundation of continental populations from insular ancestors better than those expected if islands would represent a sink or a refugium of continental biodiversity. We, suggest that the northeastern Atlantic archipelagos have played a key role as a stepping stone for transoceanic migrants. Our results challenge the traditional notion that oceanic islands are the end of the colonization road and illustrate the significant role of oceanic islands as reservoirs of novel biodiversity for the assembly of continental floras. PMID:25713307

  17. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement. PMID:16527931

  18. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Dungy, C I; Morgan, B C; Adams, W H

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain--a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago--is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed. PMID:6418429

  19. Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

  20. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  1. Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

  2. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, M.G.; Hapke, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dunebeach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ???4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites. Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast. National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human-induced modifications can affect park resources and beachdune response to storms. This study is the first to conduct a systematic analysis on how anthropogenic modifications affect resources at Fire Island National Seashore and provides essential information for effective management and preservation of coastal resources within the park. ?? 2012, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  3. Adaptation and diversification on islands.

    PubMed

    Losos, Jonathan B; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2009-02-12

    Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other areas, resulting in unusual faunas and floras, often unlike those found anywhere else. For these reasons, island research provides valuable insights into speciation and adaptive radiation, and into the relative importance of contingency and determinism in evolutionary diversification. PMID:19212401

  4. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  5. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  6. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

  7. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  8. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  10. Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

  11. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  12. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  13. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  14. Keystone Island Flap: Effects of Islanding on Vascularity

    PubMed Central

    Nottle, Tim; Mills, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Based on his clinical observations the “red dot sign” and hyperemic flare, Behan has advocated the superior vascularity of the island flap design for at least 2 decades. The aim of this study was to determine whether (1) surgical islanding of a flap alters the vascularity or blood supply of the flap and (2) these changes in blood supply explain Behan’s clinical observations of “red dot sign” and hyperemic flare. Methods: Patients undergoing local island fasciocutaneous flaps or anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous free flaps were recruited for this trial from a single institution over a 10-month period (September 2013 to July 2014). Three adjacent specimens of skin and subcutaneous fat (control, non-island, and island) were harvested from each patient at various stages of their surgery for histological assessment. A pathologist reviewed randomized specimens for microvascular variables, including arteriole wall thickness, arteriole diameter, venule wall thickness, and venule diameter. Results: Thirteen patients (with 14 sets of specimen) were recruited for this study. When compared with the control state, both arteriole diameter and venule diameter in island flaps were significantly increased. Conclusions: These results validate Behan’s clinical observations of “red dot sign” and hyperemic flare. Further studies are required to directly compare island and non-island flap designs. PMID:27014546

  15. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  16. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  17. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

  18. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow rather than elevated surface heating.

  19. Topographic enhancement of tidal motion in the western Barents Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. YU.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical lattice is used to study a topographically trapped motion around islands and shallow banks of the western Barents Sea caused both by the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves. Observations and model computations in the vicinity of Bear Island show well-developed trapped motion with distinctive tidal oscillatory motion. Numerical investigations demonstrate that one source of the trapped motion is tidal current rectification over shallow topgraphy. Tidal motion supports residual currents of the order of 8 cm/s around Bear Island and shallow Spitsbergenbanken. The structures of enhanced tidal currents for the semidiurnal components are generated in the shallow areas due to topographic amplification. In the diurnal band of oscillations the maximum current is associated with the shelf wave occurrence. Residual currents due to diurnal tides occur at both the shallow areas and the shelf slope in regions of maximum topographic gradients. Surface manifestation of the diurnal current enhancement is the local maximum of tidal amplitude at the shelf break of the order of 5 to 10 cm. Tidal current enhancement and tidally generated residual currents in the Bear Island and Spitsbergenabanken regions cause an increased generation of ice leads, ridges and, trapped motion of the ice floes.

  20. Influence of inner-continental shelf geologic framework on the evolution and behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Island Inlet and Shinnecock Inlet, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Thieler, E.R.; Allen, J.R.; Foster, D.S.; Swift, B.A.; Denny, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution, sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidescan-sonar and subbottom profiling, were used to investigate how the geologic framework of the inner-continental shelf influenced the Holocene evolution and modern behavior of the Fire Island barrier-island system, Long Island, New York. The inner-continental shelf off Long Island is divided into two physiographic provinces by a broad outcrop of Cretaceous coastal-plain strata offshore of Watch Hill; this outcrop was part of a subaerial headland during the Holocene marine transgression. Erosion of the headland during transgression furnished sediment to the inner-continental shelf downdrift to the west. The sediment was, in turn, reworked by oceanographic processes into a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges. The oldest (~1200 yr BP) and most stable part of the barrier-island system is immediately landward of the outcropping coastal-plain strata and thickest sand ridges. East of Watch Hill, Pleistocene sediment either is exposed on the inner-continental shelf or is buried by a veneer of modern reworked sediment. Here the barrier-island system has migrated landward at a faster rate than the segment west of Watch Hill and has been breached by numerous historic inlets. Because the Pleistocene sedimentary deposit is generally of uniform thickness throughout the study area and unconformably overlies the Cretaceous coastal-plain strata, both the Holocene and historical evolution of the Fire Island barrier-island system are controlled by the physiography of this regional unconformity. In particular, the shoreface-connected sand ridges appear to be a significant source of sediment to the western portion of Fire Island. Previous attempts to develop a sediment budget for this coastal system have failed to explain volumetric discrepancies, primarily because poor assumptions were made about the nature of sediment transport in the system. A more realistic sediment budget must include a significantly larger spatial scale, including sediment input from the inner-continental shelf.

  1. Geology of Northeast Part of Fukue Island, Goto Islands, Nagasaki Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Goto islands situated in the western part of Japan expose after Lower to Middle Miocene sedimentary and igneous rocks. The geologic evidences in this area are very important to identify relation between the north west of Kyushu and the Asian continent. We examined stratigraphy and geological structure of the Fukue Island of the southwest part of the Goto islands. Stritigraphy: In The Fukue Island, three lithofacies, Goto Group, Goto granite intrusion and Fukue Rhyolite are observed. Lower Goto Group consists of green colored volcaniclastics and massive tuff, based on the petrographic observation, there are very rounded quartz, siltstone listhic fragments and volcanic rock fragments. Upper Goto Group consists of alternation of sandstone and mudstone with upward grading structure, which is considered fluvial-lacustrine. And these were intruded by granitic dike. The Fukue Rhyolite is reported that the age is 12.4 ± 0.6Ma. Deformation: In center of the Fukue Island, there are about 10-20 degree plunges into north NE-SW trending fold, which is called "Goto central fold". In the northwest side of the fold hinge, high angle dipping beds and asymmetric fold are observed. On the other hand, in the southeast side of the fold hinge, dipping to east gentle bedding structure is observed. In the Fukue Island, the following three structures can be recognized. D1-a; NE-SW trending normal fault and fault related fold; The Goto center fold, which is one of the main structure in the deformation. D1-b; NE-SW trending west dipping normal fault and right lateral strike-slip fault. In the southwest region, the high angle bed formed by D1-a is bended from NE-SW trend to N-S by D1-b. D2; NW-SE trending normal fault and left lateral strike-slip fault. The trend of this structure is vertical to NE-SE trending of The Goto islands. Because of the cross cutting relationship, we consider that D1-a and D1-b were formed from 15 to 7 Ma, and D2 was formed in later 7Ma. Based on age data and lithology, we suggest that the Goto Group was deposited in the rifting area of the southwest end of the Japan sea. In the near northwest off the Goto islands, there is NE-SW trending tectonic line that is west end fault of the Japan sea opening, called the Tsushima-Goto TL. The early stage volcanic activity which formed the lower Goto Group and D1-a might be related to the TL movement. The trend of D2 is parallel to the Goto submarine canyon at the south of the Fukue Island, we consider that D2 possibly related to the opening of the north Okinawa trough.

  2. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  4. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

  5. Tidal Pool on Folly Island

    A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

  6. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades. PMID:15515232

  7. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a subtle morphologic scar covered by recent lava flows erupted from alignments of basaltic strombolian cones. The predominance of the N150° and N75° trends in the island suggest that the tectonics of the Terceira Rift controlled the location and the distribution of the volcanism, and to some extent the various destruction events.

  8. CpG island chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Neil P

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mammalian gene promoters are encompassed within regions of the genome called CpG islands that have an elevated level of non-methylated CpG dinucleotides. Despite over 20 years of study, the precise mechanisms by which CpG islands contribute to regulatory element function remain poorly understood. Recently it has been demonstrated that specific histone modifying enzymes are recruited directly to CpG islands through recognition of non-methylated CpG dinucleotide sequence. These enzymes then impose unique chromatin architecture on CpG islands that distinguish them from the surrounding genome. In the context of this work we discuss how CpG island elements may contribute to the function of gene regulatory elements through the utilization of chromatin and epigenetic processes. PMID:20935486

  9. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

    2005-08-16

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  10. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  11. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  12. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  13. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  14. 34. Two lights on the western concrete counterweight on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Two lights on the western concrete counterweight on the south span. The two lights are used, in conjunction with visible guides on Terminal Island by the bridge operator to judge speed and position of the south span as it opens or closes. Based on the movement of the lights relative to each other and the background the south span is speeded up or slowed down and the brakes applied during the opening and closing process. View facing south. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Internal parasites of possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) from Kawau Island, Chatham Island and Stewart Island.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, M; Heath, D D; Cowan, P E

    1997-12-01

    As part of a search for pathogens that might be useful agents for biological control of possums, the three largest offshore islands of New Zealand that still have possums were surveyed to determine the pathogens present in these isolated populations. Brushtail possums from Kawau Island (n = 158), Chatham Island (n = 214) and Stewart Island (n = 194) were examined for internal parasites. Possums from Kawau Island were infected with Eimeria spp. (16.7%), Bertiella trichosuri (5.2%) and Purustrongyloides trichosuri (15.5%). No Paraustrostrongylus trichosuri or Trichostrongylus spp. were found. Possums from Chatham Island were infected with Eimeria spp. (10.9%). Bertiella trichosuri (3.6%), T colubriformis (6.6%), T retortaeformis (1%) and T. vitrinus (0.5%). No Parastrongyloides or Paraustrostrongylus spp. were found. Possums from Stewart Island were infected only with Eimeria spp. (4.6%). Because of their paucity of some parasites, the opportunity exists to use these offshore islands to study the introduction and spread of a parasite into a possum population, and what technology would be required to bring it to hyperendemicity. PMID:16031999

  16. Distribution patterns of Babesia gibsoni infection in hunting dogs from nine Japanese islands.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

  17. Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

  18. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  19. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  1. Westward shift of western North Pacific tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific or typhoons account for one third of all TCs in the world and the change of the mean TC genesis location can affect billions of people in Pacific islands and Asian countries. The annual mean TC genesis longitude is generally controlled by the east-west shift of the tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT). A pronounced westward shift in the TUTT is found in all of the available reanalysis data sets during 1979-2012, suppressing TC genesis in the eastern portion (east of 145°E) of the western North Pacific basin due to the enhanced vertical wind shear associated with the TUTT shift. As a result, the annual mean TC genesis longitude has significantly shifted westward since 1979. The westward shifting trends in the TUTT and TC genesis are associated with the enhanced tropical tropospheric warming, which is consistent with the response of the tropospheric temperature to global warming.

  2. The CEDROS ignimbrite, Faial island (Azores, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy

    2010-05-01

    About 25 ignimbrites are known on the various islands of the Azorean archipelago. Most of them can be observed on São Miguel and Terceira islands, where they are considered as associated with caldeira-forming eruptions. In the Azores, ignimbrites form generally low volume deposits, although their volumes are largely unknown due to the particular geometry of the islands and the unknown fraction entering the ocean. Except the Povoação (Duncan et al., 1999) and Fogo ignimbrites (Wallenstein, 1999) on São Miguel island, or the ignimbrites of Terceira island (Self, 1976; Guertisser et al., 2009), most ignimbrites have not been extensively studied. The Cedros ignimbrite on Faial island, is the most recent and accessible ignimbrite of the Azores. Its age (1200 B.P.) is well constrained by several C14 datings (Shotton et al., 1970; Chovelon, 1982; Madeira et al., 1995; Pacheco, 2001). It formed during one of the latest and largest explosive events of the holocene activity of the Vulcão da Caldeira (1043 m), an event certainly at the origin of the present morphology of its large caldeira (Pacheco, 2001; Forjaz et al., 2006). The deposit is easily accessible since it outcrops at the surface except when partly covered by only one, more recent, thin deposit. The ignimbrite was produced at the end of a magmatic and hydromagmatic, sub-plinian eruption, with pumice fall deposits and multiple flow / fall ash deposits located on the north-western flank of the volcano (Pacheco, 2001). A detailed mapping of the ignimbrite is proposed, based on more than 300 documented outcrops. The mapping reveals the existence of 9 different units, radially spread on the northern flank of the volcano where it forms lobes some kilometers in length. Lobes never exceed 20 m in thickness. In the upper part of the volcano, the units were largely channeled either in deep valleys carved on the steep slopes of the main cone, either in the two branches of the well marked Pedro Miguel - Ribeira Funda graben. In the lower part of the volcano, the pyroclastic density currents had rather linear trajectories, weakly influenced by the local topography. Most of the units entered the ocean at the end of their terrestrial pathways, some after jumping high sea cliffs. The volume of the ignimbrite on land is small, nearly 0.06 km3 but the fraction deposited in the ocean is not known. The ignimbrite is light grey, non-welded through its thickness, even in maximum section up to 18 m. Several lithofacies have been identified, some depending on the distance to the vent, some clearly related to the local topography. The conspicuous variations of various lithofacies along the same unit can be associated with different mechanisms of transport and emplacement.

  3. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  4. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  5. Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

    1986-05-01

    Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

  6. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  7. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

  8. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  9. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  10. Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

    2007-02-01

    High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest Middle Holocene movement of people at this time from southern California desert environs westward to the southern islands, a migration perhaps stimulated by increased continental aridity.

  11. Lightning in Western Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, René D.; Gabriela Nicora, M.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of 8 years (2005-2012) of stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network we describe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of lightning activity over Western Patagonia. This region extends from ~40°S to 55°S along the west coast of South America, is limited to the east by the austral Andes, and features a hyper-humid, maritime climate. Stroke density exhibits a sharp maximum along the coast of southern Chile. Although precipitation there is largely produced by cold nimbostratus, days with more than one stroke occur up to a third of the time somewhere along the coastal strip. Disperse strokes are also observed off southern Chile. In contrast, strokes are virtually nonexistent over the austral Andes—where precipitation is maximum—and farther east over the dry lowlands of Argentina. Atmospheric reanalysis and satellite imagery are used to characterize the synoptic environment of lightning-producing storms, exemplified by a case study and generalized by a compositing analysis. Lightning activity tends to occur when Western Patagonia is immersed in a pool of cold air behind a front that has reached the coast at ~40°S. Under these circumstances, midlevel cooling occurs before and is more prominent than near-surface cooling, leading to a weakly unstable postfrontal condition. Forced uplift of the strong westerlies impinging on the coastal mountains can trigger convection and produces significant lightning activity in this zone. Farther offshore, large-scale ascent near the cyclone's center may lift near-surface air parcels, fostering shallow convection and dispersing lightning activity.

  12. Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from the tags compare across these different focal foraging areas.

  13. Effects of the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the Western Samoan coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, Beatriz; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tonini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The Samoa islands are located between 169.5°W to 172.9°W and at about 14°S. The main islands are Savaii, Upolu and Tutuila. The islands lay on the Pacific Plate, are of volcanic origin, rise sharply from the seafloor from depths of about 4000 m and are surrounded by smaller islands that are usually coral atolls. Upolu and Savaii are part of the Western Samoa while the Tutuila Island is an American territory. A regional tsunami was triggered on September the 29th 2009 by an offshore earthquake with Mw=8.1 and epicentre located at about 190 km south of Samoa, near the subduction zone between the Pacific and the Australian Plate. The tsunami waves struck severely the islands of Upolu, Manono and Savaii in Western Samoa, and their effects were also observed in Tutuila, Niuatoputapu in northern Tonga, Wallis and Funtuna. A few weeks after the event, a post tsunami field survey was organised by the UNESCO with the cooperation of the University of South Pacific and The Australian Tsunami Research Centre. The field survey had several tasks, including building damage assessment and measurement of tsunami run-ups and inundation along the Western Samoa coast. In this work, measured values of run-up and inundation along some land profiles are shown. The values vary from 0.7 to 6.5 meters, being the most affected zone the south east coast. The measurements have been taken using levelling procedures performed by the UNIBO-INGV team. Damage building assessment was also performed by the team, retrieving information of some structures such as type of material used, age of the structure, degree of exposure to the waves, content of damage and water depth when there were watermarks available.

  14. Pronounced Fixation, Strong Population Differentiation and Complex Population History in the Canary Islands Blue Tit Subspecies Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward re-colonisation of western North Africa from the Canaries remains possible. PMID:24587269

  15. WATER QUALITY: WESTERN FISH TOXICOLOGY STATION AND WESTERN OREGON RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in water quality was compared for the Western Fish Toxicology Station (WFTS), Corvallis, OR, the adjacent Willamette River and approximately 40 major western Oregon rivers from 1972 through 1974. Water temperature patterns of the Willamette River and the WFTS w...

  16. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  17. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  18. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  19. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  20. Natural hazards on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The island of Hawaii and the other islands of the Hawaiian chain are products of volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from hundreds of thousands of eruptions through countless centuries have built the Hawaiian Islands. Some volcanoes on the island of Hawaii have been very active during historic time, and similar activity is expected to continue throughout the foreseeable future.

  1. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  2. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  3. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  4. First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health. PMID:23950989

  5. Influences on the Morphologic Response to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Brenner, O.; Schwab, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm on historical record in the Atlantic basin. The highest waves and storm surge were focused along the New York and New Jersey coasts. At the height of the storm, a wave buoy 55 km offshore of Fire Island, NY recorded a significant wave height of 9.6 m. Storm-tide levels on the beach reached 4.1 m. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after landfall were used to quantify morphologic change in several focus areas. Pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography are used to quantify morphologic change along the length of the island including shoreline and beach change, and volumetric change to the beach and dunes. The extent and thicknesses of washover deposits were also mapped in the field and measurements were used to determine washover volume, distribution and characteristics. The beaches and dunes on Fire Island were severely eroded, and the island breached in three locations on the eastern segment of the island. Landward retreat of the beach averaged -26 m but varied substantially along the coast. The beaches and dunes lost over 50% of their pre-storm volume, and the dunes experienced overwash along 50% of the island. Shoreline change was highly variable with an average progradational trend of 11.4 m, likely due to the deposition of material from the upper beach and dunes onto the lower portion of the beach. Although the entire island experienced extreme erosion in the form of volume loss, beach deflation and dune leveling, the central portion of Fire Island experienced the least impact. Volumetric loss of the beach and dune and overwash extent and volume were lowest in the central segment of the island. Beach and dune volume loss was similar in magnitude on the eastern and western segments of the island, but overwash deposition extent and volume were significantly greater to the east. The variation in the response of the island during Sandy parallels the evolutionary history (decadal to millennial scale behavior) of the coastal system, which is controlled by the antecedent geology. Morphodynamic time series of decades to a century indicate that the central segment of the island is relatively stable, the eastern portion is experiencing shoreward retreat and the western portion is variable but generally stable. The processes driving the differential response on Fire Island are influenced by the geology/morphology of the inner shelf, which is shallowest offshore of central Fire Island and deepens to the east. Sand ridges dominate the shelf offshore of the western segment of the island and influence the distribution of wave energy reaching the coast. The pattern of differential response along the island to this extreme storm event is strikingly similar to variations documented in longer term behavior, suggesting storm response is predictable if the long-term morphodynamics and geology of a coastal system are fairly well understood.

  6. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  7. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  8. The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liller, W.

    The orientations of the several hundred ancient stone monuments on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) have now been measured and analysed. The results indicate that approximately fifteen ceremonial platforms were carefully oriented solsticially or equinoctially.

  9. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  10. Earthquake history of Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Only three shocks (intensity V or greater, Modified Moercalli Scale) have centered in Rhode Island, although several earthquakes in New England and the St.Lawerence Valley have been felt in the State.

  11. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  12. WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

  13. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  14. Introduced predator removal from islands. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, G.V.; Bailey, E.P.; Stahl, W.

    1996-05-01

    In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, artic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western edge of the trajectory of the oil. Surveys indicated that although adequate nesting habitat was available at Simeonof and Chernabura, oystercatcher and guillemot population densities were much lower than at nearby fox-free islands. Elimination of foxes is expected to dramatically increase populations of these injured species as well as other native birds.

  15. Evidence for two shield volcanoes exposed on the island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, R.T.; Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Sawyer, N.-L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The island of Kauai has always been interpreted as a single shield volcano, but lavas of previously correlated reversed-to-normal magnetic-polarity transitions on opposite sides of the island differ significantly in isotopic composition. Samples from west Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr 18.25; samples from east Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7037, ??Nd ??? 6.14, and 206Pb/204Pb < 18.25. Available data suggest that a younger eastern shield grew on the collapsed flank of an older western one.

  16. Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Donna M.

    2005-07-01

    The Department of Energy's second Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) site in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region was established on the island of Nauru as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Analysis of data taken during the Nauru99 intensive field experiment indicated that the cloud and radiation measurements at the ARCS site were being affected by a cloud plume, which was induced by the island due to diurnal heating relative to the ocean and the predominantly easterly flow of the tradewinds. The Nauru Island Effects Study (NIES) was developed to identify times when the island cloud effect occurs and to quantify the effect on the ARCS measurements. The Nauru cloud plume is found to be highly correlated with surface wind direction. During suppressed conditions the plume heading is predominantly to the west because of the consistency of the easterly trade winds. During El Nino conditions, the cloud plume can occur with almost any heading due to the variability of the surface winds. During suppressed conditions the cloud plume was observed in 60% of the visible satellite images after 10:30 LST. During active conditions, the plume was observed in only 25% of the satellite images and only half of the observed plumes were downwind of the ARCS site. This study indicates that the absolute increase in low cloud frequency due to the cloud plume is on the order of 10% and the effect of the cloud plume on the average daily surface radiation is around 50-60 wm. By installing a simple measurement platform consisting of surface meteorological instruments and a global shortwave radiometer at a site on the opposite side of the island, the effect of the cloud plume on the radiation field at the ARCS site can be quantified on a long term basis.

  17. Upper Devonian depositional system of Bel'kov Island (New Siberian Islands): An intracontinental rift or a continental margin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Aristov, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    The archipelago of New Siberian Islands situated on the northeastern continental shelf of Eurasia is considered a part of an exotic terrane that collided with Siberia in the Early Cretaceous. Bel'kov Island is located close to the inferred western boundary of this terrane and thus should demonstrate attributes of its localization at the margin of the Paleozoic oceanic basin. The Upper Devonian section on Bel'kov Island is a continuous sequence of deepwater terrigenous rocks, which indicates a tendency toward deepening of the basin previously revealed on adjacent Kotel'ny Island. The lowermost Upper Devonian unit on Bel'kov Island is represented by thin Domanik-like strata resting on the Middle Devonian carbonate platform. The main body of the Upper Devonian sequence, more than 4 km in total thickness, is made up of gravity-flow sediments including turbidites, clay and block diamictites, and olistostromes in the upper part of the section, which accumulated at the slope of the basin or its rise. At many levels, these sediments have been redeposited by along-slope currents. The uppermost unit of organogenic limestone is evidence for compensation of the trough. According to conodont assemblages, the deepwater terrigenous rocks were deposited from the early Frasnian to the early Tournaisian. This time is known for extensive rifting in the eastern Siberian Platform. The data obtained allowed us to reconstruct a NNW-trending Late Devonian rift basin on the Laptev Sea shelf similar to other rifts at the eastern margin of the Siberian Platform.

  18. Three Mile Island revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lipford, B.L.; Cole, N.M.; Friderichs, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the margin to failure of the lower head are of interest to the nuclear industry. In early 1988 the owner and operator of the TMI facility, had completed a large portion of the defueling work in the reactor core region and was preparing to remove the lower structural internals in order to defuel the area within the lower head. At that point the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (NRC-Res) in Washington, D.C., initiated a project to remove metallurgical specimens from the reactor vessel's lower head region. The goal was to determine the extent of damage to the pressure-retaining boundary in the lower head and to learn what happened during the accident.

  19. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  20. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  1. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  2. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  3. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1′ W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  4. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  5. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  6. Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-12-01

    Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing tributaries to the Rio Culibrinas display drainage asymmetry reflecting an eastward tilt to northwestern Puerto Rico. This tilt and the uplift of northwest Puerto Rico is consistent with its position on the east flank of the Mona Rift footwall uplift.

  7. Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varekamp, J.C.; Bucholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

  8. The Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh. N.; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

    2014-05-01

    Makronisos, which lies 3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion, is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The Cyclades and adjacent part of Attica are dominated by Miocene low-angle detachments that developed during top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the West Cycladic Detachment System. Although extension is well documented on the other Western Cycladic islands and in Attica, the geology of Makronisos is poorly known. The aim of this study is to provide data on the structural, microstructural and metamorphic evolution of Makronisos to resolve its tectonostratigraphic position and its relationships within the Cycladic realm. Most of Makronisos consists of grey, locally graphitic, pelitic schists and yellowish impure marbles, interlayed with blue-grey mylonitic marbles and quartzites, forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasites are present as small bodies along the east side of the island but are thicker and more continuous in the southeast. Petrography shows that metabasites usually contain blue amphiboles, although generally only as relicts after greenschist facies retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The structurally highest level of the island consists of white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites up to 40 m thick. These mainly lie on the central ridge of the island, but, due to large-scale upright folding, also crop out along the east and west coasts. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 m of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and macroscopic shear-criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analyses consistently show the same shear-sense, indicated by shape and crystal preferred orientations, σ- and δ-clasts, mica-fish, rotated veins and SCC' structures. Deformation mechanisms observed in quartz (LT-bulging) and calcite (recrystallization) are evidence for deformation temperatures of c. 300°C. Albite porphyroclasts may preserve an older foliation and layering, exhibiting features of an earlier, higher grade metamorphism and deformation phase. This evolution is consistent with progressive cooling during top-to-SSW deformation. The relict HP-mineral assemblages indicate a correlation with the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and hence the white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites forming the structurally uppermost part of the island can be interpreted as a part of the footwall of the Western Cycladic Detachment System. 40Ar/39Ar analyses on metamorphic white mica from pelitic schists, quartzites and marble mylonites/ultramylonites yield ages between 15 and 22 Ma, with a positive correlation between young ages and higher strain. These results are younger than 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Evvia (55-45 Ma and 35-30 Ma) but are similar to white mica ages on nearby Kea. In combination with the given tectonometamorphic data, this suggests that Makronisos underwent a similar geological history as other Western Cycladic islands.

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  10. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

  11. Permanent upper plate deformation in western Myanmar during the great 1762 earthquake: Implications for neotectonic behavior of the northern Sunda megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Sieh, Kerry; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Chung-Che; Aung, Thura; Lin, Yu-Nung Nina; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Min, Soe; Than, Oo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Tun, Soe Thura

    2013-03-01

    The 1762 Arakan earthquake resulted from rupture of the northern Sunda megathrust and is one of those rare preinstrumental earthquakes for which early historical accounts document ground deformations. In order to obtain more comprehensive and detailed measurements of coseismic uplift, we conducted comprehensive field investigations and geochronological analyses of marine terraces on the two largest islands in western Myanmar. We confirm 3-4 m of coseismic coastal emergence along southwestern Cheduba Island, diminishing northeastward to less than 1 m. Farther northeast, uplift associated with the earthquake ranges from slightly more than 1 m to 5-6 m along the western coast of Ramree Island but is insignificant along the island's eastern coast. This double-hump pattern of uplift coincides with the long-term anticlinal growth of these two islands. Thus, we propose that the 1762 earthquake resulted from slip on splay faults under the islands, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Elastic modeling implies that fault slip during the 1762 earthquake ranges from about 9 to 16 m beneath the islands and corresponds to a magnitude of Mw 8.5 if the rupture length of the megathrust is ~500 km. The island's uplift histories suggest recurrence intervals of such events of about 500-700 years. Additional detailed paleoseismological studies would add significant additional detail to the history of large earthquakes in this region.

  12. The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  14. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  15. Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Letetrel, C.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A.; Delcroix, T.

    2012-01-01

    The western tropical Pacific is usually considered as one of the most vulnerable regions of the world under present-day and future global warming. It is often reported that some islands of the region already suffer significant sea level rise. To clarify the latter concern, in the present study we estimate sea level rise and variability since 1950 in the western tropical Pacific region (20°S-15°N; 120°E-135°W). We estimate the total rate of sea level change at selected individual islands, as a result of climate variability and change, plus vertical ground motion where available. For that purpose, we reconstruct a global sea level field from 1950 to 2009, combining long (over 1950-2009) good quality tide gauge records with 50-year-long (1958-2007) gridded sea surface heights from the Ocean General Circulation Model DRAKKAR. The results confirm that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have a strong modulating effect on the interannual sea level variability of the western tropical Pacific, with lower/higher-than-average sea level during El Niño/La Niña events, of the order of ± 20-30 cm. Besides this sub-decadal ENSO signature, sea level of the studied region also shows low-frequency (multi decadal) variability which superimposes to, thus in some areas amplifies current global mean sea level rise due to ocean warming and land ice loss. We use GPS precise positioning records whenever possible to estimate the vertical ground motion component that is locally superimposed to the climate-related sea level components. Superposition of global mean sea level rise, low-frequency regional variability and vertical ground motion shows that some islands of the region suffered significant 'total' sea level rise (i.e., that felt by the population) during the past 60 years. This is especially the case for the Funafuti Island (Tuvalu) where the "total" rate of rise is found to be about 3 times larger than the global mean sea level rise over 1950-2009.

  16. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  17. Nocturnal offshore convection near the island of Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, Christian; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert; Handwerker, Jan; Kohler, Martin; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In the region of Corsica, located in the western Mediterranean Sea, the mean daily lightning activity for late summer and autumn as an indicator for deep convection shows a distinct maximum in mid-afternoon and a secondary maximum in the night. During the night, most of the lightning activity is located offshore and near the island's coastline. Currently there are no observational data which could be used to explain this nocturnal offshore convection but understanding its formation mechanism is crucial for accurately forecasting the regional weather. In this work, we explore two possible mechanisms initiating nocturnal offshore convection: (i) convergence with subsequent lifting due to the interaction between drainage winds and the synoptic flow over the sea and (ii) dynamically induced lee-side convergence due to the island barrier effect. To this end, we perform numerical simulations with the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at a convection-resolving horizontal grid spacing of 2.8 km. The analysis of two cases with different low-level wind directions reveals that the role of the island's drainage flow can either favour or hinder the development of deep convection. Furthermore, convective initiation is very sensitive to terrain elevation and model initialisation time and small changes of these features can decide whether deep convection occurs or not.

  18. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  19. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  20. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius)

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ben H.; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands. PMID:26871932

  1. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands. PMID:26871932

  2. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  3. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  4. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  5. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mate, Bruce R.; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu.; Bradford, Amanda L.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Tsidulko, Grigory A.; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V.; Irvine, Ladd M.

    2015-01-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north–south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. PMID:25878049

  6. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. PMID:25878049

  7. 2007 Western States Fire Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

  8. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  9. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  10. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  11. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  12. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

  14. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  15. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  16. Single-cell western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Spelke, Dawn P.; Xu, Zhuchen; Kang, Chi-Chih; Schaffer, David V.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    To measure cell-to-cell variation in protein-mediated functions — a hallmark of biological processes — we developed an approach to conduct ~103 concurrent single-cell western blots (scWesterns) in ~4 hours. A microscope slide supporting a 30 µm-thick photoactive polyacrylamide gel enables western blotting comprised of: settling of single cells into microwells, lysis in situ, gel electrophoresis, photoinitiated blotting to immobilize proteins, and antibody probing. We apply this scWestern to monitor single rat neural stem cell differentiation and responses to mitogen stimulation. The scWestern quantifies target proteins even with off-target antibody binding, multiplexes to 11 protein targets per single cell with detection thresholds of <30,000 molecules, and supports analyses of low starting cell numbers (~200) when integrated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. The scWestern thus overcomes limitations in single-cell protein analysis (i.e., antibody fidelity, sensitivity, and starting cell number) and constitutes a versatile tool for the study of complex cell populations at single-cell resolution. PMID:24880876

  17. Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin and diversification patterns of lineages across the Indian Ocean islands are varied due to the interplay of the complex geographic and geologic island histories, the varying dispersal abilities of biotas, and the proximity to major continental landmasses. Our aim was to reconstruct phylogeographic history of the giant orbweaving spider (Nephila) on western Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues), to test its origin and route of dispersal, and to examine the consequences of good dispersal abilities for colonization and diversification, in comparison with related spiders (Nephilengys) inhabiting the same islands, and with other organisms known for over water dispersal. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS2) markers to examine phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in Nephila populations and species. We employed Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, respectively, and calculated genetic distances, fixation indices, and estimated clade ages under a relaxed clock model. Results Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephila inaurata populations via Cenozoic dispersal, and the colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and Comoros. The Mascarene islands share a common 'ancestral' COI haplotype closely related to those found on Madagascar, but itself absent, or as yet unsampled, from Madagascar. Each island has one or more unique haplotypes related to the ancestral Mascarene haplotype. The Indian Ocean N. inaurata are genetically distinct from the African populations. Conclusions Nephila spiders colonized Madagascar from Africa about 2.5 (0.6-5.3) Ma. Our results are consistent with subsequent, recent and rapid, colonization of all three Mascarene islands. On each island, however, we detected unique haplotypes, consistent with a limited gene flow among the islands subsequent to colonization, a scenario that might be referred to as speciation in progress. However, due to relatively small sample sizes, we cannot rule out that we simply failed to collect Mascarene haplotypes on Madagascar, a scenario that might imply human mediated dispersal. Nonetheless, the former interpretation better fits the available data and results in a pattern similar to the related Nephilengys. Nephilengys, however, shows higher genetic divergences with diversification on more remote islands. That the better disperser of the two lineages, Nephila, has colonized more islands but failed to diversify, demonstrates how dispersal ability can shape both the patterns of colonization and formation of species across archipelagos. PMID:21554687

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the island of Panarea: implications for mantle evolution beneath the Aeolian island arc (southern Tyrrhenian sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanchi, N.; Peccerillo, A.; Tranne, C. A.; Lucchini, F.; Rossi, P. L.; Kempton, P.; Barbieri, M.; Wu, T. W.

    2002-06-01

    Major, trace element and radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb) data are reported for a suite of rocks from the Panarea volcano, a large structure that is largely hidden below sea level and outcrops only as a group of small islands between Lipari-Vulcano and Stromboli in the eastern Aeolian arc. The exposed rocks mostly consist of high-potassium calc-alkaline (HKCA) andesites, dacites and some rhyolites; shoshonitic basalts have been collected from submarine centres; mafic calc-alkaline (CA) rocks occur as thin layers of late-erupted strombolian scoriae. Major and trace element data are scattered, but define generally linear trends on inter-element diagrams; Sr-isotope ratios do not display significant increase with evolution, although rough positive trends of 87Sr/ 86Sr versus SiO 2 and Rb/Sr can be recognised within some units. The mafic rocks display varying enrichment in potassium, from CA to shoshonitic compositions, and are characterised by variable abundances of incompatible trace elements, which increase with potassium. There is an increase of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios and a decrease of 143Nd/ 144Nd and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios from CA to HKCA and shoshonitic mafic rocks. The scattered and incomplete nature of the outcrops make it difficult to constrain magmatic evolution at Panarea; geochemical and isotopic data suggest that AFC and mixing were important evolutionary processes. However, geochemical modelling does not support the possibility that the first-order compositional variations observed in the mafic rocks are the result of these processes, and suggests a genesis in a heterogeneous mantle source. Recent studies have highlighted strong differences in terms of incompatible trace element ratios and isotopic signatures, between the western-central and the eastern Aeolian arc. Rocks from the western islands (Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina, Vulcano) have typical magmatic arc geochemical signatures and relatively unradiogenic Sr-isotope compositions. By contrast, the eastern island of Stromboli has a more radiogenic Sr-isotope signature, and shows trace element abundances and ratios that are intermediate between arc and intraplate compositions. Panarea mafic rocks have geochemical and isotopic signatures that are intermediate between those observed in the two sectors of the arc. The late-erupted CA scoriae of Panarea have trace element and isotopic compositions similar to those of the mafic rocks from the western islands of Filicudi and Alicudi, whereas the HKCA and shoshonitic mafic rocks have isotopic and trace element signatures that are closer to those of Stromboli. This reflects the particular position of Panarea, which is sited midway between the western-central arc and Stromboli. According to some recent views, subduction of the Ionian sea plate is actively occurring beneath the eastern Aeolian arc, with rollback of the subduction zone toward the southeast. The Tindari-Letoianni-Malta Escarpment fault zone is considered to be the boundary between the active subducting plate in the east and the African plate and western Aeolian arc in the west. It is suggested that the rollback of the Ionian plate generated inflow of mantle material from below the western arc into the mantle wedge above the subducting Ionian slab. This situation generated a hybrid mantle beneath Panarea, which resulted in a mixture of western-type and resident eastern-arc mantle materials; the latter had a composition akin to the source of Stromboli magmas. Early HKCA and shoshonitic magmatism tapped such a hybrid source, whereas the younger CA activity has been derived from melting of unmodified western-type mantle material. The late eruption of CA rocks with a composition similar to western arc can be explained by assuming that a continuing inflow process had increased the amount of western-type mantle with time, thus favouring the late appearance of CA magmas. This hypothesis accounts for the overall decrease of potassium with time, which is the opposite of the trend observed in other Aeolian islands.

  19. Long Island Sound: a Human Dominated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a marginally marine urban estuary, with Long Island (NY) as its southern coastline, New York and Connecticut along its northern coast. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (East River), but most exchange with the ocean occurs at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. There is also an east-west gradient in indicators of contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals). Western LIS is close to the main population center (New York City), but also is a focusing region for fine- grained sediments. Since the 1970s, western LIS and to a lesser extent, central LIS, suffer summer hypoxia or even anoxia. We used sediment cores in westernmost and central LIS to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement, using microfossil, geochemical, sedimentological, and trace element proxies. Sediment ages were determined using metal pollution records and radiometric carbon dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas were dominated by Elphidium excavatum (feeding on diatoms) at shallow depths (< 12 m, where light penetrates to the bottom), by Elphidium incertum in westernmost LIS and by Buccella frigida and/or Eggerella advena over most of LIS at greater depths. In almost all cores, the absolute abundance of benthic foraminifera and the relative abundance of Elphidium excavatum increased from the early-mid 1800s on. The faunal changes coincided with an increase in contaminant trace metal concentration, with human population growth in the region, with a marked decrease in salinity in westernmost LIS, and with the beginning of low oxygen conditions as indicated by carbon isotope values in foraminiferal tests. At the same time, accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen increased several fold, most extremely so in westernmost LIS. These data thus all indicate that humans influenced LIS and its ecosystems from the mid 19th century on, causing eutrophication, increased fresh water run-off due to urbanization and possibly re-routing of fresh water through waste water treatment plants, and increased organic carbon and trace metal storage in the sediments. A period of additional faunal changes started in the late 1960s, when overall foraminiferal abundance decreased, but Ammonia parkinsoniana, formerly absent or rare, became common to dominant especially in western LIS. This last faunal change might have resulted from even more increased eutrophication, with high N/Si values resulting in decreased dominance of primary producers by diatoms, affecting organisms that feed on them and thus reverberating through the whole ecosystem. We thus document a coastal ecosystem that changed significantly with human population growth in the middle 1800s, and again with more severe eutrophication over the last few decades.

  20. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  1. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  2. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. COMMANDING OFFICER'S OFFICE, FIRST FLOOR. DATED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  5. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  6. Geological features of a collision zone marker: The Antique Ophiolite Complex (Western Panay, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Tamayo, Rodolfo A.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.

    2013-03-01

    The Antique Ophiolite Complex exposed along the western side of Panay Island, central Philippines was derived from the Jurassic to Cretaceous proto-South China Sea oceanic leading edge of the Palawan microcontinental block. The subduction and ultimate closure of this ocean basin resulted in the emplacement and exposure of this lithospheric fragment along the collisional boundary of the microcontinental block and the oceanic- to island arc-affiliated Philippine mobile belt. The ophiolite complex has volcanic rocks having normal- to transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to island arc tholeiitic (IAT) geochemistry consistent with the transitional MORB-IAT characteristics of its peridotites. The chromitites manifest subduction signature suggestive of the involvement of water in its generation. All of these would be consistent with generation in a supra-subduction zone environment, specifically in a subduction-related marginal ocean basin. The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt along western Panay resulted, aside from ophiolite emplacement, into arc curvature, island rotation, serpentinite diapirism and thrusting along the forearc side. The offshore bathymetric expression of the microcontinental block along the collision zone shows the leading edge of this oceanic bathymetric high to have spread laterally. This is indicative of its being buoyant resulting to non-subduction as supported by available earthquake hypocenter data.

  7. A Flatworm from the Genus Waminoa (Acoela: Convolutidae) Associated with Bleached Corals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystal; Clode, Peta L; Thomson, Damian P; Stat, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A flatworm isolated from bleached colonies of the coral Coscinaraea marshae at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, is described using a combination of morphological and molecular systematics. This flatworm shares morphological features characteristic of the genus Waminoa (Acoelomorpha: Acoela), including the presence of two algal symbionts, but appears to have genital regions different from those of other described species of Waminoa. The design of new oligonucleotide primers enabled the amplification of partial 18S rDNA of the Rottnest Island acoel specimens, and phylogenetic analysis positioned them within Waminoa, confirming their placement in the genus. Furthermore, Waminoa specimens from Rottnest Island grouped into a sister clade to Waminoa brickneri, indicating that the morphological and genetic differences observed are most likely intraspecific and due to geographic variation. As such, we name these Rottnest Island specimens W. cf. brickneri, but highlight that key differences warrant further exploration before assignment to this species can be confirmed. This is the first acoel flatworm described from Western Australia and contributes to our understanding of the diversity and evolutionary relationship of the Acoela. PMID:26428725

  8. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  9. Biogeographical history and coalescent species delimitation of Pacific island skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Emoia cyanura species group)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Elaine; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, Robert N.; Reeder, Tod

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the expectations of a stepping-stone model, E. cyanura and E. impar each exhibit the genetic signature of a rapid radiation during the mid to late Pleistocene, with evidence for newly identified lineages, mainly on western islands. Of these recovered lineages, we propose three to be elevated to species status. These findings expand our understanding of endemic Pacific biota, which are subject to conservation threats from human impacts and climate change.

  10. The Kuril Islands as a potential region for aquaculture: Trace elements in chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Khristoforova, Nadezhda K; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Lukyanova, Olga N; Boyarova, Margarita D

    2016-06-01

    The Kuril Islands region is considered promising for development of salmon aquaculture. There are 41 salmon fish hatcheries in the Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands, 34 of them are hatcheries of the chum. Therefore, concentrations of six elements (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) were determined in chum salmon were caught in this region. The contents of toxic elements (Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) don't exceed their maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) according to the Russian sanitary standards, but concentration of Pb are closely to MPC. Increased concentrations of Pb in wild chum have the natural origin. The unusual conditions of the Western Pacific are formed under the influence such factors as volcanism and upwelling. PMID:27023282

  11. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  12. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  13. Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Fox, C.; Byun, S.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Embley, R.

    2003-12-01

    For the past decade, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored volcano-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc volcanoes using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed locations throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since acoustic T-waves obey cylindrical energy attenuation as opposed to the spherical attenuation of solid-earth seismic phases, sound channel hydrophones can detect often smaller and therefore more numerous earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. This property allowed for the detection of harmonic tremor from a submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands on hydrophones >14,000 km away in the eastern Pacific. The first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano appears to have started (from satellite imagery) at 1730Z on 10 May, with an ash plume visible by 2232Z (BGVN, 5 May 2003). Records from a broadband seismometer deployed on nearby ( ˜6.5 km) Sarigan Island indicate earthquake activity increased at about 1300Z on 10 May (D. Weins, pers com). SOSUS hydrophones in the western Pacific ( ˜4000 km distant) also recorded increased earthquake activity at 1300Z on 10 May as well as continuous, low-frequency (<10 Hz) energy (possible volcanic tremor) that began about a day before the seismicity. The earthquakes and tremor were detected on only two SOSUS hydrophones and therefore it was not possible to estimate their source location. The arrival azimuth of the signals were, however, consistent with a source in the Mariana Islands. To complement the SOSUS hydrophone array coverage in the western Pacific Ocean, an array of five autonomous hydrophones were deployed in February 2003 (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program) within the SOFAR channel along the active island- and back-arc of the Mariana Islands. All five hydrophones (1-110 Hz bandpass) were deployed between 13° N and 22° N, with one hydrophone located within 50 km of Anatahan Island. These five hydrophone will be recovered in September 2003, and it is anticipated their data will provide insights into Anatahan, as well as Mariana Island wide, volcano-seismic activity.

  14. Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

    2007-12-01

    The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it wa