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1

Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

1990-05-01

2

Upwelling processes along a western boundary current in the Abrolhos-Campos region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upwelling events observed from the years 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Our focus was on the Abrolhos-Campos region (ACR, 15°S-23°S), which is located along the Brazilian Margin and influenced by a western boundary current, the Brazil Current (BC). Satellite sea surface temperature, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) wind data were used to complement the results of a high-resolution regional oceanic model to investigate the occurrence of and the mechanisms responsible for intense upwelling events in this region. These events were more frequent from 20°S to 23°S. Over 90% of the identified upwelling events were influenced by favorable wind stress. Surface Ekman transport was found to be more important for the region from Prado (17°S) to Marataízes (21°S), whereas upward Ekman pumping played a more important role from 22°S to 23°S. Current-driven upwelling processes associated with the location of the BC as well as its velocity and meso-scale activity were also analyzed. The results showed that these mechanisms are highly influenced by the local topography. Topographic effects exerted via the acceleration of the BC are more obvious in the southern ACR, while in the Prado region, BC cyclonic meanders tend to be more relevant. Moreover, eddy-driven upwelling increases in the southward direction after the passage of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (20°S), an important submarine chain, which acts to constrain and modulate the southward flow of the BC.

Aguiar, A. L.; Cirano, M.; Pereira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.

2014-08-01

3

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

4

Population genetics of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precipitous increase in the abundance of the corallivorous snail Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, raises fundamental questions about the population structure and genetics of this species. We examined genetic heterogeneity at ten polymorphic allozyme loci among samples of adult D. cornus from nine sites along 180 km of Ningaloo Reef, plus two sites from the Abrolhos Islands

K. Holborn; M. S. Johnson; R. Black

1994-01-01

5

Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the

D. G. Masson; A. B. Watts; M. J. R. Gee; R. Urgeles; N. C. Mitchell; T. P. Le Bas; M. Canals

2002-01-01

6

Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

1994-01-01

7

76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY AGENCY: Coast...navigable waters of western Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck...display on the waters of western Long Island Sound, Mamaroneck, NY, no...

2011-12-12

8

Residual circulation in western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current, salinity and temperature measurements from repeated ship transects, complemented by observations from long duration current profilers, are used to characterize the variability and structure of subtidal flow in western Long Island Sound, a region prone to seasonal hypoxia. Subtidal flow plays a leading role in the transport of oxygen and organic matter and must, therefore, be simulated as accurately as possible. We show that during periods of light wind in March and July, the subtidal along-sound flow is vertically and horizontally sheared with lower salinity water in the top 7 m moving eastward toward the ocean at approximately 10 cm s-1 with a counterflow of similar magnitude elsewhere. Velocity contours were found to slope downward to the south, and maximum eastward velocities were found near the surface on the southern half of the section. We find that there is a net transport in the direction of the East River (westward.) The velocity distribution is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions for the steady, frictional, baroclinic pressure gradient driven flow modified by Coriolis acceleration, despite its neglect of advective effects which were found to be important in the present observational analysis. Our estimates of the pressure gradient, the Coriolis acceleration and stress divergence have similar magnitudes. Observation-based estimates of terms in the momentum balance suggest that advection is more important to along-estuary momentum than across-estuary momentum. Along-estuary advection is overestimated in recent hydrodynamic simulations when compared to observed values at sampling locations.

Fribance, Diane Bennett; O'Donnell, James; Houk, Adam

2013-09-01

9

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

10

Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

2006-06-01

11

SUBINERTIAL CURRENT OSCILLATIONS IN WESTERN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial structure of subiner- tial current fluctuations in a section across western Long Island Sound is investigated by using the method of empirical orthogonal func- tions. The variability in the deeper areas of the section is found to be dominated by a setup respc nse to the 1 ongi tudi nal w ind. Tow ard the southern side of

David S. Ullman; Robert E. Wilson

1984-01-01

12

The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

13

Mechanisms controlling summertime oxygen depletion in western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical profile data (salinity, temperature, oxygen, and downwelling irradiance) and in situ incubations of light and dark\\u000a bottles were used to characterize vertical structure and elucidate mechanisms controlling summertime hypoxia in western Long\\u000a Island Sound. The period of oxygen depletion corresponded with the period of thermally-controlled stratification. Bulk density\\u000a differences between surface and bottom waters were only 1.2 to 2.7

Barbara L. Welsh; F. Craig Eller

1991-01-01

14

Subtidal Variability of Dissolved Oxygen in Western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of the subtidal budget of dissolved oxygen in estuaries is developed and applied to observations in western Long Island Sound. The goal is to analyze the causes of hypoxia and develop a predictive capability for its onset and duration by estimating mixing coefficients and comparing simple models of their temporal variability. A single-segment lower-layer box-model for western Long Island Sound is developed. The lower layer oxygen budget is influenced by a mean advection toward the west, horizontal dispersion, vertical mixing, and pelagic and benthic respiration. Inverse methods and eight years of fortnightly ship surveys of salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen throughout the water column at seven stations along the axis of western Long Island Sound are used to estimate parameters and evaluate the model performance. We find a subsurface respiration rate of 3.6 mM/m3/day and a vertical mixing rate of 0.23 cm2/s. A forward model is used to test whether the estimated mixing and respiration can be used to predict temporal variation of mean lower layer DO using DO data at one boundary station and temperature data elsewhere. This approach can assist efficient monitoring of estuarine DO levels.

Gay, P. S.; O'Donnell, J.

2008-12-01

15

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

16

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

17

Paleoseismological investigations in northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate, and produces a series of deformation belts with a lot of seismic activities. The active deformation is evident by wide-spread marine terraces along the coast of western Myanmar. According to several previous studies, the lowest marine terrace formed during the 1762 Arakan earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of about 7.5. From the ages of the marine terraces, these studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years. Near the town of Kyauk-Pyu in northern Ramree Island, a major coastal island in western Myanmar, we found several levels of sea-notches on a sandstone ridge next to the coast. The lowest notch is about 1 m above the present sea-notch, and it has been shown that this lowest notch represents the co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. Since there are up to four levels of uplifted sea-notches above the 1762 notch and each has a ~1 m elevation difference, we suggest that there have been several paleo-earthquake events prior to the 1762 earthquake, and those events had similar magnitude to the 1762 Arakan earthquake. Unfortunately, we were unable to find age constraints for those paleo-earthquake events at this site. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, we found many coral colonies on the wave-cut platform. Except for the present-day living corals, there are three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations. U-Th ages of the uplifted corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. The other two groups of corals suggest that there were at least one event before and after the 1762 earthquake, respectively. The possible event after 1762 has not been reported anywhere else in western Myanmar, thus it may represent a minor, local event. Furthermore, since all of these three uplifted coral groups are lower than the lowest marine terrace, a step of marine terrace may require more than one earthquake event to form in this area. Therefore, the previous studies, which only used the ages of marine terraces, may have overestimated the earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar.

Wang, C.-C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiang, H.-W.; Min, S.; Than, O.; Tun, S. T.

2012-04-01

18

Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

1994-01-01

19

A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

2003-01-01

20

Parasitic mites and microsporidians in managed western honey bee colonies on the island of  

E-print Network

´daction] Recent large-scale die-offs of western honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), aroundParasitic mites and microsporidians in managed western honey bee colonies on the island Shutler Abstract--Western honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), occur in nearly every

Shutler, Dave

21

Western Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Mother and Calf Ecology Off Sakhalin Island  

E-print Network

The western population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is endangered with approximately 130 individuals remaining. Many individuals return annually to the same feeding sites off northeastern Sakhalin Island, indicating a site...

Sychenko, Olga Aleksandrovna

2012-07-16

22

Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

2011-01-01

23

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine

Enrique Serrano; Jerónimo López-Mart??nez

2000-01-01

24

Human Colonization of the Palau Islands, Western Micronesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to new environments is an important issue in colonization research with implications for accurately establishing the timing of human arrival and interpreting the dispersal pattern from the distribution of early archaeological sites. Island groups frequently contain a diverse range of landscapes and geographic variation in their colonization records that might reflect the environmental preference of prehistoric migrants. In the

Geoffrey Clark; Atholl Anderson; Duncan Wright

2006-01-01

25

Spatial Relationships between Western Blackheaded Budworm (Acleris gloverana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Defoliation Patterns and Habitat Zones on Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western blackheaded budworm (Acleris gloverana (Walshingham)) is a cyclic defoliator of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). At least seven blackheaded budworm outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia and severe defoliation has been recorded during five of these outbreaks on Vancouver Island. Spatial patterns of past blackheaded budworm outbreaks on the Island were examined by overlaying them with biogeoclimatic

IMRE S. OTVOS; NEIL BORECKY; ROY F. SHEPHERD; ADAM DEWEY

26

Multiple colonisations of the western Indian Ocean by Pteropus fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae): the furthest islands were colonised first.  

PubMed

We investigate the genetic relationships between purported island species of Pteropus fruit bat (Megachiroptera) from the western Indian Ocean islands using mitochondrial DNA sequencing in order to infer the pattern of colonisation of this biogeographic region. Most significantly, our genetic data questions the current taxonomic assignment based on morphology of many of the island species and subspecies, suggesting instead that many of the western Indian Ocean islands harbour 'races' of P. giganteus from mainland India. Our results strongly argue against a single colonisation event from mainland Asia. Evidence is presented for three colonisation events; the first to the western-most extremity of their range (Comoros and Pemba Island), the second to Rodrigues Island; and a third giving rise to the remaining extant island taxa, the latter two events occurring relatively recently and rapidly. PMID:19249376

O'Brien, John; Mariani, Carol; Olson, Link; Russell, Amy L; Say, Ludovic; Yoder, Anne D; Hayden, Tom J

2009-05-01

27

The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull, western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The afforestation of previously open habitats continues to involve conservation organizations in assessing effects on important species. We investigated the effects of commercial afforestation on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos on the island of Mull, western Scotland, using long-term data on eagle reproductive success and occupancy on 30 home ranges, largely during 1981-99. 2. We modelled home range parameters

D. Philip Whitfield; David R. A. McLeod; Alan H. Fielding; Roger A. Broad; Richard J. Evans; Paul F. Haworth

2001-01-01

28

Physical mechanisms leading to hypoxia and anoxia in Western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased thermal and haline stratification during the summer exacerbate low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Occasionally, as in the summer of 1987, DO is depleted from the water column. In this study, the interaction of thermal and haline stratification and their influence on vertical mixing and DO concentrations in WLIS is elucidated. Diagnostic calculations involving

R. E. Wilson; R. L. Swanson

1995-01-01

29

High-impact conservation: invasive mammal eradications from the islands of western México.  

PubMed

Islands harbor a disproportionate amount of the earth's biodiversity, but a significant portion has been lost due in large part to the impacts of invasive mammals. Fortunately, invasive mammals can be routinely removed from islands, providing a powerful tool to prevent extinctions and restore ecosystems. Given that invasive mammals are still present on more than 80% of the world's major islands groups and remain a premier threat to the earth's biodiversity, it is important to disseminate replicable, scaleable models to eradicate invasive mammals from islands. We report on a successful model from western México during the past decade. A collaborative effort between nongovernmental organizations, academic biologists, Mexican government agencies, and local individuals has resulted in major restoration efforts in three island archipelagos. Forty-two populations of invasive mammals have been eradicated from 26 islands. For a cost of USD 21,615 per colony and USD 49,370 per taxon, 201 seabird colonies and 88 endemic terrestrial taxa have been protected, respectively. These conservation successes are a result of an operational model with three main components: i) a tri-national collaboration that integrates research, prioritization, financing, public education, policy work, capacity building, conservation action, monitoring, and evaluation; ii) proactive and dedicated natural resource management agencies; and iii) effective partnerships with academic researchers in Mexico and the United States. What is now needed is a detailed plan to eradicate invasive mammals from the remaining islands in the region that integrates the needed additional financing, capacity, technical advances, and policy issues. Island conservation in western Mexico provides an effective approach that can be readily applied to other archipelagos where conservation efforts have been limited. PMID:18488552

Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Croll, Donald A; Donlan, C Josh; Henry, R William; Hermosillo, Miguel Angel; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Luna-Mendoza, Luciana; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne; Salas-Flores, Luz María; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Sanchez-Pacheco, Jose Angel; Sheppard, Jacob; Tershy, Bernie R; Toro-Benito, Jorge; Wolf, Shaye; Wood, Bill

2008-03-01

30

Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock glaciers are found in the peripheral regions of Antarctica particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Study of these features is relevant for the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of maritime Antarctica because they are indicators of permafrost and periglacial conditions. This paper reports and analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. Nine rock glaciers and eleven protalus lobes have been identified. All of them are located in recently deglaciated zones between 300 m a.s.l. and sea level and they cover an area of 497×103 m 2. Tongue-shaped rock glaciers are more common than lobate types, being in general of medium and small sizes. They are talus rock glaciers (55%) and debris rock glaciers (45%), according to the genetic classification. The lack of a preferred orientation suggests that there is no significant microclimate control on their distribution. They are related to particular morphodynamic situations. Estimated annual velocities, based on relationships with raised beaches and transported debris volumes, range between 2.4 and 97 cm year -1, within the ranges reported for other rock glaciers. Three groups of rock glaciers can be recognised: (a) those immediate postdating the last major ice recession, (b) rock glaciers younger than 2000 years BP but pre-dating the Little Ice Age (LIA), and (c) rock glaciers formed during the LIA.

Serrano, Enrique; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

2000-10-01

31

High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

2011-01-01

32

Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

2012-10-01

33

Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August’ September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered\\u000a western gray whale

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. Nielson; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

34

Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms, and seasonal hypoxia in western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of seasonal hypoxia was studied weekly in the western narrows of Long Island Sound (WLIS) during the summers of\\u000a 1992 and 1993 by measuring hydrographic properties, biological oxygen demand (BOD), biomass, production, and mortality of\\u000a phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in the water column. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters was low and variable during stratified\\u000a periods (19–51% saturation), oscillating in and

Timothy H. Anderson; Gordon T. Taylor

2001-01-01

35

Late Quaternary Depositional History and Anthropogenic Impacts of Western Long Island Sound, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2006, we surveyed the seafloor of western Long Island Sound with the R\\/V HUGH SHARP and collected multibeam bathymetry, chirp subbottom profiling, side-scan sonar imagery, and sediment samples (25 gravity cores, 11 multicores, and 10 grabs). In addition, 36 CTD hydrocast stations measured O, pH, alkalinity, trace metals, nutrients, Polonium-210, Lead-210, Thorium-234, organic carbon, and pigments. Continuous weather

C. M. McHugh; M. Cormier; P. Marchese; Y. Zheng; G. Stewart; V. Acosta; A. Bowman; A. Cortes; L. Leon; M. Rosa; D. Semple; N. Thaker; W. Vargas; L. Williams

2006-01-01

36

78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...to four western Pacific fishery ecosystem plans, relating to fishing in three marine national monuments. The...

2013-07-02

37

History of Contamination and Coastal Hazards in Western Long Island Sound, N.Y.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Island Sound, estuary borders metropolitan New York at its western end where it has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities and natural hazards such as storm surges and floods. The waters and sediments of western Long Island Sound (LIS) accumulate many pollutants including heavy metals and organic matter loadings. Seasonal hypoxic conditions are a major water quality problem, not only with regards to the damage to its ecosystems, but also for the important fishing industry that LIS sustains. On June 2006, we surveyed LIS from 73°30'W to 73°50'W from the R/V Hugh Sharp collecting high-resolution subbottom seismic (chirp) profiles, multibeam bathymetric data and 25 gravity cores (up to 3 m long). The total organic carbon (TOC) and mercury contents measured in the sediments confirm that their concentrations systematically increase from east to west towards New York City. Mercury concentrations increase westward from 700 to 1200 ppb with pre-industrial values of 50 ppb. In contrast, TOC concentrations indicate that eutrophied conditions did exist in western LIS prior to industrialization with pre-industrial concentrations of 3.8% in the west. These concentrations increased due to anthropogenic activities to values in excess of 10%. High-resolution chirp and sonar data reveal that bottom circulation in western LIS is constrained by bedrock some of which outcrops near 73°45'W. The LIS western outlet to the East River at 73°55'W is controlled by the narrow, shallow sill of Hell Gate. The funnel shape of LIS and these bedrock constrictions contribute to significantly decrease tidal and wind induced currents from east to west (60 to10 cm/s). We propose that this decrease in flow velocity leads to sediment deposition and to the concentration of pollutants. We further suggest that hypoxic conditions possibly existed prior to anthropogenic activities due to the basin morphology and decreased circulation. Previous studies based on stable O and C isotopes do indeed indicate that it was hypoxic to anoxic. Finally, our measurements indicate that storms/floods also lead to erosion and deposition of pollutants in western LIS. We are developing a chronology to link erosional surfaces and peak abundances in heavy metals to the historical record of storms, and to a longer-term record to document their recurrence intervals. This will form a basis to assess future potential detrimental effects that storms may have on the Long Island Sound estuary due to climate change.

McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Pant, H.; Varekamp, J.; Marchese, P.; Charles, T.; Bowman, A.; Vargas, W.; Balbas, A.; Boteju, J.

2007-12-01

38

Search for Ozone Plumes over Western Long Island Sound, NY, CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search has been conducted for near-surface ozone plumes extending roughly northeastward from New York City, by employing ozonesondes carried by a boat on western Long Island Sound. This water-borne search pattern avoids the local sources densely distributed on land in the suburban counties and small cities in Westchester, Long Island, and Connecticut. The observations are done using ECC 2Z ozonesondes and Vaisala 80-15 radiosondes normally used for ozone profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere. The sensors were placed forward on the boat, to avoid ozone produced by the boat's own engine. Several straight traverses were made between the north and south shores. These were extended into bays and harbors where it was possible without much bending of the trajectory, in order to lengthen the runs and carry them close to shore. These runs proceeded (somewhat diagonally, zig-zagging) from west to east, followed by a straight 30 mile direct radial transit approaching New York City southwestward. The data has been examined to look for aligned peaks on the transverse runs at the various radial distances from New York City, which would indicate the existence of ozone plumes transported northeastward from the city. Concentration variation in the radial direction was also examined. The study is expected to be extended to eastern Long Island Sound and the New York bight, south of Long Island

Cotten, D. E.; Austin, S.; Johnson, L. P.; Johnson, R.; Marchese, P.; Guerrero, J.; Reid, J.; Cotten, C. D.; Cotten, G. D.

2007-12-01

39

Large-scale impact of the island mass effect through nitrogen fixation in the western South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

describe a new mechanism for the island mass effect fueled by nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen fixation activities and ?15N of suspended particles in the surface water in the South Pacific were examined. Active nitrogen fixation and abundant Trichodesmium spp. were observed near islands in the western subtropical region, which was attributable to the material supplied by land runoff. High primary production was extensively centered around the islands and was characterized by low ?15N of suspended particles and a reduction in phosphate concentrations at the surface compared with the subtropical gyre and eastern equatorial upwelling. This suggested that Trichodesmium spp. were advected to areas remote from these islands, and consequently, the elevated primary production fueled by nitrogen fixation extended over a large area around them. Because the proposed island mass effect is triggered by a terrigenous nutrient supply, this ecosystem is potentially vulnerable to human activity on small islands.

Shiozaki, Takuhei; Kodama, Taketoshi; Furuya, Ken

2014-04-01

40

Sedimentation in the coastal reefs of Abrolhos over the last decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs of the coastal area of Abrolhos are located in an environment with a high influx of terrigenous sediments that are carried out to the sea, either as a result of natural processes (river output, coastal erosion, and torrents) or due to anthropogenic influences (deforestation, coastal development, and dredging). Excessive terrigenous sediment in coastal areas has been identified as one of the major threats to coral reefs, leading to their worldwide decline. The present study assessed the evolution of sedimentation in the Abrolhos coastal reefs during the past decades by analyzing samples from sediment cores collected near the reefs of Coroa Vermelha (located 15 km from the coast), Pedra de Leste (located 12 km from the coast) and Popa Verde (located 35 km from the coast). The purpose of this assessment was to observe whether the previously described pattern of surficial bottom sediment distribution in Abrolhos, which consisted of terrigenous mud in the nearshore reefs, to carbonate-dominant sediments towards the offshore reefs, is still a prevalent feature. Sediment color, texture, CaCO3 percentage, biogenic compounds and clay minerals, as well as the sedimentation rate and the geochronology of the sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed indications of an increase in the deposition of terrigenous mud, over the last decade, in the vicinity of the reefs nearest to the coast, though this does not yet constitute a definitive evidence of such a change. However, this observation therefore suggests that local processes resulting from anthropogenic actions are most likely causing an increase of the sedimentation rate of continent-derived sediment runoff in the Abrolhos coastal areas. To minimize this situation, there is an urgent need for the development of new management strategies to protect the already disturbed Abrolhos coastal reefs, especially during times of global changes.

Silva, A. S.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Costa, A. B.; Souza, J. R. B.

2013-11-01

41

Estimates of horizontal fluxes of oxygen, heat, and salt in western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bottom waters of western Long Island Sound decreases to hypoxic levels between April and July. Since the rate of decline of DO is considerably less than measured respiration, there must be significant vertical transport of DO from oxygen richer waters near the surface and/or horizontal transport from the central Sound. Simple model budgets with either of these sources are able to provide predictions of the seasonal rate of decline that are consistent with the observed values. Although prior budget estimates indicated that vertical fluxes were a significant portion of the resupply of DO, these were not able to discount the possible importance of horizontal fluxes, nor have there been any measurements of horizontal fluxes in this region. We present an analysis of time series of moored conductivity, temperature, DO, and current observations in the hypoxic area of Long Island Sound during the summers of 2005 and 2006. We estimate the near-bottom along-channel flux divergences of salt, heat, and DO as 0.11 ± 0.08 g kg-1 d-1, -5 ± 6 W m-3, and 4 ± 6 ?M d-1, respectively. Since this horizontal DO transport is only 25% of the magnitude of the mean rate of respiration, we conclude that vertical transport by mixing forms the bulk of the physical resupply of DO to the hypoxic zone of the western Sound.

McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James

2014-10-01

42

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.  

PubMed

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

2013-01-01

43

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 ?S/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 ?S/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly affected by tide. Transmissivity was estimated using transmissivity (T) ~ specific capacity (Q/s) relationsip: T = 0.99(Q/s)0.89/ proposed by Hamm et al. (2005). T estimates ranged from 21.9 to 2664.3m2/d, and Q/s estimates ranged from 32.4 to 7,143m2/d. The average drawdown is 12.9 m, between 0.1 and 40 m, presenting a wide variation of drawdown on different monitoring wells. From drill data, geophysical logs, and pumping tests, it is concluded that main aquifers develops in jointed parts in lava sequence, especially hyaloclastic breccia, and gravels and unconsolidated sands in Seoguipo Formation. Keywords: transmissivity, specific capacity, geophygical log, pumping test, Jeju volcainc Island Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3-4-3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center) and by the 2nd stage of the BK21 Project, Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

2008-12-01

44

Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

1999-10-01

45

Perspectives on long-term variations in hypoxic conditions in western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound (wLIS) has experienced a long-term decline in the July/August summer minima bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations. This decline continues despite New York City having eliminated routine raw discharges of sewage, upgraded sewage treatment to nearly complete secondary, and introduced nitrogen control. It is our conclusion that long-term changes in physical oceanographic processes are having an impact on the hypoxia problem in wLIS. Specifically, we show that interannual variations in summertime thermal and haline stratification contribute to variations in vertical mixing which controls the ventilation of bottom waters. Analyses of bottom dissolved oxygen and density stratification point directly to the importance of wind-induced current shear in controlling stratification and vertical mixing; numerical simulations support this result. Interannual variations in both the direction and directional constancy of summertime winds over wLIS are shown to control the ventilation of bottom waters and thereby the seasonal development of hypoxia.

Wilson, Robert E.; Swanson, R. Lawrence; Crowley, Heather A.

2008-12-01

46

The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

47

Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Nio/La Nia transitions  

E-print Network

Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Niño/La Niña: Gierach, M. M., M. Messié, T. Lee, K. B. Karnauskas, and M.-H. Radenac (2013), Biophysical responses near

Karnauskas, Kristopher

48

Intermittent ventilation in the hypoxic zone of western Long Island Sound during the summer of 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, salinity, and temperature, during summer of 2004, at three levels on two moorings in the area of western Long Island Sound that is prone to seasonal hypoxia are described. Ship surveys in the area reveal that the DO concentration below the pycnocline decreases at approximately 2.4 mM m-3 d-1 throughout the summer. We show that this is the net result of oscillations in the rate of change of the DO concentration with periods of 3 to 7 days. During intervals of declining DO concentration, the rate of change is consistent with previous estimates of the rate of community respiration. Since there is insufficient light for photosynthesis below the pycnocline, increasing DO concentration (ventilation) must be a consequence of either vertical mixing or horizontal advection from regions of higher concentration. Analysis of the covariation of DO, salinity, and temperature and knowledge of the mean property distributions allow us to associate most (˜80%) of the ventilation intervals with increased vertical mixing. Comparison of DO and wind stress measurements suggest that it is the component in the along-sound direction that controls the occurrence of ventilation, perhaps through modification of the rate of stratification by the density-driven circulation. We conclude that the spatial and temporal variability of vertical mixing is crucial to understanding the duration and extent of hypoxia in the Long Island Sound estuary.

O'Donnell, James; Dam, Hans G.; Bohlen, W. Frank; Fitzgerald, William; Gay, Peter S.; Houk, Adam E.; Cohen, David C.; Howard-Strobel, Mary M.

2008-09-01

49

Islands increase genetic subdivision and disrupt patterns of connectivity of intertidal snails in a complex archipelago.  

PubMed

The view that marine species with planktonic dispersal have highly connected, demographically open populations is giving way to recognition that populations may often be largely self-recruiting, or demographically closed. This raises the question of what local conditions might favor isolation of populations. To test the importance of islands for local isolation in species with planktonic larvae, we examined allozyme variation among 35 populations of the intertidal snail Austrocochlea constricta in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, spanning 60 km. Heterogeneity of allozyme frequencies among populations was high, with average F(ST) of 0.237, indicating highly localized populations. Increased subdivision was associated with islands at different scales: between island groups, separated by deep water gaps, and between disconnected sets of islands within groups. At short distances, up to two km, subdivision increased fivefold between islands compared with that between populations on the same island. Along 11 km of continuous, sheltered shore, there was isolation by distance but among a linear series of islands over similar distance, there was greater subdivision at short distances but no association with distance. These patterns had been seen previously in the direct-developing snail Bembicium vittatum, but its finding in A. constricta confirms for a planktonic disperser the importance of this complex archipelago for both retention of locally produced larvae and disruption of patterns of connectivity. Taken together, these results indicate that islands can increase both the "open" and the "closed" components of recruitment and that applicable models of genetic connectivity depend substantially on local conditions. PMID:17263112

Johnson, Michael S; Black, Robert

2006-12-01

50

Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

2014-01-01

51

Three dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. The view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar image on a TOPSAR digital elevation map. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of the shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flowas as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43913.

1994-01-01

52

Middle-Upper Triassic carbonate platforms in Minorca (Balearic islands): Implications for Western Tethys correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to progress in the knowledge of the Middle to Upper Triassic evolution of the western Tethys realm, an integrated approach which includes new sedimentological, sequence stratigraphic and biostratigraphic data, has been accomplished in the carbonate marine successions (Muschelkalk facies) of that age in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). The new biostratigraphy, which includes six successive ammonoid biozones, allowed to assign these carbonate successions to the uppermost Anisian-lower Carnian interval. The integration of the new chronostratigraphic framework with the sedimentological analysis allowed to recognize five main successive stages of carbonate platform evolution: 1) Initial marine transgression and shallow ramp development (uppermost Anisian); 2) Carbonate ramp drowning (Anisian-Ladinian boundary); 3) Prevalence of open sea conditions (Ladinian-early Carnian); 4) Abrupt sea-level drop (intra-lower Carnian) and; 5) Shallow carbonate ramp and transition to sabkha systems (Keuper facies). Furthermore, the sequence stratigraphic analysis allowed to divide some of these stages into depositional sequences. Minorca was located in the westernmost Tethys area during the Triassic, in a key paleogeographic location close to the present-day Iberia, Sardinia and the Cottian and Southern Alps. The new data have allowed an interregional comparative analysis among these areas, with recognition of major suprarregional events and episodes in the framework of the western Tethys evolution.

Escudero-Mozo, M. J.; Martín-Chivelet, J.; Goy, A.; López-Gómez, J.

2014-08-01

53

Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.  

PubMed

This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2015-01-01

54

Are seismic surveys responsible for cetacean strandings? An unusual mortality of adult Humpback Whales in Abrolhos Bank, Northeastern coast of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) aggregate at Abrolhos Bank, Bahia and Espírito Santo States, during spring-winter season for breeding and calving. The Instituto Baleia Jubarte\\/Humpback Whale Institute - Brazil maintains a permanent marine mammal rescue program along the coast adjacent to the Abrolhos Bank, aiming to register the strandings of humpback whales and to identify their probable cause of death. Since

MÁRCIA H. ENGEL; MILTON C. C. MARCONDES; FABIA O LUNA; REGIS P. LIMA; ALEXANDRE CAMPOS

55

Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication  

PubMed Central

The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

2014-01-01

56

Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

2014-01-01

57

Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

2014-05-15

58

Late Quaternary Depositional History and Anthropogenic Impacts of Western Long Island Sound, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2006, we surveyed the seafloor of western Long Island Sound with the R/V HUGH SHARP and collected multibeam bathymetry, chirp subbottom profiling, side-scan sonar imagery, and sediment samples (25 gravity cores, 11 multicores, and 10 grabs). In addition, 36 CTD hydrocast stations measured O, pH, alkalinity, trace metals, nutrients, Polonium-210, Lead-210, Thorium-234, organic carbon, and pigments. Continuous weather measurements, and water column properties using both CTD casts and a towed Scanfish were also carried out. Biological sampling included benthic grabs and plankton nets. The National Science Foundation under the "Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences" Program funded this one-week survey. Nine students from underrepresented groups in the geosciences and five P.I.'s participated in the field program. The major scientific objectives were to study the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and Holocene transgression of sea level to document age, sedimentation processes, and climate, and the impact of anthropogenic activities in the sediments, biota, and waters of the estuary. A deep (35 m) and narrow (< 1km) channel incised into bedrock characterizes the East River section of western Long Island Sound. In contrast, thick sedimentary deposits characterize the eastern part of the study area, 20 to 45 km east of New York City. Subbottom penetration reached in some instances 40 m, but is limited to less than 5 m where sediments are gas-charged. Four seismic sequences are imaged in the chirp records that we interpret to span the Last Glacial Maximum to Present: strong irregular erosional surfaces beneath parallel seismic reflectors are interpreted as glacial erosional surface and/or moraines, and as Glacial lake Connecticut sediments ~25 m thick, respectively. A thin veneer (<1 m) of acoustically transparent sediment is interpreted as recent deposits. It overlays a roughly 15 m thick unit interpreted as Holocene transgressive marine. Pipelines, cables, and shipwrecks were clearly imaged with the sonar data (multibeam bathymetry, sidescan imagery, and chirp profiles) and will be systematically inventoried.

McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Marchese, P.; Zheng, Y.; Stewart, G.; Acosta, V.; Bowman, A.; Cortes, A.; Leon, L.; Rosa, M.; Semple, D.; Thaker, N.; Vargas, W.; Williams, L.

2006-12-01

59

Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

2007-01-01

60

Did multiple sediment-associated stressors contribute to the 1999 lobster mass mortality event in Western Long Island Sound, USA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-bottom hypoxia during summer months has been a documented recurring phenomenon for decades in western Long Island Sound\\u000a (WLIS); this temperate estuary has also supported, until 1999, a substantial American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery.\\u000a In response to a dramatic mass die-off of lobsters that began in WLIS in the late summer of 1999, a benthic habitat survey\\u000a using a sediment-profile

Raymond M. Valente; Carmela Cuomo

2005-01-01

61

Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ?30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (?30,000–26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and

Thomas A. Ager

2003-01-01

62

Evaluación experimental de rodolitos como sustratos vivos para la infauna en el Banco de Abrolhos, Brasil Experimental evaluation of rhodoliths as living substrata for infauna at the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over large areas of the Brazilian continental shelf, coralline algal rhodoliths provide habitats with high community diversity. In order to understand the role of rhodoliths in structuring the poorly studied infauna of these habitats, we determined seasonal patterns of their size and shape related to the associated biota, and experimentally tested the influence of living substrata in the Abrolhos Archipelago

K Santos de Menezes; EM Costa-Paiva; PC Paiva; CRR Ventura

63

Optical determinations of suspended sediment dynamics in western Long Island Sound and the Connecticut River plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of beam attenuation attributed to suspended sediments, cp, and the slope of the log-transformed attenuation spectrum, ?, were used to investigate the properties and dynamic nature of matter suspended in the waters of western Long Island Sound (LIS) and the adjacent Connecticut River plume (CRP). Within the LIS, cp and ? indicate a robust relationship between sediment concentration and particle size distribution (PSD). As concentration increased, the PSD shifted to larger particles. The highest concentrations and particle sizes were found in a nepheloid layer adjacent to the sound floor. Within the adjacent CRP, sediments were observed to shift towards smaller particles at the lateral plume boundary, where current shear stress may have disrupted large particle aggregates, relative to sediments in the more quiescent plume interior. A strong linear correlation between ? and salinity was also found, indicating that mixing between the two water masses may also have altered the PSD of the plume sediments. A suspended sediment attenuation model based on Mie theory, a power law form of the PSD, and a single sediment source indicates that the observed changes in LIS cp and ? are consistent with sediment removal as particles settle with size-dependent rates. In contrast, within the CRP, the model supports the hypothesis that turbulence-induced aggregate disruption at the lateral plume boundary is responsible for the observed variability in cp and ?. However, mixing between the LIS and CRP particle populations would violate the single source requirement of the model and necessitate a more complicated set of particle dynamics in order to correctly interpret the observed variability in particulate attenuation.

Ackleson, Steven G.

2006-07-01

64

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1  

PubMed Central

A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

65

Topographical and hydrographical impacts on the structure of microphytoplankton assemblages on the Abrolhos Bank region, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted at the Abrolhos Bank (15°60?-21°30?S; 37°00?-40°30?W), Brazil, in July and August 2007, to evaluate the topographic and hydrographic influences on microphytoplankton composition and relative abundance. Net phytoplankton was collected from the top 200 m of the water column to assess diversity proxies (species richness, Shannon index, dominance and equitability) and compared with thermohaline, nutrient and chlorophyll profiles. A total of 326 taxa occurred in the area. Patterns in spatial distribution of microphytoplankton assemblages were two-fold: a north-south gradient linked to variations in temperature and nitrite, and a coast-offshore gradient associated with the depth of the mixed layer and the Brunt-Väisälä maximum frequency. Microphytoplankton assemblages were typical of tropical oligotrophic environments. However, the inshore community found on the Abrolhos Bank was enriched by bottom dwelling, large-sized cells ressuspended from local sediments as a result of the highly dynamic coastal circulation. Species diversity was high in oceanic sites where water column stability as measured by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency achieved its maxima, but high values of ecological indexes were also found in the southern part of the study area influenced by bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, giving support to the notion that phytoplankton diversity increases at intermediate levels of environmental disturbance.

Susini-Ribeiro, Sylvia M. M.; Pompeu, Mayza; Gaeta, Salvador A.; de Souza, Júlia S. D.; Masuda, Laura S. D.

2013-11-01

66

Meroplankton spatial structure and variability on Abrolhos Bank and adjacent areas, with emphasis on brachyuran larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of meroplanktonic stages of benthic invertebrates was investigated on the Abrolhos Bank and adjacent shelf and oceanic areas during winter. Meroplanktonic larvae occurred at all stations, with higher total density in shallow sites, the same being observed for eight out of 14 taxonomic groups identified, including brachyurans. Brachyuran larvae were analyzed in detail, leading to a list of 61 taxa for the area, 24 of which accounted for half of the total brachyuran larval density. No estuarine species of brachyuran larvae was recorded in the surveyed area, suggesting that continental input from nearby river estuaries is negligible on the shelf ecosystem. Larvae of coastal species, such as Acantholobulus schmitti, Hexapanopeus spp. and Pinnixa sayana dominated at certain innermost stations and were not found on the outer shelf, suggesting the existence of larval retention mechanisms within the reef system. The occurrence of a single cluster of shallow stations in ordination analysis, associated with high densities of early developmental stages throughout the Abrolhos Bank, indicates a relatively homogeneous distribution of larval assemblages over the bank and the existence of a certain degree of connectivity among spatially separated populations, by means of larval dispersion.

Koettker, Andréa Green; Lopes, Rubens M.

2013-11-01

67

Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

2014-01-01

68

75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline...annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

2010-01-12

69

Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

2006-11-01

70

Spatial patterns of benthic megahabitats and conservation planning in the Abrolhos Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of sidescan sonar at the regional scale of the Abrolhos Bank, with ground-truthing by remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas diving operations, revealed a much more complex habitat mosaic than previously recognized. The regional benthic habitat map indicates 8844 km2 of reefs (earlier estimates from remote sensing were around 500 km2) and 20,904 km² of rhodolith habitat—the world's largest continuous bed. Integration of the regional megahabitat map with spatially explicit data on the distribution of marine protected areas (<0.2% of each benthic megahabitat area) and economic activities with the highest potential of environmental impact (fishing, mining, oil and gas exploitation and dredging) reveals the need of a regional scale spatial planning process engaging conflicting sectors.

Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Secchin, Nélio Augusto; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Freitas, Matheus Oliveira; Minte-Vera, Carolina Viviana; Teixeira, João Batista; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Dutra, Guilherme Fraga; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Guth, Arthur Zigliatti; Lopes, Rubens Mendes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso

2013-11-01

71

Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189±4 ka. Then the activity was followed by the construction of the Mte Terrione at 168±4 ka (Gillot 1987), which is matched by High K-Ca andesites emplaced in the Chiumento crater. Therefore, two different magmatic series took place in only 15 ka. The last eruption of Filicudi built the High K-CA dacite lava dome of Mte Montagnola. For Lipari island, the same event is observed around 120-100 ka. In fact, the emitted products evolved from CA andesitic basalts, that emplaced from 256±8 ka (Monte Chirica) to 119±7 ka (Monterosa), to High K-CA andesite after 100 ka. The rocks becam more and more differentiated to achieve High K-CA rhyolite composition during the last 40 ka. At the same time, the Monte Fossa delle Felci of Salina island shows a geochemical "excursion" around 100 ka, characterised by High K-CA dacite. The lower limit of Pollara explosive eruption, that emitted High K-CA rhyolite products, is constrain by a Monte dei Porri lava flow affected by Pollara crater and dated at 13±2 ka. Thus, all these magmatic changes correlate with morphological and volcanic variations. Finally, our first results confirm that the Aeolian arc volcanism is generated in a complex source, with important roles of both arc-type and anorogenic-type compositions. Datings on key samples show that role of different mantle sources change within a very short time span, especially in the central portion of the arc, along the TL lithosheric fault system. This work also gives new geochronological constrains on the duration of magmatic evolution and eruptive phases.

Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

2009-04-01

72

Anthropogenic Disturbance of Western Gray Whale Behavior Off Sakhalin Island, Russia  

E-print Network

The western North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered of extinction. The population size is estimated to be 131 individuals with 31 reproductive females. Throughout their potential home range...

Gailey, Glenn Andrew

2013-05-14

73

Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data  

PubMed Central

The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens. PMID:22679480

Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2012-01-01

74

Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001–2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance

Alexandre N. Zerbini; Janice M. Waite; Jeffrey L. Laake; Paul R. Wade

2006-01-01

75

Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

1996-01-01

76

Episodes of surface westerly winds as observed from islands in the western tropical Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the characteristics of surface westerly wind episodes in the tropical Pacific between mid-1957 and 1980, as they can be determined from a collection of daily average wind records from islands. Several types of frequency of occurrence and duration statistics are presented; events in which the maximum westerly anomalies exceed 7 m s-1 are not common, but are prominent

D. E. Harrison; Benjamin S. Giese

1991-01-01

77

Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances. PMID:24751287

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

2014-01-01

78

Hypogene Speleogenetic Evidences in the Development of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca Island, Western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the southern part of the island of Mallorca, and developed in Upper Miocene reefal limestones, the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera\\u000a is an exceptional coastal cave. Littoral mixing dissolution processes represent the most important speleogenetic mechanism\\u000a to be considered in the eogenetic karst platform where it develops. Nevertheless, part of the cave consists of an extensive\\u000a network of galleries

J. J. Fornós; A. Ginés; J. Ginés; F. Gràcia; A. Merino; J. Cifre; F. Hierro

79

Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

2008-12-01

80

Late Holocene palynology and palaeovegetation of tephra?bearing mires at Papamoa and Waihi Beach, western Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation history of two mires associated with Holocene dunes near the western Bay of Plenty coast, North Island, New Zealand, is deduced from pollen analysis of two cores. Correlation of airfall tephra layers in the peats, and radiocarbon dates, indicate that the mires at Papamoa and Waihi Beach are c. 4600 and c. 2900 conventional radiocarbon years old, respectively.

R. M. Newnham; D. J. Lowe; G. N. A. Wigley

1995-01-01

81

Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ?30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (?30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ?30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

Ager, Thomas A.

2003-07-01

82

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

83

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

84

Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

2005-01-01

85

Nd-Sr-Hf-Pb Isotope Evidence for HIMU Source Evolution in the Western Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb isotope ratios of Canary Island (CI) lavas tend toward radiogenic compositions that indicate the presence of HIMU (high 238U/204Pb) mantle sources, although the ratios are not as extreme as for some HIMU volcanoes such as Tubuai, Mangaia and St. Helena. Most published isotope data for the Canary Islands are from the eastern islands where the isotopic signature may be complicated by interaction with continent-derived material. We have focused our study on the westernmost islands of La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro to minimize effects of interaction with continental material. In addition, for each island we analyzed stratigraphic sections within well-constrained time intervals to resolve temporal variations and the importance of intravolcano vs. intervolcano heterogeneities. The range of ?Nd and ?Hf isotope compositions is fairly restricted (4.5 to 6.5 and 6.0 to 9.0, respectively). Isotopic variability within single volcanoes is nearly as large as among all three islands. CI basalts have, for a given Nd isotope composition, Hf isotope compositions at the lower limit of oceanic basalts observed worldwide. The magnitude of this offset is similar to that for extreme HIMU basalts, however the CI basalt Pb compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 19.5 to 20.0) are not as radiogenic as extreme HIMU basalts. In 207/204Pb vs. 206/204Pb isotope space, nearly all analyzed samples lie below the NHRL of Hart (1984) (?7/4 = -1 to -4). High-precision MC-ICP-MS Pb analyses of La Gomera lavas show this offset is consistent and tightly defined (?7/4 = -1.2 to -2.4). There is no evidence for a component with relatively high 207Pb/204Pb, as observed in the eastern CI, and interpreted as interaction with enriched lithosphere (Hoernle et al., 1991) or African-derived sediment (Thirlwall, 1997). HIMU sources are reasonably attributed to ancient recycled oceanic crust. CI source evolution to relatively high 206Pb/204Pb for a given 207Pb/204Pb (i.e., ?7/4 < 0) requires fractionation to a high U/Pb environment relatively recently (a few hundred Ma to < 1 Ga). In contrast, evolution to relatively low ?Hf isotope compositions in the CI source requires storage of oceanic crust for at least 1 Ga. Models satisfying both isotopic systems have a small range of overlapping values for age and parent/daughter fractionation indicating aging of a reservoir enriched compared to normal MORB. Candidate sources are recycled E-MORB or the upper (non-cumulate) parts of recycled oceanic plateaux. Hart, S.R. (1984) Nature 309, 753-757.\\Hoernle, K., Tilton, G., Schminke, H.-U. (1991) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 106, 44-63.\\Thirlwall, M.F. (1997) Chem. Geol. 139, 51-74.

Nelson, B. K.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Albarède, F.; Guetschow, H.

2002-12-01

86

Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the presence of upper-plate splay fault events suggests that the proposed earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar may be overestimated.

Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe

2014-05-01

87

Trends in indicators of eutrophication in Western Long Island Sound and the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant improvements in water quality have been observed for several decades throughout much of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary,\\u000a primarily as a result of regional abatement of municipal and industrial discharges. These improvements include area-wide,\\u000a order-of-magnitude reductions in ambient coliform concentrations and significant increases in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.\\u000a In contrast to these improvements, DO in bottom waters of the western Long

Marie L. O’Shea; Thomas M. Brosnan

2000-01-01

88

Population genetics of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precipitous increase in the abundance of the corallivorous snail Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, raises fundamental questions about the population structure and genetics of this species. We examined genetic heterogeneity at ten polymorphic allozyme loci among samples of adult D. cornus from nine sites along 180 km of Ningaloo Reef, plus two sites from the Abrolhos Islands and one from the Dampier Archipelago, spanning a total distance of 1170 km. Variations in allelic frequencies were small (average FST=0.007), indicating that a high degree of planktonic dispersal is the norm. Nevertheless, some heterogeneity among samples was found at four of the loci. This heterogeneity occurred within Ningaloo Reef and did not increase with geographic distance. The local heterogeneity was not a function of habitat type but seemed to be associated with stage of outbreak. However, all outbreak populations came from within Ningaloo Reef and the non-outbreak populations were from outside Ningaloo Reef proper. Our results show peculiarities in the genetic structure of D. cornus on Ningaloo Reef, but the causes are not understood.

Holborn, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Black, R.

1994-01-01

89

Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.  

PubMed

Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

2013-11-22

90

A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

2003-01-01

91

Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

2014-03-01

92

Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

2014-10-01

93

WESTERN  

E-print Network

utilized as native hay, especially when harvested in overflow or run in sites that collect additional moisture. Erosion control/reclamation: Western wheatgrass is well suited for stabilization of disturbed soils because of its strong spreading rhizomes. It should not be planted with aggressive introduced grasses, but is very compatible with slower developing natives such as bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), thickspike wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus), streambank wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus), and needlegrass species (Achnatherum spp., Hesperostipa spp., Nassella spp., Stipa spp., and Ptilagrostis spp.). Its relatively good drought tolerance combined with strong rhizomatous root systems and adaptation to a variety of soils makes this species ideal for reclamation in areas receiving 12 to 20 inches annual precipitation. Its low growth form, vigorous sod, and low maintenance requirements make it ideal for ground cover purposes. This grass can be used in urban areas where irrigation water is limited to provide ground cover and to stabilize ditch banks, dikes, and roadsides.

Pascopyrum Smithii (rydb; A. Löve

94

High Resolution Geophysical Survey of Western Long Island Sound Offshore New York: An Estuary Floor Shaped by Bottom Currents and Human Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound near metropolitan New York averages 16m in water depth, with a few elongated depression up to 40 m deep. In June 2006, we surveyed the westernmost section of Long island Sound with the R/V HUGH SHARP. Analysis of the high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data collected during that survey reveals a series of sedimentary features that are consistent with a net westward direction of bottom currents. These features include: (1) Large sedimentary waves spaced ab out 100 m west of two km-scale features outcropping through the sediments; (2) Prominent sediment drifts or scour marks west of numerous shipwrecks and bouldery outcrops; (3) Series of subtle, sub-parallel sedimentary furrows aligned in a general EW direction along the north slope of the surveyed area (similar features have been documented in north- central Long Island Sound - (Poppe et al., J. Coastal Res. 2002). The lack of short wavelength sedimentary waves is consistent with the known muddy substrate and weak bottom currents (<10 cm/s) documented in western Long Island Sound. Fields of pockmarks affecting areas of gas-charged sediments may indicate localized, active venting of fluids and/or gas. The high-resolution bathymetry also highlights numerous anthropogenic disturbances such as pipelines, cables, shipwrecks, anchor drag marks, and dredge spoils.

Vargas, W.; Cormier, M.; McHugh, C.

2009-05-01

95

Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land  

E-print Network

in the future [Day et al., 1999a, 1999b]. In the particular cases of La Palma (Canary Islands) and Fogo (Cape lithosphere (such as Hawaii and Reunion Island) and those formed on slow moving litho- sphere (such as Cape Verde and the Canary Islands). A number of mechanical explanations exists for this contrast in behavior

Jones, Alan G.

96

High Resolution Geophysical Survey of Western Long Island Sound Offshore New York: A Seafloor Morphology Shaped by Glacial Features, Tidal Currents, and Human Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound, near metropolitan New York, averages 16m in water depth, with elongated depressions up to 40m deep occurring around its axis. These depressions are currently interpreted as ancient drainage channels that were cut into lake deposits some 15,500 years ago, when glacial Lake Connecticut occupied the Long Island Sound estuary and completely drained away. In June 2006, as part of a geoscience educational project, we surveyed a 17km2 area of Long island Sound just off Stamford, CT, with the R/V HUGH SHARP, using its high resolution multibeam bathymetric sonar and a chirp seismic profiler that imaged the Holocene sedimentary strata. Preliminary analysis details fields of sand waves, scour marks, outcropping moraines, pipelines and other human artifacts. Together, this data suggest that the eastward deepening trough within the study area exposes a glacial-sculpted surface, and that tidal currents produce long E-W drift in the shadow of a shallow outcrops (possibly, some moraine block). This interpretation is consistent with that proposed by Poppe et al. [Geo-Marine Letters, 26, 59-68,2006] for Eastern Long Island Sound based on a similar high resolution survey, and may characterize most of Long Island Sound. Grain size analysis for 9 gravity cores collected within the survey area will test the energy of the current regime, and confirm (or not) this interpretation.

Vargas, W. I.; Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.

2007-05-01

97

Distribution of fallout and environmental radionuclides in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is progressing at a rate which is several times the global average in Western Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula region has experienced a rise of ca. 3°C for surface air temperature over the last 50 years; and 87% of 244 glaciers along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated in the last 50 years. Examining the impacts of climate change in Antarctic landscapes, in particular in the soils at the foot of retreating glaciers, can provide a better understanding of the future impacts of climate change on landscape dynamics (including land degradation and resulting changes in land, water and ecosystem quality) in the higher mountainous cold regions of the world. In this paper, results of an exploratory assessment of soil movement and identification of sediment sources and sediment sinks by investigating the distribution of fallout (FRN's) and environmental radionuclides (ERN's) in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica) are discussed. This assessment has been carried in the context of an Instituto Antártico Chileno project, and supported by the IAEA Technical Cooperation, studying land degradation in the cold regions of South America. To this purpose soil profiles were sampled at depth increments at three different control sites. In addition, topsoil (0-1 cm depth) samples were collected from areas identified as potential soil sources and from others identified as sinks of sediments. The soil profiles at the control sites showed distinctive patterns in the depth distribution of the FRN's and ERN's. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity mass concentration (Bq kg-1) were highest in the topsoil and penetration depth was less than 8 and 25 cm, respectively. The depth distribution of 226Ra and 232Th in the soil profiles was quite homogeneous and greater variation was found for 40K and 238U, possibly related to differences in the mineralogical composition of soils. Average mass activity values of 137Cs and 210Pbex at the source areas were significantly lower than those found at sink areas, suggesting that processes of soil movement are relatively important. The knowledge gained with this research provided baseline information to establish future sampling strategies intended to ensure minimal intervention in the environment. Furthermore, the values of the areal activity density (Bq m-2) of 137Cs, 210Pbex and 7Be in soils and sediments proved the potential for using FRN's to study the redistribution of soil and sediments associated to the process of glacier retreat.

Castillo, Alejandra; Schuller, Paulina; Dercon, Gerd; Nguyen, Minh-Long; Navas, Ana; Ramírez, Paola; López, César

2013-04-01

98

Trace elements in three marine birds breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian ocean): part 1-factors influencing their bioaccumulation.  

PubMed

This work aimed to use seabirds as bioindicators of trace element levels in the tropical waters and food webs of the Western Indian Ocean. The accumulation patterns of selected toxic (Cd and Hg) and essential (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn) elements were determined in liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle of 162 marine birds belonging to 3 species collected in Reunion Island between 2002 and 2004. These pelagic seabirds belong to the following species: Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus). Hg levels were also measured in breast feathers. Highest mean kidney Cd and liver Hg levels (respectively, 27.79 +/- 13.78 microg x g (-1) dry weight (dw) and 24.31 +/- 14.13 microg x g (-1) dw) were found in the squid-eating Barau's Petrel. Barau's Petrel feather Hg levels fell in the range of 0.6 to 2.7 microg x g(-1) dw previously reported for other petrels and shearwaters. The values of the other elements were also in the same range as those previously reported in the published literature concerning related seabirds, although Se and Zn burdens in the Reunion birds were among the highest values. Levels of Zn, Fe, and, to a lesser extent, Cu appeared to be regulated in seabird tissues. Uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage seemed to be similar for the five essential elements. The reproductive status of the bird did not seem to affect element levels, which, moreover, were not significantly different between male and female birds. However, trace elements in sampled birds varied according to the tissue considered, the age of the animal, and its species. Diet was seemingly a major influencing factor. Health status also appeared to have an impact on element levels. PMID:17165110

Kojadinovic, J; Le Corre, M; Cosson, R P; Bustamante, P

2007-04-01

99

Stewart Head from Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

100

Pine Island Glacier  

article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View Larger Image ... (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left ...

2013-04-16

101

78 FR 32996 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zone in the PRI monument extends 12 nm seaward of the low water mark, and not landward of the 50-fm curve. Response...The shoreward boundary of the Islands Unit is the mean low water line. The seaward boundary of Islands Unit is...

2013-06-03

102

Conservation significance of island versus mainland populations: a case study of dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis) in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations are an interesting dichotomy in conservation biology. On the one hand, they can be a refuge for species where mainland populations have been decimated by loss of habitat and predation by exotic predators. On the other hand, island populations usually have reduced genetic diversity and are more susceptible to extinction through genetic and demographic processes. Genetic variation and

Harriet R. Mills; Dorian Moro; Peter B. S. Spencer

2004-01-01

103

Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

2014-05-01

104

A novel method for estimating vertical eddy diffusivities using diurnal signals with application to western Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach that allows the estimation of vertical eddy diffusivity coefficients from buoy measurements made at two or more depths. By measuring the attenuation and phase lag of a scalar signal generated periodically at the surface as it propagates downwards, the vertical eddy diffusivity coefficients can be calculated as Kv = ??z2/2ln 2(? 2/? 1), where ? 2/? 1 is the ratio of the real amplitudes at frequency ? at the two depths separated by ? z = z2 - z1; as KV = ?? z2/ 2?2, where ? is the phase lag at the frequency ?; or as Kv = i?? z2/ln 2( U2/ U1), where U2/ U1 is the ratio of the complex signal amplitudes at the two depths. The method requires that horizontal fluxes be small at the ? frequency and that the signal-to-noise ratios at the two depths allow the determination of the amplitude and phase of ?. Application of this method to summertime 2004 western Long Island Sound oxygen and temperature buoy measurements at two depths provides a time-series of two-day average vertical eddy diffusivity estimates. Using these eddy diffusivities in conjunction with measured vertical concentration gradients, we obtain a time-series of vertical transport rates for oxygen and heat and estimate mean downward fluxes for June and July as 150-260 mMol m - 2 day - 1 and 100-400 W m - 2 respectively. These estimates are of a similar magnitude to sub-pycnocline O 2 and heat demands of 240 ± 200 mMol m - 2 day - 1 and 180 ± 60 W m - 2 that we infer from simple budgets, implying that vertical transport is significant to both budgets. The eddy coefficients obtained from the independent O 2 and temperature measurements have a 68% correlation, and the O 2 flux estimates show a correlation of 41% to measured rates of change in bottom dissolved oxygen levels. Our results indicate that extended time-series of eddy diffusivity coefficients can be obtained from in situ buoy measurements and the method shows promise as a way to constrain the vertical transport variability in budgets of dissolved materials in estuaries.

McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James

2009-06-01

105

Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

2011-04-01

106

Fluid-present disequilibrium melting in Neoarchean arc-related migmatites of Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting process of meta-igneous rocks was investigated via field, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Neoarchean (~ 2.51 Ga) migmatite complex in Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif. This complex consists primarily of garnet-free amphibolites and tonalitic migmatites, both of which contain hornblende, plagioclase and quartz as major constituents. Neosomes and leucosomes in the migmatite have dioritic-tonalitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic compositions, respectively. Compositions of hornblende (XFe = 0.39-0.42) and plagioclase (An24-27) vary little between the neosomes and leucosomes. The amphibolites show distinct depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti relative to large ion lithophile elements, suggesting an arc-related origin for their basaltic protolith. Leucosomes have lower contents of K2O, MgO, FeO*, TiO2, Zr, Rb, and rare earth elements (REE) than amphibolites and neosomes, but are higher in SiO2, Na2O, and Sr contents. Leucosomes and neosomes have positive [(Eu/Eu*)N = 1.32-7.26] and negative (0.71-0.97) Eu anomalies, respectively, which are attributed to the variable degree of plagioclase fractionation during the partial melting. The P-T condition for the migmatite formation was estimated to be ~ 700-730 °C and 4.7-5.5 kbar, primarily based on the hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry and phase equilibria. Various lines of textural evidence, such as the channel flow of melt along migmatitic layers and the segregation of melt into shear bands or boudin necks suggest a syn-deformation crystallization of melt. Chemical disequilibrium in migmatites is documented not only by petrographic and geochemical data but also by the REE modeling between melt product and source rock. Disequilibrium process is most likely attributed to the rapidity of melt extraction or migration, compared to chemical diffusion rate. In summary, the fluid-present disequilibrium melting of dioritic-tonalitic protoliths has produced tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosomes in a dynamic arc environment prevalent in the Neoarchean crust of the Korean Peninsula as well as the Shandong Peninsula, North China Craton.

Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup

2013-10-01

107

Deformation kinematics along oblique convergent plate boundary zones in the western United States, Japanese Islands, and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal velocity gradient tensor field in the western U.S is estimated using moment tensors of earthquakes between 1850 to 1995. The velocity vectors obtained from the integration of the seismic strain rates across the entire plate boundary lie within 5° of the NUVEL-1A Pacific-North American plate motion direction. The magnitude of the earthquake-related velocity is 62% of the NUVEL-1A total Pacific-North American plate motion. The total velocity obtained from the Quaternary fault slip rate data across the entire plate boundary is within 2 mm/yr of the NUVEL-1A predicted Pacific (PA)-North American (NA) plate motion velocity, but directions are 6° anticlockwise of directions given by NUVEL-1A. The total velocity obtained from inversion of recent geodetic data is 2°--3° anticlockwise from the NUVEL-1A NA-PA velocity, but the difference between the two is not significant at the 95% confidence level. Relative motions within the deforming Japanese Islands with respect to the Sea of Japan are determined using earthquake records over the last 414 years, slip rates on Quaternary faults, and angular change rates obtained from triangulation in the last century. The directions of the principal strain axes obtained from seismic, geological, and geodetic data are in general agreement with each other, with the maximum shortening axis oriented in a WNW direction. Intraplate deformation in southwestern Japan determined from the seismic data accommodates a velocity of 5.5 +/- 2 (1sigma) mm/yr in a direction parallel to the Nankai trough, which is about 25% of the plate motion velocity component parallel to the Nankai trough between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. A comparison of shear strain rates, principal strain rates, and velocity fields determined from geodetic data with those calculated from the elastic dislocation models involving interplate motion at the Japan trench indicates that the geodetic strain field in northern Honshu is primarily elastic strain transmitted from the Japan trench. Horizontal strain rate and velocity field that accommodate India-Eurasia plate motion in Pakistan are determined based on constraints from geological and geodetic information in the region. The optimal model that yields a strain rate field consistent with observed geologic, seismologic, and geodetic data gives 17--28 mm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip motion along the Chaman fault zone, 3--6 mm/yr of east-west convergence and 5--14 mm/yr of north-south left-lateral shear across the roughly NS trending Sulaiman Range. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Shen-Tu, Bingming

108

Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

E-print Network

Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

Smith, Dan

109

Demography and conservation of the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus on Aride Island, Western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus breeding population of Aride Island, Seychelles, has experienced a strong decline in the recent past. To predict the future\\u000a trends of the White-tailed Tropicbird population on Aride Island and understand the urgency of applying management procedures,\\u000a we developed a population matrix model. We estimated White-tailed Tropicbird adult survival rate over a 12-year period and\\u000a investigated

Teresa Catry; Jaime Albino Ramos; David Monticelli; John Bowler; Tony Jupiter; Matthieu Le Corre

2009-01-01

110

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

2011-01-01

111

'Heaven' for serpents? A mark-recapture study of tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) on Carnac Island, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals resident on small islands provide excellent opportunities to carry out detailed mark- recapture studies. Populations are closed and ecosystems are often simpler than those of mainland sites. These factors enable the study of cryptic species that have otherwise been neglected. Snakes are notable for their secretive nature and, as a result, few natural populations have been accurately described through

Xavier Bonnet; David Pearson; Mitchell Ladyman; Olivier Lourdais; Don Bradshaw

2002-01-01

112

Effect of predation by the invasive crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on recruiting barnacles Semibalanus balanoides in western Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction fewer than 20 yr ago, the spread of the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus along the east coast of the US has been remarkable. By many accounts it is now the numerically dominant brachyuran in rocky intertidal sites in Long Island Sound. Evidence from several laboratory studies has suggested that H. sanguineus could have significant consequences for

Diane J. Brousseau; Ronald Goldberg

2007-01-01

113

Sea floor morphology and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Mallorca Channel, Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete multibeam coverage of the sea floor of Mallorca Channel, in the western Mediterranean, was recorded during the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone surveys in 1995, 1996 and 1997. These data, combined with previous high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, allow an assessment of the geomorphology of the area. The channel seafloor is disrupted by a fault complex and pockmarks. Motion along

J. Acosta; M. Canals; A. Carbó; A. Muñoz; R. Urgeles; A. Muñoz-Mart??n; E. Uchupi

2004-01-01

114

Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

2013-11-01

115

Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher ?13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed ?13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ?C7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2012-12-01

116

Re-interpretation of the age and environment of deposition of Paleogene turbidites in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Western Sunda Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbidites composed of sandstone-shale alternations on the Kalipur-Shibpur coast, North Andaman Island, classified under the Palaeocene-Eocene Mithakhari Group in several recent papers are identified as and compared with the type section of the Oligocene Andaman Flysch exposed at Corbyn's Cove, South Andaman Island. The Kalipur turbidites were interpreted as the inner fan and the latter as the distal mid fan facies of a forearc submarine fan. The turbidites of these two locations are separated by ˜250 km. Detailed studies concerning the identification and comparison, have however, revealed significant differences, and the turbidite outcrops are not continuous between these two localities. Turbidites at Kalipur-Shibpur and adjacent areas are part of a melange terrane, normally gritty and coarse grained, massive to locally graded bedded, calcareous, intercalated/interstratified with conglomerates and reefoidal limestones and show a framework composition varying from volcanolithic to lithic-poor arkosic sandstones, deposited in several isolated basins, fed by transverse supply of detritus from an accreted and uplifted ophiolite and arc massif. The Kalipur-Shibpur coast exposes marginally deformed, sandstone-dominated turbidites (coherent units) containing abundant ichnotraces, late Palaeocene foraminifera, and rip-up shale clasts, indicating deposition in shallow water accretionary slope basins. South of Kalipur, the Ramnagar coast exposes mud-rich turbidites showing accretion-related deformation. These deformed turbidites are interpreted as offscraped trench deposits. Further south, on the Rampur coast, turbidites intercalated with reefoidal limestones containing late Palaeocene foraminifera indicate deposition on the upper slope or on top of the accretionary slope basin. In contrast classical Bouma sequence-bearing sandstone-shale turbidites at Corbyn's Cove, are part of a continuous outcrop belt of siliciclastic turbidites, lack fossils, carbonate facies and conglomerates, and consist of compositionally uniform greywackes, deposited in an open deep sea fan, fed by axially transported detritus derived from the continental blocks of western Burma. These key differences together with previous mapping and stratigraphic studies confirm the incorrect identification of Andaman Flysch in North Andaman Island in recent papers. The turbidites of these two locations were neither produced by the same sediment gravity flows nor deposited in the same forearc fan during the Oligocene, instead, they were derived from different palaeographic domains, deposited in different tectonic and sedimentary environments and also at different times. This provides new insights into the Paleogene turbidite deposition in this part of Western Sunda Arc.

Bandopadhyay, P. C.

2012-02-01

117

Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers  

PubMed Central

The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

2013-01-01

118

Trace elements in three marine birds breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian ocean): part 2-factors influencing their detoxification.  

PubMed

Seabird tissues collected between 2002 and 2004 from Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Trop icbird (Phaethon lepturus) colonies on Reunion Island were analyzed for metallothioneins (MTs) and trace element content. The subcellular distribution between soluble and insoluble fractions of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn was determined in liver and kidney. In both, the soluble fraction of the cell concentrated most of the Cd and Se, whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn were preferentially accumulated in the insoluble fraction. The distribution of these elements varied with the tissue, age of the bird, and species. Furthermore, the distributions of Fe and Mn were somewhat influenced by the bird's physical condition. MT levels were measured in the soluble fraction after heat denaturation. The levels of these proteins varied from 5.5 +/- 2.7 mg x g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 11.4 +/- 6.2 mg x g(-1) dw depending on the species and the tissue considered. MT levels were significantly different between liver and kidney only in the White-Tailed Tropicbird. In the three species, MT levels in kidney were significantly higher in adult than juvenile birds. The bird's weight also had an influence on hepatic and renal MT levels, but not the sex nor the reproductive status. The implication of MTs in Cu and Zn homeostasis and Cd and Hg detoxification are discussed. In addition, clues on Hg regulation by Se were found, especially in Barau's Petrel, where the levels of these two elements were significantly correlated. PMID:17354039

Kojadinovic, J; Bustamante, P; Le Corre, M; Cosson, R P

2007-04-01

119

Aerosol transport over the western Mediterranean basin: Evidence of the contribution of fine particles to desert dust plumes over Alborán Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

months (June 2011 to January 2012) of aerosol property data were obtained at the remote site of Alborán Island (35.95°N, 3.03°W) in the western Mediterranean basin. The aim of this work is to assess the aerosol properties according to air mass origin and transport over this remote station with a special focus on air mass transport from North Africa. For air masses coming from North Africa, different aerosol properties showed strong contributions from mineral dust lifted from desert areas. Nevertheless, during these desert dust intrusions, some atmospheric aerosol properties are clearly different from pure mineral dust particles. Thus, Angström exponent ?(440-870) presents larger values than those reported for pure desert dust measured close to dust source regions. These results combine with ?(440, 670) - ?(670, 870) ? 0.1 and low single scattering albedo (?(?)) values, especially at the largest wavelengths. Most of the desert dust intrusions over Alborán can be described as a mixture of dust and anthropogenic particles. The analyses support that our results apply to North Africa desert dust air masses transported from different source areas. Therefore, our results indicate a significant contribution of fine absorbing particles during desert dust intrusions over Alborán arriving from different source regions. The aerosol optical depth data retrieved from Sun photometer measurements have been used to check Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrievals, and they show reasonable agreement, especially for North African air masses.

Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Antón, M.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Quirantes, A.; Toledano, C.; Perez-Ramírez, D.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2014-12-01

120

Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2010-12-01

121

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

122

Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya.  

PubMed

BackgroundThere has been increasing effort in recent years to incorporate user needs in technology design and re-design. This project employed a bottom-up approach that engaged end users from the outset. Bottom-up approaches have the potential to bolster novel interventions and move them towards adaptive and evidence-based strategies. The present study concerns an innovative use of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) to control malaria in western Kenya. Our paper highlights the co-dependence of research associated with the development of the SMoTS technology on one hand and research for enhancing the sustainable uptake of that very same intervention within the community on the other.MethodsDuring the pre-intervention year, we examined the design, re-design and piloting of a novel technology to generate lessons for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island. Initial ideas about many technological necessities were evaluated and re-designed following feedback from various sources, including technical and social research as well as broader interactions with the social environment. We documented the interlocking of the multiple processes and activities that took place through process observation and document reviews. We analysed the data within the conceptual framework of system innovation by identifying mutual shaping between technical and social factors.ResultsOur findings illustrate how various project stakeholders including project staff, collaborators, donor, and community members simultaneously pursued interdependent technological transformations and social interests. In the ongoing process, we observed how partial outcomes in the technological domain influenced social events at a later phase and vice versa.ConclusionsLooking at malaria intervention projects employing novel technologies as niches that may evolve towards system innovation, helps to reveal interrelations between the various technical and social aspects. Revealing these interrelations requires a different role for research and different perspective on innovation where innovation is more than the technical aspects. This approach therefore requires that research is designed in a way that enables obtaining feedback from both aspects. PMID:25404420

Oria, Prisca A; Hiscox, Alexandra; Alaii, Jane; Ayugi, Margaret; Mukabana, Wolfgang; Takken, Willem; Leeuwis, Cees

2014-11-18

123

Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.  

PubMed

A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

2011-09-01

124

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

125

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to

Said Msaidie; Axel Ducourneau; Gilles Boetsch; Guy Longepied; Kassim Papa; Claude Allibert; Ali Ahmed Yahaya; Jacques Chiaroni; Michael J Mitchell

2011-01-01

126

Impact of a Medical Waste Incinerator on Mercury Levels in Lagoon Fish from a Small Tropical Island in the Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004–2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was

Gary R. W. Denton; Michael S. Trianni; Brian G. Bearden; Peter C. Houk; John A. Starmer

2011-01-01

127

Changes in Planktonic Diatoms and Water Transparency in Hatchery Bay, Bass Island Area, Western Lake Erie Since the Establishment of the Zebra Mussel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total planktonic diatoms were analyzed from water samples collected in 1984-1986 (pre- zebra mussel period) and 1990-1992 (post-zebra mussel period) in Hatchery Bay of western Lake Erie. Planktonic diatom abundances for one post-zebra mussel year, 3 April 1990-26 March 1991, and weekly April\\/May frustules for 1990, 1991, and 1992 were compared to counts from the 1980s and to counts in

Ruth E. Holland

1993-01-01

128

Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that these enclaves were captured from an underlying body during the eruption of island-arc magma. Thus, unmapped cognate porphyry intrusions associated with Cu-Au mineralization may exist under the andesite strata. This evidence in combination with the low- and high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, acidic hydrothermal alterations, and copper mineralization evidence, suggests that a porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au metallogenic system might occur in the Tulasu basin of western Tianshan, and that the Tawuerbieke district should be an important target for porphyry Cu-Au exploration.

Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

2014-05-01

129

Effects of productivity, glaciation, and ventilation on late Quaternary sedimentary redox and trace element accumulation on the Vancouver Island margin, western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

in chalcophile and redox-sensitive trace elements are examined at high-resolution intervals from a ~50 kyr long sediment core (MD02-2496) from the Vancouver Island margin. Enrichments of Ag, Cd, Re, U, and Mo above lithogenous levels, signifying sedimentary suboxia and anoxia, occurred during the early Holocene and Bølling/Allerød, and during warm interstadial events of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Down-core trace element profiles co-vary with productivity proxy records (opal, CaCO3, and marine organic carbon), and with sedimentary nitrogen isotope ratios, which reflect variably enriched nitrate upwelled from intermediate waters that were transported northward from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. The similarity of the MD02-2496 record with records from the southern portion of the California Current System (CCS), and to the Greenland ice core oxygen isotope record during warm climate intervals, suggests that sedimentary redox conditions along the California Current responded to local productivity, to North Atlantic climate change and to tropical Pacific surface water processes via long-distance teleconnections. Concentrations of trace elements and productivity proxies were relatively depleted during the Younger Dryas, cool stadial events of MIS 3, and in two episodes of glaciomarine sedimentation from ~14.7 to 30.5 kyr BP (last glacial maximum, LGM), and from 44 to 50.4 kyr BP. Cordilleran Ice Sheet advancement onto the Vancouver Island continental shelf during the LGM led to intervals of increased terrigenous sedimentation and greatly reduced productivity not seen in the southern portion of the CCS, and along with ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters, resulted in brief sedimentary oxic conditions.

Chang, Alice S.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

2014-07-01

130

Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

2009-08-01

131

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

132

Impact of a medical waste incinerator on mercury levels in lagoon fish from a small tropical island in the Western Pacific.  

PubMed

In 2004-2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was launched in early 2007. The study identified a medical waste incinerator as the primary source of Hg enrichment. The incinerator was operational for about 20 years before it was closed down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2006, for multiple violations of the Clean Air Act. Stormwater runoff from this facility entered a drainage network that discharged into the ocean at the southern end of Hafa Adai Beach, about 1 km away. At the time of this investigation storm drain sediments at the coast were only marginally enriched with mercury although values some 50x above background were detected in drainage deposits a few meters down-gradient of the incinerator site. Mercury concentrations in fish from the Hafa Adai Beach area were also significantly lower than those determined in similar species 3 yr earlier. The implications of the data are briefly discussed. PMID:21598167

Denton, Gary R W; Trianni, Michael S; Bearden, Brian G; Houk, Peter C; Starmer, John A

2011-01-01

133

A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

2011-07-01

134

A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

2011-07-01

135

76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab (WAG) fishery...1)(i) of this section. All information fields...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab West regional...2)(i) of this section. (ii) The Regional...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab West...

2011-06-20

136

76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab (WAG) fishery...1)(i) of this section. All information fields...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab West regional...2)(i) of this section. (ii) The Regional...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab West...

2011-02-15

137

Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1?= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1?= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as <10-6 PAL. Sulfur isotope analysis revealed, based on the variable ?34S values (-1.9 ~ +26.8‰), that bacterial sulfate reduction was so extensive in the 3.2Ga deep marine environments that sulfate utilization by sulfate-reducers was near completion [8]. Production of bacteriogenic sulfide would have enhanced fixation of dissolved Mo into sulfide minerals in sediments. This is rather a common process occurring in oxygen-depleted environments in the modern ocean ([9]). A combined enrichment of Mo, Corg, and S, together with high ?34S values for a sedimentary formation may be used as a strong evidence for operation of modern-day style sedimentary Mo enrichment. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and (at least the surface) oceans was significant during deposition of the sediments, ~800Ma earlier than commonly thought ([10]). Operation of present-day style geochemical cycle of Mo in the Mesoarchean surface environments suggests early evolution of atmosphere, oceans, and microbial biosphere. References: [1] Kiyokawa et al, 2006, GSAB 118: 3-22. [2] Yamaguchi et al, 2009, Sci. Drill. 7: 34-37. [3] Yamaguchi, 2002, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State Univ. [4] Yamaguchi & Ohmoto, 2002, GSA Abstract [5] Naraoka et al, 2001, 4th Int'l Archaean Symp., Perth. [6] Anbar et al, 2007, Science 317: 1903-1906. [7] Vine & Tourtelot, 1970, Econ. Geol. 65: 253-272. [8] Sakamoto et al, 2010, Fall AGU Mtg. [9] Morford & Emerson, 1999, GCA 63: 1735-1750. [10] Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

2010-12-01

138

Natural tidal processes modified by the existence of fringing reef on La Reunion Island (Western Indian Ocean): Impact on the relative sea level variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tide gauge and meteorological data were used to analyze tidal fluctuations and relative sea level (RSL) variability in the microtidal fringing reef of La Saline, at La Reunion, Western Indian Ocean, for 58 days during late summer 2005. Harmonic analysis was applied to evidence tidal constituents and to predict tidal variations in the open ocean and in the fringing reef. The predicted signals were compared to assess the intratidal and supratidal variability as well as the synoptic response of the RSL in the reef. Finally, the non-tidal fluctuations of the signal recorded in the fringing reef were correlated with the external forcing data (wind and wave). The results show that the tide in the reef is reduced and delayed, compared to the tide of the open ocean. The neap-spring tidal cycle in the fringing reef appears more synchronized on the tropical cycle (27.32 days) of the Moon, rather than its synodic cycle (29.52 days). Due to the shallowness of the fringing reef, nonlinear bottom-friction interactions induce an amplification of compound tides, the fortnightly (Msf) and monthly (Mm) long-period tides (LPT), which have a major influence on the relative sea surface elevations variations. They cause relative high and low RSL reaching ±10 cm in the fringing reef, which are significantly different from the sea level in the open ocean. It appears that the contribution of the external forcing to the RSL fluctuations in the fringing reef will largely depend on these high and low sea levels. Our results demonstrate that the orbital moon cycles and the LPT cannot be neglected in upcoming studies of narrow microtidal fringing reefs, involving sea level variations.

Cordier, Emmanuel; Lézé, Julie; Join, Jean-Lambert

2013-03-01

139

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

140

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards

D. A. Novelo-Casanova; G. Suarez

2010-01-01

141

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

142

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

143

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of

B. D. Katsoulis; D. A. Metaxas

1992-01-01

144

Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S.S.; Talbot, S.L.

2004-01-01

145

Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune sands than others, a foremost candidate being Ammophila arenaria. It is concluded that active support for such plants should form part of any management strategy aiming to reduce and reverse coastal dune fragmentation processes.

Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

2013-04-01

146

Island Panoramic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

147

Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

148

Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

2007-01-01

149

Western Skink  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

2010-09-17

150

Circulation around a thin zonal island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and numerical experiments are used to study flow of a uniform-density fluid on the [beta]-plane around a thin zonally elongated island (or ridge segment in the abyss). This orientation is chosen specifically to highlight the roles of the zonal boundary layer dynamics in controlling the circulation around the island. There are examples of deep ocean topography that fall into this category which make the work directly applicable to oceanic flows. Linear theory for the transport around the island and the flow structure is based on a modification of the Island Rule (Pedlosky et al. 1997; Pratt & Pedlosky 1999). The linear solution gives a north south symmetric flow around the island with novel features, including stagnation points which divide the zonal boundary layers into eastward and westward flowing zones, and a western boundary layer of vanishing length, and zonal jets. Laboratory experiments agree with the linear theory for small degrees of nonlinearity, as measured by the ratio of the inertial to Munk boundary layer scales. With increasing nonlinearity the north south symmetry is broken. The southern stagnation point (for anticyclonic forcing) moves to the eastern tip of the island. The flow rounding the eastern tip from the northern side of the island now separates from the island. Time-dependence emerges and recirculation cells develop on the northern side of the island. Mean transport around the island is relatively unaffected by nonlinearity and given to within 20% by the modified Island Rule. Numerical solutions of the shallow water equations are in close agreement with the laboratory results. The transition from zonal to meridional island orientation occurs for island inclinations from zonal greater than about 20°.

Wells, J. R.; Helfrich, K. R.

2001-06-01

151

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

152

Net drift in an atypical estuary, Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long Island Sound is an estuary with two-layered flow at the eastern opening to the ocean and a salinity gradient of about 5 parts per thousand between the eastern and western extremes. Tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, and river inflow and fresh water influx are investigated as factors affecting the net drift. Current measurements in eastern Long Island Sound indicate that

David F. Paskausky

1977-01-01

153

Exchange between Long Island Sound and adjacent waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit archived salinity data, averaged by month for the years 1995–2001, to evaluate exchange of salt between Long Island Sound and shelf waters, and treat Long Island Sound as a control volume with eastern and western boundaries at The Race and the East River, respectively. The use of inverse methods to solve a system of equations expressing conservation of

Peter S. Gay; James O'Donnell; Christopher A. Edwards

2004-01-01

154

7Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

7Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in 7Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments.

Erik Aaboe; Eric P. Dion; Karl K. Turekian

1981-01-01

155

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

156

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

157

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

â??The Rockâ?, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâ??s most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâ??s best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâ??s most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâ??s past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous â??Battle of Alcatrazâ? and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

158

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final...165.T09-0840 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba...

2013-09-25

159

The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands  

E-print Network

and analytical results are presented describing the structure of the flow. A western standing meander at the edge of the island's topography involves a rapid change in the direction of flow and this feature, predicted topographic features, usually in the context of the oceanic abyssal circulation. For example, Katsman (2006

Pedlosky, Joseph

160

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

161

Hawaiian Island Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

1985-01-01

162

33 CFR 100.100 - Special Local Regulations; Regattas and Boat Races in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Submarine Base may not cause waves which result in damage to submarines...area: All water of Long Island Sound within a nine mile long and half...heads south crossing Long Island Sound to a point east of Crab Meadow Beach, Crab...turns north crossing Long Island Sound to the western boundary of Calf Pasture...

2013-07-01

163

33 CFR 100.100 - Special Local Regulations; Regattas and Boat Races in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound...  

...Submarine Base may not cause waves which result in damage to submarines...area: All water of Long Island Sound within a nine mile long and half...heads south crossing Long Island Sound to a point east of Crab Meadow Beach, Crab...turns north crossing Long Island Sound to the western boundary of Calf Pasture...

2014-07-01

164

The Mysound Project: Building an Estuary-Wide Monitoring Network for Long Island Sound, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network of five water quality monitoring stations has been established in Long Island Sound, measuring temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen since 1999. The stations are located in areas of extreme water quality degradation (western Long Island Sound) as well as in pristine areas (eastern Long Island Sound). The data from these stations are collected every 15 minutes and posted

Mark Tedesco; W. Frank Bohlen; Mary M. Howard-Strobel; David R. Cohen; Peter A. Tebeau

2003-01-01

165

Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of Mari" (Charlie Gibuma); "Islanders

Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

166

Primary production in Long Island sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily and annual integrated rates of primary productivity and community respiration were calculated using physiological parameters\\u000a measured in oxygen-based photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) incubations at 8 stations throughout central and western Long Island\\u000a Sound (cwLIS) during the summer and autumn of 2002 and 2003 and the late spring of 2003. Each calculation takes into account\\u000a actual variations in incident irradiance over the

Nicole L. Goebel; James N. Kremer; Christopher A. Edwards

2006-01-01

167

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

168

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-03-13

169

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

170

Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack - Duration: 2:21.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

171

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

172

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

173

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

174

The tsunamigenic earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands (Aleutian island arc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interpretation of the type, size, and location of the source of the Aleutian earthquake on April 1, 1946, which was characterized by the highest intensity ( I = 4), is proposed. The earthquake source is a subvertical reverse fault striking along the island arc and dipping at an angle of 85° toward the deep-sea trench. The reverse fault is located in the lower part of the island slope, within the eastern termination of the Aleutian terrace. The western end of the reverse fault is located in the area of the Krenitsyn Islands (? ˜ 165°W), where the pattern of isobaths changes, and an abrupt widening of the shelf part of the Fox Islands takes place. Large ( M S ˜ 7) shocks, preceding the 1946 earthquake, occurred here in 1940, 1942, and 1944. Structural inhomogeneities in the island slope in the area of the Sanak Islands (? ˜ 162°W) determine the eastern edge of the source-reverse fault, whose length within the specified boundaries is about 200 km. The mean magnitude of the earthquake corresponding to such a source is ˜8.3. According to the regular relation between the rupture length and the mean movement, the vertical displacement of the ocean floor in the source region could attain 5-6 m. A significant vertical displacement of the ocean floor over its large length (˜200 km) was responsible for the high tsunamigenic ability of this earthquake. A favorable combination in the source area of the topographic and other conditions necessary for the tsunami formation could additionally contribute to an increase in the intensity of the tsunami. The earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands, as well as the tsunamigenic earthquakes of March 9, 1957, in the Andreanof Islands and February 4, 1965, in the Rat Islands, does not belong to the class of “slow” earthquakes.

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-06-01

175

The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

2014-11-01

176

33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507...Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a) Definitions...Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point to the eastern shore at Kent...

2010-07-01

177

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

178

Organic and inorganic nitrogen nutrition of western red cedar, western hemlock and salal in mineral N-limited cedar–hemlock forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western red cedar ( Thuja plicata Donn.), western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla Raf. Sarge) and salal ( Gaultheria shallon Pursh) are the main species growing in cedar–hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, Canada. Based on the dominance of organic N in these systems, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) organic N can be utilized by the three plant species; and (2)

Jennifer N. Bennett; Cindy E. Prescott

2004-01-01

179

Lagrangian observations in the Intermediate Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface float measurements at 800 m depth carried out from 1994 to 2003 in the Brazil Basin are used to characterise the equatorward Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and its connections to the ocean interior. Transversally, the boundary flow is less than 100 km wide, and most intense at 10-20 km from the 800 m isobath. Its average velocities range from ˜0.1 ms-1 to 0.3 ms-1 depending on latitude, with individual daily values as high as 0.7 ms-1. The flow meridional extent exhibits 3 contrasted domains: (i) from 27°S to the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge at 20°30'S, the boundary flow intensifies northward along a relatively smooth topography. A counter current adjacent to it on its seaward side feeds it with intermediate water from the northern limb of the subtropical gyre. (ii) At latitudes 20-15°S characterised by a very irregular topography, the IWBC becomes weaker with even no real proof of its presence at 18-15°S. An intense mesoscale variability prevails there, which apparently takes over from the boundary flow to ensure the northward transport of water to 15°S, where the IWBC re-forms. (iii) North of this latitude, the boundary flow increases again to ˜10°S along smooth isobaths, then decreases when encountering a rougher topography and the zonal jets of the equatorial current system. A counter current present from ˜5°S to 14°S, partly fed from the boundary flow, contributes to its drainage. The IWBC shows two main input locations, at 27-23°S and 15-12°S in the southern parts of the two latitudinal domains of smooth topography where the northward current increases. Output locations coincide with major capes in the continental slope geometry, at 20°S and 18°S (the southeastern and northeastern corners of the Abrolhos Bank), at 8°S near the Recife Plateau, and at 5°S near Cape São Roque.

Legeais, Jean-François; Ollitrault, Michel; Arhan, Michel

2013-01-01

180

Surface evolution of faceted islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ge islands were grown on Si(0 0 1) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy and their surface was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The facets composing the island surface were identified and their area was measured as a function of island size. Three kinds of islands were observed: pyramids, dome shaped islands and large dislocated islands. A statistical analysis revealed that domes do not ripen in a self-similar way. The main facets composing the surface of dislocated islands were identified.

Rastelli, Armando; von Känel, Hans

2002-09-01

181

Island Biogeography and Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MacArthur and Wilson’s theory (1967) set out to identify and measure the variables involved in the colonisation of islands\\u000a by biota and their subsequent evolution or extinction. The key biogeographical variables identified by their theory were island\\u000a size and distance from the mainland. They suggested that an island’s biodiversity is proportionate to the island’s size (i.e.\\u000a the larger the island

Ioannis Vogiatzakis; Geoffrey H. Griffiths

182

Islands in the Midst of the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 9495. The image covers an area of 369 kilometers x 567 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 58 to 64 within World Reference System-2 path 181.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

183

Spatial Patterns in Assemblage Structures of Pelagic Forage Fish and Zooplankton in Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. Zooplankton abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the

Timothy B. Johnson; Michael H. Hoff; Anett S. Trebitz; Charles R. Bronte; Timothy D. Corry; James F. Kitchell; Stephen J. Lozano; Doran M. Mason; Jill V. Scharold; Stephen T. Schram; Donald R. Schreiner

2004-01-01

184

Mississippian conodonts, Lisburne Group, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Mississippian conodonts recovered from two sections of the Lisburne Group exposed along the Ongoveyuk River, western St. Lawrence Island, are few, poorly preserved, yet relatively diverse. At the West Fork and East Fork Ongoveyuk sections, the lower, dark-colored, cherty beds yield conodonts that belong in the upper part of Lane Faunal Unit 8. They are correlatives of the upper

P. F. Ressmeyer

1985-01-01

185

Accounting and culture : The case of Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to review research on the compatibility between values underlying western accounting systems and traditional Solomon Islands cultural values. The research takes a sociological view of accounting to better understand how imported accounting values and practices fit into, and interact with, local traditions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An interpretive methodology uses in-depth interviews and participant observation. Both

Abraham Hauriasi; Howard Davey

2009-01-01

186

Tides, light and the distribution of Zostera marina in Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disappearance of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in western Long Island Sound has been attributed to the eutrophication-induced increase in light attenuation in the waters of that area. In this work we explore whether the much higher tidal range in the western (3 m) than in the eastern (1 m) Sound could further reduce light availability and, therefore, restrict the

E. W. Koch; S. Beer

1996-01-01

187

Paramoebiasis Associated with Mass Mortality of American Lobster Homarus americanus in Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the autumn of 1999, a mass mortality of American lobster Homarus americanus was reported by lobster fishermen from western Long Island Sound (LIS). At the conclusion of the 1999 season, dead lobsters were estimated at 11 million, resulting in a 90– 99% reduction of landings in western LIS and failure of the natural lobster fishery. Fishermen described moribund lobsters

Thomas E. Mullen; Spencer Russell; Meghan T. Tucker; Jennifer L. Maratea; Claudia Koerting; Lynn Hinckley; Sylvain De Guise; Salvatore Frasca Jr; Richard A. French; Thomas G. Burrage; Christopher Perkins

2004-01-01

188

The Flores Island tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On

Harry Yeh; Fumihiko Imamura; Costas Synolakis; Yoshinobu Tsuji; Philip Liu; Shaozhong Shi

1993-01-01

189

Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

2010-03-01

190

Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

2010-12-01

191

The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

2009-12-01

192

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

193

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

194

LIFE HISTORY OF THE GIZZARD SHAD, DOROSOMA. CEPEDIA.NUM (LE SUEUR), IN WESTERN LAKE ERIE  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY OF THE GIZZARD SHAD, DOROSOMA. CEPEDIA.NUM (LE SUEUR), IN WESTERN LAKE ERIE BY ANTHONY UNIVERSITY, PUT-IN-BAY, OHIO ABSTRACT The rapid increase in the stocks of gizzard shad in Lake Erie since on almost 24,000 fish collected by various means in 1952-55 in or near the island area of western Lake Erie

195

Initiation of subduction and the generation of slab melts in western and eastern Mindanao, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adakite, found in both the eastern and western parts of Mindanao Island, Philippines, is a rare rock type, characterized by low heavy rare earth elements and Y contents together with high Sr\\/Y ratios, and is considered to be the result of the melting of young subducted oceanic crust, which leaves an eclogite residue. Pliocene-Quaternary adakites from western Mindanao (Zamboanga Peninsula)

Fernando G. Sajona; René C. Maury; Hervé Bellon; Joseph Cotten; Marc J. Defant; Manuel Pubellier

1993-01-01

196

Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Coastal Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search o{ an explanation for the disjunct, isolated population of subalpine fir on Prince of Wales Island io southeastern Alaska, Harris (1965) suggests that the stand had descended from a local remnant population that escaped glaciation rather rhan from postglacial westward migration. During independent, but related, studies on plant distributions in coastal western North America, both of us have

A. Worley; Dennis Jaques

197

FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

198

Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrkdalen lake, western Norway was subjected to a permanent 1.4 m drawdown in June 1987. After the drawdown, channels and artificial islands were constructed within the exposed floodplain system. Two permanent transects were established within this man-made environment, and these have been analyzed annually until 1995. The quadrats lie all on the same type of substrate, are at different

Arvid Odland

1997-01-01

199

PEACE CORPS PRIMER FOR THE WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEXT WAS WRITTEN FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS WORKING IN AREAS OF PANAY AND THE ROMBLON ISLANDS IN THE PHILIPPINES. COVERED IN THIS SHORT TEXT ARE "ALL THE DIALECTS OF THE WESTERN VISAYAS" (EXCEPT THE DIALECTS SPOKEN BY THE NEGRITOS)--AKLANON, KINARAY-A, CAPIZNON, ILONGO, LOOCNON, ODIONGANON, AND ROMBLOMANON. IN SPITE OF DIFFERENCES AMONG THESE…

ZORC, R. DAVID; AND OTHERS

200

The Balearic Promontory geomorphology (western Mediterranean): morphostructure and active processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a detailed study of the submarine geomorphology surrounding the Balearic Promontory (western Mediterranean), a northeast prolongation of the Neogene Betic Range in southern Spain, is presented from a series of high-resolution tools including swath bathymetry and seismic reflection profiling. The study identifies the main features of the continental shelf, slope and basins surrounding the Balearic Islands. We

Juan Acosta; Miquel Canals; Jerónimo López-Mart??nez; Araceli Muñoz; Pedro Herranz; Roger Urgeles; Carlos Palomo; Jose L Casamor

2003-01-01

201

Cementation of Upper Miocene reefs in western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in the western Mediterranean (southeast Spain, Balearic Island, northern Morocco, Sicily, and Italy) show a wide variety of cement types, ranging from completely tight, well-cemented, to poorly cemented reefs with most of the primary porosity still preserved. Cementation processes in those coral reefs appear to be controlled to a great extent by repeated changes of relative sea levels

M. Esteban; F. Calvet

1983-01-01

202

Barnacles on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

203

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

204

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

205

Intervention in Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1990s Solomon Islands had been moving towards the status of a ‘failed state’. Corruption was widespread and there was considerable resentment expressed by Guadalcanal people towards immigrants from the neighbouring island of Malaita, because of the perceived economic gains made by the latter at the former's expense. Conflict over this issue led to the coup of 5

Derek McDougall

2004-01-01

206

Transport variability across the Korea/Tsushima Strait and the Tsushima Island wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport variations are calculated across the Korea/Tsushima Strait using continuous current measurements made between May 1999 and March 2000. Twelve bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers provide velocity profiles along two sections: one section (south line) at the strait entrance southwest (upstream) of Tsushima Island and the other section (north line) at the strait exit northeast (downstream) of Tsushima Island. Transport variations across the strait are large, particularly in the lee of Tsushima Island where a countercurrent commonly exists. The Tsushima Current transport, averaging 2.65 Sverdrups (Sv) (1 Sv =106 m 3 s -1), is split into two cores by Tsushima Island, which divides the strait into eastern and western channels. Transport in the western channel is 23% higher than in the eastern channel over the measurement period. Some seasonality in transport variability is observed for both the western and eastern channels. Transports are largest in fall and smallest during winter. The single-velocity core, observed upstream of Tsushima Island, is estimated to split directly behind Tsushima Island over an aperture of about 31 km along the south line. A wake zone that averages 40 km in width is observed downstream of Tsushima Island and appears to follow island-wake-zone dynamics. Reynolds numbers can range from 22 to 90 in the wake zone, and eddy shedding can occur throughout the year.

Teague, W. J.; Hwang, P. A.; Jacobs, G. A.; Book, J. W.; Perkins, H. T.

2005-06-01

207

MISR Views the Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MISR images of the Big Island of Hawaii. The images have been rotated so that north is at the left.

Upper left: April 2, 2000 (Terra orbit 1551) Upper right: May 4, 2000 (Terra orbit 2017) Lower left: June 5, 2000 (Terra orbit 2483) Lower right: June 21, 2000 (Terra orbit 2716)

The first three images are color views acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. The last image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the aftward cameras viewing at 60.0 and 70.5 degree look angles. It requires red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye.

The color images show the greater prevalence of vegetation on the eastern side of the island due to moisture brought in by the prevailing Pacific trade winds. The western (lee) side of the island is drier. In the center of the island, and poking through the clouds in the stereo image are the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, each peaking at about 4.2 km above sea level. The southern face of a line of cumulus clouds off the north coast of Hawaii is also visible in the stereo image.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

208

New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

1996-01-01

209

Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

Boal, C.W.; Sibley, F.C.; Estabrook, T.S.; Lazell, J.

2006-01-01

210

El Niño related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass coral bleaching is currently viewed as a major threat to the long-term health of coral reef communities. Here we quantify coral bleaching in Palau coincident with the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event and with local sea surface temperatures of 31 °C, which were 1.0-1.25 °C higher than long-term, satellite-derived climatological maximum monthly means for the region. We sampled

J. Bruno; C. Siddon; J. Witman; P. Colin; M. Toscano

2001-01-01

211

Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

212

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

213

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

214

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles; Geography Department)

2007-09-21

215

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

216

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... temperatures also promote the formation of ground-level ozone. Compromised human health and comfort : Warmer days and ... island mitigation is part of a community's energy, air quality, water, or sustainability effort. Activities to reduce heat ...

217

Christmas Island birds returning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

218

Mapping Staten Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Staten Island has been in the news recently due to the severity of the damage wrought by Hurricane Sandy. For those wishing to know more about the history of this venerable community, this website is a gem. Mapping Staten Island is part of an in situ exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York that looks at the geography and history of Staten Island. The exhibit examines the borough's historical transformation through maps, government documents, and newspapers. By clicking on the Explore the Maps section, visitors can use a graphic interface that overlays dozens of historic maps, including an 1845 land use map and a 1781 chart and harbor map of the area, on the contemporary geography of Staten Island. Also, visitors can use the scroll bar near the bottom of the page to look at the maps in a chronological fashion.

219

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Christopher Griffith

220

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

221

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-01-15

222

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Lisa Gardiner

223

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

224

What are the Spratly Islands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be interpreted as an integral part of Sundaland. Post-MMU dredged samples are predominantly deep-water calcareous mudstones typified by the draping strata of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1143 cored from Recent to Late Miocene.

Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

2010-10-01

225

Obsidian archaeological artefacts provenance studies in the Western Mediterranean basin: an approach by Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and EPR 11 obsidian samples from the islands of Lipari, Palmarola, Pantelleria and Sardinia (Western Mediterranean), 26 obsidian artefacts from Italian Neolithic sites of known origin and eight artefacts from the two sites of the Lipari and Filicudi islands whose origins were not previously determined. We show that structural fingerprinting may be considered a

Rosa B Scorzelli; Susana Petrick; Alexandre M Rossi; Gérard Poupeau; Giulio Bigazzi

2001-01-01

226

Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

2014-05-01

227

WESTERN PACIFIC INVERTEBR ATE FISHERIES western pacific  

E-print Network

agencies in the region. The now-closed Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands (NWHI; Figure 16-1) lobster trap-scale, primarily rec- reational, fishery for different species of lobster ex- ists in the Main Hawaiian Islands of Com- merce, and implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The NWHI lobster fishery

228

Paleoecological analyses of lake sediments reveal prehistoric human impact on forests at Anthony Island UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of lake sediments from Anthony Island in the southern Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia, reveal 1800 yr of relatively stable temperate rainforest vegetation. Cupressaceae (cedar) pollen percentages and accumulation rates decline about 1000 cal yr BP, coincident with occupation of the island by Haida peoples, who use Thuja plicata (western red cedar) almost exclusively for house construction, dugout canoes, monumental poles, and many other items. Anthropogenic disturbance offers the most likely explanation for the decline of T. plicata.

Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Hebda, Richard J.

2007-09-01

229

Western Interior Seaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

Supergraphics, U-Haul

230

Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

2012-12-01

231

Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

Wheatcraft, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Hydrology/Hydrogeology Dept., Environmental and Resource Science

1995-09-01

232

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

233

Restoration of a tropical island: Cousine Island, Seychelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical island species and ecosystems are threatened worldwide as a result of increasing human pressure. Yet some of these\\u000a islands also lend themselves to restoration, as they are physically defined units that can be given focused attention, as\\u000a long as resources are available and clear conservation targets are set. Cousine Island, Seychelles, is a tropical island that\\u000a has received such

Michael J. Samways; Peter M. Hitchins; Orty Bourquin; Jock Henwood

2010-01-01

234

Competing for the Island Lifeline: European Law, State Aid and Regional Public Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bennett P. (2006) Competing for the island lifeline: European law, state aid and regional public services, Regional Studies40, 953–966. Ensuring the freedom to provide services in Europe often means that state subsidies for loss-making, but essential, services are subject to competitive tendering. For the past three decades ‘lifeline’ ferry services to the islands of Western Scotland have been operated by

Paul Bennett

2006-01-01

235

Phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic fish Trematomus newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of the two morphs, “typical” and “large mouth”, in the Antarctic fish species Trematomus newnesi (Perciformes, Notothenioidei) was recorded for the first time in nearshore waters of the South Shetland Islands (Potter Cove)\\u000a and western Antarctic Peninsula (Petermann Island). The two morphs were distinguishable in specimens of 60–241 mm total length\\u000a (TL); about 30% of the specimens constituted intermediate

Gabriela L. M. Piacentino; Esteban Barrera-Oro

2009-01-01

236

Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

Edwards, Edmundo

237

Western White Pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

238

The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water  

E-print Network

The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water Information Network Collaboration in Conflict and Cooperation in the Bureau of Reclamation's Upper Colorado Region 1970-2005 Western Water............................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Creation of a Water Events Database

Wolf, Aaron

239

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

240

Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

241

Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

2014-01-01

242

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

243

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

244

Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks  

E-print Network

SpeciesArea Curve H.C. Watson (1859) Arrhenius(1921) S = cAz Gleason (1922) log(S) = log(c) + zlog(A) Is the relationship between species and area linear? Island Biogeography Theory ­ (1963 with increase in species richness? #12;Both immigration and extinction lines are curved. (?) Any assumptions

Jodice, Patrick

245

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

246

GREEN HOMES LONG ISLAND  

E-print Network

energy bill, reduce your carbon footprint... at little or no cost to you. #12;A Message From Supervisor energy-efficient and reduce our community's carbon footprint. Why do we call it Long Island Green Homes to yourevery day. By making basic improvements to yourevery day home, you can reduce your carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

247

/sup 7/Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters  

SciTech Connect

/sup 7/Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in /sup 7/Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments. A possible sink for the missing /sup 7/Be may be the salt marshes or tidal mud flats ringing Long Island Sound.

Aaboe, E.; Dion, E.P.; Turekian, K.K.

1981-04-20

248

Western North Atlantic Humpback Whale Census, Hispaniola - 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 13 January to 20 April 1980, the ORES research vessel, r\\/v REGINA MARIS, conducted visual and acoustic censuses on breeding and calving banks of Western North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) near the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. Seventy censuses were run and 2949 sightings were made along 672.4 nautical miles of ship's track (4.4 sightings\\/n.m.). The

K. C. Balcomb; N. J. Haenel

1981-01-01

249

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

250

Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic, earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

2013-12-01

251

Western Glacier Stonefly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

 The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

252

Western Glacier Stonefly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

253

Nickel in Western australia.  

PubMed

Nickel ore deposits discovered in Archaean ultramafic greenstones and Tertiary laterites have resulted in frenzied ore search operations in Western Australia. This article outlines the geological background to the discoveries. PMID:16057474

Prider, R T

1970-05-23

254

Molecular evidence for adaptive radiation of Micromeria Benth. (Lamiaceae) on the Canary Islands as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences and ISSR fingerprint data.  

PubMed

The Canary Islands have been a focus for phylogeographic studies on the colonization and diversification of endemic angiosperm taxa. Based on phylogeographic patterns, both inter island colonization and adaptive radiation seem to be the driving forces for speciation in most taxa. Here, we investigated the diversification of Micromeria on the Canary Islands and Madeira at the inter- and infraspecific level using inter simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR), the trnK-Intron and the trnT-trnL-spacer of the cpDNA and a low copy nuclear gene. The genus Micromeria (Lamiaceae, Mentheae) includes 16 species and 13 subspecies in Macaronesia. Most taxa are restricted endemics, or grow in similar ecological conditions on two islands. An exception is M. varia, a widespread species inhabits the lowland scrub on each island of the archipelago and could represent an ancestral taxon from which radiation started on the different islands. Our analyses support a split between the "eastern" islands Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and Gran Canaria and the "western" islands Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. The colonization of Madeira started from the western Islands, probably from Tenerife as indicated by the sequence data. We identified two lineages of Micromeria on Gomera but all other islands appear to be colonized by a single lineage, supporting adaptive radiation as the major evolutionary force for the diversification of Micromeria. We also discuss the possible role of gene flow between lineages of different Micromeria species on one island after multiple colonizations. PMID:16839782

Meimberg, Harald; Abele, Tilmann; Bräuchler, Christian; McKay, John K; Pérez de Paz, Pedro L; Heubl, Günther

2006-12-01

255

Microfluidic Western blotting  

PubMed Central

Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10–60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

2012-01-01

256

Microfluidic Western blotting.  

PubMed

Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The ?Western blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the ?Western blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NF?B). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10-60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex ?Western blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the ?Western blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry. PMID:23223527

Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

2012-12-26

257

Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

2014-12-01

258

August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

2010-01-01

259

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

260

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

261

Syntactic Islands in Uyghur  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................................................55 vi Abbreviations 1 1st person 2 2nd person 3 3rd person ABL ablative case ACC accusative case ATB Across the Board Movement AUX auxiliary CAUS causative CNPC Complex Noun Phrase Constraint CSC Coordinate Structure... the complex noun phrase constraint (CNPC), wh-islands, and the coordinate structure constraint (CSC) in Uyghur. With regard to the CNPC, I provide evidence that nominalized embedded clauses, non-nominal embedded clauses, and relative clauses (nominal...

Major, Travis

2014-05-31

262

Leyte Island, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991, three weeks prior to the taking of this photo can still be seen on Leyte, (10.5N, 125.0E). Flash floods and mud slides triggered by the heavy rainfall and aggravated by logging operations on the mountain slopes, added to the general destruction caused by the storm. Fresh water runoff (lens) into the ocean are still evident as numerous bright semi circles around the island perimeter.

1991-01-01

263

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

264

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

265

Wind Forced Circulation in Long Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound is connected to the New York Harbor and the Hudson River through the East River, a sea level canal. Though the time mean, cross-sectional average flow in the Sound is thought to be westward into the Harbor, there is near-surface layer which transports fresh water into the Sound. This buoyancy flux has a significant influence on the vertical stratification which inhibits vertical mixing and exacerbates the extent and duration of summertime hypoxia. Recent work has revealed interment periods of enhanced vertical mixing. Using measurements from an array of vertically profiling current meters and wind observations, we show how the local and remotely forced circulation modulates the vertical stratification leading and influences the rate of decline of dissolved oxygen in the near bottom waters.

O'Donnell, J.; Bohlen, W. F.; Houk, A. E.

2008-12-01

266

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that âÂÂâ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

267

Frontal Ablation And Temporal Variations In Surface Velocity Of Livingston Island And King George Island Ice Caps, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frontal ablation (i.e. the sum of calving and submarine melting) from glaciers and ice caps covering the islands off the western coast of the Antarctic Peninsula is poorly known. Here we approximate the frontal ablation by the ice discharge through pre-defined flux gates, for the ice caps of King George and Livingston islands, the two largest islands in the South Shetland Islands archipelago. Glacier ice thickness is derived using a model based on principles of glacier dynamics. The model relies on the glacier surface velocities and glacier surface geometry, and is calibrated against ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements of ice thickness where available. The glacier surface velocities are obtained from intensity offset tracking of ALOS PALSAR-1 imagery from multiple tracks for both islands ensuring complete coverage of the ice caps. A total of 61 SAR images acquired between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, providing surface velocities of up to 250 m a-1. The total frontal ablation for King George Island is found to be 720×428 Mt a-1, while around 509×381 Mt a-1 for Livingston Island. King George and Livingston ice caps cover areas of 1127 km2 and 697 km2, respectively. Dividing the measured ice discharge by the entire ice cap area provides specific balances of 0.6×0.4 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 for King George and 0.7×0.5 m w.e. a-1 for Livingston ice caps. For the Livingston ice cap, we also find large changes in frontal ablation rate (of ˜237 Mt a-1) due to temporal variability in surface velocities. This highlights the importance of taking into account the seasonality in ice velocities when computing frontal ablation with a flux-gate approach.

Osmanoglu, B.; Navarro, F. J.; de Corcuera, M.; Braun, M.; Hock, R.

2013-12-01

268

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia)  

E-print Network

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia) A stages of continent-arc collision can be studied. We studied along the western limit of the collision be characteristic of young collisional systems at the transition from oceanic subduction to continent-arc collision

Rawlinson, Nick

269

Territory and Monogamy Among Kloss’ Gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in Siberut Island, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior of Kloss’ gibbons was studied from July 1 to October 7, 1972 in Siberut Island, off the coast of western Sumatra, Indonesia. Reproductive groups are monogamous families with a mean family size of 3.4 individuals (n = 11 families). Such families occupy territories averaging 6.7 ha. Adults defend their territories only against members of the same sex. This intrasexual

R. R. Tenaza

1975-01-01

270

Characteristics of bottom dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) in Long Island Sound, New York, is examined using water quality monitoring data collected by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection from 1995 to 2004. Self-organizing map analysis indicates that hypoxia always occurs in the Narrows during summer and less frequently in the Western and the Central Basins. The primary factor controlling the

Younjoo J. Lee; Kamazima M. M. Lwiza

2008-01-01

271

Allocation of blade surface to reproduction in Laminaria longicruris of Long Island Sound (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorus formation in the kelp Laminaria longicruris de la Pylaie (Phaeophyta) was quantified for a biennial population in Long Island Sound (Connecticut, USA), at the southern limit of its biogeographical range in the Western Atlantic Ocean. The allocation of blade surface to reproduction was measured monthly during two years, with additional samples taken at times of peak growth and reproduction.

M. S. Van Patten; C. Yarish

1993-01-01

272

Dissolved metal contamination in the East River–Long Island sound system: potential biological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cu and Pb), inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4), and chlorophyll a was measured along a 55 mile transect from the East River into western and central Long Island Sound. The main objectives of this study were to determine the relative levels of contamination from sewage, and to assess its possible biological impact on

Alison Sweeney; Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

2004-01-01

273

Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrian Weber, Benjamin Gilbert, J.P. (Hamish) Kimmins, and C.E. Prescott Abstract: Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), a late successional species on northern Vancouver Island, has a low seedling survival in mature hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) - amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes) (HA) stands. Shade, moss competition, and substrate were tested

Adrian Weber; Benjamin Gilbert; C. E. Prescott

2003-01-01

274

The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

1999-01-01

275

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE ISLAND WATERS, 1950-52  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE ISLAND WATERS, 1950-52 ( SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORTKay, Secretary, Fish and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE larval abundance in the Western half of Greenwi ch Bay in 1952 2\\\\ #12;SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE

276

Forest Age and Relative Abundance of Pileated Woodpeckers on Southeastern Vancouver Island1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated relative abundance of the pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) at four sites in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic zone, on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996-1997. The number of pileated woodpecker calls was correlated with age and structure of forests. Pileated woodpeckers did not use intensively managed forests < 80 years old that had low densities of dead wood (large

Carol L. Hartwig; Donald S. Eastman; Alton S. Harestad

2002-01-01

277

First breeding records of whooping swan and brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We document the first breeding records of Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) in Alaska and North America on Attu Island in the Western Aleutians in the spring of 1996. Five cygnets were seen with adults and the nest located, and a territorial pair of Bramblings was observed and a nest with eggs found.

Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Sonneborn, D.W.

1998-01-01

278

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

279

Pathogenicity islands: the tip of the iceberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity islands represent distinct genetic elements encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenicity islands belong to the class of genomic islands, which are common genetic elements sharing a set of unifying features. Genomic islands have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In recent years many different genomic islands have been discovered in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic

Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2001-01-01

280

Flank collapse and large-scale landsliding in the Cape Verde Islands, off West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale landslides occur on the flanks of many volcanic oceanic islands worldwide. None have taken place in historical time, but their geohazard potential, especially their ability to generate tsunamis, is large. The Cape Verde Islands are a group of 10 large and several smaller volcanic islands off the coast of West Africa between 15 and 17°N. A single flank landslide has previously been described from the island of Fogo, but systematic analysis of the Cape Verde group has until now been lacking. This paper describes and interprets a multibeam bathymetry data set covering the slopes of the western Cape Verde Islands, including those of the islands with the most recent volcanic activity, Fogo in the southwest, and Santo Antao in the northwest. All of the larger islands show evidence of large flank landslides, although only Fogo and the southwest part of Santo Antao have failed in the last 400 ka. Tope de Coroa, the volcano at the southwest end of Santo Antao, has been inactive for the past 170 ka and is judged to have a low landslide potential unless volcanic activity resumes. In contrast, there would seem to be a high probability of a future east directed landslide on Fogo, from the area of the highly active Pico do Fogo volcano, although it is impossible to predict a timescale for such an event. A tsunami generated by such a landslide could have a catastrophic effect on the adjacent island of Santiago and possibly even farther afield on the West African coast.

Masson, D. G.; Le Bas, T. P.; Grevemeyer, I.; Weinrebe, W.

2008-07-01

281

Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.  

PubMed

High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

282

Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure  

PubMed Central

High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

283

Surface Science Western  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Surface Science Western is an analytical laboratory specializing in the surface characterization and failure analysis of materials." Located at the University of Western Ontario, the laboratory illustrates its analyses of microelectronic devices and semiconductor materials; metal finishing, plating, and corrosion; and plastics and coatings. Students can learn about secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and many other methods of surface characterization and failure analysis. Researchers can find abstracts for countless publications by the scientists at Surface Science Western and downloads of newsletters. The website features the information on the VESPERS Project (Very Sensitive Elemental and Structural Probe Employing Radiation from a Synchrotron), involving the development of a high energy x-ray beam line at the Canadian Light Source (CLS).

284

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

285

Western Aeronautical Test Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

Sakahara, Robert D.

2008-01-01

286

Galveston Island and erosion  

E-print Network

. VITA 73 74 80 85 97 101 115 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Ai rphoto Scale Determination with the Aid of a Base Map . . 16 2. Actual-vs-l4easured Photo Scale and Resulting Error 3. Tropical Cyclones Affecting the Texas Coast from 1952...-1983 17 64 4. Projected Sea-level Rise 72 5. Potential Sand Sources and Sinks for Galveston Island . . . . 80 Al. Vegetation-line Changes on West Beach from July 3, 1977 to September 22, 1983; Impact of Recent Storm Events AZ. Changes...

Bolleter, Jim Mason

2012-06-07

287

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

288

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

289

19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

290

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand  

E-print Network

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand Term: January Term ESPM Track in New Zealand Visiting New Zealand was the most amazing experience of my life. You travel a lot and get to see every possible landscape of New Zealand - rainforests, mountains, caves, beaches, etc. The most we

Minnesota, University of

291

Dermaptera of Niue Island, and material from the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dermapteran faunas of Niue Island and the Cook Islands are composed entirely of cosmopolitan species. Niue I. has two species, Chelisoches morio and Euborellia annulipes (the latter is a new record). The Cook Is have three species—the two found on Niue, and Marava arachidis, which is a new record.

Logan Hudson

1974-01-01

292

Overlap in Offshore Habitat Use by Double-crested Cormorants and Boaters in Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and boats of 2 length classes (? 8 m and>8 m) were counted from a boat along 31 established strip transects in western Lake Erie from 24 April to 1 September 2000. Each transect included only one of the following habitats: (1) offshore of a breeding island or roosting\\/loafing area for cormorants (“refuge”), (2) reefs or

Martin A. Stapanian; Michael T. Bur

2002-01-01

293

Winter Diet of Lake Herring ( Coregonus artedi) in Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and zooplankton samples were simultaneously collected through the ice in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior to provide information on the winter feeding ecology of lake herring. Zooplankton constituted the entire diet of the 38 lake herring collected for this study. We found no evidence of piscivory, although it has been reported by anglers.

Jason Link; James H. Selgeby; Michael H. Hoff; Craig Haskell

1995-01-01

294

Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and petrology of Upper Cretaceous Horsethief and St. Mary River formations, western Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Horsethief and St. Mary River formations were deposited along the Late Cretaceous epicontinental seaway, which then covered much of the western interior. The Horsethief, lower of the two formations, is divided into two facies sequences. Facies sequence A consist of coarsening-upward sequences of sandstones and interbedded shales. These facies comprise a barrier island system consisting of shoreface, dune, tidal

William Fairhurst

1983-01-01

295

Early Neolithic obsidians in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean): the Su Carroppu case  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the obsidians from the undisturbed Early Neolithic (Cardial ware phase I) layer of the Su Carroppu rock-shelter (Sardinia island) were studied. Their elemental composition and that of obsidians from the Monte Arci (Sardinia) volcanic complex was determined by ion beam analysis (PIXE). A comparison between the composition of Su Carroppu artefacts, analysed non-destructively, and that of Western Mediterranean analysed

Carlo Lugliè; François-Xavier Le Bourdonnec; Gérard Poupeau; Enrico Atzeni; Stéphan Dubernet; Philippe Moretto; Laurent Serani

2007-01-01

296

Cenozoic tectonic history of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary zone in western Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural studies of well-dated Jurassic to lower Miocene rocks in western Cuba constrain the sequence of structural events affecting this oblique collisional zone between the late Cretaceous island arc and the Jurassic-Cretaceous North America passive margin in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Straits of Florida. Results of detailed mapping and collection of fault slip data at 34 sites define

Mark B. Gordon; Paul Mann; Dámaso Cáceres; Raúl Flores

1997-01-01

297

Aspects of Western Subanon Formal Speech. Publications in Linguistics. Publication Number 81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation presents a study of patterns of speech in Western Subanon, as heard in areas of Mindanao, an island in the Philippines. An introductory section discusses relevant general issues in linguistic research and the present study. The relationships of language to linguistics and of language to society, the objectives of the study, the…

Hall, William C.

298

Enriched Archean lithospheric mantle beneath western Churchill Province tapped during Paleoproterozoic orogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrapotassic rocks of the Christopher Island Formation (Baker Lake basin) were emplaced across an enormous area (240000 km2 minimum) of the western Churchill Province ca. 1.83 Ga. These rocks extend across the Snowbird zone, a geophysical feature postulated by others to represent a Paleoproterozoic suture that welded the Rae and Hearne domains. Minette dikes and flows of the Rae and

Brian L. Cousens; Lawrence B. Aspler; Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli; J. Allan Donaldson; Hamish Sandeman; Tony D. Peterson; Anthony N. Lecheminant

2001-01-01

299

Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuerteventura is the oldest island in the Canaries archipelago; following the growth of a pre-Miocene seamount, its shield stage began 20.6 Ma ago, and ended in the mid-Miocene. There followed a very extended period of quiescence, then very minor Quaternary post-erosional volcanism. The shield stage produced volcanoes up to 3000 m above sea level which were rapidly eroded by 17.5 Ma. Both Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, the older eastern-most islands, are in a post-erosional stage and have subdued topography with elevations rarely rising above 400 m. The western islands, La Palma and El Hierro, together with Tenerife, are the youngest in the archipelago, and are still in their shield stage which began at most 7.5 Ma ago. They have a rugged topography with peaks rising to several thousand metres. Volcanic activity persists in these islands and in Lanzarote. The shield-stage construction of the volcanically active western islands demonstrates that recent eruptive activity has concentrated in volcanic centres aligned in well-defined rift zones in which major dyke emplacement has taken place, and that volcano flank collapse has occurred with giant landslides initiated on the rifts. In Fuerteventura, most of the shield-stage volcanic rocks have been removed; however, evidence has now been advanced to show that major dyke swarms were emplaced in the Oligocene and Miocene. These belonged to a line of intrusive complexes above which, by the early to mid-Miocene, volcanic peaks had been constructed. Three volcanic centres have been identified and in the central one, a peak as high as the present Mount Teide on Tenerife was rapidly denuded in less than 2 Ma. In the west of the island, this erosion has exposed a window of more than 300 km 2 of submarine volcanics and sediments belonging to the pre-shield phase seamount. The principal mechanism of erosion seems to have been the generation of giant landslides analogous to those seen in the younger islands. These appear to have removed some 3500 km 3 of lavas and volcaniclastics, stripping the western sectors of the Miocene volcanoes down to the pre-shield phase "Basal Complex", and transporting the mass of volcanic material into the Atlantic ocean as debris flows. Remnants of the shield volcanoes still exist in the eastern part of the island. Present day topographic variation indicates that the Miocene base level of erosion is still visible in a "Central Depression" which runs through the axis of the island, the eastern hills are composed of the Miocene shield-stage volcanics which still preserve a drainage pattern initiated on these peaks, and the "Basal Complex" in the west has a juvenile landscape suggesting incision on a post-Miocene domal uplift of the volcano core. Structural links between intra-island volcano-tectonic events and the South Atlas Fault zone are not thought to be likely.

Stillman, C. J.

1999-12-01

300

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

301

Influence of inner-continental shelf geologic framework on the evolution and behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Island Inlet and Shinnecock Inlet, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution, sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidescan-sonar and subbottom profiling, were used to investigate how the geologic framework of the inner-continental shelf influenced the Holocene evolution and modern behavior of the Fire Island barrier-island system, Long Island, New York. The inner-continental shelf off Long Island is divided into two physiographic provinces by a broad outcrop of Cretaceous coastal-plain strata offshore of Watch Hill; this outcrop was part of a subaerial headland during the Holocene marine transgression. Erosion of the headland during transgression furnished sediment to the inner-continental shelf downdrift to the west. The sediment was, in turn, reworked by oceanographic processes into a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges. The oldest (~1200 yr BP) and most stable part of the barrier-island system is immediately landward of the outcropping coastal-plain strata and thickest sand ridges. East of Watch Hill, Pleistocene sediment either is exposed on the inner-continental shelf or is buried by a veneer of modern reworked sediment. Here the barrier-island system has migrated landward at a faster rate than the segment west of Watch Hill and has been breached by numerous historic inlets. Because the Pleistocene sedimentary deposit is generally of uniform thickness throughout the study area and unconformably overlies the Cretaceous coastal-plain strata, both the Holocene and historical evolution of the Fire Island barrier-island system are controlled by the physiography of this regional unconformity. In particular, the shoreface-connected sand ridges appear to be a significant source of sediment to the western portion of Fire Island. Previous attempts to develop a sediment budget for this coastal system have failed to explain volumetric discrepancies, primarily because poor assumptions were made about the nature of sediment transport in the system. A more realistic sediment budget must include a significantly larger spatial scale, including sediment input from the inner-continental shelf.

Schwab, W.C.; Thieler, E.R.; Allen, J.R.; Foster, D.S.; Swift, B.A.; Denny, J.F.

2000-01-01

302

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

303

Western Criminology Review (WCR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Criminology Review, a peer reviewed free journal hosted by Sonoma State University, is now available. The inaugural issue focuses on the topic of restorative justice and victim-offender mediation. The WCR will be a forum for "the publication and discussion of theory, research, policy and practice in the rapidly changing and interdisciplinary fields of criminology and criminal justice."

304

WESTERN PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and operation of a 40-station network to sample atmospheric particles resulted in the collection, over a 2-year period from July 1979 to September 1981, of the data summarized in this report. The sampling stations were located in eight western states: Arizona, New Mexi...

305

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

306

Romaine Fielding's Real Westerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the multitalented Romaine Fielding (born 1868) was the first filmmaker ever to shoot westerns on location in the American Southwest. Provides a brief summary of the life and times of Fielding. Discusses whether or not Fielding is deserving of the title "artist." Explores his career as a filmmaker. (PA)

Woal, Linda Kowall; Woal, Michael

1995-01-01

307

Western Fence Lizard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is larger and prefers less open habitat than the related side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic isolation in both speci...

2010-09-17

308

Tidal Pool on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

309

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

310

The Theory of Island Biogeography  

E-print Network

The Theory of Island Biogeography Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson The young biologists" dominated by the collection of data. In The Theory of Island Biogeography they set out to change that by devel- oping a general mathema- tical theory that would make sense of a key ecological problem

Landweber, Laura

311

Hospital administrator broadens his horizons in Marshall Islands.  

PubMed

The Mercy International Health Services (MIHS) has sponsored a 4- to 5-year project in the Republic of the Marshall Islands to improve the healthcare offered the Marshallese and to train them to take over their own facilities. The MIHS administers an 85-bed government hospital in Majuro, and a 35-bed hospital on Ebeye. The Mercies plan to turn the Majuro and Ebeye hospitals over to Marshallese administrators in about 2 years and, if necessary, to leave a consultant on the islands for a year after that. The program also provides healthcare for over 8,000 people affected by fallout from US atomic tests on several islands, including Bikini, that took place in the late 1940s and 1950s. Malnutrition and diabetes are common problems among the Marshallese. These problems are exacerbated by Western junk food. Infectious diseases are another serious health problem, largely caused by a poor sanitation system that affects the drinking water. Typhoid; hepatitis A, diarrheal diseases, and parasitic infections are the most common diseases among hospitalized patients. Steps are being taken to improve the water supply, but the islands' greatest need is for preventative healthcare, especially immunization of children. A lack of family planning, alcoholism, and a high suicide rate among teenage boys also call for counseling and prevention programs. PMID:10286452

Hume, S K

1988-04-01

312

Balearic archipelago: three islands, three beta-thalassemia population patterns.  

PubMed

The mutation spectrum of 175 ?-thalassemia (?-thal) carriers, identified in pilot carrier screening on 22,713 individuals from Balearic Islands (Spain), is reported. The ?(0) CD39 (C>T) mutation is the most frequent (61.1%), followed by ?(+) IVS-I-110 (G>A) (12.0%), ?(+) IVS-I-6 (T>C) and ?(0) IVS-1-1 (G>A) (3.4% both) and eight other rare mutations (2.9-0.6%); with a distinct prevalence and distribution between islands. Minorca shows the highest prevalence in Iberian populations, with a single mutation, CD39 (C>T), present in most ?-thal carriers. Ibiza is the only Western Mediterranean population where the most frequent ?-thal mutation is IVS-I-110 (G>A). These results can be explained by a combination of historical-demographic characteristics together with evolutionary forces such as founder effect, genetic drift and probably selection by malaria. Knowledge of the mutational spectrum in the Balearic Islands will enable to optimize mutation detection strategy for genetic diagnosis of ?-thal in these islands. PMID:22376243

López-Escribano, H; Parera, M M; Guix, P; Serra, J M; Gutierrez, A; Balsells, D; Oliva-Berini, E; Castro, J A; Ramon, M M; Picornell, A

2013-02-01

313

Roentgenologic aspects of bone islands.  

PubMed

A review of radiographs of 143 Adult Health Study and 46 non-sample subjects made over a period of 23 years established sites, sizes, ages at detection, and prevalence of 209 bone islands in 189 subjects. Except for 18 new bone islands, all appeared during the period of observation. Twenty-six of them changed: of these, 21 enlarged, 4 became smaller, and 1 disappeared. There was no association with atomic bomb radiation dose. Bone islands were more frequent in the pelvis and femora but often occurred in the ribs. Five bone islands in adolescents enlarged proportionally to bone growth, suggesting that they often participate metabolically in the normal osseous system. Bone islands must be differentiated from osteoblastic metastases. PMID:870936

Onitsuka, H

1977-06-01

314

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

315

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

316

Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.  

PubMed

Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

2005-08-16

317

Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands  

PubMed Central

Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

2005-01-01

318

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

theory; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; educationFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada Assistant or Associate Professor in Educational Leadership The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for a full

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

319

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

theory; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; educationFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada Assistant or Associate Professor in Educational Leadership The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for two full

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

320

Slowness tomography of Pdif beneath Western Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major earthquakes (M> 6.4) in South America (near Coast of Central Chile) and South Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea and Sandwich Islands) routinely display conspicuous Pdif phases as recorded by the Central European and Western Mediterranean seismological networks. The relative arrival times of Pdif at the stations of a certain network are obtained by correlating the individual traces with a template obtained using the corresponding network beam. The slowness values are derived by linear regression together with the 95% errors. A check for the presence of outliers is done using Chauvenet's criterion. Ellipticity corrections are evaluated with the standard tables. Corrections for the diffracted ray path are applied using a global 3-D model and a slightly modified version of the TauP Toolkit. The same procedure is applied to the synthetic seismograms to provide the reference slowness. Using a slowness tomographic approach, the (relative) slowness perturbation values are directly inverted to the velocity perturbations assigned to a set of trapezoidal cells located on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The above 95% errors are used to weight the inversion, which is solved by a Monte Carlo method. Finally, we compare our results to the P-velocity perturbations from several global 3-D models in the same CMB area beneath Western Africa.

Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

2014-05-01

321

Investigation of islands in stellarator designs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Islands are a crucial issue in designing stellarators such as NCSX. The presence of islands is associated with radial magnetic fields and results in poor plasma confinement. It is important to identify what is the physical cause of the islands, and whether the islands may be controlled using boundary perturbations, provided by trim coils. Computationally, equilibria with islands are calculated using PIES, and island widths and resonant perturbations may be determined. Analytic expressions of island width are used to identify the causes of island formation. Perturbations to the plasma boundary can be used in an attempt to manipulate island formation. A numerical procedure is described, and the results of island optimization are presented. By manipulating the phase of zero beta islands, self-healing effects are examined.

Hudson, S. R.; Monticello, D. A.; Reiman, A. H.

2000-10-01

322

WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY STUDENT CODE  

E-print Network

WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY STUDENT CODE Approved by The Western Michigan University Board Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008 Effective August 2008 #12;A UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY IS... ...a for the Advancement of Teaching; Ernest L. Boyer (frwd.); Princeton, New Jersey; 1990 #12;WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY

de Doncker, Elise

323

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

324

Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview of Kos'ko et al. (1993, Geol. Surv.Canada Bull. 461). In 2006, an international team of geologists (S.Sokolov, M.Tuchkova, V.Verzhbitsky, E.Miller and V.Pease) visited the island with the help and logistic support of the director and scientific staff of the Wrangel Island Wildlife Preserve. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed and metamorphosed, but may match part of the section described for the Hannah Trough, Alaska (Sherwood et al., 2002 GSA Spec.Paper 360): Coarse clastic strata overlie late Precambrian basement (630-700 Ma Kos'ko et al. (1993)), followed by a succession of mid to Late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks. Wrangel Island differs from the N.Slope and Brooks Range in that a thick sequence of basinal Triassic clastics constitutes the upper part of the section. Comparison of single grain U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Triassic of Wrangel to the Russian Arctic mainland and to the Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity and similar source regions between these three regions (but not the N. Slope) in the Triassic. Single grain ages as young as 215 Ma validate the inferred Triassic age of these sediments on Wrangel Island. Penetrative deformation, increasing in strain and metamorphic grade with depth in the section, is defined by a foliation that dips south and a pronounced N-S mineral elongation or stretching lineation. The structural style of deformation is unlike the style of folding and thrusting in the external (northern) part of the Brooks Range, but similar to that of the internal (southern) zone of the Brooks Range. Limited thin section observations suggest that this deformation may have been superimposed on an earlier, lower strain event but its evidence has been largely obliterated. The main foliation is axial planar to tight to isoclinal folds in all units; these folds (and associated thrust faults) intricately involve the sediment-basement interface (no brittle detachment). Low-angle faults and map-scale boudinage omit section and structurally thin the stack of folded rocks. Low greenschist facies metamorphism (chlorite-white mica) transitional to mid-greenschist (biotite) accompanied deformation. Fifteen oriented thin sections show that the high strain in these rocks was accompanied by formation of mylonitic textures in quartz: subgrain formation, grain size reduction, grain boundary migration and syn-tectonic recrystallization. Fabrics indicate mostly flattening perpendicular to foliation and stretching in a NS direction; they are not highly asymmetric. The excellent preservation of deformation-related structures in quartz suggests that the observed deformation may be related to unroofing rather than to (thrust) burial. Apatite fission track ages from structurally deepest crystalline basement rocks (samples provided by M. Cecile, GSC) are 82.9 +/- 6.7 and 82.5 +/- 6.4 Ma (1 sigma errors) and have relatively long (14 micron) unimodal track lengths, supporting this possibility.

Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.; Soloviev, A.

2007-12-01

325

Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation defines island genetic reservoirs for reintroductions of an endangered Australian marsupial, Perameles bougainville  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural populations of the endangered western barred bandicoot (Perameles bougainville) now exist on only two islands in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Our aim was to investigate genetic diversity in natural,\\u000a reintroduced, and captive populations of the bandicoots and to assess the extent of divergence between the populations. The\\u000a contemporary isolation of the natural populations has resulted in heterogeneity of allele

Steve Smith; Jane Hughes

2008-01-01

326

Long-term (17 Ma) turbidite record of the timing and frequency of large flank collapses of the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

turbidites on the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of large-volume volcanic island flank collapses from the Canary Islands. This long-term record spans 17 Ma, and comprises 125 volcaniclastic beds. Determining the timing, provenance and volumes of these turbidites provides key information about the occurrence of mass wasting from the Canary Islands, especially the western islands of Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. These turbidite records demonstrate that landslides often coincide with protracted periods of volcanic edifice growth, suggesting that loading of the volcanic edifices may be a key preconditioning factor for landslide triggers. Furthermore, the last large-volume failures from Tenerife coincide with explosive volcanism at the end of eruptive cycles. Many large-volume Canary Island landslides also occurred during periods of warmer and wetter climates associated with sea-level rise and subsequent highstand. However, these turbidites are not serially dependent and any association with climate or sea level change is not statistically significant.

Hunt, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Clare, M. A.; Jarvis, I.; Wynn, R. B.

2014-08-01

327

Western Waters Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the earliest European explorers to the time of modern engineers and hydrologists, the vast reserves of water within the Western United States have been the cause of both great excitement and concern. This compelling digital library brings together a wide range of documents (including legal transcripts, water project records, and personal papers) that document the Columbia, Colorado, Platte, and Rio Grande river basins. The project was completed with support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and twelve university libraries in eight western states. On the homepage, visitors can perform advanced searches, or just elect to browse through the available materials. Browsing is a good option actually, as all of the materials are contained with one of four sections: subject, people, places, and signature collections. The signature collections are a real find, and visitors can look over troves that include "Native American Water Rights in Arizona", "The Platte River Basin in Nebraska", and "Las Vegas: Water in the West".

2004-01-01

328

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

329

Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

2012-04-01

330

Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

2000-01-01

331

Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

2014-11-01

332

Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

1986-05-01

333

PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software  

PubMed Central

The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2012-01-01

334

Global Collembola on Deception Island.  

PubMed

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

335

Global Collembola on Deception Island  

PubMed Central

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

336

Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest Middle Holocene movement of people at this time from southern California desert environs westward to the southern islands, a migration perhaps stimulated by increased continental aridity.

Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

2007-02-01

337

Pronounced fixation, strong population differentiation and complex population history in the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex.  

PubMed

Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward re-colonisation of western North Africa from the Canaries remains possible. PMID:24587269

Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

2014-01-01

338

Pronounced Fixation, Strong Population Differentiation and Complex Population History in the Canary Islands Blue Tit Subspecies Complex  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward re-colonisation of western North Africa from the Canaries remains possible. PMID:24587269

Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

2014-01-01

339

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Theme Park at the Universal Studios Orlando Resort. Islands of Adventure is a wonderful world of fantasyHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun This Saturday, February 7th, the ELI is headed to Islands of Adventure

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

340

Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices  

E-print Network

Highlights Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices Notes from the Office Manners, Culture, & Grammar TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! Islands of Adventure is a theme park in Orlando: The cost of transportation is $20 for a seat on the bus. Islands of Adventure tickets cost $92. What

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

341

Turbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds  

E-print Network

Turbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds Edward R near the mouths of Block Island Sound (BIS) and Long Island Sound (LIS). These measurements extend from; Finestructure; Mixing processes; Coastal; Autonomous underwater vehicle; USA, New York, Long Island Sound; USA

Goodman, Louis

342

Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

2014-09-01

343

Influences on the Morphologic Response to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm on historical record in the Atlantic basin. The highest waves and storm surge were focused along the New York and New Jersey coasts. At the height of the storm, a wave buoy 55 km offshore of Fire Island, NY recorded a significant wave height of 9.6 m. Storm-tide levels on the beach reached 4.1 m. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after landfall were used to quantify morphologic change in several focus areas. Pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography are used to quantify morphologic change along the length of the island including shoreline and beach change, and volumetric change to the beach and dunes. The extent and thicknesses of washover deposits were also mapped in the field and measurements were used to determine washover volume, distribution and characteristics. The beaches and dunes on Fire Island were severely eroded, and the island breached in three locations on the eastern segment of the island. Landward retreat of the beach averaged -26 m but varied substantially along the coast. The beaches and dunes lost over 50% of their pre-storm volume, and the dunes experienced overwash along 50% of the island. Shoreline change was highly variable with an average progradational trend of 11.4 m, likely due to the deposition of material from the upper beach and dunes onto the lower portion of the beach. Although the entire island experienced extreme erosion in the form of volume loss, beach deflation and dune leveling, the central portion of Fire Island experienced the least impact. Volumetric loss of the beach and dune and overwash extent and volume were lowest in the central segment of the island. Beach and dune volume loss was similar in magnitude on the eastern and western segments of the island, but overwash deposition extent and volume were significantly greater to the east. The variation in the response of the island during Sandy parallels the evolutionary history (decadal to millennial scale behavior) of the coastal system, which is controlled by the antecedent geology. Morphodynamic time series of decades to a century indicate that the central segment of the island is relatively stable, the eastern portion is experiencing shoreward retreat and the western portion is variable but generally stable. The processes driving the differential response on Fire Island are influenced by the geology/morphology of the inner shelf, which is shallowest offshore of central Fire Island and deepens to the east. Sand ridges dominate the shelf offshore of the western segment of the island and influence the distribution of wave energy reaching the coast. The pattern of differential response along the island to this extreme storm event is strikingly similar to variations documented in longer term behavior, suggesting storm response is predictable if the long-term morphodynamics and geology of a coastal system are fairly well understood.

Hapke, C. J.; Brenner, O.; Schwab, W. C.

2013-12-01

344

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

345

Oil Spill Threatens Galapagos Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, the aging Ecuadorean tanker "Jessica" ran aground on San Cristobal Island, threatening the delicate ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands, famous as the location for much of Charles Darwin's key research. The Galapagos, 97 percent of which is a national park, is perhaps the last complete and preserved island archipelago. The captain of the ship has since accepted responsibility for misjudging his entry into the bay and running the ship aground, spilling approximately 160,000 gallons of oil. Efforts continue to refloat the ship and remove the 10,000 gallons left inside. Fortunately, favorable winds and currents have limited the amount of oil washing up on the Galapagos Islands, but the long-term effects remain to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

346

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Halbert, Massy; Lyon, Jim; Yasutake, Mike; Lyon

347

Tsunami trapping near circular islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

1995-09-01

348

Large-amplitude pressure oscillations in the western Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Pressure oscillations with unusually large amplitude of some 3 mb and periods of about 50 min have been registered in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean sea) during summer 1989. These large pressure oscillations are maintained over several hours and have been recorded on several occasions. The synoptic pattern and vertical structure of the atmosphere simultaneous with these oscillations is described. The large amplitude waves described here do not appear to be directly related to convective activity. Some of the characteristics of these waves are described, however, their source mechanism remains unclear.

Monserrat, S.; Ramis, C. (Universitat de les Illes Balears (Spain)); Thorpe, A.J. (Univ. of Reading (England))

1991-02-01

349

Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).  

PubMed

The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.  PMID:25543745

Hugel, Sylvain

2014-01-01

350

Evidence for two shield volcanoes exposed on the island of Kauai, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Kauai has always been interpreted as a single shield volcano, but lavas of previously correlated reversed-to-normal magnetic-polarity transitions on opposite sides of the island differ significantly in isotopic composition. Samples from west Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr 18.25; samples from east Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7037, ??Nd ??? 6.14, and 206Pb/204Pb < 18.25. Available data suggest that a younger eastern shield grew on the collapsed flank of an older western one.

Holcomb, R.T.; Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Sawyer, N.-L.E.

1997-01-01

351

The Francisella pathogenicity island.  

PubMed

The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is a cluster of 16-19 genes, which is found duplicated in most of the Francisella genomes that have been sequenced. Although 16 FPI genes are highly conserved there are 2-3 putative genes that are absent or interrupted by stop codons in some strains. Francisella strains with experimentally induced mutations in FPI genes are highly attenuated in virulence and show defects in intramacrophage growth. There is experimental evidence indicating that the regulation of most FPI genes is affected by the presence of the virulence regulator MglA and by the concentration of iron in the growth medium. Although studies of mRNA expression show that essentially all FPI genes are transcribed, only a handful of FPI-encoded proteins have been detected by biochemical methods. The cumulative biochemical and genetic data to date have not yet been able to ascribe a biochemical function to any of the FPI-encoded proteins. However, bioinformatics analysis suggests that some of the FPI-encoded proteins are part of a type VI secretion system. PMID:17395722

Nano, Francis E; Schmerk, Crystal

2007-06-01

352

Review of geology of the New Siberian Islands between the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, North East Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Siberian Islands comprise De Long Islands, Anjou Islands, and Lyakhov Islands. Early Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments and igneous rocks are known on the De Long Islands. Cambrian slate, siltstone, mudstone and silicified limestone occur on Bennett Island. Ordovician volcanogenic turbidites, lavas, and small intrusions of andesite-basalt, basalt, dolerite, and porphyritic diorite were mapped on Henrietta Island. The igneous rocks are of calc-alkaline island arc series. The Ordovician age of the sequence was defined radiometrically. Early Paleozoic strata were faulted and folded presumably in the Caledonian time. Early Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone are known on Bennett Island. They are overlain by a 106-124 Ma basalt unit. Cenozoic volcanics are widespread on the De Long Islands. Zhokhov Island is an eroded stratovolcano. The volcanics are mostly of picrite-olivine type and limburgite. Radiometric dating indicates Miocene to Recent ages for Cenozoic volcanism. On the Anjou islands Lower-Middle Paleozoic strata consist of carbonates, siliciclastics, and clay. A Northwest-southeast syn-sedimentary facies zonation has been reconstructed. Upper Paleozoic strata are marine carbonate, clay and siliciclastic facies. Mudstone and clay predominate in the Triassic to Upper Jurassic section. Aptian-Albian coal bearing deposits uconformably overlap lower strata indicating Early Cretaceous tectonism. Upper Cretaceous units are mostly clay and siltstone with brown coal strata resting on Early Cretaceous weathered rhyolite. Cenozoic marine and nonmarine silisiclastics and clay rest upon the older units with a transgressive unconformity including a weathering profile in the older rocks. Manifestations of Paleozoic and Triassic mafic and Cretaceous acidic magmatism are also found on these islands. The pre-Cretaceous structure of the Anjou islands is of a block and fold type Late Cimmerian in age followed by faulting in Cenozoic time. The Lyakhov islands are located at the western end of the Late Cimmerian South Anyui suture. Sequences of variable age, composition, and structural styles are known on the Lyakhov Islands. These include an ancient metamorphic sequence, Late Paleozoic ophiolitic sequence, Late Mesozoic turbidite sequence, Cretaceous granites, and Cenozoic sediments. Fold and thrust imbricate structures have been mapped on southern Bol'shoi Lyakhov Island. North-northwestern vergent thrusts transect the Island and project offshore. Open folds of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strata are characteristic of Stolbovoi and Malyi Lyakhov islands. Geology of the New Siberian Islands supports the concept of a circum Arctic Phanerozoic fold belt. The belt is comprised of Caledonian, Ellesmerian, Early Cimmerian and Late Cimmerian fold systems, manifested in many places on the mainland and on islands around the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the geology of the New Siberian Islands has been used to interpret anomalous gravity and magnetic field maps and Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) lines. Two distinguishing structural stages are universally recognized within the offshore sedimentary cover which correlate with the onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands. Dating of the upper structural stage and constituent seismic units is based on structural and stratigraphic relationships between Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic units in the archipelago. The Laptev Sea-western East Siberian Sea seismostratigraphic model for the upper structural stage has much in common with the seismostratigraphic model in the American Chukchi Sea.

Kos'ko, M.; Korago, E.

2009-09-01

353

Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified in eight cores at higher tidal and freshwater sites, date from about 1.5 ka and 2.0 ka, respectively. A younger silty sand bed, <10 cm beneath the now-eroding low marsh around the lagoon, may record the 1964 tsunami. Correlations of two to three other sandy beds are too uncertain to infer their deposition by tsunamis. Stratigraphic contacts found only in cores and outcrops of the <0.8- to 1-ka tidal section fringing the lagoon may mark coseismic uplift (peat over tidal mud, sometimes with intervening sand) or subsidence (tidal mud over peat, sometimes with intervening sand). We collected samples of modern tidal foraminifera along three elevational transects for the baseline dataset needed to use fossil assemblages to measure the amount of uplift or subsidence recorded by contacts. Foraminiferal assemblages above and below one contact confirm rapid uplift a few hundred years before the 1788 tsunami, but cores are too few to correlate this contact with any of the sandy beds that we infer were deposited by tsunamis farther inland. These initial results demonstrate the promise of this previously unexplored island and similar sites for using stratigraphic evidence of sudden land-level changes and high tsunamis to map prehistoric ruptures of the Aleutian-Alaskan megathrust.

Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

2012-12-01

354

Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

Varekamp, J.C.; Bucholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

2000-01-01

355

Western Soundscape Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can get a good sense of the American West by reading authors as diverse as Sherman Alexie, Mark Twain, John McPhee, but can they really accurately describe the sounds of a resting short-eared owl? Perhaps, but if you're looking to listen to the natural world of the Western states, you should probably click on over to the Western Soundscape Archive website. This aural database is housed at the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library and features recordings contributed by state and federal agencies, conservation groups, and dedicated volunteers. Started in 2007, the archive continues to grow, and currently they have representative sounds from approximately 80% of the West's bird species and 90% of the region's frog and toad species. Visitors can get started here by taking a listen to the "Featured Sound" on the homepage and then move on over to the search engine. The site also has weekly podcasts, and a number of thematic sound collections, like the "Sounds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge". Overall, it's a tremendously well-presented site, and one that will be of interest to naturalists, scholars, and many others.

356

Birds, Broom, Bunnies, and Biplanes: Conserving a Remnant Population of Coastal Vesper Sparrows at the Nanaimo Airport, Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Abstract: The coastal vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus affinis) forms a disjunct population of the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), and breeds from southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia (B.C.) south through western Washington and Oregon to the extreme northwest of California (Beauchesne 2003). This subspecies was probably never common in British Columbia, and it is assumed that prior to European settlement,

TRUDY CHATWIN

2004-01-01

357

The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

Matsumoto, Kazuko

2010-01-01

358

A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

359

Characteristics of pileated woodpecker ( Dryocopus pileatus) cavity trees and their patches on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavity trees and cavity patches (areas around cavity trees) used by pileated woodpeckers were located in Coastal Western Hemlock and Coastal Douglas-fir forest types on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996 and 1997. Trees with active nests and with apparent pileated cavities (n=28) were larger than trees without cavities (n=200). Of the seven confirmed nest trees, three were grand fir (Abies

C. L. Hartwig; D. S Eastman; A. S Harestad

2004-01-01

360

Multi-stage exhumation of young UHPHP rocks: Timescales of melt crystallization in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, southeastern Papua  

E-print Network

Available online 31 August 2012 Keywords: eclogite partial melting exhumation CA-TIMS Papua New Guinea a b in western Fergusson Island were analyzed by U­Pb ID-TIMS zircon geochronology. Zircons extracted from the eclogite at the UHP locality yield 206 Pb/238 U TIMS dates from 5.6070.22 to 4.6170.18 Ma. Zircons from

Hacker, Bradley R.

361

Three-Dimensional Model Simulations of Tides and Buoyancy Currents along the West Coast of Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and seasonal buoyancy flows off the western and northern coasts of Vancouver Island. The model buoyancy currents and the harmonics of eight tidal constituents are compared with those from previous models, and those from tide gauge and current meter observations. The rms differences between observed and calculated sea

Michael G. G. Foreman; Richard E. Thomson

1997-01-01

362

Spatial and temporal variations in nutrient and chlorophyll- a concentrations in the northern East China Sea surrounding Cheju Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and environmental conditions were extensively investigated in the northern East China Sea (ECS) near Cheju Island during five research cruises from 2003 to 2007. In the eastern part of the study area, surface waters were characterized only by the Tsushima Current Water (TCW) during all five cruises. However, the western surface waters changed with season and were

Dongseon Kim; Sang Hwa Choi; Kyung Hee Kim; JeongHee Shim; Sinjae Yoo; Chul Ho Kim

2009-01-01

363

ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

2005-01-01

364

Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

2014-05-01

365

Habitat selection by South Island saddlebacks and Stewart Island robins reintroduced to Ulva Island  

E-print Network

Abstract: Determining whether animals select some habitats over others provides basic information about how animals meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. Habitat selection is therefore an important component of conservation research. Studies involving the release and establishment of threatened species on island refuges can be particularly insightful because breeding pairs should be able to select habitat of the highest quality within the range available. This study uses GIS technology to investigate the spatial distribution of breeding territories in relation to overall habitat availability of two threatened passerines, South Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) and Stewart Island robins (Petroica australis rakiura) two years after their release onto predator-free Ulva Island. Both species established breeding territories around the periphery of the island in coastal forest fringe habitat and away from mature forest in the interior of the island. Compositional analysis suggested that both species prefer dense, fringe-type habitat with open ground cover and deep litter layers and avoid more mature forests, especially with moss cover. Thus habitat structure is likely to be more important for both species than plant-species composition. However, the possibility exists that the preference of coastal fringe habitat could represent an ‘ecological trap’, where habitat preference does not correspond to better quality habitat in terms of reproductive fitness. It will be useful to continue monitoring saddlebacks and robins to obtain data on survival and fecundity as the density of birds increases, and breeding

Kate E. Steffens; Philip J. Seddon; Renaud Mathieu; Ian G. Jamieson

366

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

367

Age, Growth, Maturity, and Sex Composition of the American Smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), of Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 4,561 smelt collected in Chequamegon Bay, the Apostle Islands, the Brule River, and Superior Harbor, all in western Lake Superior. Commercial production in the Great Lakes (U. S. and Canada combined) reached a peak of nearly 16 million pounds in 1960. Production in Lake Superior has generally been small but increased during the 1950's to

Merryll M. Bailey

1964-01-01

368

Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes  

PubMed Central

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

2014-01-01

369

Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.  

PubMed

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

2014-01-01

370

Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

2014-01-01

371

Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

372

Long Island Sound: a Human Dominated Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long Island Sound (LIS) is a marginally marine urban estuary, with Long Island (NY) as its southern coastline, New York and Connecticut along its northern coast. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (East River), but most exchange with the ocean occurs at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. There is also an east-west gradient in indicators of contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals). Western LIS is close to the main population center (New York City), but also is a focusing region for fine- grained sediments. Since the 1970s, western LIS and to a lesser extent, central LIS, suffer summer hypoxia or even anoxia. We used sediment cores in westernmost and central LIS to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement, using microfossil, geochemical, sedimentological, and trace element proxies. Sediment ages were determined using metal pollution records and radiometric carbon dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas were dominated by Elphidium excavatum (feeding on diatoms) at shallow depths (< 12 m, where light penetrates to the bottom), by Elphidium incertum in westernmost LIS and by Buccella frigida and/or Eggerella advena over most of LIS at greater depths. In almost all cores, the absolute abundance of benthic foraminifera and the relative abundance of Elphidium excavatum increased from the early-mid 1800s on. The faunal changes coincided with an increase in contaminant trace metal concentration, with human population growth in the region, with a marked decrease in salinity in westernmost LIS, and with the beginning of low oxygen conditions as indicated by carbon isotope values in foraminiferal tests. At the same time, accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen increased several fold, most extremely so in westernmost LIS. These data thus all indicate that humans influenced LIS and its ecosystems from the mid 19th century on, causing eutrophication, increased fresh water run-off due to urbanization and possibly re-routing of fresh water through waste water treatment plants, and increased organic carbon and trace metal storage in the sediments. A period of additional faunal changes started in the late 1960s, when overall foraminiferal abundance decreased, but Ammonia parkinsoniana, formerly absent or rare, became common to dominant especially in western LIS. This last faunal change might have resulted from even more increased eutrophication, with high N/Si values resulting in decreased dominance of primary producers by diatoms, affecting organisms that feed on them and thus reverberating through the whole ecosystem. We thus document a coastal ecosystem that changed significantly with human population growth in the middle 1800s, and again with more severe eutrophication over the last few decades.

Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

2006-05-01

373

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

374

Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

2014-11-01

375

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

376

2014 State of Western's Assets  

SciTech Connect

In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

none,

2014-01-01

377

Faculty of Education Western University  

E-print Network

; decision-making theory; organizational theory; change theory; values and motivation; education financeFaculty of Education Western University London, Ontario, Canada The Faculty of Education, Western University, invites applications for a full-time Limited-Term faculty position in the area of Educational

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

378

Genetic Diversity of Frankia Microsymbionts from the Relict Species Myrica faya (Ait.) and Myrica rivas-martinezii (S.) in Canary Islands and Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Western Canary Islands, Myrica faya and Myrica rivas-martinezii (Myricaceae) are phylogenetically close, endemic, actinorhizal species presumed to be remnants either of the European or the African Tertiary floras. Unisolated Frankia strains from field-collected nodules on Tenerife, Gomera, and La Palma Islands were compared by their rrs gene and 16S–23S intergenic spacer (IGS) restriction patterns. To compare the genetic

V. Huguet; E. Ojeda Land; J. Garcia Casanova; J. F. Zimpfer; M. P. Fernandez

2005-01-01

379

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO  

E-print Network

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO and UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO: THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO (hereinafter called the "Employer") - and - UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO and affirm that police services at the University of Western Ontario will be provided based on the needs

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

380

Canary Island great spotted woodpecker ( Dendrocopos major ) has distinct mtDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) genes to elucidate the phylogenetic status (genetic variation) of Canary Island populations\\u000a of great spotted woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) that are on the western fringe of the distribution range. Based on these two genes, differences are found between a clade\\u000a from the Canaries and

Eduardo Garcia-del-Rey; Guillermo Delgado; Javier Gonzalez; Michael Wink

2007-01-01

381

Conservation genetics of the threatened horned grebe ( Podiceps auritus L.) population of the Magdalen Islands, Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) population of the Magdalen Islands in the St. Lawrence Gulf (Québec, Canada) has declined sharply over the last decades.\\u000a It is the only breeding population of this species in eastern North America with nearest breeding populations being >2500 km\\u000a apart in western North America and Europe, We used three types of genetic markers: mitochondrial (mt) DNA

Marylène Boulet; Catherine Potvin; François Shaffer; André Breault; Louis Bernatchez

2005-01-01

382

The effect of the Athens heat island on air conditioning load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the summer heat island of the western part of the Greater Athens area on cooling energy and peak power is investigated using the building energy estimating software DOE2.1.E [DOE2.1.E User's Guide, Lawrence Berkely Lab., CA, USA] and measured values of temperature and other meteorological data at selected sites. A very large difference between the cooling energy and

S. Hassid; M. Santamouris; N. Papanikolaou; A. Linardi; N. Klitsikas; C. Georgakis; D. N. Assimakopoulos

2000-01-01

383

Abundance of marine resources in relation to dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine effects of low dissolved oxygen on finfish, lobster, and squid under field conditions in\\u000a western Long Island Sound. The relationship between bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) and catch was examined for effects on abundance,\\u000a numbers of species, and mean length, for trawl sites throughout the sound. Examination of mean catch per tow, and species\\u000a number

Penelope Howell; David Simpson

1994-01-01

384

ARTICLE The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Our goal is to test the generality of the island rule - a graded trend from gigantism in small-bodied species to dwarfism in large-bodied species - in the deep sea, a non-insular but potentially analogous system. Location Shallow-water and deep-sea benthic habitats in the western Atlantic Ocean from the North to South Poles. Methods We conducted regression analyses of

Craig R. McClain; Alison G. Boyer; Gary Rosenberg

385

Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing tributaries to the Rio Culibrinas display drainage asymmetry reflecting an eastward tilt to northwestern Puerto Rico. This tilt and the uplift of northwest Puerto Rico is consistent with its position on the east flank of the Mona Rift footwall uplift.

Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

2008-12-01

386

Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs  

SciTech Connect

Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

Matsunaga, Tsuneo [Geological Survey of Japan, Ibaraki (Japan); Kayanne, Hajime [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1997-06-01

387

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mel Goodwin

388

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

389

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

390

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

391

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

392

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

393

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

394

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

395

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

396

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

397

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

398

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

399

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

400

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

401

Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy  

E-print Network

sustainable development planning to incorporate adaptation to climate change, sought greater scientifica) Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States #12;Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States

Delaware, University of

402

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

403

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST FAÇADE AND BLAST WALL, DATE UNKNOWN - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

404

Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it was uplifted 3 m above sea level and remains completely exposed. Sediment samples were collected along transects extended from offshore to onshore environments for larger islands, such as Ghizo, where the tsunami did not pass over the entire island. Smaller islands, such as Nusa Aghana, a transect was conducted from the outer barrier reefs, through the lagoon, across the island, and offshore on the opposing side of the island. Offshore data was collected using a side-scan sonar system that records bathymetry and images coral reef morphology. This data was coupled with snorkeling and SCUBA diving to ground truth the offshore lagoon and reef environments. Sediment samples were collected offshore every 5 m and were documented by underwater photos and GPS coordinates. Offshore to onshore sediment transects reveal that sediment was eroded from seaward facing shorelines, deposited a thin veneer of sediment on islands, and transported the majority of the sediment on coral reefs on the lagoon side of islands, essentially burying coral and lagoonal sediment. Coral reef damaged by the earthquake and tsunami represents a major concern for an already threatened ecosystem. Recovery of the fishing and dive tourism economies rely on the healthy reestablishment of the reef.

Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

2007-12-01

405

Shoreline and beach volume change between 1967 and 2007 at Raine Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raine Island is a vegetated coral cay located on the far northern outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR), recognised as a globally significant turtle rookery. Cay geomorphology, specifically the morphology of the beach and swale, dictate the availability of nesting sites and influence nesting success. Understanding short and long-term shoreline change is critical for managers charged with protecting the nesting habitat, particularly as climate change progresses. Historical topographic surveys, a simple numerical model and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were used to reconstruct a 40-year (1967-2007) shoreline history of Raine Island. Results show that significant shoreline change has occurred on 78% of the island's shoreline between 1967 and 2007; 34% experienced net retreat and 44% net progradation during the study interval. Shoreline retreat is mainly concentrated on the east-southeast section of the shoreline (average annual rate of - 0.3 ± 0.3 m/yr), while the shore on the western side of the island prograded at a similar rate (0.4 ± 0.2 m/yr). A seasonal signal was detected relating to oscillations in wind direction and intensity, with the southeast and west-southwest shorelines migrating an average of ˜ 17 m from season to season. The volume of sediment deposited on Raine Island between 1967 and 2007 increased by ˜ 68,000 m 3 net, but accretion rates varied significantly seasonally and from year to year. The largest volumetric changes have typically occurred over the last 23 years (1984-2007). Despite the recent concern that Raine Island is rapidly eroding, our data demonstrate net island growth (6% area, 4% volume) between 1967 and 2007. Perceptions of erosion probably reflect large morphological changes arising from seasonal, inter-annual and inter-decadal patterns of sediment redistribution rather than net loss from the island's sediment budget.

Dawson, John L.; Smithers, Scott G.

2010-06-01

406

Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

407

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

408

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

409

Construction-Destruction of Volcanic Island in the Atlantic Ocean; Fuerteventura, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuerteventura shows exceptional features within the Canary Islands; it is the oldest, eastern-most and nearest to the African continent, the occurrence of wide exposures of submarine seamount stage rocks on its western side, it's unclear erosional history, and its longer time span volcanic activity. In the Western Fuerteventura, by 17.5 Ma huge landslides have removed about 3500 km3 of lavas and volcanoclastics of the shield stage to expose more than 300 km2 of submarine rocks of the Basal Complex (Stillman, 1999). 3 Jurassic to Cretaceous sandstone samples of marine origin, which represent the seamount stage of Fuerteventura gave zircon fission-track (ZFT) ages of 58.5±7.3 to 50.0±9.3 Ma, zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (ZHe) ages of 20.6±1.6 to 18.5±1.4 Ma, and apatite fission-track (AFT) ages of 46.3±30.0 to 14.5 ±4.0 Ma, respectively (Wipf et al., 2010). Other 3 samples from the Miocene intrusions gave ZFT age of 15.6±3.6 to 21.5±4.3 Ma and ZHe age of 13.4±0.5 to 15.0±1.2 Ma and AFT ages of 12.0±2.1, to 14.1±4.9 Ma, respectively. The aim of the ongoing study is to reconstruct the long-term landscape evolution of Fuerteventura and to unravel the confusion of its erosional record. Therefore, different thermochronologic techniques were applied on 18 samples from the Central Volcanic Complex and Northern Volcanic Complex in Western Fuerteventura. Resetting ZFT ages at ~50 Ma may document starting the doming in the Basal Complex since the Early Eocene. Then, this region was cooled (uplifted) slowly from ZFT closure temperature to ZHe closure temperature in ~30 Ma with cooling rate of 1.5-3°C/Myr (Wipf et al., 2010). Afterward, rapid exhumation has started ~20 Ma to uplift the samples from depths equivalent to depths of AFT closure temperature in less than 5 Ma with cooling rate of 50-70°C/Myr. The Lower Miocene intruded samples show a rapid uplift from depths equivalent to ZFT closure temperature to AFT closure temperature in ~3.6-7.4 Myr with cooling rate of 13-27°C/Myr as response to the previously documented huge landslides. References Stillman C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 94:89-104. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00099-2 Wipf M., Glasmacher U. A., Stockli D. F., Emmerich A., Bechstädt T., Heinrich Baur H., 2010. Reconstruction of the differentiated long-term exhumation history of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, Spain, through fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99, 675-686. Doi: 10.1007/s00531-008-0415-z

Mansour, Sherif; Glasmacher, Ulrich; Albinger, Marie; Stoeckli, Danny

2013-04-01

410

Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the stream

2002-01-01

411

Fleas of small mammals on Reunion Island: diversity, distribution and epidemiological consequences.  

PubMed

The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

2014-09-01

412

Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and Epidemiological Consequences  

PubMed Central

The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

2014-01-01

413

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY  

E-print Network

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

Luther, Douglas S.

414

Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island  

E-print Network

created species­area curves from previously published lizard species richness and island area data. We islands. Keywords Lizards, spatial subsidies, small island effect, species­area curve, species richness species richness to deviate from species­area predictions, especially on small islands. Next, we examine

Wait, D. Alexander

415

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

E-print Network

basin situated behind the extinct South Shetland Islands arc. Deception Island has been well studied but its submerged flanks have not. A multibeam bathymetry survey was conducted around the island in 2005 Shetland island arc or of simple shear between the Scotia and Antarctic plates (Lawver et al. 1996, Barker

Wilcock, William

416

A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands  

E-print Network

Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

417

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2012-07-01

418

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2013-07-01

419

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2014-07-01

420

THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO London Canada  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO London Canada FACULTY APPOINTMENT AND PROMOTION PROCEDURES: SCIENTISTS EMPLOYED BY INSTITUTIONS AFFILIATED WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO (Faculty of Medicine EMPLOYED BY INSTITUTIONS AFFILIATED WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO (Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry

Lennard, William N.

421

ELISA/Western blot tests for HIV  

MedlinePLUS

HIV ELISA/Western blot is a set of blood tests used to diagnose chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... positive ELISA test is always followed by a Western blot test. A positive Western blot confirms an HIV ...

422

JASON Project: Flying over the Channel Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By using Landsat-7-ETM+ data and USGS DEM Elevation data, we are able to take a virtual tour of the Channel Islands and the coast of California. For more information on the Channel Islands, please visit (http:--www.channel.islands.national-park.com).

Stuart Snodgrass

2003-01-09

423

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

ELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! On Saturday, September 15th, we will be headed to Universal StudiosHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners The' Islands of Adventure. We will meet at the TRiP office in Reitz Union at 8:00am. We will return

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

424

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM  

E-print Network

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

425

Island-finding ability of marine turtles  

E-print Network

, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden 3 Dipartimento di Etologia, Ecologia grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle the fate of the early pilots flying to Ascension Island, a remote island in the middle of the Atlantic

Hays, Graeme

426

Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

Bjornstad, Bruce N.

2006-08-08

427

Western Aeronautical Test Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

Sakahara, Robert D.

2008-01-01

428

Western water law project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students read one of two articles (the "cases") from High Country News, a bi-weekly periodical that covers environmental issues in the western North America. Both articles are about situations in which the use of ground water by irrigators has decreased the amount of surface water available for users with senior water rights. I divide the class into groups representing 1) surface water users, 2) ground water users, and 3) a regulatory board. The groups read and discuss each article and prepare a case to present to the regulatory board. After each group has prepared their case, we gather for a hearing, where groups of consultants present their cases and are questioned by the regulatory board. At the end, the regulatory board makes "decisions" on each "case". The decision isn't the focus of the exercise. The most valuable part is the subsequent discussion about the cases and the common issues in them that get the students to recognize the connection between surface and ground water and how humans have come up with confusing and sometimes scientifically conflicting sets of laws to regulate each.

Todd Rayne

429

Moon - Western Near Side  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

1990-01-01

430

Moon - Western Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

1990-01-01

431

Birds are islands for parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

2014-08-01

432

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

433

Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

Legowski, Margaret

434

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

435

On a Crowded Desert Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

Rothstein, Samuel

1989-01-01

436

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

process more than 50,000 years ago. The subsequent cultural patterns of adaptation to life on remote adaptations made by peoples moving into the Pacific and for clarifying their relationships to complex cultures and historic to contemporary island peoples, including issues of cultural resource management will be explored

437

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

438

Pollen-based reconstructions of late Holocene climate from the central and western Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lake-sediment cores from the western and central Canadian Arctic were used to investigate late Holocene climate variability\\u000a in the region. Both cores were analyzed for pollen, organic matter, biogenic silica, and magnetic susceptibility, and were\\u000a dated using a combination of 210Pb and 14C techniques. Core MB01, from southwestern Victoria Island, provides a 2600-year-long record. Fossil pollen percentages, along\\u000a with

Matthew C. Peros; Konrad Gajewski

2009-01-01

439

Potential Impacts of a Western Pacific Grapsid Crab on Intertidal Communities of the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population density and size distribution, salinity tolerance, and feeding activity were examined in a western Pacific grapsid\\u000a crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, that was recently introduced to the mid-Atlantic coast of North America. Seasonal abundance on a boulder\\/cobble shore (Crane\\u000a Neck Pt.) in central Long Island Sound, New York, USA, during 1997–1998, ranged from 7 to 10 crabs m?2 averaged over the

V. A. Gerard; R. M. Cerrato; A. A. Larson

1999-01-01

440

Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range  

PubMed Central

Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

2015-01-01

441

Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least 60 ka at the southeastern end of the island, inside the scar left by a fourth sector collapse towards the SE, which affected most previous complexes. Contemporaneously, parasitic strombolian cones formed all over the island. Despite the location of Graciosa inside the active Terceira Rift, the new data indicate that the evolution of the island has been driven by a competition between volcano growth and repeated destruction by catastrophic sector collapses, rather than by slow incremental faulting associated with the tectonics of the rift.

Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

2014-09-01

442

Divergence times and colonization of the Canary Islands by Gallotia lizards.  

PubMed

The Canary Islands have become a model region for evolutionary studies. We obtained 1.8 Kbp of mtDNA sequence from all known island forms of the endemic lizard genus Gallotia and from its sister taxon Psammodromus in order to reanalyze phylogenetic relationships within the archipelago, estimate lineage divergence times, and reconstruct the colonization history of this group. Well-supported phylogenies were obtained using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Previous studies have been unable to establish the branching pattern at the base of the tree. We found evidence that G. stehlini (Gran Canaria) originated from the most basal Gallotia node and G. atlantica from the subsequent node. Divergence times were estimated under a global clock using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented by three different programs: BEAST, MCMCTREE, MULTIDIVTIME. Node constraints were derived from subaerial island appearance data and were incorporated into the analyses as soft or hard maximal bounds. Posterior node ages differed slightly between programs, possibly due to different priors on divergence times. The most eastern Canary Islands first emerged just over 20 mya and their colonization appears to have taken place relatively quickly, around 17-20 mya. The subsequent node is consistent with cladogenesis due to colonization of Gran Canaria from the eastern islands about 11-13 mya. The western islands appear to have been colonized by a dispersal event from Lanzarote/Fuerteventura in the east to either La Gomera or one of the ancient edifices that subsequently formed Tenerife in the west, about 9-10 mya. Within the western islands, the most recent node that is ancestral to both the G. intermedia/G. gomerana/G. simonyi and the G.galloti/G. caesaris clades is dated at about 5-6 mya. Subsequent dispersal events between ancient Tenerife islands and La Gomera are dated at around 3 mya in both clades, although the direction of dispersal cannot be determined. Finally, we show that G. galloti is likely to have colonized La Palma more than 0.5 Ma after emergence of the island 1.77 mya, while G. caesaris from the same clade may have colonized El Hierro very soon after it emerged 1.12 mya. There are tentative indications that the large-bodied endangered G. simonyi colonized El Hierro around the same time or even later than the smaller-bodied G. caesaris. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Bayesian dating of a phylogeny in helping reconstruct the historical pattern of dispersal across an oceanic archipelago. PMID:20307675

Cox, Siobhan C; Carranza, Salvador; Brown, Richard P

2010-08-01

443

At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

2008-01-01

444

Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (<70 km2) on Skovbjerg hill island in the western part of Denmark. Existing discharge data are limited but the hydrographs downstream Abild Stream appear to be strongly influenced by event flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a catchment with at least two different hydrogeological settings. To further investigate the spatial variation along the stream we plan to finish the hydrogeological interpretation and build a model and on this basis choose appropriate locations for further monitoring of discharge at different spatial scales (gaging stations), monitoring hydraulic head variations and quantifying hydraulic parameters (piezometers), mapping the shallow subsurface more detailed (DC/IP) and qualifying flow components at representative stream sections through temperature methods (temperature loggers and distributed temperature sensing). We will present an overview of the initial investigations in a poster.

Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

2014-05-01

445

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

446

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

447

Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is our great pleasure to present this special issue of Tectonophysics on Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey (Fig. 1). The Cenozoic extension followed a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene that led to the formation of the Vardar-?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan and Tauride suture zones as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan belt in Turkey and surrounding regions (Fig. 1). This type of post-collisional large-scale extensional tectonic may be "normal" for parts of collisional mountain belts due to gravitational collapse of over-thickened crust, or, alternatively, extension may be driven by other tectonic forces such as lateral extrusion or subducting slab roll-back. Many extensional features in western Anatolia continue into the Aegean Sea where they are more difficult to study as the access to outcrops is limited to a few islands. However, extensional structures and the rock units affected by them (Fig. 1) are well exposed in western and central Anatolia, Turkey, providing a natural laboratory to study the dynamics and consequences of crustal extension. The effects of post-collisional Cenozoic extension die out on the eastern part of central Anatolia to the east of the Ecemi? Fault Zone (Fig. 1).

Çemen, ?brahim; Helvac?, Cahit; Ersoy, E. Yalç?n

2014-11-01

448

Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2015-02-01

449

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

SciTech Connect

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

1992-01-01

450

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

451

Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region. PMID:23698533

Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J.

2013-01-01

452

Glacial geology, glacial recession, proglacial lakes, and postglacial environments, Fishers Island, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Fishers Island Moraine, a complex of three parallel ice margin depositional trends, forms the west-central segment of a major recessional moraine of the Connecticut-Rhode Island Lobe of the late Wisconsinan glacier. As such, the moraine links the Orient Point Moraine of eastern Long Island and the Charlestown Moraine of western Rhode Island and marks a prominent recessional ice margin. The moraine is correlative with the Roanoke Point Moraine of the Connecticut Lobe of northeastern Long Island. Pollen stratigraphy of >13,180 ka bog sediments begins early in the spruce (A) pollen zone with evidence of a cold, late-glacial climate. The pine (B) pollen zone, beginning prior to 11,145 ka, and the oak (C) pollen zone, dating from about 9,000 ka with hickory and hemlock subzones, are well represented. However, after about 2,000 ka, the stratigraphic record in the bog sections is missing in most cases due to peat harvesting. Pollen spectra from several archeological sites fall within the late oak pollen zone, well within the land clearing interval with evidence of hardwood forests and locally holly and cedar. Evidence of cultigens in the pollen record is sparse. Marine deposits over fresh water bog and proglacial lake sediments show that some coastal bogs were drowned by sea level rise.

Sirkin, L. (Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)); Funk, R.E. (New York State Museum, Albany, NY (United States). Anthropological Survey)

1993-03-01

453

Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m abov