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1

Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

1990-05-01

2

Epimeria rafaeli sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae) from Western Australia.  

PubMed

Members of the family Epimeriidae are reported in Australian waters for the first time and Epimeria rafaeli sp. nov. is described from deep water just south of the Abrolhos Island, Western Australia. PMID:25544218

Coleman, Charles Oliver; Lowry, James K

2014-01-01

3

Upolu Island, Western Samoa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

2000-01-01

4

Upolu Island, Western Samoa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

2000-01-01

5

Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

2012-04-01

6

Mass wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those comprising the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable with the passage of time, resulting in failures of the subaerial and submarine portion of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary source of destruction and loss of volume of many oceanic islands, but our knowledge of mass wasting in seamount and island chains is still rudimentary. To better understand mass wasting in the western Galapagos Islands, multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter and sidescan sonar data were used to examine topography characteristic of mass wasting. Observations show that mass wasting plays an important role in the morphological development of Galapagos volcanoes. While volcanic activity continues to modify the submarine terrain, the data show that several types of mass wasting can be found in this archipelago. The steep upper slopes of the north and west flanks of Fernandina Island and the north and southwest flanks of Isabela Island are characterized by slump sheets. The lower slopes on the north and west flank of Fernandina and the southwest tip of Isabela Island are characterized by debris flows. The northwest tip of Isabela Island is characterized by chaotic slumping and detached blocks originating from the sector collapse of Volcan Ecuador. Unlike the giant landslides documented by GLORIA imagery around the Hawaiian Islands, the western Galapagos Islands appear to be characterized by small slumps and debris flows. Nevertheless, this study indicates that submarine mass wasting is widespread in the western Galapagos Islands and is an important component of erosion of these volcanic edifices.

Hall, H.; Sager, W. W.

2009-12-01

7

Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the

D. G. Masson; A. B. Watts; M. J. R. Gee; R. Urgeles; N. C. Mitchell; T. P. Le Bas; M. Canals

2002-01-01

8

REVIEW Open Access Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands  

E-print Network

, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. TableREVIEW Open Access Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far? Amélie. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis

Boyer, Edmond

9

Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

1993-01-01

10

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

11

[Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].  

PubMed

South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:21295427

D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

2011-09-01

12

Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

2013-11-01

13

Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

2013-11-01

14

The Barrow Island oilfield development plan, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

Barrow Island lies 55 kms off the coast of Western Australia, 90 kms north-northeast of Onslow and 1300 kms north of Perth. Oil production began on Barrow Island in 1967 with the 250 millionth barrel being produced in 1992. By 1991, the island had reached the point where: The field, as currently defined, would reach its economic limit early in the next century if operating expenses remained constant and Operating expense was most likely to rise, as aging facilities and infrastructure required increasing maintenance and/or environmental enhancements. In 1991, studies were triggered to develop an integrated plan for Barrow Island to maximize Net Present Value, targeting both increasing reserves and decreasing operating costs. The studies focused on developing answers to the following four questions: Where is the remaining oil? How can oil recovery be improved? How can current operations be improved? What is the optimal plan for the field? The outcome of the 3 year study has provided answers to these four questions, combining to maximize NPV and possibly result in another 15-25 years of field life.

Bartlett, R.M. [West Australian Petroleum Pty. Limited, Perth (Australia)

1996-12-31

15

The Barrow Island oilfield development plan, Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

Barrow Island lies 55 kms off the coast of Western Australia, 90 kms north-northeast of Onslow and 1300 kms north of Perth. Oil production began on Barrow Island in 1967 with the 250 millionth barrel being produced in 1992. By 1991, the island had reached the point where: The field, as currently defined, would reach its economic limit early in the next century if operating expenses remained constant and Operating expense was most likely to rise, as aging facilities and infrastructure required increasing maintenance and/or environmental enhancements. In 1991, studies were triggered to develop an integrated plan for Barrow Island to maximize Net Present Value, targeting both increasing reserves and decreasing operating costs. The studies focused on developing answers to the following four questions: Where is the remaining oil How can oil recovery be improved How can current operations be improved What is the optimal plan for the field The outcome of the 3 year study has provided answers to these four questions, combining to maximize NPV and possibly result in another 15-25 years of field life.

Bartlett, R.M. (West Australian Petroleum Pty. Limited, Perth (Australia))

1996-01-01

16

WESTERN CHICHAGOF AND YAKOBI ISLANDS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ALASKA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of mineral-resource studies of the Western Chichagof and Yakobi Islands Wilderness study area, southeastern Alaska, five areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential and four areas of probable mineral-resource potential have been delineated. No energy resource potential was identified in this study. Current knowledge of the detailed geology of the study area is confined to areas adjacent to the wellknown mineral deposits. The remainder of the study area is well mineralized, but the extent of mineralization is inadequately known. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies of the lesser known areas would provide a more complete resource assessment.

Johnson, Bruce R.; Kimball, Arthur L.

1984-01-01

17

Magmatic Evolution of the Western Azores Islands (Corvo and Flores)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corvo and Flores islands belong to the western group of the Azores archipelago, to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Several studies have proposed a common magmatic evolution for both islands. However, most of these studies focus on other Azorean islands. In order to investigate the processes that control the evolution of Corvo and Flores we have studied representative samples of the whole volcanostratigraphical sequence in both islands, including lava flows and dikes. Similarly to other oceanic islands, Corvo and Flores are made up of an alternation of porphyritic rocks and microlitic rocks. The former are picrobasalts and basalts with 5 to 60 volume fraction of large (2-15 mm), primitive antecrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The latter are Mg-poor hawaites to trachytes. The Mg-rich composition of the porphyritic rocks is due to the accumulation of primitive antecrysts within a more evolved groundmass. In contrast, the composition of the microlitic rocks provides information on the differentiation processes that controlled the evolution of both islands. The microlitic rocks present holocrystalline to hypocrystalline textures with a mineral assemblage mainly composed of microcrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene opaque minerals and accessory amphibole and apatite. Their major element whole rock composition can be best modeled by a polybaric fractional crystallization process (MELTS software) starting at 500 MPa with cooling steps of 5 degrees Celsius and a water content of 1 %, starting from the most primitive analyzed microlitic rock (MgO: 9.04%; Cr: 630 ppm; Ni: 200 ppm). Hence, we confirm that both islands derived from a common primary magma. The crystallization of the antecrysts included in the porphyritic rocks was probably related to the initial stages of the differentiation process. On the other hand, the microlitic rocks and the groundmass of the porphyritic rocks are related to the residual melts of the polybaric fractional crystallization process, probably at shallower magmatic chambers (< 15 km). In conclusion, the processes of fractional crystallization and accumulation of antecrysts control the composition of the products of Corvo and Flores volcanic islands.

Larrea, P.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Widom, E.; Lago, M.; França, Z.; Tierz, P.

2012-12-01

18

Paleoseismological investigations in northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate, and produces a series of deformation belts with a lot of seismic activities. The active deformation is evident by wide-spread marine terraces along the coast of western Myanmar. According to several previous studies, the lowest marine terrace formed during the 1762 Arakan earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of about 7.5. From the ages of the marine terraces, these studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years. Near the town of Kyauk-Pyu in northern Ramree Island, a major coastal island in western Myanmar, we found several levels of sea-notches on a sandstone ridge next to the coast. The lowest notch is about 1 m above the present sea-notch, and it has been shown that this lowest notch represents the co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. Since there are up to four levels of uplifted sea-notches above the 1762 notch and each has a ~1 m elevation difference, we suggest that there have been several paleo-earthquake events prior to the 1762 earthquake, and those events had similar magnitude to the 1762 Arakan earthquake. Unfortunately, we were unable to find age constraints for those paleo-earthquake events at this site. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, we found many coral colonies on the wave-cut platform. Except for the present-day living corals, there are three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations. U-Th ages of the uplifted corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. The other two groups of corals suggest that there were at least one event before and after the 1762 earthquake, respectively. The possible event after 1762 has not been reported anywhere else in western Myanmar, thus it may represent a minor, local event. Furthermore, since all of these three uplifted coral groups are lower than the lowest marine terrace, a step of marine terrace may require more than one earthquake event to form in this area. Therefore, the previous studies, which only used the ages of marine terraces, may have overestimated the earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar.

Wang, C.-C.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiang, H.-W.; Min, S.; Than, O.; Tun, S. T.

2012-04-01

19

76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...safety zone will be in effect for a limited duration...of western Long Island Sound from 9 p.m. to 10...can better evaluate its effects on them and participate...cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment...Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck,...

2011-12-12

20

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers. PMID:12882228

Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

2001-01-01

21

The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

L. H. Fraser; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

1995-01-01

22

Preliminary Geology of Gareloi Volcano, Western Aleutian Islands (Alaska)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gareloi Island consists of Gareloi volcano (1573 m elevation), and is located nearly 2000 km west of Anchorage and 120 km west of Adak in the western Aleutian (Andreanof) Islands. A geologic mapping operation was combined with the installation of a seismic monitoring network in September of 2003 by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This work provided the first direct observations of Gareloi volcano since Robert Coats' four-day visit in 1945. Gareloi volcano is a stratovolcano 10 km by 8 km in diameter at its base with two summit craters separated by a narrow saddle. The southern crater is a 300-m-wide amphitheater formed by the partial collapse of its southern crater wall, and contains several active fumaroles. The northern crater is enclosed, although the intra-crater eruptive stratigraphy is abruptly interrupted by near-vertical local unconformities on the northwest wall, suggesting the occurrence of a sector collapse sometime in the past. Gareloi volcano is principally composed of intercalated trachytic lava flows, ranging from 0.5 m to more than 10 m in thickness. Two prominent valleys composed of thick lava flow packages on the SW flank are clearly U-shaped, suggesting that the oldest sequence of lava flows is of at least late Pleistocene age. Lavas erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene range from basaltic trachyandesite to basaltic andesite in composition and contain plagioclase and clinopyroxene, with minor olivine, and rare hornblende. An explosive eruption in 1929 formed a SSE trending fissure of thirteen aligned craters, ranging from 80 to 1600 m in diameter. These craters extend from sea level up to the amphitheater of the southern crater (1160 m). Fall deposits from the 1929 eruption are interbedded with thin, laterally discontinuous pyroclastic flow deposits that are mainly limited to the island's southeastern flanks. Despite an abrupt change in color from light beige pumice clasts at the base of the 1929 fall deposit to black scoria at the top, the unit is homogeneous trachyandesite. Following the explosive phase of the eruption, 4 blocky trachyandesite lava flows emerged from craters below 600 m asl. All 1929 eruptive products contain plagioclase and clinopyroxene with scarce olivine. An effusive eruption during the 1980's from the center of the south crater amphitheater produced an elaborate blocky lava flow that extends 800 m in elevation down the SE flank. This lava flow is basaltic trachyandesite, and contains abundant coarsely sieved plagioclase phenocrysts with minor clinopyroxene and olivine. The majority of Gareloi lavas contain anomalously high concentrations of K, Na, and Rb and low concentrations of Mg compared to reported findings from other Aleutian lavas, including those of the western portion of the arc. This suggests that Gareloi magmas may be unique with respect to their source region and possibly storage conditions compared to other Aleutian volcanoes.

Browne, B. L.; Coombs, M.; Larsen, J.

2004-12-01

23

Western Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Mother and Calf Ecology Off Sakhalin Island  

E-print Network

The western population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is endangered with approximately 130 individuals remaining. Many individuals return annually to the same feeding sites off northeastern Sakhalin Island, indicating a site...

Sychenko, Olga Aleksandrovna

2012-07-16

24

Uranium-series age of coral reef growth on Rottnest Island, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dating samples of corals and shell from the elevated coral reef terrace on Rottnest Island, Western Australia, indicate that in this region away from active plate boundaries the sea stood at least 3 m above present sea level 132,000 ?? 5,000 years ago. There is no geologic evidence of other ancient reef-forming periods on this island. ?? 1979.

Szabo, B. J.

1979-01-01

25

Evolution of Lake Nikolay, Arga Island, Western Lena River Delta, during Late Pleistocene and Holocene Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The Late Pleistocene and Holocene history of Lake Nikolay on Arga Island, western Lena River delta, is reconstructed using shallow seismic and radio-eehe sounding (RES) profiles and sedimentary analyses including granulometry, biogeochemistry and pollen analysis. The main objective of this study is directed to the controversy about a glacial 01' a periglacial origin of Arga Island and a glacial

Georg Schwamborn; Andrei A. Andreev; Volker Rachold; Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten; Mikhail N. Grigoriev; Volodya Tumskoy; Elena Yu

2002-01-01

26

The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon F'ursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsugu heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuju plicutu Dorm) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

L. H. Fraser af; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

1995-01-01

27

Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale. PMID:25261176

Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

2014-11-15

28

Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

2011-01-01

29

Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale. PMID:25055095

Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

2014-02-01

30

Influence of seismic surveys on western gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) aggregate off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia during summer-autumn to feed on benthic and near-benthic prey. During summer 2001, 3D seismic surveys were conducted during a six-week period in known gray whale foraging areas off Sakhalin Island. To test the hypothesis that the distribution of gray whales on the feeding ground would shift

DAVID W. WELLER; YULIA V. IVASHCHENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

31

Oil seeps of the Ionian Islands, western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Greeks believe the tarry deposits commonly observed on the beaches of Levkas, Meganissi, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Zakinthos originate from Turkish tankers. Geologists would propose an origin from source rocks which feed the large oil pools exposed at Limni Keriou on the southwestern tip of the island of Zakinthos. Samples of this oil seep have been studied in detail, together

S. P. Lowe; T. Doran

1988-01-01

32

Spatial Relationships between Western Blackheaded Budworm (Acleris gloverana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Defoliation Patterns and Habitat Zones on Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western blackheaded budworm (Acleris gloverana (Walshingham)) is a cyclic defoliator of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). At least seven blackheaded budworm outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia and severe defoliation has been recorded during five of these outbreaks on Vancouver Island. Spatial patterns of past blackheaded budworm outbreaks on the Island were examined by overlaying them with biogeoclimatic

IMRE S. OTVOS; NEIL BORECKY; ROY F. SHEPHERD; ADAM DEWEY

33

Oil seeps of the Ionian Islands, western Greece  

SciTech Connect

Many Greeks believe the tarry deposits commonly observed on the beaches of Levkas, Meganissi, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Zakinthos originate from Turkish tankers. Geologists would propose an origin from source rocks which feed the large oil pools exposed at Limni Keriou on the southwestern tip of the island of Zakinthos. Samples of this oil seep have been studied in detail, together with oil samples collected around the islands of Zakinthos, Cephalonia, Ithaca, and Meganissi, from which it can be seen a geologic origin is plausible. Examination of possible source rock intervals (for both maturity and source potential) occurring within the pre-flysch succession (Triassic-Eocene) of rocks exposed in the same area has also been completed. From these findings, conjecture as to the possible source of the oil seeps has been made.

Lowe, S.P.; Doran, T.

1988-08-01

34

The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull, western Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The afforestation of previously open habitats continues to involve conservation organizations in assessing effects on important species. We investigated the effects of commercial afforestation on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos on the island of Mull, western Scotland, using long-term data on eagle reproductive success and occupancy on 30 home ranges, largely during 1981-99. 2. We modelled home range parameters

D. Philip Whitfield; David R. A. McLeod; Alan H. Fielding; Roger A. Broad; Richard J. Evans; Paul F. Haworth

2001-01-01

35

Holocene climate and vegetation change on Victoria Island, western Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed pollen record from Victoria Island provides the first quantitative Holocene climate reconstruction from the western Canadian Arctic. The pollen percentage data indicate that Arctic herbs increased over the Holocene in response to long-term cooling. The influx of locally and regionally derived pollen grains varies throughout the core and tracks several major changes observed in the biogenic silica record

Matthew C. Peros; Konrad Gajewski

2008-01-01

36

Status of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative Russia-U.S. research program on western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) summering off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, has been ongoing since 1995 and has produced important new information on the present day conservation status of this critically endangered population. This paper reviews findings from 2007 research activities and combines such with data from previous years, in some cases ranging back

DAVID W. WELLER; AMANDA L. BRADFORD; AIMÉE R. LANG; HYUN WOO KIM; MAXIM SIDORENKO; GRIGORY A. TSIDULKO; ALEXANDER M. BURDIN; ROBERT L. BROWNELL

37

Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

2013-01-01

38

High-impact conservation: invasive mammal eradications from the islands of western México.  

PubMed

Islands harbor a disproportionate amount of the earth's biodiversity, but a significant portion has been lost due in large part to the impacts of invasive mammals. Fortunately, invasive mammals can be routinely removed from islands, providing a powerful tool to prevent extinctions and restore ecosystems. Given that invasive mammals are still present on more than 80% of the world's major islands groups and remain a premier threat to the earth's biodiversity, it is important to disseminate replicable, scaleable models to eradicate invasive mammals from islands. We report on a successful model from western México during the past decade. A collaborative effort between nongovernmental organizations, academic biologists, Mexican government agencies, and local individuals has resulted in major restoration efforts in three island archipelagos. Forty-two populations of invasive mammals have been eradicated from 26 islands. For a cost of USD 21,615 per colony and USD 49,370 per taxon, 201 seabird colonies and 88 endemic terrestrial taxa have been protected, respectively. These conservation successes are a result of an operational model with three main components: i) a tri-national collaboration that integrates research, prioritization, financing, public education, policy work, capacity building, conservation action, monitoring, and evaluation; ii) proactive and dedicated natural resource management agencies; and iii) effective partnerships with academic researchers in Mexico and the United States. What is now needed is a detailed plan to eradicate invasive mammals from the remaining islands in the region that integrates the needed additional financing, capacity, technical advances, and policy issues. Island conservation in western Mexico provides an effective approach that can be readily applied to other archipelagos where conservation efforts have been limited. PMID:18488552

Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Croll, Donald A; Donlan, C Josh; Henry, R William; Hermosillo, Miguel Angel; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Luna-Mendoza, Luciana; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne; Salas-Flores, Luz María; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Sanchez-Pacheco, Jose Angel; Sheppard, Jacob; Tershy, Bernie R; Toro-Benito, Jorge; Wolf, Shaye; Wood, Bill

2008-03-01

39

Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf  

PubMed Central

The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003–2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

2015-01-01

40

Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.  

PubMed

The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz Dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

2015-01-01

41

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of\\u000a the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; S. K. Meier; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. M. Nielson; V. L. Vladimirov; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

42

Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf\\u000a off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D\\u000a seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August’ September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered\\u000a western gray whale

S. B. Yazvenko; T. L. McDonald; S. A. Blokhin; S. R. Johnson; H. R. Melton; M. W. Newcomer; R. Nielson; P. W. Wainwright

2007-01-01

43

Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

2012-10-01

44

Sedimentation in the coastal reefs of Abrolhos over the last decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs of the coastal area of Abrolhos are located in an environment with a high influx of terrigenous sediments that are carried out to the sea, either as a result of natural processes (river output, coastal erosion, and torrents) or due to anthropogenic influences (deforestation, coastal development, and dredging). Excessive terrigenous sediment in coastal areas has been identified as one of the major threats to coral reefs, leading to their worldwide decline. The present study assessed the evolution of sedimentation in the Abrolhos coastal reefs during the past decades by analyzing samples from sediment cores collected near the reefs of Coroa Vermelha (located 15 km from the coast), Pedra de Leste (located 12 km from the coast) and Popa Verde (located 35 km from the coast). The purpose of this assessment was to observe whether the previously described pattern of surficial bottom sediment distribution in Abrolhos, which consisted of terrigenous mud in the nearshore reefs, to carbonate-dominant sediments towards the offshore reefs, is still a prevalent feature. Sediment color, texture, CaCO3 percentage, biogenic compounds and clay minerals, as well as the sedimentation rate and the geochronology of the sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed indications of an increase in the deposition of terrigenous mud, over the last decade, in the vicinity of the reefs nearest to the coast, though this does not yet constitute a definitive evidence of such a change. However, this observation therefore suggests that local processes resulting from anthropogenic actions are most likely causing an increase of the sedimentation rate of continent-derived sediment runoff in the Abrolhos coastal areas. To minimize this situation, there is an urgent need for the development of new management strategies to protect the already disturbed Abrolhos coastal reefs, especially during times of global changes.

Silva, A. S.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Costa, A. B.; Souza, J. R. B.

2013-11-01

45

Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (< 850 BP). Field surveys along the coasts of Mallorca and Menorca islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

2010-05-01

46

History of Contamination and Coastal Hazards in Western Long Island Sound, N.Y.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Long Island Sound, estuary borders metropolitan New York at its western end where it has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities and natural hazards such as storm surges and floods. The waters and sediments of western Long Island Sound (LIS) accumulate many pollutants including heavy metals and organic matter loadings. Seasonal hypoxic conditions are a major water quality problem, not only with regards to the damage to its ecosystems, but also for the important fishing industry that LIS sustains. On June 2006, we surveyed LIS from 73°30'W to 73°50'W from the R/V Hugh Sharp collecting high-resolution subbottom seismic (chirp) profiles, multibeam bathymetric data and 25 gravity cores (up to 3 m long). The total organic carbon (TOC) and mercury contents measured in the sediments confirm that their concentrations systematically increase from east to west towards New York City. Mercury concentrations increase westward from 700 to 1200 ppb with pre-industrial values of 50 ppb. In contrast, TOC concentrations indicate that eutrophied conditions did exist in western LIS prior to industrialization with pre-industrial concentrations of 3.8% in the west. These concentrations increased due to anthropogenic activities to values in excess of 10%. High-resolution chirp and sonar data reveal that bottom circulation in western LIS is constrained by bedrock some of which outcrops near 73°45'W. The LIS western outlet to the East River at 73°55'W is controlled by the narrow, shallow sill of Hell Gate. The funnel shape of LIS and these bedrock constrictions contribute to significantly decrease tidal and wind induced currents from east to west (60 to10 cm/s). We propose that this decrease in flow velocity leads to sediment deposition and to the concentration of pollutants. We further suggest that hypoxic conditions possibly existed prior to anthropogenic activities due to the basin morphology and decreased circulation. Previous studies based on stable O and C isotopes do indeed indicate that it was hypoxic to anoxic. Finally, our measurements indicate that storms/floods also lead to erosion and deposition of pollutants in western LIS. We are developing a chronology to link erosional surfaces and peak abundances in heavy metals to the historical record of storms, and to a longer-term record to document their recurrence intervals. This will form a basis to assess future potential detrimental effects that storms may have on the Long Island Sound estuary due to climate change.

McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Pant, H.; Varekamp, J.; Marchese, P.; Charles, T.; Bowman, A.; Vargas, W.; Balbas, A.; Boteju, J.

2007-12-01

47

Search for Ozone Plumes over Western Long Island Sound, NY, CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search has been conducted for near-surface ozone plumes extending roughly northeastward from New York City, by employing ozonesondes carried by a boat on western Long Island Sound. This water-borne search pattern avoids the local sources densely distributed on land in the suburban counties and small cities in Westchester, Long Island, and Connecticut. The observations are done using ECC 2Z ozonesondes and Vaisala 80-15 radiosondes normally used for ozone profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere. The sensors were placed forward on the boat, to avoid ozone produced by the boat's own engine. Several straight traverses were made between the north and south shores. These were extended into bays and harbors where it was possible without much bending of the trajectory, in order to lengthen the runs and carry them close to shore. These runs proceeded (somewhat diagonally, zig-zagging) from west to east, followed by a straight 30 mile direct radial transit approaching New York City southwestward. The data has been examined to look for aligned peaks on the transverse runs at the various radial distances from New York City, which would indicate the existence of ozone plumes transported northeastward from the city. Concentration variation in the radial direction was also examined. The study is expected to be extended to eastern Long Island Sound and the New York bight, south of Long Island

Cotten, D. E.; Austin, S.; Johnson, L. P.; Johnson, R.; Marchese, P.; Guerrero, J.; Reid, J.; Cotten, C. D.; Cotten, G. D.

2007-12-01

48

Digital seismic-reflection data from western Rhode Island Sound, 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a seismic-reflection survey in western Rhode Island Sound aboard the Research Vessel Neecho. Data from this survey were recorded in analog form and archived at the USGS Woods Hole Science Center's Data Library. Due to recent interest in the geology of Rhode Island Sound and in an effort to make the data more readily accessible while preserving the original paper records, the seismic data from this cruise were scanned and converted to Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) images and SEG-Y data files. Navigation data were converted from U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN-C) time delays to latitudes and longitudes, which are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) shapefile format and as eastings and northings in space-delimited text format.

McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Soderberg, N.K.

2009-01-01

49

Influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies on zooplankton distribution south of the western Aleutian Islands during summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed south of the Aleutian Islands located between the Bering Sea and the subarctic Pacific. Eddies farther east, in the Gulf of Alaska, are known to transport coastal water and coastal zooplankton to offshore open ocean. The impacts of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed south of the western Aleutian Islands (Aleutian eddies) on the zooplankton community are not fully understood. In the present study, we describe zooplankton population structures within an Aleutian eddy and outside the eddy during July 2010. Our field study was conducted at seven stations along 51°15?N from 171°21?E to 174°38?E (western line) and at four stations along 50°40?N from 176°24?E to 178°44?E (eastern line) on 7-8 July 2010. At each station, environmental data (temperature, salinity and fluorescence were measured by CTD/XCTD. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tow of 150 m depth to the surface using 100 ?m mesh size plankton net. Based on the sea level anomaly (SLA), the western line crossed an anticyclonic eddy but the eastern line did not cross the eddy (Fig. 1). This Aleutian eddy was formed south of Attu Island (52°54?N, 172°54?E) in mid-February 2010, and it moved southeastward in the next five months. The SLA near the eddy center, representing the strength of the eddy, continuously increased, and the area oscillated at one to two month periods overlain on a general increase from ~7,000 to ~18,000 km2. Large oceanic copepods, Neocalanus cristatus, Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica were more abundant inside the eddy than the outside. Inside the eddy, the life stage distribution of N. cristatus was advanced than that outside, and Neocalanus spp. had accumulated more lipids. These conditions probably reflect the greater primary production in the eddy, production enhanced by nutrients advected into the eddy. Since the Aleutian eddy was formed in offshore waters and/or eddy-eddy interaction occurred after its formation, it contained mostly oceanic copepods. The sufficient food condition in the eddy presumably induced higher growth and survival rates of these oceanic copepods, resulting in the greater abundance, advanced development stages and greater lipid accumulation. Fig. 1. Sea level anomaly along the sampling lines on 7 July 2010 south of the western Aleutian Islands.

Saito, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yasuda, I.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Imai, I.

2013-12-01

50

Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.  

PubMed

This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

2015-01-01

51

Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S)  

PubMed Central

To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y?1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ?6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm?2 d?1) and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm?2 d?1) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

Falter, James L.; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

2015-01-01

52

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

2013-01-01

53

Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S).  

PubMed

To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y(-1) and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ?6 °C (18.2°-24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31-2.02 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) and P. damicornis (0.34-0.90 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°-19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

Ross, Claire L; Falter, James L; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T

2015-01-01

54

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.  

PubMed

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

2013-01-01

55

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 ?S/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 ?S/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly affected by tide. Transmissivity was estimated using transmissivity (T) ~ specific capacity (Q/s) relationsip: T = 0.99(Q/s)0.89/ proposed by Hamm et al. (2005). T estimates ranged from 21.9 to 2664.3m2/d, and Q/s estimates ranged from 32.4 to 7,143m2/d. The average drawdown is 12.9 m, between 0.1 and 40 m, presenting a wide variation of drawdown on different monitoring wells. From drill data, geophysical logs, and pumping tests, it is concluded that main aquifers develops in jointed parts in lava sequence, especially hyaloclastic breccia, and gravels and unconsolidated sands in Seoguipo Formation. Keywords: transmissivity, specific capacity, geophygical log, pumping test, Jeju volcainc Island Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3-4-3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center) and by the 2nd stage of the BK21 Project, Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea.

Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

2008-12-01

56

The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

57

Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene Afales Basin, Ithaki island, western Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblages of benthic foraminifera from one clastic succession in the Afales Basin (Ithaki Island, western Greece) were investigated to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Oligocene. The section consists of alternating hemipelagic marls and detrital deposits, designated as flysch-like beds, attributed to biostratigraphic Zones P20 and P21. Planktic percentages are mostly high (66-80%). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages comprise calcareous and agglutinated taxa (up to 15%). The prevalence of epifaunal foraminifera indicates good ventilation of the bottom water resulting from basin morphology, which enabled the undisturbed flow of water throughout the basin. Palaeodepth estimates imply bathyal deposition, from about 800 to 1200 m deep. The benthic foraminiferal fauna is of high diversity along the section, as is expected in deep marine environments. The abundances of the most common foraminiferal taxa (Cibicidoides spp., Oridorsalis umbonatus, Gyroidinoides spp., Stilostomella spp., Nodosariidae, Nuttallides umbonifera) are quite variable and imply generally oligotrophic to mesotrophic environmental conditions with variable organic flux.

Drinia, Hara

2009-03-01

58

Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene Afales Basin, Ithaki island, western Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblages of benthic foraminifera from one clastic succession in the Afales Basin (Ithaki Island, western Greece) were investigated to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Oligocene. The section consists of alternating hemipelagic marls and detrital deposits, designated as flysch-like beds, attributed to biostratigraphic Zones P20 and P21. Planktic percentages are mostly high (66-80%). Benthic foraminiferal assemblages comprise calcareous and agglutinated taxa (up to 15%). The prevalence of epifaunal foraminifera indicates good ventilation of the bottom water resulting from basin morphology, which enabled the undisturbed flow of water throughout the basin. Palaeodepth estimates imply bathyal deposition, from about 800 to 1200 m deep. The benthic foraminiferal fauna is of high diversity along the section, as is expected in deep marine environments. The abundances of the most common foraminiferal taxa ( Cibicidoides spp., Oridorsalis umbonatus, Gyroidinoides spp., Stilostomella spp., Nodosariidae, Nuttallides umbonifera) are quite variable and imply generally oligotrophic to mesotrophic environmental conditions with variable organic flux.

Drinia, Hara

2009-03-01

59

Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

1999-10-01

60

Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003.  

PubMed

In 2001-2003, >60,000 km of aerial surveys and 7,700 km of vessel surveys were conducted during June to November when critically endangered Korean-Okhotsk or western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were present off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Results of surveys in all years indicated gray whales occurred in predominantly two areas, (1) adjacent to Piltun Bay, and (2) offshore from Chayvo Bay, hereafter referred to as the Piltun and offshore feeding areas. In the Piltun feeding area, the majority of whales were observed in waters shallower than 20 m and were distributed from several hundred meters to approximately 5 km from the shoreline. In the offshore feeding area during all years, the distribution of gray whales extended from southwest to northeast in waters 30-65 m in depth. During all years, the distribution and abundance of whales changed in both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas, and both north-south and inshore-offshore movements were documented within and between feeding seasons. The discovery of a significant number of whales feeding in the offshore area each year was a substantial finding of this study and raises questions regarding western gray whale abundance and population levels, feeding behavior and ecology, and individual site-fidelity. Fluctuations in the number of whales observed within the Piltun and offshore feeding areas and few sightings outside of these two areas indicate that gray whales move between the Piltun and offshore feeding areas during their summer-fall feeding season. Seasonal shifts in the distribution and abundance of gray whales between and within both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas are thought, in part, to be a response to seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of prey. However, the mechanism driving the movements of whales along the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island is likely very complex and influenced by a multitude of factors. PMID:17703367

Meier, S K; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Wainwright, P; Maminov, M K; Yakovlev, Y M; Newcomer, M W

2007-11-01

61

Ages of the Pliocene—Pleistocene Alexandra and Ngatutura Volcanics, western North Island, New Zealand, and some geological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alexandra and Ngatutura Volcanics are the two southernmost of the Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic fields of western and northern North Island. New Zealand. northwest of Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). The Ngatutura Basalts are an alkalic basaltic field comprising monogenetic volcanoes. The Alexandra Volcanics consist of three basaltic magma series: an alkalic (Okete Volcanics), calcalkalic (Karioi, Pirongia, Kakepuku, and Te Kawa Volcanics),

R. M. Briggs; T. Itaya; D. J. Lowe; A. J. Keane

1989-01-01

62

Seismic facies and specific character of the bottom simulating reflector on the western margin of Paramushir Island, Sea of Okhotsk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic profiles from a venting area on the western margin of Paramushir Island (Sea of Okhotsk) reveal a local complex structure and an interesting, unusual pattern of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR). The BSR is gradual rising towards the venting area. The geothermal gradient and the bottom temperature confirmed the methane hydrate. The temperature appears to be the most important

E. I. Basov; T. C. E. van Weering; C. Gaedike; B. V. Baranov; E. P. Lelikov; A. I. Obzhirov; I. N. Belykh

1996-01-01

63

Western Lifestyle and Increased Prevalence of Atopic Diseases: An Example from a Small Papua New Guinean Island  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic diseases represent an increasing problem in public health in most modern societies as their prevalence has risen markedly during recent decades. Nevertheless, the causes of this increase are not yet fully explained. Objective We investigated the correlation of Western lifestyle pattern in varying intensity to the prevalence of atopic diseases in 5 small villages on Karkar Island, in northeast Papua New Guinea. Methods Two hundred forty-eight native people from 5 villages on tropical Karkar Island have been included in this study. The degree of Western lifestyle was assessed (questionnaire and observation) for each village. The prevalence of atopic diseases was evaluated by personal and family history, physical and dermatological examination, skin prick test (10 allergens), and measurement of total and specific immunoglobulin E levels (20 common allergens). Results The more easily accessible and thus more "modern" and westernized coastal villages showed a significantly higher prevalence of habitants suffering from atopic diseases than a traditional mountain village (6.8% vs 0.0%, P = 0.034, Fisher exact test). A total of 4.4% (11/248) of the examined islanders suffered from an atopic disease. Atopic eczema seems to be absent on Karkar Island. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that so-called Western lifestyle may contribute to the development of atopic diseases. PMID:23283062

2009-01-01

64

Intermittent ventilation in the hypoxic zone of western Long Island Sound during the summer of 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, salinity, and temperature, during summer of 2004, at three levels on two moorings in the area of western Long Island Sound that is prone to seasonal hypoxia are described. Ship surveys in the area reveal that the DO concentration below the pycnocline decreases at approximately 2.4 mM m-3 d-1 throughout the summer. We show that this is the net result of oscillations in the rate of change of the DO concentration with periods of 3 to 7 days. During intervals of declining DO concentration, the rate of change is consistent with previous estimates of the rate of community respiration. Since there is insufficient light for photosynthesis below the pycnocline, increasing DO concentration (ventilation) must be a consequence of either vertical mixing or horizontal advection from regions of higher concentration. Analysis of the covariation of DO, salinity, and temperature and knowledge of the mean property distributions allow us to associate most (˜80%) of the ventilation intervals with increased vertical mixing. Comparison of DO and wind stress measurements suggest that it is the component in the along-sound direction that controls the occurrence of ventilation, perhaps through modification of the rate of stratification by the density-driven circulation. We conclude that the spatial and temporal variability of vertical mixing is crucial to understanding the duration and extent of hypoxia in the Long Island Sound estuary.

O'Donnell, James; Dam, Hans G.; Bohlen, W. Frank; Fitzgerald, William; Gay, Peter S.; Houk, Adam E.; Cohen, David C.; Howard-Strobel, Mary M.

2008-09-01

65

Late Miocene/Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): an update.  

PubMed

The vertebrate fossil record from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has improved considerably over the past decade, especially in Mallorca and Menorca. In Menorca, the Pliocene terrestrial fauna was updated by the discovery and description of the large-sized leporid Nuralagus, several reptiles and an amphibian. In Mallorca, paleontological exploration yielded 2 deposits with a Late Miocene/Early Pliocene chronology, Caló den Rafelino (CdR) and Na Burguesa-1 (NB-1). So far, 4 new mammalian taxa and 2 new reptiles have been identified for the CdR deposit, whereas the faunal assemblage from the recently discovered deposit (Apr 2012) of NB-1 is currently composed of, at least, 6 terrestrial mammals, 8 reptiles and an amphibian. Its faunal composition and some primitive characteristics of the obtained taxa suggest that the chronology of this deposit is slightly earlier than the CdR. The terrestrial vertebrates recorded in these 2 Mallorcan deposits are changing the view of the paleofaunal assemblage previously known for the Plio-Pleistocene of the island. Morphological characteristics displayed by some of the taxa suggest that these faunas would be at the beginning of an isolated evolution. In this paper we present a preliminary report on the fossils recovered from the NB-1 deposit, as well as some unpublished data from CdR, and we analyze the whole fauna from both Mallorcan deposits, focusing on taxonomical and paleobiogeographical aspects. PMID:24673762

Bover, Pere; Rofes, Juan; Bailon, Salvador; Agustí, Jordi; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Torres, Enric; Alcover, Josep Antoni

2014-03-01

66

Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

67

Middle-Upper Triassic carbonate platforms in Minorca (Balearic islands): Implications for Western Tethys correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to progress in the knowledge of the Middle to Upper Triassic evolution of the western Tethys realm, an integrated approach which includes new sedimentological, sequence stratigraphic and biostratigraphic data, has been accomplished in the carbonate marine successions (Muschelkalk facies) of that age in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). The new biostratigraphy, which includes six successive ammonoid biozones, allowed to assign these carbonate successions to the uppermost Anisian-lower Carnian interval. The integration of the new chronostratigraphic framework with the sedimentological analysis allowed to recognize five main successive stages of carbonate platform evolution: 1) Initial marine transgression and shallow ramp development (uppermost Anisian); 2) Carbonate ramp drowning (Anisian-Ladinian boundary); 3) Prevalence of open sea conditions (Ladinian-early Carnian); 4) Abrupt sea-level drop (intra-lower Carnian) and; 5) Shallow carbonate ramp and transition to sabkha systems (Keuper facies). Furthermore, the sequence stratigraphic analysis allowed to divide some of these stages into depositional sequences. Minorca was located in the westernmost Tethys area during the Triassic, in a key paleogeographic location close to the present-day Iberia, Sardinia and the Cottian and Southern Alps. The new data have allowed an interregional comparative analysis among these areas, with recognition of major suprarregional events and episodes in the framework of the western Tethys evolution.

Escudero-Mozo, M. J.; Martín-Chivelet, J.; Goy, A.; López-Gómez, J.

2014-08-01

68

Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

2014-01-01

69

Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

2014-01-01

70

Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication  

PubMed Central

The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

2014-01-01

71

Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

2014-05-15

72

New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic singularities of the sponge fauna occurring in these deep-shelf bottoms strongly suggest these habitats to be considered within the environmental protection of the Nature 2000 Network. PMID:24870077

Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

2014-01-01

73

Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

2007-01-01

74

New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land installation.

Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

2010-05-01

75

Low-salinity-induced surface sound channel in the western sea of Jeju Island during summer.  

PubMed

Surface salinity in the western sea of Jeju Island in Korea becomes low due to the inflow of the Chinese coastal waters during summer. One of the characteristics of low salinity water is the formation of a surface sound channel (SSC) due to the decrease in sound speed by salinity. However, a quantitative analysis between low salinity water and SSC has not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, a temperature-salinity (T-S) gradient diagram is introduced in order to assess SSC formation and its acoustic characteristics are also investigated through a case study of low salinity waters. Maximum angles of limiting rays were less than 4.6° and low frequency cutoffs were higher than 2.0?kHz for the SSCs formed in low salinity water. When the salinity gradients were large (>0.5?psu/m), a SSC was formed more efficiently than other cases whose salinity gradients were small. On the other hand, a SSC was not formed in spite of highly positive salinity gradients when the amount of temperature gradients was negatively high enough (<-0.5?°C/m). However, the acoustic energy transfer in the surface ducts was dependent on frequency and position of source. PMID:25786968

Kim, Juho; Kim, Hansoo; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Bok, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Jongkil

2015-03-01

76

Topographical and hydrographical impacts on the structure of microphytoplankton assemblages on the Abrolhos Bank region, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted at the Abrolhos Bank (15°60?-21°30?S; 37°00?-40°30?W), Brazil, in July and August 2007, to evaluate the topographic and hydrographic influences on microphytoplankton composition and relative abundance. Net phytoplankton was collected from the top 200 m of the water column to assess diversity proxies (species richness, Shannon index, dominance and equitability) and compared with thermohaline, nutrient and chlorophyll profiles. A total of 326 taxa occurred in the area. Patterns in spatial distribution of microphytoplankton assemblages were two-fold: a north-south gradient linked to variations in temperature and nitrite, and a coast-offshore gradient associated with the depth of the mixed layer and the Brunt-Väisälä maximum frequency. Microphytoplankton assemblages were typical of tropical oligotrophic environments. However, the inshore community found on the Abrolhos Bank was enriched by bottom dwelling, large-sized cells ressuspended from local sediments as a result of the highly dynamic coastal circulation. Species diversity was high in oceanic sites where water column stability as measured by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency achieved its maxima, but high values of ecological indexes were also found in the southern part of the study area influenced by bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, giving support to the notion that phytoplankton diversity increases at intermediate levels of environmental disturbance.

Susini-Ribeiro, Sylvia M. M.; Pompeu, Mayza; Gaeta, Salvador A.; de Souza, Júlia S. D.; Masuda, Laura S. D.

2013-11-01

77

Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ?30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (?30,000–26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and

Thomas A. Ager

2003-01-01

78

Solutional features and cave deposits related to hypogene speleogenetic processes in a littoral cave of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean) and developed in\\u000a Upper Miocene reefal carbonate limestones, is an exceptional coastal cave because of its particular morphological features\\u000a and the presence of deposits with uncommon mineralogies. Littoral mixing dissolution processes represent the most important\\u000a speleogenetic mechanism to be considered in the eogenetic karst

J. J. FornosA; A. Merino; J. Ginés; A. Ginés; F. Gràcia

2011-01-01

79

Characterization of submarine glacial landforms and lowstand fluvial systems from western Campbell Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campbell Island is the southernmost of New Zealand's subantarctic islands, located about 600 km south of the South Island at 52.33°S, 169.09°E. The volcanic strata of this remote, unpopulated ~113 km2 island are eroded by a series of steep-sided valleys that are assumed to be glacial in origin. This is evidenced by their U-shapes, ground moraine, and rocky hills along

H. L. Fraser; A. R. Gorman; G. S. Wilson; S. Preskett

2009-01-01

80

Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

2015-01-01

81

Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

1990-01-01

82

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1  

PubMed Central

A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

2011-01-01

83

Expansion of an invasive coral species over Abrolhos Bank, Southwestern Atlantic.  

PubMed

Invasive coral species of the genus Tubastraea have been increasingly recorded in Southwestern Atlantic waters since the 1980s. Their invasion and infestation are mainly related to port and oil exploration activities. For the first time the presence of Tubastraea tagusensis colonies is reported in Espírito Santo State, colonizing a port shore area, and incrusting oil/gas platform structures situated in the southern Abrolhos Bank, which is part of the most important coral reef system of the South Atlantic Ocean. Tubastraea colonies exhibit fast growth and high recruitment rates, and colonized 40% of the analyzed structures in just four years. The projection of port and oil/gas industry growth for the Espírito Santo State (more than 300%) highlights an alert to the dispersal of this alien species to natural areas. PMID:24975092

Costa, Thiago J F; Pinheiro, Hudson T; Teixeira, João Batista; Mazzei, Eric F; Bueno, Leonardo; Hora, Mike S C; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto; Sampaio, Claudio L S; Rocha, Luiz A

2014-08-15

84

Seasonal and annual variation in body condition of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western gray whale population (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered and its potential for recovery is uncertain. Along with other natural and anthropogenic threats, western gray whales are susceptible to nutritional stress, known from regular observations of individual whales in compromised body condition. Thus, the ability to visually quantify the relative body condition of free-ranging western gray whales and evaluate

Amanda L. Bradford; David W. Weller; Yulia V. Ivashchenko; Alexander M. Burdin; Robert L. Brownell

85

Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

2014-01-01

86

Characterization of nitrate contamination in groundwater in Gosan, western part of Jeju Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeju Isalnd, composed of porous volcanic rocks, is located about 140 km south of the Korean peninsula. The annual mean rainfall of the island (1,975 mm) is about 600 mm higher than that of Korean mainland. Groundwater in Jeju Island is vulnerable to contamination sources in surface land because surface water easily percolates into groundwater when the rainfall event occurs.

E. Koh; D. Kaown; B. Kang; S. Oh; H. Moon; K. Lee

2010-01-01

87

Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data  

PubMed Central

The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens. PMID:22679480

Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2012-01-01

88

Plankton and seston size spectra estimated by the LOPC and ZooScan in the Abrolhos Bank ecosystem (SE Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass size spectrum provides valuable information about the functioning of plankton systems. We evaluated hydrographic and bathymetric influences on biomass size spectra and on vertical distributions of plankton and seston above the Abrolhos Bank and in adjacent oceanic areas off Eastern Brazil. We used both in situ Laser Optical Particle Counter (LOPC) and preserved plankton samples analyzed with a ZooScan system to determine seston and plankton abundances, size distributions, and biomasses. Shelf stations, including those on the Abrolhos Bank, had higher particle concentrations and mesozooplankton biomasses than the vertically stratified oceanic stations. The latter were influenced by cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) below the mixed layer, particularly toward the south of the study area. Small particles (<1 mm) were more abundant above and within the pycnocline, whereas large particles (>1 mm) had a more heterogeneous vertical distribution, but were more abundant above the pycnocline, especially at the oceanic stations. Calanoid copepods usually dominated the mesozooplankton biomass spectra, but were accompanied by cyclopoids, appendicularians, and ostracods, the latter being particularly abundant during nighttime stations on the Abrolhos Bank. Both LOPC and ZooScan data showed significant differences in NBSS slopes and intercepts between shelf and oceanic stations. The higher intercepts and steeper slopes over the shelf are characteristic of higher productivity. The shallower slopes and presence of more biomass in larger particles indicate a more important contribution of large organisms and higher energy transfer efficiencies at the open ocean stations. Our results highlight the importance of the Abrolhos Bank for pelagic production in an otherwise oligotrophic ocean.

Marcolin, Catarina da Rocha; Schultes, Sabine; Jackson, George A.; Lopes, Rubens M.

2013-11-01

89

75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline...annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

2010-01-12

90

Hydrographic conditions affecting two fishing grounds of Mallorca island (Western Mediterranean): during the IDEA Project (2003-2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the hydrographic conditions observed during six surveys carried out during 2003 and 2004, in the framework of the "IDEA Project" (acronym for "Influence of oceanographic structure and dynamics on demersal populations in waters of the Balearic Islands"). The surveys were developed on the shelf and slope of Mallorca Island, in particular in two fishing grounds at the north and south of the Mallorca channel. Periodic movements of the fishing fleet between these two areas have been regularly reported, suggesting a seasonal variability of the resources which could be in turn associated with the hydrodynamic variability. With this motivation, water masses affecting these grounds have been identified and their seasonal variability has been studied. Different oceanographic and environmental conditions have been found between the two fishing grounds. These differences are related to the presence of mesoscale structures, associated with the Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water (WIW) at the north of the Ibiza channel and big gyres detached from the Algerian Current. The former has been shown to have influence on the regional oceanic circulation and the latter could affect the progress of fresh Atlantic Water (AW) towards the channels and make possible the presence of high salinity values at intermediate waters at the south of Mallorca Island. Historical data from other oceanographic cruises carried out in the region are finally used to discuss the interannual variability of these mesoscale structures.

López-Jurado, J. L.; Marcos, M.; Monserrat, S.

91

Characterization of submarine glacial landforms and lowstand fluvial systems from western Campbell Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campbell Island is the southernmost of New Zealand’s subantarctic islands, located about 600 km south of the South Island at 52.33°S, 169.09°E. The volcanic strata of this remote, unpopulated ~113 km2 island are eroded by a series of steep-sided valleys that are assumed to be glacial in origin. This is evidenced by their U-shapes, ground moraine, and rocky hills along the sides of the valleys with roches-moutonées geometries. At least two of these valleys, Perseverance Harbour and Northeast Harbour, have basal levels that are beneath current sea level. This enables the investigation of the floors of these fiords with high-frequency marine seismic imaging techniques. Perseverance Harbour is ~9 km long with water depths of 35 to 45 m in the center. Northeast Harbour is ~3.5 km long with water depths of 15 to 25 m in the center. Sea level during the last glacial maximum is expected to have been ~120 m below the current level. The shoreline east of Campbell Island therefore would have been 6 - 10 km east of the present day coast. Water depths on this coast rapidly fall to 60 to 70 m and then follow a gentler gradient outward and beyond the inferred lowstand shoreline. Detailed investigations of seafloor features around Campbell Island are lacking. The relatively-shallow water depths on the leeward (east) side of Campbell Island provide an opportunity to examine the floors of the fiords and the adjacent shelf for evidence of glacial processes and associated sedimentation. Of particular interest are (1) determining the extent of past glacial cover on and around the island, and (2) observing glacial and periglacial erosional processes on the seafloor. In March 2009, a detailed high-frequency seismic survey was undertaken in Perseverance and Northeast Harbours and on the eastern shelf of the island. Data recorded included single-channel Chirp and electro-acoustic (boomer) sub-bottom imaging, and interferometric side scanning sonar (C3D). A network of ~42 lines was collected that provided full C3D bathymetric coverage of the seafloor within the harbours and good coverage on the shelf. Data were collected in water depths from <10 m in some parts of the harbours to >150 m on the eastern part of the shelf. Unusually calm and stable weather conditions resulted in ideal conditions for data collection; data quality is high. Boomer data successfully imaged the upper 20 to 60 m of sub-seafloor sediments and sedimentary rocks. Chirp data imaged a maximum of 20 m. Preliminary results suggest that terminal moraines co-incide with the mouths of Perseverance and Northeast Harbours. Present erosion and sediment transport off the island are expected to be minimal. This would suggest that glaciers did not extend out onto the present-day shelf of the island during the last glacial lowstand. Observations also support the existence of sub-aerially eroded channels on the eastern shelf of the island that appear to be sourced from glacial valleys onshore. Further investigations are required to link glacial and periglacial processes with the development of these channels.

Fraser, H. L.; Gorman, A. R.; Wilson, G. S.; Preskett, S.

2009-12-01

92

Anthropogenic Disturbance of Western Gray Whale Behavior Off Sakhalin Island, Russia  

E-print Network

The western North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is critically endangered of extinction. The population size is estimated to be 131 individuals with 31 reproductive females. Throughout their potential home range...

Gailey, Glenn Andrew

2013-05-14

93

Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances. PMID:24751287

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

2014-01-01

94

Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

1996-01-01

95

Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.  

PubMed

The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. PMID:22141900

Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

2011-12-01

96

Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING read with much interest the description of Christmas Island by Captain Aldrich and Mr. Lister, I have endeavoured to interpret some of the facts there given in the light of my own examination of similar islands in the Western Pacific. As pointed out by Captain Wharton, the complete casing of an island, 1200 feet in height, with coral rock

H. B. Guppy

1888-01-01

97

Buracas: Novel and unusual sinkhole-like features in the Abrolhos Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel and unusual sinkhole-like features are described for the Abrolhos Bank continental shelf, eastern Brazil, based on geophysical and geological assessments. These unusual structures are large cup-shaped depressions similar to sink/blueholes (10-75 m in diameter, 8-39 m in height), occurring in a consolidated carbonate substrate in the mid and outer shelf. A total of 36 such features, locally named buracas, were found between 41 and 161 km off the coast and between 24 and 65 m depth (the bottom of these features may be as deep as 93 m). The buracas' walls are mainly composed of encrusting coralline algae. Radiocarbon dating has provided ages of 5400±90 yr Cal BP, 8630±90 yr Cal BP and 39,200±400 yr BP. Besides providing a comprehensive description of these novel structures within the mesophotic zone, the potential mechanisms by which these sinkhole-like structures originated are discussed here, as well as the possible active mechanisms impeding their filling with sediments and biogenic material. We hypothesize that their origin could be related to either typical sinkhole formation during subaerial exposure or to a partially Holocene growth pattern influenced by antecedent morphology and gas/fluid escaping due to organic matter decomposition. The buracas are relevant not only because they comprise outstanding novel features, but also because they are relevant targets for marine conservation, as they enhance productivity and aggregate biomass in a region under growing fishing pressure.

Bastos, Alex C.; Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; D'Agostini, Danielle P.; Secchin, Nélio A.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2013-11-01

98

Hypogene Speleogenetic Evidences in the Development of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca Island, Western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the southern part of the island of Mallorca, and developed in Upper Miocene reefal limestones, the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera\\u000a is an exceptional coastal cave. Littoral mixing dissolution processes represent the most important speleogenetic mechanism\\u000a to be considered in the eogenetic karst platform where it develops. Nevertheless, part of the cave consists of an extensive\\u000a network of galleries

J. J. Fornós; A. Ginés; J. Ginés; F. Gràcia; A. Merino; J. Cifre; F. Hierro

99

Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

2008-12-01

100

Remote predictive mapping of bedrock geology using image classification of Landsat and SPOT data, western Minto Inlier, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervised classification (robust classification method) of Landsat-7 and SPOT-5 data was used to analyse the bedrock geology of a part of the western Minto Inlier on Victoria Island, Canada. The robust classification method was used as it provides a series of uncertainty measures for evaluating the classification results. Six bedrock classes including gabbro, basalt, carbonate of the Wynniatt Formation, quartz-arenite

P. Behnia; J. R. Harris; R. H. Rainbird; M. C. Williamson; M. Sheshpari

2012-01-01

101

Late Holocene palynology and palaeovegetation of tephra?bearing mires at Papamoa and Waihi Beach, western Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation history of two mires associated with Holocene dunes near the western Bay of Plenty coast, North Island, New Zealand, is deduced from pollen analysis of two cores. Correlation of airfall tephra layers in the peats, and radiocarbon dates, indicate that the mires at Papamoa and Waihi Beach are c. 4600 and c. 2900 conventional radiocarbon years old, respectively.

R. M. Newnham; D. J. Lowe; G. N. A. Wigley

1995-01-01

102

The BIG'95 event, Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea: numerical simulation of the possibly generated tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BIG'95 debris flow that occurred ~11 kyrs BP affected an area of about 2200 km2 of the Ebro margin, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The debris flow originated at the upper continental slope and involved a sediment volume of ~26 km3. After a total runout of 110 km the distalmost deposits resulting from this mass movement partly filled the

S. Tinti; M. Canals; G. Pagnoni; F. Zaniboni; O. Iglesias; G. Lastras

2009-01-01

103

Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Western Rhode Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working together to interpret sea-floor geology along the northeastern coast of the United States. In 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE completed survey H11322, a sidescan-sonar and bathymetric survey that covers about 60 square kilometers of the sea floor in western Rhode Island Sound. This report interprets sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA survey H11322 to delineate sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in the study area. Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments in Rhode Island Sound underlie Pleistocene glacial drift that affects the distribution of surficial Holocene marine and transgressional sediments. The study area has three bathymetric highs separated by a channel system. Features and patterns in the sidescan-sonar imagery include low, moderate, and high backscatter; sand waves; scarps; erosional outliers; boulders; trawl marks; and dredge spoils. Four sedimentary environments in the study area, based on backscatter and bathymetric features, include those characterized by erosion or nondeposition, coarse-grained bedload transport, sorting and reworking, and deposition. Environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition and coarse-grained bedload transport are located in shallower areas and environments characterized by deposition are located in deeper areas; environments characterized by sorting and reworking processes are generally located at moderate depths.

McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Haupt, T.A.; Crocker, J.M.

2009-01-01

104

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

105

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

106

Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

2005-01-01

107

Calibrating and monitoring the western gray whale mitigation zone and estimating acoustic transmission during a 3D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.  

PubMed

A 3D marine seismic survey of the Odoptu license area off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, was conducted by DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of Exxon Neftegas Limited and the Sakhalin-1 consortium during mid-August through early September 2001. The key environmental issue identified in an environmental impact assessment was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which spends the summer-fall open water period feeding off northeast Sakhalin Island in close proximity to the seismic survey area. Seismic mitigation and monitoring guidelines and recommendations were developed and implemented to reduce impacts on the feeding activity of western gray whales. Results of the acoustic monitoring program indicated that the noise monitoring and mitigation program was successful in reducing exposure of feeding western gray whales to seismic noise. PMID:17762974

Rutenko, A N; Borisov, S V; Gritsenko, A V; Jenkerson, M R

2007-11-01

108

Population genetics of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precipitous increase in the abundance of the corallivorous snail Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, raises fundamental questions about the population structure and genetics of this species. We examined genetic heterogeneity at ten polymorphic allozyme loci among samples of adult D. cornus from nine sites along 180 km of Ningaloo Reef, plus two sites from the Abrolhos Islands and one from the Dampier Archipelago, spanning a total distance of 1170 km. Variations in allelic frequencies were small (average FST=0.007), indicating that a high degree of planktonic dispersal is the norm. Nevertheless, some heterogeneity among samples was found at four of the loci. This heterogeneity occurred within Ningaloo Reef and did not increase with geographic distance. The local heterogeneity was not a function of habitat type but seemed to be associated with stage of outbreak. However, all outbreak populations came from within Ningaloo Reef and the non-outbreak populations were from outside Ningaloo Reef proper. Our results show peculiarities in the genetic structure of D. cornus on Ningaloo Reef, but the causes are not understood.

Holborn, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Black, R.

1994-01-01

109

Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the presence of upper-plate splay fault events suggests that the proposed earthquake recurrence intervals in western Myanmar may be overestimated.

Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe

2014-05-01

110

The Reeent Decline of Peary Caribou on Western Queen Elizabeth Islands of Arbe Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers end distributions of Peary caribou (Rangiier (arandus pearyi) on western Queen Elizabeth Is l ands. Northwes t Territories were determined by aerial surveys based on a standard census strip method. Surveys were f lown in 1Vlarch-April and July-Auqust periods in 1972, 1973, and 1974. Comparison of t he 1973 and 1974 survevs with those results ot a comparable

R. H. Russell; A. Gunn

1975-01-01

111

76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Northern Mariana Islands MCP and recommended...Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) submitted...a fish marketing plan that includes market identification, transportation, fish products...b) Northern Islands remote fishing...

2011-08-12

112

Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

2013-12-01

113

Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.  

PubMed

Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

2013-11-22

114

Disturbance and recovery of the macroflora of a seagrass ( Halodule wrightii Ascherson) meadow in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil: an experimental evaluation of anchor damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchor damage due to tourist visitation is becoming increasingly intense in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil, and is probably detrimental to the biota associated with the seagrass beds. In this study the effects of anchor damage on an algal dominated seagrass (Halodule wrightii) bed in the national park were measured and assessed. The mean size of anchor scars was

Joel C Creed; Gilberto M Amado Filho

1999-01-01

115

San José Island Accommodation Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico: A Key to Onshore-Offshore Fault Relationships along the Western Margin of the Southern Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-stage evolution of the southern Gulf of California included protogulf orthogonal rifting from ˜12 to ˜6 Ma, followed by overprinting from ˜6 to 0 Ma by the highly oblique-divergent, modern plate boundary. The San José Island accommodation zone, located ˜70 km north-northwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur, represents the transition between strike-slip partitioning to the south and the oblique-divergent structural overprinting to the north. The accommodation zone includes San José and San Francisquito islands, the San José Canal, and a 4 to 6 km wide belt along the coast of the Baja California peninsula. The accommodation zone separates the La Paz rift segment to the south from the Timbabichi rift segment to the north. The El Carrizal fault bounds the La Paz rift segment, and likely splays onshore in the southernmost accommodation zone. Kinematic data, fault mapping, and geomorphologic and bathymetric observations along the shoreline suggest the presence of en echelon, offshore faults in the San José Canal between the Baja peninsula and islands. The main faults in the southern San José Canal appear to be a series of right-stepping, east-dipping normal faults branching northward from the El Carrizal fault. Based on onshore fault trends in the northern accommodation zone, the northern Canal faults form a left-stepping link to the main bounding fault of the Timbabichi rift segment. The faults bounding the western edge of the islands are likely left-stepping, west-dipping normal faults. Steep, triangular facets and cliffs characterize the western edge of San José Island and suggest that the western island-bounding faults are active. The Pliocene basin, basin-bounding fault, and line of steep coastal cliffs on the eastern side of San José Island are likely associated with the northern end of the Espíritu Santo normal fault, which experienced a major earthquake in 1995. The basin and faults also may be the termination of a series of faults related to the fracture zone emanating from the Alarcón spreading ridge. A similar relationship between basin and accommodation zone development and the evolution of strike-slip/fracture zone systems has been demonstrated in other rifts. Formation of San José and San Francisquito islands along normal faults may be a result of (1) the latest Miocene-early Pliocene tectonic reorganization to oblique rifting, and (2) active normal faulting in the San José Island accommodation zone and southward.

Drake, W. R.; Umhoefer, P. J.

2003-12-01

116

Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

2014-03-01

117

Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

2014-10-01

118

Records of the hermit crab genus Pagurixus Melin, 1939 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from Europa Island, Western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species.  

PubMed

Three species of the pagurid hermit crab genus Pagurixus Melin, 1939, are reported from Europa Island in the Mozambique Strait, western Indian Ocean: P. haigae Komai & Osawa, 2007, P. annulus n. sp., and P. europa n. sp. Pagurixus haigae is recorded from the western Indian Ocean for the first time. Pagurixus annulus n. sp. and P. europa n. sp. are referred to the P. boninensis (Melin, 1939) species group and P. anceps (Forest, 1954) group, respectively. Diagnostic characters of these two new species are discussed. PMID:24614462

Komai, Tomoyuki; Poupin, Joseph

2013-01-01

119

Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands.  

PubMed

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species. PMID:21479256

Chan, Lauren M; Goodman, Steven M; Nowak, Michael D; Weisrock, David W; Yoder, Anne D

2011-01-01

120

78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote...proposes to establish requirements for fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote...and western Pacific pelagic fisheries. Fishing regulations for the western Pacific...

2013-02-21

121

Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The\\u000a area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and\\u000a proximity to the

Glenn Gailey; Bernd Würsig; Trent L. McDonald

2007-01-01

122

An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level. PMID:17456231

Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

2007-01-01

123

Trace elements in three marine birds breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian ocean): part 1-factors influencing their bioaccumulation.  

PubMed

This work aimed to use seabirds as bioindicators of trace element levels in the tropical waters and food webs of the Western Indian Ocean. The accumulation patterns of selected toxic (Cd and Hg) and essential (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn) elements were determined in liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle of 162 marine birds belonging to 3 species collected in Reunion Island between 2002 and 2004. These pelagic seabirds belong to the following species: Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus). Hg levels were also measured in breast feathers. Highest mean kidney Cd and liver Hg levels (respectively, 27.79 +/- 13.78 microg x g (-1) dry weight (dw) and 24.31 +/- 14.13 microg x g (-1) dw) were found in the squid-eating Barau's Petrel. Barau's Petrel feather Hg levels fell in the range of 0.6 to 2.7 microg x g(-1) dw previously reported for other petrels and shearwaters. The values of the other elements were also in the same range as those previously reported in the published literature concerning related seabirds, although Se and Zn burdens in the Reunion birds were among the highest values. Levels of Zn, Fe, and, to a lesser extent, Cu appeared to be regulated in seabird tissues. Uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage seemed to be similar for the five essential elements. The reproductive status of the bird did not seem to affect element levels, which, moreover, were not significantly different between male and female birds. However, trace elements in sampled birds varied according to the tissue considered, the age of the animal, and its species. Diet was seemingly a major influencing factor. Health status also appeared to have an impact on element levels. PMID:17165110

Kojadinovic, J; Le Corre, M; Cosson, R P; Bustamante, P

2007-04-01

124

Stewart Head from Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

125

Kyphosus gladius, a new species of sea chub from Western Australia (Teleostei: Kyphosidae), with comments on Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley.  

PubMed

Two morphologically distinct forms of the nominal species Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther, 1886) (Kyphosidae) were discerned while collecting off Western Australia near Perth in 2009. A morphological comparison with recognized species of Kyphosus and an analysis of mtDNA (Cytochrome b, control region, 12S and 16S) and three nDNA markers (RAG1, RAG2 and Tmo-4C4) demonstrated that the more elongate of these forms was an undescribed species of Kyphosus. It differs from congeners in the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the combination of the following characters: green bar on the operculum, 11-12 dorsal soft fin rays, depth of caudal peduncle 9.9-11.8 % SL, body depth 33.3-41.6 % SL, 55-63 scales in lateral line, 12-16 interorbital scales, 44-55 pored scales in the lateral line, 3-5 gill rakers on upper limb of first gill arch internally, 11-15 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch internally, 15-19 total gill rakers on first gill arch, and by having 10 precaudal vertebrae and 16 caudal vertebrae. Examination of museum specimens and available underwater photographs suggests that the new species is restricted to Western Australia, and to date it has been recorded between the Houtman Abrolhos Islands and Albany. Discrepancies between the type specimen and original description of Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley made it impossible to determine the relationship between this taxon and the new species from Western Australia, and thus we consider S. klunzingeri a nomen dubium. PMID:24583811

Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

2013-01-01

126

Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

2014-05-01

127

Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

2011-04-01

128

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

2011-01-01

129

Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

2011-01-01

130

Late tectonic uplift of an inverted oceanic basin in South East Asia: the case of Palawan Island (western Philippines)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elongated island of Palawan, bounded by two marginal basins, the South China Sea to the North and the Sulu Sea to the South is composed of remnants of an inverted basin (Proto-South China Sea) thrusted onto the margin of a continental terrane which rifted away from the Chinese-Vietnamese margin. Based on field observations coupled with seismic and drill-holes data, our study focuses on the structural architecture of the island in order to decipher the geodynamic evolution of the southern margin of the South China Sea. Structurally, the Palawan Island consists of: (i) the Palawan wedge, which extends towards the South China Sea is composed of deformed slope to deep ocean deposits of Cretaceous (north Palawan) to Tertiary (central and south Palawan) ages. This accretionnary wedge is characterized by small wavelength folds of mainly NE-SW trend. Offshore, the unconformable Middle-Late Miocene Tabon limestones unit postdates the last stages of the Palawan wedge growth/setting; (ii) On top of this wedge lie thrust slices of ophiolite bodies comprising ribbon cherts of Albian age as indicated by radiolarians.; these bodies are likely to be relicts of the now-subducted Proto South China Sea; (iii) The central and southern parts of the Palawan island are characterized by a large wavelength antiform of NE-SW trend. This structure is sealed by the slightly tilted Early Pliocene marls unit; (iv) The island also presents necking zones bordered by N-S trending transform faults. This area witnessed the geodynamic evolution of the South East Asia which consists of a succession of opening/closure of oceanic basins and block accretions. The Palawan Island therefore results of the closing of the Proto-South China Sea which once formed both the Palawan accretionary wedge and the overlying ophiolite tectonic slices. During a later compressive event, the rifted continental margin which composes the basement of the Island was inverted, inducing the uplift and the large scale folding of the Palawan Island. In a final stage, the strain relaxing results in the formation of the necking zones, probably reactivating the inherited transform faults of the Proto-South China Sea. Keywords: Palawan Island; South China Sea; oceanic basin; inverted margin; Ophiolite.

Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Pubellier, M.; Steuer, S.; Franke, D.; Cordey, F.; Muller, C.; Sapin, F.; Mouly, B.; Auxiètre, J.-L.

2012-04-01

131

Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

2013-11-01

132

78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote...four fishery ecosystem plans to establish fishing requirements consistent with the Presidential...Monuments' boundaries, prohibit commercial fishing, and describe the management of...

2013-02-01

133

Circulation around La Réunion and Mauritius islands in the south-western Indian Ocean: A modeling perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to document the circulation in the vicinity of La Réunion and Mauritius islands, i.e., within 500 km offshore, on the intraseasonal time scale, using a high-resolution realistic modeling strategy. The simulated sea level anomalies, water mass properties, and large-scale circulation compare favorably with satellite and in situ observations. Our high-resolution simulation suggests that the currents around the islands are maximal locally, oriented southwestward, to the southeast of both islands which is not visible in low-resolution satellite observations. It also highlights the high degree of variability of the circulation, which is dominated by westward propagating features. The predominant time scale of variability is 60 days. This coincides with the period of a barotropic mode of variability confined to the Mascarene Basin. The characteristics of the westward propagating anomalies are related to baroclinic Rossby waves crossing the Indian Ocean but only in the long-wave resting ocean limit. Tracking those anomalies as eddies shows that they also have a meridional tendency in their trajectory, northward for cyclones and southward for anticyclones, which is consistent with previous studies. Sensitivity experiments suggest that they are predominantly advected from the east, but there is also local generation in the lee of the islands, due to interaction between the circulation and topography.

Pous, Stéphane; Lazure, Pascal; André, Gaël.; Dumas, Franck; Halo, Issufo; Penven, Pierrick

2014-03-01

134

Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

1991-01-01

135

Multistage collapse of eight western Canary Island landslides in the last 1.5 Ma: Sedimentological and geochemical evidence from subunits in submarine flow deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcaniclastic turbidites in the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of major landslides from the Western Canary Islands in the last 1.5 Ma. These volcaniclastic turbidites are composed of multiple fining-upward turbidite sands, known as subunits. The subunits indicate that the landslides responsible for the sediment gravity flows occurred in multiple stages. The subunits cannot result from flow reflection or splitting because the compositions of volcanic glasses from each individual subunit in an event bed are subtly different. This indicates that each subunit represents a discrete failure as part of a multistage landslide. This has significant implications for geohazard assessments, as multistage failures reduce the magnitude of the associated tsunami. The multistage failure mechanism reduces individual landslide volumes from up to 350 km3 to less than 100 km3. Thus although multistage failure ultimately reduce the potential landslide and tsunami threat, the landslide events may still generate significant tsunamis close to source.

Hunt, J. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Talling, P. J.; Masson, D. G.

2013-07-01

136

Trace Elements in Three Marine Birds Breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian Ocean): Part 2—Factors Influencing Their Detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabird tissues collected between 2002 and 2004 from Barau’s Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon’s Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Trop icbird (Phaethon lepturus) colonies on Reunion Island were analyzed for metallothioneins (MTs) and trace element content. The subcellular distribution\\u000a between soluble and insoluble fractions of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn was determined in liver and kidney. In both,

J. Kojadinovic; P. Bustamante; M. Le Corre; R. P. Cosson

2007-01-01

137

Prey fish consumption by Double-crested Cormorants in western Lake Erie near West Sister Island, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives for this study were to: 1) determine the diet of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, hereafter: cormorants) in western Lake Erie; 2) to determine if yellow perch (Perca flavescens) or walleye (Sander vitreus) were a noteworthy prey item; and 3) to determine if the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) are consumed. Diet of cormorants was determined from stomach contents

Michael T. Bur; William H. Edwards; Patrick M. Kocovsky; Michael J. Porta; Martin A. Stapanian

138

Methane-cycling communities in a permafrost-affected soil on Herschel Island, Western Canadian Arctic: active layer profiling of mcrA and pmoA genes.  

PubMed

In Arctic wet tundra, microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are likely to be altered as a result of climatic disruption. Here, we present a study on the activity, diversity and vertical distribution of methane-cycling microbial communities in the active layer of wet polygonal tundra on Herschel Island. We recorded potential methane production rates from 5 to 40 nmol h(-1) g(-1) wet soil at 10 °C and significantly higher methane oxidation rates reaching values of 6-10 ?mol h(-1) g(-1) wet soil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning analyses of mcrA and pmoA genes demonstrated that both communities were stratified along the active layer vertical profile. Similar to other wet Arctic tundra, the methanogenic community hosted hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium) as well as acetoclastic (Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta) members. A pronounced shift toward a dominance of acetoclastic methanogens was observed in deeper soil layers. In contrast to related circum-Arctic studies, the methane-oxidizing (methanotrophic) community on Herschel Island was dominated by members of the type II group (Methylocystis, Methylosinus, and a cluster related to Methylocapsa). The present study represents the first on methane-cycling communities in the Canadian Western Arctic, thus advancing our understanding of these communities in a changing Arctic. PMID:22329663

Barbier, Béatrice A; Dziduch, Isabel; Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Lantuit, Hugues; Pollard, Wayne; Wagner, Dirk

2012-11-01

139

What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands  

PubMed Central

Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

2015-01-01

140

Dynamics of coral reef benthic assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil: inferences on natural and anthropogenic drivers.  

PubMed

The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3-10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Coni, Ericka O C; Meirelles, Pedro M; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H; Bastos, Alex C; Abrantes, Douglas P; Ferreira, Camilo M; Gibran, Fernando Z; Güth, Arthur Z; Sumida, Paulo Y G; Oliveira, Nara L; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V; Moura, Rodrigo L

2013-01-01

141

Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (?13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher ?13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed ?13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ?C7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2012-12-01

142

Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre-Holocene unit. Grain-size analysis shows that medium- to fine-grained sand makes up most (68-99%) of the surficial sediments. Gravel exists in trace amounts up to 19%. Silt ranges between 3% and 42% and clay ranges from 1% to 10%.The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughts is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic un

Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

1999-01-01

143

Radiocarbon variability in the western equatorial Pacific inferred from a high-resolution coral record from Nauru Island  

SciTech Connect

We have generated a high resolution coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record spanning the last 50 years to document the seasonal and interannual redistribution of surface waters in the western tropical Pacific. Prebomb (1947{endash}1956) {Delta}{sup 14}C values average {minus}63{per_thousand} and have a total range of 30{per_thousand}. Values begin to increase in 1957, reaching a maximum of 137{per_thousand} in mid-1983. Large interannual variability of up to 80{per_thousand} closely follows the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During each ENSO warm phase, {Delta}{sup 14}C values begin to increase, reflecting the reduction of low-{sup 14}C water upwelling in the east and the invasion of subtropical water into the western equatorial tropical Pacific. Maximum {Delta}{sup 14}C values are in phase or lag the corresponding sea surface temperature maxima in the eastern tropical Pacific, whereas the rapid return to more negative {Delta}{sup 14}C is in phase with eastern Pacific ENSO indices. The highest-amplitude excursions occur during the 1965/1966 and 1972/1973 events, when the {sup 14}C contrast is highest between the eastern Pacific and subtropics. The 1982/1983 El Ni{tilde n}o, although a larger ENSO event, has a lower {Delta}{sup 14}C amplitude, reflecting the penetration of bomb radiocarbon into the equatorial undercurrent and the reduced contrast in {Delta}{sup 14}C between thermocline and subtropical surface waters at that time. This coral record demonstrates the potential for using similar radiocarbon time series for documenting variability in Pacific shallow circulation over interannual and decadal timescales. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Guilderson, T.P.; Schrag, D.P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kashgarian, M.; Southon, J. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)] [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

1998-10-01

144

Active Fault Deformation Along the South Boundary of the Western Transverse Ranges Province, Point Dume to the Northern Channel Islands, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional fault system forming the south boundary of the Western Transverse Ranges Province (WTRP) extends for about 200 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. Multichannel seismic-reflection data show that fault strands within the province-bounding system are active, and some have dip-slip displacements measured in kilometers. The left-oblique Dume fault is active and shows large displacement as far west as Sycamore knoll, but farther west, the fault tip and a superjacent fold are deeply buried. Thus during future earthquakes, the structural transition near the knoll could represent a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments. The east-west province-bounding fault system strikes at a high angle across and terminates the northwest-trending faults, basins and ridges of the California Continental Borderland. Borderland structures considered here form the western limit of intense middle Miocene oblique extension that accompanied rotation of the WTRP. The transition between extended and intact crust lies along the northwest-trending Santa Cruz-Catalina and Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridges. After the Miocene rotation, structures within these ridges became involved in regional transpression, such that northwestward along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, thrust faulting becomes increasingly more intense, and adjacent to the province boundary, thrust-faulted rocks completely override Miocene extensional structures. In contrast, rocks making up the Santa Rosa-Cortez Ridge are little deformed. The difference in deformation of the two ridges could result from a combination of: 1) eastward crustal thinning and consequent weakening that developed during the Miocene extension; 2) a difference in horizontal strain across the right-slip San Clemente fault near its termination at the WTRP boundary; 3) strain partitioning along this boundary; and 4) a contrast in bulk rheological properties of the ridges.

Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.; Sorlien, C. C.; Nicholson, C.; Sliter, R. W.

2005-12-01

145

Trace elements in three marine birds breeding on Reunion Island (Western Indian ocean): part 2-factors influencing their detoxification.  

PubMed

Seabird tissues collected between 2002 and 2004 from Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui), Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), and White-Tailed Trop icbird (Phaethon lepturus) colonies on Reunion Island were analyzed for metallothioneins (MTs) and trace element content. The subcellular distribution between soluble and insoluble fractions of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn was determined in liver and kidney. In both, the soluble fraction of the cell concentrated most of the Cd and Se, whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn were preferentially accumulated in the insoluble fraction. The distribution of these elements varied with the tissue, age of the bird, and species. Furthermore, the distributions of Fe and Mn were somewhat influenced by the bird's physical condition. MT levels were measured in the soluble fraction after heat denaturation. The levels of these proteins varied from 5.5 +/- 2.7 mg x g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 11.4 +/- 6.2 mg x g(-1) dw depending on the species and the tissue considered. MT levels were significantly different between liver and kidney only in the White-Tailed Tropicbird. In the three species, MT levels in kidney were significantly higher in adult than juvenile birds. The bird's weight also had an influence on hepatic and renal MT levels, but not the sex nor the reproductive status. The implication of MTs in Cu and Zn homeostasis and Cd and Hg detoxification are discussed. In addition, clues on Hg regulation by Se were found, especially in Barau's Petrel, where the levels of these two elements were significantly correlated. PMID:17354039

Kojadinovic, J; Bustamante, P; Le Corre, M; Cosson, R P

2007-04-01

146

Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

2013-12-01

147

Aerosol transport over the western Mediterranean basin: Evidence of the contribution of fine particles to desert dust plumes over Alborán Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight months (June 2011 to January 2012) of aerosol property data were obtained at the remote site of Alborán Island (35.95°N, 3.03°W) in the western Mediterranean basin. The aim of this work is to assess the aerosol properties according to air mass origin and transport over this remote station with a special focus on air mass transport from North Africa. For air masses coming from North Africa, different aerosol properties showed strong contributions from mineral dust lifted from desert areas. Nevertheless, during these desert dust intrusions, some atmospheric aerosol properties are clearly different from pure mineral dust particles. Thus, Angström exponent ?(440-870) presents larger values than those reported for pure desert dust measured close to dust source regions. These results combine with ?(440, 670) - ?(670, 870) ? 0.1 and low single scattering albedo (?(?)) values, especially at the largest wavelengths. Most of the desert dust intrusions over Alborán can be described as a mixture of dust and anthropogenic particles. The analyses support that our results apply to North Africa desert dust air masses transported from different source areas. Therefore, our results indicate a significant contribution of fine absorbing particles during desert dust intrusions over Alborán arriving from different source regions. The aerosol optical depth data retrieved from Sun photometer measurements have been used to check Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrievals, and they show reasonable agreement, especially for North African air masses.

Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Antón, M.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Quirantes, A.; Toledano, C.; Perez-Ramírez, D.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2014-12-01

148

Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

2010-12-01

149

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

150

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

151

Population dynamics of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Short spatio-temporal differences and influence of environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus is one of the target species of the bottom trawl fishery of the Balearic Islands. The objective of the present paper is to study the short spatial and temporal differences of this important economic resource between two different locations off Mallorca (Cabrera: CA; Sóller: SO), where a fleet mobility pattern has been detected, and to study the influence of environmental conditions on this species. Six simultaneous bottom-trawl and oceanographic surveys were carried out at these two locations in order to collect data from the demersal species, hydrography (temperature and salinity), trophic resources and sediment characteristics. The commercial fleet from both locations was monitored by monthly on-board sampling, log-books and daily landings obtained from sales slips. Additional data was obtained from other fishing surveys. Short spatial and temporal differences have been detected between both locations. The population at CA was more demographically homogeneous, while that at SO showed important variations, like high abundance of juveniles recruiting to fishing grounds in autumn-winter and high abundance of large females during summer. Several differences have also been found in the biology of the species between locations, such as males were more abundant in SO than in CA. Also, the reproductive period started sooner in SO than in CA, and the condition of pre-spawning females was better in SO. The percentage of total lipids in the hepatopancreas was minimal during the spawning period, showing their importance as a reserve of energy for the ovary ripening. Water masses could play an important role in these differences, the characteristics of water masses being more stable in CA than in SO. Red shrimp adult females seemed to be more correlated with the warmer and more saline Levantine Intermediate Waters, while juveniles (males and females) and adult males were more correlated with the colder Western Mediterranean Deep Waters, detected only in SO during autumn-winter. Two different hypothesis of mobility patterns for the species are discussed in relation to these observed differences.

Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Díaz, Paz

2008-06-01

152

Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya.  

PubMed

BackgroundThere has been increasing effort in recent years to incorporate user needs in technology design and re-design. This project employed a bottom-up approach that engaged end users from the outset. Bottom-up approaches have the potential to bolster novel interventions and move them towards adaptive and evidence-based strategies. The present study concerns an innovative use of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) to control malaria in western Kenya. Our paper highlights the co-dependence of research associated with the development of the SMoTS technology on one hand and research for enhancing the sustainable uptake of that very same intervention within the community on the other.MethodsDuring the pre-intervention year, we examined the design, re-design and piloting of a novel technology to generate lessons for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island. Initial ideas about many technological necessities were evaluated and re-designed following feedback from various sources, including technical and social research as well as broader interactions with the social environment. We documented the interlocking of the multiple processes and activities that took place through process observation and document reviews. We analysed the data within the conceptual framework of system innovation by identifying mutual shaping between technical and social factors.ResultsOur findings illustrate how various project stakeholders including project staff, collaborators, donor, and community members simultaneously pursued interdependent technological transformations and social interests. In the ongoing process, we observed how partial outcomes in the technological domain influenced social events at a later phase and vice versa.ConclusionsLooking at malaria intervention projects employing novel technologies as niches that may evolve towards system innovation, helps to reveal interrelations between the various technical and social aspects. Revealing these interrelations requires a different role for research and different perspective on innovation where innovation is more than the technical aspects. This approach therefore requires that research is designed in a way that enables obtaining feedback from both aspects. PMID:25404420

Oria, Prisca A; Hiscox, Alexandra; Alaii, Jane; Ayugi, Margaret; Mukabana, Wolfgang; Takken, Willem; Leeuwis, Cees

2014-11-18

153

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

154

An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

1991-01-01

155

Impact of a Medical Waste Incinerator on Mercury Levels in Lagoon Fish from a Small Tropical Island in the Western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004–2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was

Gary R. W. Denton; Michael S. Trianni; Brian G. Bearden; Peter C. Houk; John A. Starmer

2011-01-01

156

Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

2011-01-01

157

Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers from Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean: Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Boring of the carbonate sequence at the northern end of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, was conducted in 1985, as part of the Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program. The overall goal of the program was to characterize physical effects of large-scale nuclear blasts, which were conducted in the early 1950's, on the sediments of the atoll. In the report the authors document the occurrences of stratigraphically diagnostic planktic microfossils in samples from Enewetak (generally referred to as core) and outline the rationale for incorporating all available diagnostic planktic assemblages into a composite sequence that was used to date the Enewetak benthic zonation.

Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.

1991-01-01

158

Changes in Planktonic Diatoms and Water Transparency in Hatchery Bay, Bass Island Area, Western Lake Erie Since the Establishment of the Zebra Mussel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total planktonic diatoms were analyzed from water samples collected in 1984-1986 (pre- zebra mussel period) and 1990-1992 (post-zebra mussel period) in Hatchery Bay of western Lake Erie. Planktonic diatom abundances for one post-zebra mussel year, 3 April 1990-26 March 1991, and weekly April\\/May frustules for 1990, 1991, and 1992 were compared to counts from the 1980s and to counts in

Ruth E. Holland

1993-01-01

159

The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mediterranean Sea, the number of alien marine crustacean species has increased over the past two decades. However, knowledge about small alien marine crustaceans, like caprellid amphipods, is still very scarce. To understand the role of marinas and recreational boating in the early step of the invasion process by non-indigenous caprellids, we studied the recreational boating pressure and the spatial distribution of caprellid species in Mallorca Island. We collected caprellids from 14 marinas and 9 exposed intertidal rocky shores between November 2011 and April 2012 and we analyzed the differences in habitat use of native and exotic caprellids. Eight caprellid species, six native and two exotic, were found. Alien caprellids were only present in marinas, reaching high densities of population. The analysis of recreational boating pressure reveals that Palma-Migjorn is the area that is subject to the highest potential risk of introduction of exotic species via ship fouling. In the secondary dispersal of alien caprellids, the study reflects that recreational boating seems effective as a secondary vector in the transport of exotic species from marinas to marinas but not from marinas to natural and exposed areas. An illustrated key of caprellids from Balearic Island is provided to differentiate native and non-indigenous species.

Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M.

2013-10-01

160

Igneous history of the Koyukuk terrane, western Alaska: constraints on the origin, evolution, and ultimate collision of an accreted island arc terrane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Koyukuk terrane consists of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and plutonic rocks which range from Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age. The terrane crops out in a U-shaped belt which is roughly paralleled by outer belts of ultramafic rocks, oceanic plate basalts and cherts, and retrograded blueschist facies rocks of continental protolith. These rocks have been interpreted as components of a volcanic arc terrane that collided with the North American continental margin in Early Cretaceous time. The Koyukuk terrane consists of four time-stratigraphic units: (1) pre-Middle Jurassic basalts, (2) Middle and Late Jurassic granitic rocks, (3) lower Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks, and (4) upper Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Limited chemical data from the basalts of unit 1 indicate that they were erupted in a nonarc tectonic environment, possibly in an oceanic island or back arc setting. Units, 2, 3, and 4 have the characteristics of subduction-related volcanic rocks. -from Authors

Box, S.E.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

1989-01-01

161

Effects of productivity, glaciation, and ventilation on late Quaternary sedimentary redox and trace element accumulation on the Vancouver Island margin, western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in chalcophile and redox-sensitive trace elements are examined at high-resolution intervals from a ~50 kyr long sediment core (MD02-2496) from the Vancouver Island margin. Enrichments of Ag, Cd, Re, U, and Mo above lithogenous levels, signifying sedimentary suboxia and anoxia, occurred during the early Holocene and Bølling/Allerød, and during warm interstadial events of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Down-core trace element profiles co-vary with productivity proxy records (opal, CaCO3, and marine organic carbon), and with sedimentary nitrogen isotope ratios, which reflect variably enriched nitrate upwelled from intermediate waters that were transported northward from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. The similarity of the MD02-2496 record with records from the southern portion of the California Current System (CCS), and to the Greenland ice core oxygen isotope record during warm climate intervals, suggests that sedimentary redox conditions along the California Current responded to local productivity, to North Atlantic climate change and to tropical Pacific surface water processes via long-distance teleconnections. Concentrations of trace elements and productivity proxies were relatively depleted during the Younger Dryas, cool stadial events of MIS 3, and in two episodes of glaciomarine sedimentation from ~14.7 to 30.5 kyr BP (last glacial maximum, LGM), and from 44 to 50.4 kyr BP. Cordilleran Ice Sheet advancement onto the Vancouver Island continental shelf during the LGM led to intervals of increased terrigenous sedimentation and greatly reduced productivity not seen in the southern portion of the CCS, and along with ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Waters, resulted in brief sedimentary oxic conditions.

Chang, Alice S.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

2014-07-01

162

Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

2009-08-01

163

75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens...emergency. Under that section, a Regional Fishery...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery. On...Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab harvested with...background information. Section...

2010-08-17

164

Polar gravel beach-ridge systems: Sedimentary architecture, genesis, and implications for climate reconstructions (South Shetland Islands/Western Antarctic Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary architecture of polar gravel-beach ridges is presented and it is shown that ridge internal geometries reflect past wave-climate conditions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie the prograding strand plain. Development of individual ridges is seen to result from multiple storms in periods of increased storm-wave impact on the coast. Strand-plain progradation, by contrast, is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach-face under persistent calm conditions. The sedimentary architecture of beach ridges in sheltered parts of the coast is characterized by seaward-dipping prograding beds, being the result of swash deposition under stormy conditions, or aggrading beds formed by wave overtopping. By contrast, ridges exposed to high-energy waves are composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping strata, bundled by numerous erosional unconformities. These erosional unconformities are the result of sediment starvation or partial reworking of ridge material during exceptional strong storms. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in the low-energy settings up to 1600 years under high-energy conditions. Beach ridges in the study area cluster at 9.5, 7.5, 5.5, and below 3.5 m above the present-day storm beach. Based on radiocarbon data, this is interpreted to reflect distinct periods of increased storminess and/or shortened annual sea-ice coverage in the area of the South Shetland Islands for the times around 4.3, c. 3.1, 1.9 ka cal BP, and after 0.65 ka cal BP. Ages further indicate that even ridges at higher elevations can be subject to later reactivation and reworking. A careful investigation of the stratigraphic architecture is therefore essential prior to sampling for dating purposes.

Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona

2014-09-01

165

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

166

AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).  

PubMed

AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values. PMID:20390918

Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

2010-01-01

167

Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1?= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1?= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as <10-6 PAL. Sulfur isotope analysis revealed, based on the variable ?34S values (-1.9 ~ +26.8‰), that bacterial sulfate reduction was so extensive in the 3.2Ga deep marine environments that sulfate utilization by sulfate-reducers was near completion [8]. Production of bacteriogenic sulfide would have enhanced fixation of dissolved Mo into sulfide minerals in sediments. This is rather a common process occurring in oxygen-depleted environments in the modern ocean ([9]). A combined enrichment of Mo, Corg, and S, together with high ?34S values for a sedimentary formation may be used as a strong evidence for operation of modern-day style sedimentary Mo enrichment. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and (at least the surface) oceans was significant during deposition of the sediments, ~800Ma earlier than commonly thought ([10]). Operation of present-day style geochemical cycle of Mo in the Mesoarchean surface environments suggests early evolution of atmosphere, oceans, and microbial biosphere. References: [1] Kiyokawa et al, 2006, GSAB 118: 3-22. [2] Yamaguchi et al, 2009, Sci. Drill. 7: 34-37. [3] Yamaguchi, 2002, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State Univ. [4] Yamaguchi & Ohmoto, 2002, GSA Abstract [5] Naraoka et al, 2001, 4th Int'l Archaean Symp., Perth. [6] Anbar et al, 2007, Science 317: 1903-1906. [7] Vine & Tourtelot, 1970, Econ. Geol. 65: 253-272. [8] Sakamoto et al, 2010, Fall AGU Mtg. [9] Morford & Emerson, 1999, GCA 63: 1735-1750. [10] Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

2010-12-01

168

Western Foot Patrol Western University  

E-print Network

Western Foot Patrol Western University Room 57, University Community Centre London, Ontario N6A 3K7 August 2013 Get involved! Volunteer with Western Foot Patrol Welcome to Western! Thank you for your interest in volunteering for Western Foot Patrol (WFP)! WFP is a free service that promotes

Lennard, William N.

169

Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem. As an initiative of broader study to understand the spatial and temporal variability of heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in this area, water and sediment samples are being collected periodically from three different sites capturing the wide range of flushing zones. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) by Lachet QuickChem 8500 and dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn) were measured by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). Temperatures, conductivity, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on site by YSI multiparameter probe (600 QS) and ranged from 25.7 to 27.1oC, 17.3 to 36.9 mS/cm, 8.1 to 8.4, 74.7 to 160.8 mV, and 5.1 to 9.2 mg/l respectively. The 15 cm sections of 76 cm depth auger samples were analyzed for a suite of 26 elements including major and trace elements by using XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Average Fe concentration was found to be 6.5 ± 2.9 g/kg and distributed consistently in increased concentration with depth which also agree with the observed sediment colors on site; more darker towards surface. The preliminary data from site A showed a consistency in trace metal concentrations in surface water and sediments. Higher aqueous concentrations of Cu (17.5 ± 4.1 ?g/l), Pb (39.1 ± 23.9 ?g/l), Zn (91.1 ± 36.8 ?g/l) correspond to their elevated level in the sediments [Cu (50 ± 10 mg/kg), Pb (30 ± 30 mg/kg), Zn (30 ± 20 mg/kg)]. Trace amount of As (3.3 ± 1.5 ?g/l) and Cd (3.9 ± 1.5 ?g/l) were found in dissolved phase where as no As and Cd was detected by XRF in sediments (LOD: 7 mg/kg). In both solid and liquid phases, significant variation in concentration of heavy metals was observed in meter scales. Limited variation (~ 5%) was observed in concentrations of dissolved Ortho-phosphorus, nitrite with an average concentration of 6.8 ± 0.3 ?M, 7.2 ± 0.4 ?M respectively. On other hand, concentration of nitrate-N (11.3 ± 3.1 ?M), ammonia-N (37.1 ± 10.1 ?M), silica (2.9 ± 0.5 ?M) varies 15-27%. This erratic distributions of heavy metals and nutrients observed in this preliminary set of data suggest that contaminations may be caused by both natural processes and local environmental influences.

Dhar, R. K.; Beauzile, W.; Ma, N.; Clauson, K.

2009-12-01

170

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

171

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

172

Earth Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

173

Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

Mulder, T.

2003-04-01

174

Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune sands than others, a foremost candidate being Ammophila arenaria. It is concluded that active support for such plants should form part of any management strategy aiming to reduce and reverse coastal dune fragmentation processes.

Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

2013-04-01

175

Nihoa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

2007-08-09

176

Island Panoramic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

177

Siberian Islands  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

2013-04-16

178

Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

179

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

180

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

181

Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

2007-01-01

182

Western Skink  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

183

Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

2002-01-01

184

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

185

Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been

M. S. McDowell

2002-01-01

186

Breeding Biology of Brant on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of brant (Branta bernicla) in the Pacific Flyway are relatively small compared to other populations of arctic geese and have declined from historic levels. Little information is available on brant from Banks Island, although the size of the island and its location in the western Canadian Arctic make it a potentially important nesting area for this species. In

RICHARD C. COTTER; JAMES E. HINES

2001-01-01

187

Evolution of the artisanal fisher: Case studies from Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe the rapid uptake of technology that increases fishing efficiency in two parts of western Melanesia: Ghizo Island in Western Province, Solomon Islands, and Milne Bay Province in Papua New Guinea. We present evidence that demonstrates a disturbing lack of awareness among fishers of the finite nature of the stocks they are exploiting, and we argue

Armagan Sabetian; Simon Foale

2006-01-01

188

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

189

Geology and geochemistry of Gannet (Karewa) Island, Tasman Sea: A rift?related nephelinitic tuff ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Karewa) Island is a small (0.06 km) island situated in the Tasman Sea, northwest of Kawhia Harbour, western North Island, New Zealand. It consists of well indurated, palagonitic tuff and lapilli tuff with subordinate scoriaceous basalt bombs and blocks (Karewa Volcanic Formation) which are considered to represent the eroded remnants of a tuff ring. Evidence for this includes such

R. M. Briggs; M. D. Rosenberg; P. J. de Lange; T. Itaya; P. R. King; R. C. Price

1997-01-01

190

Holocene thecideide brachiopods from the north?western Pacific Ocean: Systematics, life habits and ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of the lacazelline brachiopod genus Ospreyella is described from shallow cryptic habitats in Palau, western Caroline Islands and Arnd Atoll, Pohnpei, eastern Caroline Islands, north?western Pacific Ocean. This new taxon, here named Ospreyella palauensis, and representing the third discovery of a species of Ospreyella from the Indo?Pacific region, is compared with the other two recently described extant

Alan Logan

2008-01-01

191

Diversification of the forest beetle genus Tarphius on the Canary Islands, and the evolutionary origins of island endemics.  

PubMed

The flightless beetle genus Tarphius Erichson (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) is a distinctive element of the beetle fauna of the Canary Islands with 29 species distributed across the five western islands. The majority of Tarphius species are rare and intimately associated with the monteverde forest and only two species occur on more than one island. In this study we investigate the phylogeography of the Canary Island Tarphius, and their relationship to Tarphius from the more northerly archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II sequence data. We use geological datings for the Canary Islands, Azores, and Madeira to calibrate specific nodes of the tree for the estimation of divergence times using a penalized likelihood method. Data suggest that the Canary Island species assemblage is of some antiquity, however, much of this species diversity is relatively recent in origin. The phylogenetic relationships of species inhabiting the younger islands of El Hierro and La Palma indicate that colonization events between islands have probably been a significant factor in the evolutionary history of the Canary Island species assemblage. A comparison of molecular phylogenetic studies of arthropods on the Canary Islands suggests that, in the evolution of the arthropod species community of an island, the origin of endemic species is initially the result of colonizing lineages differentiating from their source populations. However, as an island matures a greater proportion of endemic species originate from intra-island speciation. PMID:15856701

Emerson, Brent C; Oromí, Pedro

2005-03-01

192

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

193

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

194

75 FR 32372 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Director...Management Measures for Aquaculture in the Western Pacific...Recommendations 6. Insular Fisheries A. Update on Potential...Management Measures for Aquaculture in the Western Pacific...Exemptions from Federal Fishery Permits 4....

2010-06-08

195

162 Western Birds 44:162170, 2013 FEATURED PHOTO  

E-print Network

162 Western Birds 44:162­170, 2013 FEATURED PHOTO THE SUBSPECIES OF THE SONG SPARROW ON SOUTHEAST recognized by the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU 1957) and Paynter (1970) from Canada, the United States, and the interior western (montana) group. Two other subspecies groups occurring north of Mexico, the Alaska island

DeSante, David F.

196

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

â??The Rockâ?, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâ??s most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâ??s best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâ??s most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâ??s past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous â??Battle of Alcatrazâ? and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

197

Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

1991-01-01

198

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

199

Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-28

200

Landslide-generated tsunamis at Réunion Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides that occur on oceanic volcanoes can reach the sea and trigger catastrophic tsunamis. Réunion Island has been the location of numerous huge landslides involving tens to hundreds of cubic kilometers of material. We use a new two-fluid (seawater and landslide) numerical model to estimate the wave amplitudes and the propagation of tsunamis associated with landslide events on Réunion Island. A 10 km3 landslide from the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano would lift the water surface by about 150 m where it entered the sea. The wave thus generated would reach Saint-Denis, the capital of Réunion Island (population of about 150,000 people), in only 12 min, with an amplitude of more than 10 m, and would reach Mauritius Island in 18 min. Although Mauritius is located about 175 km from the impact, waves reaching its coast would be greater than those for Réunion Island. This is due to the initial shape of the wave, and its propagation normal to the coast at Mauritius but generally coast-parallel at Réunion Island. A submarine landslide of the coastal shelf of 2 km3, would trigger a ˜40 m high wave that would severely affect the proximal coast in the western part of Réunion Island. For a landslide of the shelf of only 0.5 km3, waves of about 2 m in amplitude would affect the proximal coast.

Kelfoun, Karim; Giachetti, Thomas; Labazuy, Philippe

2010-10-01

201

WESTERN BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common Barn-Owls (Tyro alba), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), Long-eared Owls (Asio otus), Western Screech-Owls (Otus kennicottii), and Burrowing Owls (Athene cunnicularia) all occur as year-round or seasonal residents of southern California deserts. This species richness provided me an opportunity to compare the diets of these owls both within and between desert regions. Within-region comparisons allowed analyses in situations where

CAMERON W. BARROWS

1989-01-01

202

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde  

E-print Network

Tropical Rain Forest 5 Linear Algebra Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 5 / 26 #12Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands

Verschelde, Jan

203

Demographic History of a Recent Invasion of House Mice on the Isolated Island of Gough  

PubMed Central

Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century, and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behavior. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences, and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution. PMID:24617968

Gray, Melissa M.; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J.; White, Michael A.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ryan, Peter G.; Payseur, Bret A.

2014-01-01

204

A Brown HAwk-owl (NiNox scutulata) from kiskA islAnd, AleutiAn islAnds, AlAskA  

E-print Network

). Finally, the short-eared owls (Asio flammeus flammeus) that occur annually in the western Aleutians and Amchitka islands in the Aleutian chain (Gibson and Byrd 2007), and (probably) the long-eared owl (Asio otus

Jones, Ian L.

205

KARST DEVELOPMENT ON TINIAN, COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: CONTROLS ON DISSOLUTION IN RELATION TO THE CARBONATE ISLAND KARST MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinian, located in the western Pacific Ocean, is an Eocene volcanic edifice mantled by younger algal and coralline limestones. Carbonate rocks are eogenetic, producing an island karst terrane as predicted by the Carbonate Island Karst Model. Surface karst features include epikarst, closed depressions, and freshwater discharge sites. Subsurface karst features include three morphologically distinct cave types: mixing zone, fissure, and

KEVIN STAFFORD; JOHN MYLROIE; JOAN MYLROIE

206

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Dave Pape

1994-03-13

207

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

208

Japan: Shikoku Island  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the atmospheric ... flew overhead. These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 ...

2013-04-16

209

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

210

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

211

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

212

Falkland Islands, UK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

1991-01-01

213

77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY...U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western...

2012-03-01

214

Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack - Duration: 2 minutes, 21 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

215

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

216

Barrier island configuration.  

PubMed

The 11 Virginia barrier islands are undergoing rapid changes in shore-line configuration. If this trend continues for another 100 years, two capelike features will develop. The process responsible for this island-chain pattern may be a standing edge wave trapped between Assateague Island and Cape Charles. PMID:17758013

Dolan, R; Hayden, B; Jones, C

1979-04-27

217

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

218

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

219

Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

2008-04-01

220

Male and Female Parental Roles in the Western Gull under Different Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

I examined variation in parental care in the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), spending two seasons on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI), where the population was large and competition for breeding space appeared to be high. During the first season...

Pierotti, Raymond

1981-07-01

221

The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

2014-11-01

222

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITORGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess loading of nitrogen has been identified as a cause of excess primary production in many marine systems, including Long Island Sound. In particular, western Long Island Sound experiences significant seasonal hypoxia and anoxia attributed to excess nitrogen loading. We explo...

223

Influence of continental outflow events on the aerosol composition at Cheju Island, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of aerosols measured at Cheju Island, Korea, over the 3-year period March 1992 to February 1995 are presented and discussed, with a particular emphasis on the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Western Pacific (PEM-West B) time period. Cheju Island is under the influence of continental outflow conditions nearly 70% of the year, and as a result the

Li-Ling Chen; Gregory R. Carmichael; Min-Sun Hong; Hiromasa Ueda; Shang Shim; Chul H. Song; Y. P. Kim; Richard Arimoto; Dennis Savoie; Kentaro Murano; John K. Park; Ho-geun Lee; C. Kang

1997-01-01

224

33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Seventh District § 80.707 Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island...from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to...

2010-07-01

225

Organic and inorganic nitrogen nutrition of western red cedar, western hemlock and salal in mineral N-limited cedar–hemlock forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western red cedar ( Thuja plicata Donn.), western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla Raf. Sarge) and salal ( Gaultheria shallon Pursh) are the main species growing in cedar–hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, Canada. Based on the dominance of organic N in these systems, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) organic N can be utilized by the three plant species; and (2)

Jennifer N. Bennett; Cindy E. Prescott

2004-01-01

226

Islands in the Midst of the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 9495. The image covers an area of 369 kilometers x 567 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 58 to 64 within World Reference System-2 path 181.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

227

Spatial Patterns in Assemblage Structures of Pelagic Forage Fish and Zooplankton in Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. Zooplankton abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the

Timothy B. Johnson; Michael H. Hoff; Anett S. Trebitz; Charles R. Bronte; Timothy D. Corry; James F. Kitchell; Stephen J. Lozano; Doran M. Mason; Jill V. Scharold; Stephen T. Schram; Donald R. Schreiner

2004-01-01

228

Tridacnid Clam Stocks on Helen Reef, Palau, Western CaroUnels Sli~s WENDY HIRSCHBERGER  

E-print Network

Tridacnid Clam Stocks on Helen Reef, Palau, Western CaroUnels Sli~s WENDY HIRSCHBERGER Introduction- Pacific. One area where some of the effects of harvesting have been studied is Helen Reef, a small atoll with a small island (Helen Island) located at the northern end. Depths inside the lagoon exceed 60 m; outside

229

Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCBs in zebra mussels were elevated to concentrations greater than 5,000 ng\\/g lipid and 15,000 ng\\/g lipid, respectively, at the Ambassador Bridge in the Detroit River and concentrations gradually declined at downstream locations, which included three stations in the western basin of Lake Erie (Middle Sister Island, East Sister Island, Pelee Island). PCB concentrations in

Chris D. Metcalfel; Tracy L. Metcalfe; Geoffrey Riddle; G. Douglas Haffner

1997-01-01

230

PA C I F I C I S L A N D R E G I O N 4.6 PacificIslandsRegion  

E-print Network

, is responsible for managing Federal fisheries in the Pacific Islands Region. Much of the Pacific Island culture reflects the island inhabitants' dependency on the sea. The relationship between land and sea remains close Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region FMP, developed in 1986, covers a diverse group of species

231

AQUATIC FLOWERING PLANTS NEW TO THE ERIE ISLANDS1- 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic Angiosperm flora of the islands at the western end of Lake Erie was in- tensively studied by A. J. Pieters and E. L. Moseley 60-70 years ago and 20 years ago by E. L. Core. Since then, additional species have been discovered, of which twenty-four are recorded here. Of these Phalaris canariensis, Scirpus acutus, Rorippa sylvestris, Hibiscus militaris,

RONALD L. STUCKEY

232

Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

2010-03-01

233

Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

2010-12-01

234

The Flores Island tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On

Harry Yeh; Fumihiko Imamura; Costas Synolakis; Yoshinobu Tsuji; Philip Liu; Shaozhong Shi

1993-01-01

235

Island biogeography Islands over-proportionally important in biogeography,  

E-print Network

continental islands; oceanic islands Alfred R. Wallace: 1823-1913 Studies of island biota are important. Wallace: In the absence of predation and competition, organisms on isolated landmasses may survive

Kiehn, Michael

236

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

237

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

238

Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

Burns, Emily

1993-01-01

239

Chemistry of western Atlantic precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast and on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic.

Thomas M. Church; James N. Galloway; Timothy D. Jickells; Anthony H. Knap

1982-01-01

240

Initiation of subduction and the generation of slab melts in western and eastern Mindanao, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adakite, found in both the eastern and western parts of Mindanao Island, Philippines, is a rare rock type, characterized by low heavy rare earth elements and Y contents together with high Sr\\/Y ratios, and is considered to be the result of the melting of young subducted oceanic crust, which leaves an eclogite residue. Pliocene-Quaternary adakites from western Mindanao (Zamboanga Peninsula)

Fernando G. Sajona; René C. Maury; Hervé Bellon; Joseph Cotten; Marc J. Defant; Manuel Pubellier

1993-01-01

241

Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review  

E-print Network

Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review whether a sustained outbreak of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris) in western Newfoundland America (Martineau, 1985) but the current outbreak on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland (Fig. 1

242

Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole Western part of the  

E-print Network

Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole #12;Haiti Western part of the Hispaniola island Shared;Haiti - History 1791 Haitian revolution in which black slaves rebelled and eventually succeeded #12;Haitian - Facts Spoken by about 12 million Haitians and by people of Haitian origin Became

Dershowitz, Nachum

243

FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

244

Development of vegetation in created wetlands in western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrkdalen lake, western Norway was subjected to a permanent 1.4 m drawdown in June 1987. After the drawdown, channels and artificial islands were constructed within the exposed floodplain system. Two permanent transects were established within this man-made environment, and these have been analyzed annually until 1995. The quadrats lie all on the same type of substrate, are at different

Arvid Odland

1997-01-01

245

Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Coastal Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search o{ an explanation for the disjunct, isolated population of subalpine fir on Prince of Wales Island io southeastern Alaska, Harris (1965) suggests that the stand had descended from a local remnant population that escaped glaciation rather rhan from postglacial westward migration. During independent, but related, studies on plant distributions in coastal western North America, both of us have

A. Worley; Dennis Jaques

246

Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

Szabo, B. J.

1982-01-01

247

Molecular phylogeny of Ceropegia (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) from Indian Western Ghats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceropegia includes more than 200 species distributed in the Old World ranging from the Canary Islands to Australia. In India, there\\u000a are about 50 species described on a morphological basis as belonging to Ceropegia, and most of them are endemic to the Western Ghats. To investigate evolutionary relationships among Indian Ceropegia taxa and their allies, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted

Siddharthan Surveswaran; Mayur Y. Kamble; Shrirang R. Yadav; Mei Sun

2009-01-01

248

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY 2014, Fall Term William S. Ayres Department Archaeology, Ayres, Fall 2014 1 Anthropology 343 Pacific Islands Archaeology University of Oregon Fall islands are revealed through archaeological evidence. A review of basic archaeological concepts provides

249

On island arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older concepts of island arcs, prior to the 1960's, were dominated by the Indonesian model and described in terms of geosynclinal theory, but not altogether fruitfully. Platetectonics theory has given new insights into the genesis, mode of formation, behaviour and ultimate fate of island arcs. Subduction with descent of the lithospheric slab is the governing phenomenon. As the slab descends

Patrick J. Coleman

1975-01-01

250

Channel Islands rare plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

McEachern, K.

1999-01-01

251

VEGETATION OF HENDERSON ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of field surveys from the north and north-west beaches, the vegetation of Henderson Island can be classified into 11 vegetation communities: 2 in littoral environments with sandy substrates, 4 on rocky coasts and 5 associated with the limestone plateau. Apart from the cutting of 'miro' wood by Pitcairn islanders, the communities are remarkably undisturbed, with only 5

GUSTAV PAULAY; T. SPENCER

252

Barnacles on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

253

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

254

New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

1996-01-01

255

El Niño related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass coral bleaching is currently viewed as a major threat to the long-term health of coral reef communities. Here we quantify coral bleaching in Palau coincident with the 1997\\/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event and with local sea surface temperatures of 31 °C, which were 1.0-1.25 °C higher than long-term, satellite-derived climatological maximum monthly means for the region. We sampled

J. Bruno; C. Siddon; J. Witman; P. Colin; M. Toscano

2001-01-01

256

Western University Rehabilitation Services  

E-print Network

1 Western University Rehabilitation Services Transitional Accommodation Program Western plan. Western will endeavour to collaboratively develop a TAP as soon as possible where the following is encouraged to speak with their union, association or to contact Equity Services. Roles and Responsibilities

Lennard, William N.

257

Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

258

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

259

The neotectonics of western Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico is located in a tectonic environment associated with the oblique subduction of a buoyant marine ridge, the Bahama Bank. A reconstruction of the tectonic history of Puerto Rico shows that the effects of this oblique subduction have been complex. In the Eocene to the Middle Oligocene, compression created a suture zone between island blocks and strike-slip faults were also developed in the island. The Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene was a period of quiescence. After this period, from the Late Miocene to the Pliocene, the passage of the Bahama Bank underneath the Puerto Rico microplate induced the island to rotate. It is suggested that during this time, from the Miocene through the Pliocene, Puerto Rico and eastern and central Hispaniola were part of the same microplate. Rotation of this microplate around a single rotation pole, located in the Caribbean Plate south of western Puerto Rico, generated the opening of the Anegada Passage together with a zone of extension in southern Puerto Rico, the formation of the Muertos Trough, and a zone of compression in central Hispaniola. Recent GPS vectors show that Puerto Rico and Hispaniola are now moving apart at about 9 mm/yr. This separation has created a extensional seismotectonic regime, affecting the eastern portion of Hispaniola, the Mona Passage and western Puerto Rico, within a boundary zone between the North American and Caribbean Plates. The zone of extension between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola can be explained by the recent attachment of Puerto Rico to the Caribbean Plate, which is moving to the east at about 23 mm/yr. Thus, the former Puerto Rico microplate has partitioned into two smaller microplates; the new Puerto Rico microplate (Puerto Rico) and the El Seibo microplate (eastern Hispaniola). Their separation has resulted from the release of the Puerto Rico microplate by the Bahama Bank and the recent locking of Hispaniola by this buoyant feature. Paleoseismic information on tsunami deposits and paleoliquefaction show the importance of the seismic hazards in western Puerto Rico associated with this extension. Structural, geologic, and geomorphologic information from two faults located in western Puerto Rico, the Cordillera-Mayaguez Fault System and the Joyuda Fault, suggest that after Miocene to Pliocene rotation, Plio-Quaternary strike-slip fault movements related to the new extensional regime modified the regional geomorphology of western Puerto Rico. These reactivated and new faults represent an important seismic risk for western Puerto Rico.

Moya, Juan-Carlos

1998-12-01

260

Software development for a gamma-ray burst rapid-response observatory in the US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site is situated near the crest of Crown Mountain on the island of St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands. The observing site is strategically located 65 W longitude, placing it as the most eastern GRB-dedicated observing site in the western hemisphere. The observatory has a 0.5 m robotic telescope and a Marconi 4240 2048 by 2048 CCD with

K. A. Davis; T. W. Giblin; J. E. Neff; J. Hakkila; D. Hartmann

2004-01-01

261

Tuna dreams and tuna realities: Defining the term “maximising economic returns from the tuna fisheries” in six Pacific Island states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on identifying opportunities for Pacific Island countries to improve the economic returns from their tuna resources in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) has not generally included articulation of aspirations from Islanders themselves. However, generating such an understanding is increasingly important as these countries assert their positions in regional fisheries policy making. This study analyses the self-identified

Hannah Parris

2010-01-01

262

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

263

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

264

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

265

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

266

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Christopher Griffith

267

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles; Geography Department)

2007-09-21

268

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-01-15

269

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Lisa Gardiner

270

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

271

Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

2014-05-01

272

WESTERN PACIFIC INVERTEBR ATE FISHERIES western pacific  

E-print Network

agencies in the region. The now-closed Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands (NWHI; Figure 16-1) lobster trap-scale, primarily rec- reational, fishery for different species of lobster ex- ists in the Main Hawaiian Islands of Com- merce, and implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The NWHI lobster fishery

273

Paleoecological analyses of lake sediments reveal prehistoric human impact on forests at Anthony Island UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of lake sediments from Anthony Island in the southern Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia, reveal 1800 yr of relatively stable temperate rainforest vegetation. Cupressaceae (cedar) pollen percentages and accumulation rates decline about 1000 cal yr BP, coincident with occupation of the island by Haida peoples, who use Thuja plicata (western red cedar) almost exclusively for house construction, dugout canoes, monumental poles, and many other items. Anthropogenic disturbance offers the most likely explanation for the decline of T. plicata.

Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Hebda, Richard J.

2007-09-01

274

Western Interior Seaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Interior Seaway is an ancient intracontinental seaway that occupied much of modern western North America and existed throughout much of the Cretaceous Period. This site discusses the physiography, origin, evolution and biologic significance of this intriguing geologic feature. Specific topics include sea level fluctuation, marine and non-marine life, and sedimentary rocks associated with the Western Interior Seaway. A paleogeographic map and discussion are provided with numerous links to additional information on related topics.

U-Haul SuperGraphics

275

Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island  

PubMed Central

Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

2012-01-01

276

Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

Wheatcraft, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Hydrology/Hydrogeology Dept., Environmental and Resource Science

1995-09-01

277

The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

2013-12-01

278

The tectonic evolution of the New Siberian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Siberian Islands are located on the wide arctic shelf between the Laptev Sea in the west and the East-Siberian Sea in the east and represent the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane. Geologically, they are bounded by the Laptev Sea Rift in the west, the passive continental margin towards the Arctic Ocean in the north and the South Anyui Suture Zone in the south. Two scenarios are discussed: (1) the New Siberian Islands were situated at the North American margin before the start of the break-up of Laurasia in Jurassic times, and (2) the New Siberian Islands are part of the Siberian platform since at least Palaeozoic times. Compared with the structural evolution of Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard, the sedimentary succession of the New Siberian Islands is only very little affected by tectonicdeformation. There is no evidence for the Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogeny on the New Siberian Islands. Although there are some Late Ordovician volcanics exposed on the DeLong Islands, the stratigraphic succession continues without important breaks from Cambrian to Middle Carboniferous, a time span which includes both orogenies. Furthermore, the Paleozoic evolution of the sedimentary basin on the New Siberian Islands has more affinities to the Siberian platform than to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. The only observed deformation on the New Siberian Islands is related to the plate tectonic re-organisation of the recent Arctic during the break-up of the Arctic Ocean in probably Early Tertiary times. The deformation on the Anyui Islands is characterized by mostly gentle, open synclines and anticlines with NW-SE trending axis. The deformation increases westwards towards the Laptev Sea, and is dominated by tight folding, thrusting and partly cleavage-development at the west coast of Kote?ny Island and on Be?kovski Island. The fold-vergencies and the cross-cutting relationships of bedding and cleavage indicate NE-directed transports. On Novaya Sibir' Island and on the DeLong Islands, there is no evidence for NE-SW shortening, only minor tilting of the sedimentary units was observed. Structural investigations that were carried out during the CASE 13 expedition in September 2011 indicate that the folding on the western New Siberian Islands is probably related to the onset of the development of the Laptev Sea Rift during the Palaeocene. It is characterized by a dextral tectonic regime before anomaly 24 (55 Ma ago) and before the start of the sea-floor spreading in the Eurasian Basin. The evolution of the New Siberian Islands is very different compared to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island but quite similar to the south Taimyr Peninsula and Khatanga/Anabar areas. Based on this the New Siberian Islands have never been close to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island since Palaeozoic times, but they were relatively close to the Siberian margin. At least this means that the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane was never situated adjacent to Svalbard and North Greenland/Ellesmere Island.

Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Mrugalla, S.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.

2012-04-01

279

Crustal structure transition from oceanic arc to continental arc, eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aleutian island arc crosses from the Pacific Ocean to the North-American continent at the island of Unimak. 3-D finite-difference traveltime inversion of our onshore–offshore seismic reflection\\/refraction data gives a velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle. The arc crust is on average 30 km thick, but thickens to almost 40 km under the western Alaska Peninsula. The transition

Moritz M. Fliedner; Simon L. Klemperer

2000-01-01

280

Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

Edwards, Edmundo

281

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

282

Western White Pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

283

Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

284

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

285

Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

2014-01-01

286

Late Colonization of Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in

Terry L. Hunt; Carl P. Lipo

2006-01-01

287

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

288

Costly island for Arctic drilling  

SciTech Connect

The largest artificial island in the frigid Beaufort Sea was recently completed. The $140-million teardrop-shaped island, the largest of 17 built in the Beaufort Sea, sits in 50-ft. of water, 20 miles northwest of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields on Alaska's North Slope. The problems encountered in constructing the island are discussed.

Not Available

1983-12-01

289

Western Hellenic subduction and Cephalonia Transform: local earthquakes and plate transport and strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal parameters of local earthquakes in the region of the Ionian Islands of western Greece are constrained with a temporary dense array of three-component seismographs operated jointly offshore and onshore. Seismic deformation is documented to be confined to the east of the N20°E-striking steep continental slope west of Cephalonia island, the right-lateral Cephalonia Transform Fault, CTF, inferred from large earthquakes.

M. Sachpazi; A. Hirn; C. Clément; F. Haslinger; M. Laigle; E. Kissling; P. Charvis; Y. Hello; J.-C. Lépine; M. Sapin; J. Ansorge

2000-01-01

290

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

291

Island Ecology in Bermuda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

1981-01-01

292

Islands and despots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a conventional wisdom: that when discussing political systems, small is democratic. And yet, can there be paradises without serpents? The presumed manageability of small island spaces promotes and nurtures dispositions for domination and control over nature and society. In such dark circumstances, authoritarian rule is a more natural fit than democracy. By adopting an inter-disciplinary perspective, this

Godfrey Baldacchino

2012-01-01

293

Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

294

Pine Island Bay  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... of the sequence is due to a gap in image acquisition during Antarctic winter, when the glacier was in continuous darkness. Pine Island ... continent's fastest moving glacier. This area of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is also believed to be the most susceptible to collapse. ...

2013-04-16

295

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

296

Identity of Cypripedium calceolus (Orchidaceae) in Rebun Island: comparative DNA analysis of related species.  

PubMed

Cypripedium calceolus was found in 1980 in Rebun Island off the north coast of Hokkaido, Japan, but the origin of this plant has been a controversial issue. In this study, we have made a comparative study by chloroplast DNA sequencing analysis among C. calceolus which occurs in Rebun Island and populations of C. calceolus from western Europe, China and far eastern Russia (Nakhodka), and also as references, C. macranthos in Japan and other Cypripedium species in North America. A Cypripedium cf. "calceolus", found recently in eastern Hokkaido, was also included in this analysis. The C. calceolus samples analyzed were categorized into three groups, i.e., those from Western Europe, from China and far eastern Russia, and from Rebun Island. The C. calceolus in Rebun Island was clearly different from the others in terms of DNA sequence and morphological features. The C. cf. calceolus from eastern Hokkaido and one sample from Nadhodka, Russia, were also classified into the same group as those from Rebun Island, although some differences in their morphological features were observed. It is concluded that the C. calceolus found in Rebun Island is not identical with those growing in Europe and China. In addition, it was found that it may be possible to classify C. macranthos into two groups, namely groups which include or do not include var. rebunense. An unidentified Cypripedium species found in Rebun Island falls into the same group as var. rebunense. PMID:11569501

Taniguchi, H; Nakamura, T; Mizukami, H; Kawano, S; Sano, H; Katsumi, M

2001-06-01

297

Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results  

SciTech Connect

The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

None

2013-09-01

298

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

299

Paleomagnetic Evidence for Significant Rotations Within the Aleutian Island Arc.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate changes along the Aleutian arc from normal convergence in the east to transform motion in the west. It was postulated by Geist et al. (Tectonics 7, 327-341, 1988) that strain partitioning could result in tectonic segmentation of the lithosphere, caused by increasing obliquity of plate convergence and characterized by clockwise rotation and westward translation of discrete blocks. Their analysis of the present day morphology and tectonic setting of the western half of the arc suggests the presence of rotated blocks, and implies that the rotation is ongoing. Published high-quality paleomagnetic data from the far western end of the arc show rotations that are compatible with this model. This result is based on rocks of Eocene (Bering and Medny Islands) and Miocene (Shemya Island) age, thus the magnetically observed rotations could have occurred at any time since their origin. New paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from Miocene age volcanic rocks on Amchitka Island also indicate clockwise rotation at some time since the rocks were formed (13.8+/-0.2 Ma). However, two other high-quality paleomagnetic data sets from Eocene/Oligocene aged sediments from the eastern part of the arc (Atka and Umnak Islands) are significantly rotated in the same clockwise sense as the western end. Since plate convergence at these two eastern sites has been roughly normal since mid-Eocene time, strain partitioning related to oblique convergence is unlikely to be the cause of the rotation. Models involving rotation of the entire island arc to explain the similarity in magnitude and sense of the rotations seen in the paleomagnetic data require large relative latitude changes between the two ends of the arc. Though possible, such a model would put serious constraints on scenarios for the tectonic development of the Bering Sea Plate required to accommodate the degree of rotation suggested by the data. The answer may be that the eastern and western rotations, though similar in magnitude and sense of rotation, are unrelated in origin. The western part could have rotated in a transpressional boundary zone as proposed in the block rotation model, and the eastern part rotated in response to complex terrane collisions along the southern margin of the Alaskan collage.

Stone, D. B.; Krutikov, L.

2006-12-01

300

Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic, earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

2013-12-01

301

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion Numbers are Low Sylvie Guénette1,2 , Sheila J.J. Heymans1 lions since the late 1970s in the central and western Aleutian Islands. We also sought to understand why

302

Western Glacier Stonefly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

303

Western Glacier Stonefly  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

 The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

304

Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

2014-12-01

305

August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

2010-01-01

306

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Lori Perkins

2002-01-10

307

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

308

The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in western Lake Erie  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine whether biota in western Lake Erie are exposed to elevated concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors collected biota along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie and determined concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebra mussels, and levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile of freshwater drum and gizzard shad. In addition, they deployed semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) at various locations along this corridor to monitor for PAHs in water. PAHs were elevated in SPMDs and zebra mussels from the Detroit River, and PAH concentrations declined from west to east in Lake Erie. There were elevated levels of bile FACs in drum and gizzard shad from highly contaminated regions of the Detroit River. These data are consistent with the Detroit River being a significant source of PAH contamination in western Lake Erie. Since the ratios of concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in zebra mussels did not vary throughout the study area, it appears that both classes of aromatic contaminants are distributed by similar mechanisms throughout western Lake Erie.

Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Koenig, B.G. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program; Haffner, G.D. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Great Lakes Inst.

1995-12-31

309

The plant geography of dredged-material islands along the Texas coast  

E-print Network

Island. 12. Soil data ? Port Isabel Island. 65 67 13. Soil salinities of the supra-tidal zones of Bird Island and Jellyfish Island. 70 14. Island area and environmental data. 77 15. Multiple regressions of ordination positions on vegetated area... Drift Island Reed Island Gnat Island Tortuga Island Mangrove Island Crane Island Wind Tidal Flats Island Mesquite Island Port Mansfield Island Discontinued Island Jellyfish Island Bird Island Port Isabel Island Location Trinity Bay Trinity...

Irish, Gary Joe

1978-01-01

310

Dynamic properties of Sherman Island peat  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic properties of peat have been identified as a major source of uncertainty in the evaluation of seismic hazards throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in northern California. This paper summarizes the results of a laboratory study of the dynamic properties of a layer of peaty organic soil underlying the south levee on Sherman Island near the western side of the delta. Conventional Shelby tube sampling procedures were able to obtain high-quality samples because of the compactness of this peat layer, located between depths of 9 and 16 m. The samples tested were very fibrous and had ash contents of 35--56%. Staged cyclic triaxial loading was used to measure the stress-strain behavior of several specimens under cyclic shear strains ranging from about 0.0005% to 10%. Other tests included piezo-ceramic bender element tests to measure the shear wave velocity of specimens within the triaxial device, and undrained monotonic triaxial compression and extension tests. The effects of loading frequency, cyclic degradation, consolidation stress history, and structural anisotropy are evaluated. The resulting modulus reduction and damping relationships for the Sherman Island peat are compared with published results for other peats, solid waste materials, and mineral soils.

Boulanger, R.W.; Arulnathan, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Harder, L.F. Jr.; Torres, R.A.; Driller, M.W. [California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1998-01-01

311

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Aleutian Islands Atka Mackerel mackerel and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is declining. Atka mackerel and Pacific cod are principal prey species for Steller sea lions in the Aleutian

312

The R\\/V Discoverer cruise to Manus Island. The BNL Portable Radiometer Package (PRP) evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brookhaven National Laboratory installed and operated a Portable Radiation Package (PRP) on the NOAA ship R\\/V DISCOVERER as part of the Combined Sensor Program cruise in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean. The DISCOVERER transported a collection of radiation and atmospheric instrumentation to positions offshore of manus Island to compare cloud and radiation fields to like instruments measured from a station

R. M. Reynolds; S. Smith

1996-01-01

313

New cultural economies of marginality: revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of the nostrums of new regionalism. In an

David Conradson; Eric Pawson

2009-01-01

314

77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National...using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species...or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the coral reef ecosystem...

2012-02-29

315

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

316

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia)  

E-print Network

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia) A stages of continent-arc collision can be studied. We studied along the western limit of the collision be characteristic of young collisional systems at the transition from oceanic subduction to continent-arc collision

Rawlinson, Nick

317

Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrian Weber, Benjamin Gilbert, J.P. (Hamish) Kimmins, and C.E. Prescott Abstract: Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), a late successional species on northern Vancouver Island, has a low seedling survival in mature hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) - amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes) (HA) stands. Shade, moss competition, and substrate were tested

Adrian Weber; Benjamin Gilbert; C. E. Prescott

2003-01-01

318

Marine algae as human food in Hawaii, with notes on other Polynesian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine algae, also called seaweeds, have been consumed by numerous maritime peoples since antiquity. Although they have little importance in Western diet today, they remain an important food and in some cases a highly esteemed staple in eastern Asia and the Pacific islands. This paper discusses seaweed collection and uses in Hawaii and other areas of Polynesia. Most Polynesians collect

1979-01-01

319

Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

Stenderup, Vibeke

320

Structure and development of detrital reef deposits in turbid nearshore environments, Inhaca Island, Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral communities are intermittently developed along the seaward margins of wide (up to 500 m) intertidal flats that fringe the western margins of Inhaca Island, southern Mozambique. The coral communities occur in an environment that can be considered as marginal for coral growth in the sense that they are subject to high turbidity levels (which results in rapid light attenuation)

Christopher T. Perry

2005-01-01

321

Not Your “Typical Island Woman”: Anorexia Nervosa is Reported Only in Subcultures in Curaçao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN), once thought to be a problem of wealthier, Western countries has now been documented in survey studies and case reports across geographic and economic groups; however, few epidemiological studies including interview have been done on these populations. We report on a comprehensive study on Curaçao, a Caribbean island in economic transition, where the majority of the population

Melanie A. Katzman; Karin M. E. Hermans; Daphne Van Hoeken; Hans W. Hoek

2004-01-01

322

The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

1999-01-01

323

78 FR 6033 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Sitkalidak Island to Kiliuda Bay, AK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship...Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution...Federal Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy...Zone; MODU KULLUK, Ocean Bay, Sitkalidak Island...Captain of the Port, Western Alaska. (c)...

2013-01-29

324

78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Island, and eliminate the western area entirely. These...affect children. 11. Indian Tribal Governments This...Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution...Federal Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy...Sec. 110.220 Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas...

2013-11-12

325

A synoptic and mesoscale diagnosis of a tornado outbreak in the Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tornadic event occurred over the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) during the evening of 11 September 1996 and the following night. A total of six tornadoes were observed, affecting populated areas, with an economical damage of more than 6 million Euro. The meteorological situation in which severe weather developed was characterised at low levels by a low covering all the

V. Homar; M. Gayà; C. Ramis

2001-01-01

326

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

327

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE ISLAND WATERS, 1950-52  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE ISLAND WATERS, 1950-52 ( SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORTKay, Secretary, Fish and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE IN RHODE larval abundance in the Western half of Greenwi ch Bay in 1952 2\\\\ #12;SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF CLAM LARVAE

328

Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure  

PubMed Central

High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat. PMID:23936518

Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

329

Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ?Nd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with island arcs and subduction-accretion complexes via continuous accretion presented as episodic events and it significantly contributes to continental growth in southern Altaids.

Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

2013-04-01

330

Late colonization of Easter Island.  

PubMed

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement. PMID:16527931

Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

2006-03-17

331

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

332

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

333

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

334

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

335

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

336

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

337

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

PubMed Central

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2012-01-01

338

Surface Science Western  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Surface Science Western is an analytical laboratory specializing in the surface characterization and failure analysis of materials." Located at the University of Western Ontario, the laboratory illustrates its analyses of microelectronic devices and semiconductor materials; metal finishing, plating, and corrosion; and plastics and coatings. Students can learn about secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and many other methods of surface characterization and failure analysis. Researchers can find abstracts for countless publications by the scientists at Surface Science Western and downloads of newsletters. The website features the information on the VESPERS Project (Very Sensitive Elemental and Structural Probe Employing Radiation from a Synchrotron), involving the development of a high energy x-ray beam line at the Canadian Light Source (CLS).

339

Western coal marketing days  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

Dahle, H.

1983-01-01

340

Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.  

PubMed

The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes. PMID:20102040

Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

2009-12-01

341

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

342

Islands in the landscape  

E-print Network

The string theory landscape consists of many metastable de Sitter vacua, populated by eternal inflation. Tunneling between these vacua gives rise to a dynamical system, which asymptotically settles down to an equilibrium state. We investigate the effects of sinks to anti-de Sitter space, and show how their existence can change probabilities in the landscape. Sinks can disturb the thermal occupation numbers that would otherwise exist in the landscape and may cause regions that were previously in thermal contact to be divided into separate, thermally isolated islands.

T. Clifton; Andrei Linde; Navin Sivanandam

2007-01-10

343

Winter Diet of Lake Herring ( Coregonus artedi) in Western Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and zooplankton samples were simultaneously collected through the ice in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior to provide information on the winter feeding ecology of lake herring. Zooplankton constituted the entire diet of the 38 lake herring collected for this study. We found no evidence of piscivory, although it has been reported by anglers.

Jason Link; James H. Selgeby; Michael H. Hoff; Craig Haskell

1995-01-01

344

Outer Rocky Shores of the Mowanbini Archipelago, Devonian Reef Complex, Canning Basin, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oscar Range in Western Australia's Canning Basin features inliers of folded Paleoproterozoic quartzite, quartzitic conglomerate, and phyllite that formed islands during the Late Devonian. Undisturbed strata of the Pillara Limestone (Upper Devonian, Frasnian Stage) surround individual paleoislands that rise above the former seabed with a maximum topographic relief of 90 m. On average, the Mowanbini Archipelago (aboriginal name for

2007-01-01

345

Rent-Maximization Versus Competition in the Western and Central Pacific Tuna Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for achieving sustainable and efficient harvesting of three species of migratory tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean is examined. The stocks reside in exclusive economic zones (mainly those of Pacific island countries) and in the high seas. Most harvesting is carried out by distant water fishing nations, including the USA, Japan, Taiwan, China, and Korea. Problems

Rögnvaldur Hannesson; John Kennedy

2008-01-01

346

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand  

E-print Network

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand Term: January Term ESPM Track in New Zealand Visiting New Zealand was the most amazing experience of my life. You travel a lot and get to see every possible landscape of New Zealand - rainforests, mountains, caves, beaches, etc. The most we

Minnesota, University of

347

IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.  

PubMed

IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

2013-07-01

348

Rain on small tropical islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow rather than elevated surface heating.

Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

2011-04-01

349

Influence of inner-continental shelf geologic framework on the evolution and behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Island Inlet and Shinnecock Inlet, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution, sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidescan-sonar and subbottom profiling, were used to investigate how the geologic framework of the inner-continental shelf influenced the Holocene evolution and modern behavior of the Fire Island barrier-island system, Long Island, New York. The inner-continental shelf off Long Island is divided into two physiographic provinces by a broad outcrop of Cretaceous coastal-plain strata offshore of Watch Hill; this outcrop was part of a subaerial headland during the Holocene marine transgression. Erosion of the headland during transgression furnished sediment to the inner-continental shelf downdrift to the west. The sediment was, in turn, reworked by oceanographic processes into a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges. The oldest (~1200 yr BP) and most stable part of the barrier-island system is immediately landward of the outcropping coastal-plain strata and thickest sand ridges. East of Watch Hill, Pleistocene sediment either is exposed on the inner-continental shelf or is buried by a veneer of modern reworked sediment. Here the barrier-island system has migrated landward at a faster rate than the segment west of Watch Hill and has been breached by numerous historic inlets. Because the Pleistocene sedimentary deposit is generally of uniform thickness throughout the study area and unconformably overlies the Cretaceous coastal-plain strata, both the Holocene and historical evolution of the Fire Island barrier-island system are controlled by the physiography of this regional unconformity. In particular, the shoreface-connected sand ridges appear to be a significant source of sediment to the western portion of Fire Island. Previous attempts to develop a sediment budget for this coastal system have failed to explain volumetric discrepancies, primarily because poor assumptions were made about the nature of sediment transport in the system. A more realistic sediment budget must include a significantly larger spatial scale, including sediment input from the inner-continental shelf.

Schwab, W.C.; Thieler, E.R.; Allen, J.R.; Foster, D.S.; Swift, B.A.; Denny, J.F.

2000-01-01

350

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

351

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Donald M Yow

352

Western South Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good deal of chlorophyll is visible in the waters of the upwelling zone of the western South African coast in this SeaWiFS image. The sediment plume of the Orange River is also visible at the border with Namibia.

2002-01-01

353

THE SURVEY WESTERN PALESTINE.  

E-print Network

N UJ PALESTINE. MEMOIRS OF TUF, TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, I, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C. 1882. #12;P R E F A C E. The Memoirs 267 26() #12;LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. #12;#12;THE SURVEY 01' WESTERN PALESTINE. SHEET YIL--SECTION A

McKay, Brendan

354

THE SURVEY WESTERN PALESTINE  

E-print Network

PALESTINE MEMOIRS OF THE TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY, AND ARCHAEOLOGY. r,v LIEUT. C. R. CONDER, R. H. PALMER, M.A. AND WALTER BESANT, M.A., FOR THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION EUND, I into 'Sheets' corresponding with the divisions of the Great Map of Western Palestine, in twenty-six sheets

McKay, Brendan

355

WESTERN MARYLAND STREAM SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STREAM SENSITIVITY TO ACIDIFICATION, FISH DISTRIBUTION, AND ABUNDANCE. WATER QUALITY AND FISH SAMPLING WERE CONDUCTED AT 72 STATIONS WITHING THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU OF WESTERN MARYLAND IN 1989. THE FISHERIES DATA...

356

WESTERN PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and operation of a 40-station network to sample atmospheric particles resulted in the collection, over a 2-year period from July 1979 to September 1981, of the data summarized in this report. The sampling stations were located in eight western states: Arizona, New Mexi...

357

Western Fence Lizard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is larger and prefers less open habitat than the related side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic isolation in both speci...

358

Western Criminology Review (WCR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Criminology Review, a peer reviewed free journal hosted by Sonoma State University, is now available. The inaugural issue focuses on the topic of restorative justice and victim-offender mediation. The WCR will be a forum for "the publication and discussion of theory, research, policy and practice in the rapidly changing and interdisciplinary fields of criminology and criminal justice."

359

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

360

An Island Effect in Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)

Richards, Norvin

2000-01-01

361

Island cosmology in the landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the

Yun-Song Piao

2008-01-01

362

Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become a paragon for prehistoric human induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse. A popular narrative recounts an obsession for monumental statuary that led to the island's ecological devastation and the collapse of the ancient civilization. Scholars offer this story as a parable of today's global environmental problems. In this paper, I review new and emerging

Terry L. Hunt

2007-01-01

363

Tidal Pool on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

364

Filariasis in Palawan, Philippine Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

FILARIASIS in the Philippine Islands is endemic in certain areas of the Bicol Peninsula of Luzon, in the neighbouring islands of Samar and Leyte, and in Mindanao, where there are extensive plantations of abaca1. Here, the principal vector is Aedes poicilius, which breeds in the leaf axils especially of abaca and banana trees2. Baisas3 found that in some communities of

Benjamin D. Cabrera

1964-01-01

365

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

366

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

367

Momentum transport in magnetic islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the transport of momentum across an island using the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model. We find that the Reynolds stress gives rise to a momentum source proportional to the resistivity. As a result of the frozen-in property the transport of momentum can be described by a one-dimensional equation, even for islands with finite aspect-ratio. We present numerical and analytic solutions of this transport equation and compare these solutions to numerical solutions of the full time- dependent RMHD equations. Of particular interest is the momentum transport in islands where the helical current density reverses sign. In such islands, the Reynolds stress also reverses sign, creating the possibility for localized zonal flow generation. The constant-psi approximation, however, fails in the presence of current reversal. We have developed new equilibrium solutions for thin islands that we plan to use to examine the transport of momentum in the presence of current reversal.

Waelbroeck, F. L.; Grasso, D.; Porcelli, F.; Tebaldi, C.

2006-04-01

368

Prevalence, Emergence, and Factors Associated with a Viral Papillomatosis and Carcinomatosis Syndrome in Wild, Reintroduced, and Captive Western Barred Bandicoots ( Perameles bougainville )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once widespread across western and southern Australia, wild populations of the western barred bandicoot (WBB) are now only\\u000a found on Bernier and Dorre Islands, Western Australia. Conservation efforts to prevent the extinction of the WBB are presently\\u000a hampered by a papillomatosis and carcinomatosis syndrome identified in captive and wild bandicoots, associated with infection\\u000a with the bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus type

Lucy Woolford; Mark David Bennett; Colleen Sims; Neil Thomas; James Anthony Friend; Philip Keith Nicholls; Kristin Shannon Warren; Amanda Jane O’Hara

2009-01-01

369

Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands  

PubMed Central

Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

2005-01-01

370

Western Guide to Graduate Students  

E-print Network

Western Guide to Mentoring Graduate Students Across Cultures Nanda Dimitrov Teaching- Western guide to mentoring graduate students across cultures [electronic resource] / Nanda Dimitrov.......................................................4 The Impact of Culture on the Supervisory Relationship........................................7

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

371

Submarine volcanic morphology of the western Galápagos based on EM300 bathymetry and MR1 side-scan sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of high-resolution EM300 multibeam bathymetric and existing MR1 side-scan sonar data was used to investigate the volcanic morphology of the flanks of the western Galápagos Islands. The data portray an assortment of constructional volcanic features on the shallow to deep submarine flanks of Fernandina, Isabela, and Santiago Islands, including rift zones and groups of cones that are considered

Jennifer B. Glass; Daniel J. Fornari; Hillary F. Hall; Allison A. Cougan; Heidi A. Berkenbosch; Mark L. Holmes; Scott M. White; Giorgio De La Torre

2007-01-01

372

Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance  

PubMed Central

One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

2014-01-01

373

Distribution Patterns of Babesia gibsoni Infection in Hunting Dogs from Nine Japanese Islands.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

2015-04-01

374

Testing hierarchical levels of population sub-structuring: the Azores islands (Portugal) as a case study.  

PubMed

The Azores archipelago (Portugal) is formed by nine islands whose relative positions define them as three geographical groups: Eastern (S. Miguel and Sta. Maria), Central (Terceira, Faial, Pico, Graciosa and S. Jorge) and Western (Flores and Corvo). Using the father's surname of 187,398 individuals living on the nine Azorean Islands, a population analysis based on inter-island relationship and hierarchical organization was conducted. The relation between islands was investigated using summary statistics, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) as well as graphical methods. When the values of heteronymy were contrasted with values of gene diversity based on haplogroup frequencies of the Y chromosome, it was possible to verify that Graciosa and Sta. Maria appeared to have the least diverse populations, and that Flores, despite its smaller population size and geographical isolation, has considerably higher levels of diversity. As for inter-island relationships, the difficulty of directly interpreting summary statistics values was evidenced. The AMOVA revealed that only 0.77% of the variation in surnames can be attributed to among-island variation, a value that, although small, can be considered significant. Application of Malécot's model revealed that geographic distance has an important impact in the genetic structure of the archipelago. Monmonier's maximum-difference algorithm demonstrated that the most isolated island of the archipelago appears to be Graciosa, followed by the islands of the Western group and by Sta. Maria. After integrating values of summary statistics with results from AMOVA and graphical methods, a more accurate genetic profile of the Azores, highly supported by genetic data, has emerged. PMID:17956651

Santos, Cristina; Abade, Augusto; Lima, Manuela

2008-07-01

375

WESTERN REGIONAL SCHOOL OF NURSING  

E-print Network

WESTERN REGIONAL SCHOOL OF NURSING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK Revised: June 2010 #12;Notice.4 Grenfell College Student Union.....................................................................17 4

Warkentin, Ian G.

376

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

377

Allelopathic potential of western bracken  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory studies, water-soluble extracts from senescent western bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn var.pubescens Underw.) fronds reduced germination of western thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus Nutt.) and delayed germination of salmonberry (R. spectabilis Pursh.), but did not affect Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). In greenhouse studies, unincorporated western bracken litter reduced emergence of all three species but did not influence root

R. E. Stewart

1975-01-01

378

2, 105127, 2005 Western Iberian  

E-print Network

-0822/osd/2005-2-105 European Geosciences Union Ocean Science Discussions Western Iberian winter windOSD 2, 105­127, 2005 Western Iberian winter wind indices E. Mason et al. Title Page Abstract under a Creative Commons License. 105 #12;OSD 2, 105­127, 2005 Western Iberian winter wind indices E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

380

Marte Valles Crater 'Island'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

381

Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

382

The CEDROS ignimbrite, Faial island (Azores, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 25 ignimbrites are known on the various islands of the Azorean archipelago. Most of them can be observed on São Miguel and Terceira islands, where they are considered as associated with caldeira-forming eruptions. In the Azores, ignimbrites form generally low volume deposits, although their volumes are largely unknown due to the particular geometry of the islands and the unknown fraction entering the ocean. Except the Povoação (Duncan et al., 1999) and Fogo ignimbrites (Wallenstein, 1999) on São Miguel island, or the ignimbrites of Terceira island (Self, 1976; Guertisser et al., 2009), most ignimbrites have not been extensively studied. The Cedros ignimbrite on Faial island, is the most recent and accessible ignimbrite of the Azores. Its age (1200 B.P.) is well constrained by several C14 datings (Shotton et al., 1970; Chovelon, 1982; Madeira et al., 1995; Pacheco, 2001). It formed during one of the latest and largest explosive events of the holocene activity of the Vulcão da Caldeira (1043 m), an event certainly at the origin of the present morphology of its large caldeira (Pacheco, 2001; Forjaz et al., 2006). The deposit is easily accessible since it outcrops at the surface except when partly covered by only one, more recent, thin deposit. The ignimbrite was produced at the end of a magmatic and hydromagmatic, sub-plinian eruption, with pumice fall deposits and multiple flow / fall ash deposits located on the north-western flank of the volcano (Pacheco, 2001). A detailed mapping of the ignimbrite is proposed, based on more than 300 documented outcrops. The mapping reveals the existence of 9 different units, radially spread on the northern flank of the volcano where it forms lobes some kilometers in length. Lobes never exceed 20 m in thickness. In the upper part of the volcano, the units were largely channeled either in deep valleys carved on the steep slopes of the main cone, either in the two branches of the well marked Pedro Miguel - Ribeira Funda graben. In the lower part of the volcano, the pyroclastic density currents had rather linear trajectories, weakly influenced by the local topography. Most of the units entered the ocean at the end of their terrestrial pathways, some after jumping high sea cliffs. The volume of the ignimbrite on land is small, nearly 0.06 km3 but the fraction deposited in the ocean is not known. The ignimbrite is light grey, non-welded through its thickness, even in maximum section up to 18 m. Several lithofacies have been identified, some depending on the distance to the vent, some clearly related to the local topography. The conspicuous variations of various lithofacies along the same unit can be associated with different mechanisms of transport and emplacement.

Caniaux, Guy

2010-05-01

383

Long-term (17 Ma) turbidite record of the timing and frequency of large flank collapses of the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

turbidites on the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of large-volume volcanic island flank collapses from the Canary Islands. This long-term record spans 17 Ma, and comprises 125 volcaniclastic beds. Determining the timing, provenance and volumes of these turbidites provides key information about the occurrence of mass wasting from the Canary Islands, especially the western islands of Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. These turbidite records demonstrate that landslides often coincide with protracted periods of volcanic edifice growth, suggesting that loading of the volcanic edifices may be a key preconditioning factor for landslide triggers. Furthermore, the last large-volume failures from Tenerife coincide with explosive volcanism at the end of eruptive cycles. Many large-volume Canary Island landslides also occurred during periods of warmer and wetter climates associated with sea-level rise and subsequent highstand. However, these turbidites are not serially dependent and any association with climate or sea level change is not statistically significant.

Hunt, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Clare, M. A.; Jarvis, I.; Wynn, R. B.

2014-08-01

384

Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

2000-01-01

385

Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

1986-05-01

386

Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was white, highly vesiculated and rich in silica (>60%). This type of fragments was observed only during the first days of the eruption. On 27 November (and later) new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Many of them were "lava balloons", with a huge cavity in the centre or fragments of pillow lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm; all of them have a highly vesiculated outer crust. The composition is basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane could be observed most of the times. In this work, we describe the petrological evolution observed since the beginning of the eruption through the fragments emitted and the geological characteristics of the submarine edifice.

Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

2012-04-01

387

Western Waters Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the earliest European explorers to the time of modern engineers and hydrologists, the vast reserves of water within the Western United States have been the cause of both great excitement and concern. This compelling digital library brings together a wide range of documents (including legal transcripts, water project records, and personal papers) that document the Columbia, Colorado, Platte, and Rio Grande river basins. The project was completed with support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and twelve university libraries in eight western states. On the homepage, visitors can perform advanced searches, or just elect to browse through the available materials. Browsing is a good option actually, as all of the materials are contained with one of four sections: subject, people, places, and signature collections. The signature collections are a real find, and visitors can look over troves that include "Native American Water Rights in Arizona", "The Platte River Basin in Nebraska", and "Las Vegas: Water in the West".

2004-01-01

388

PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software  

PubMed Central

The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2012-01-01

389

9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72...Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. ...Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined. [43 FR...

2014-01-01

390

Rupture process of the February 4, 1965, Rat Islands Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great Rat Islands underthrusting earthquake (Mw = 8.7), of February 4, 1965, represents subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North American plate along a 600-km segment of the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Body wave inversion techniques are used to determine the spatial and temporal heterogeneities associated with the Rat Islands earthquake. We have deconvolved World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network long-period teleseismic P wave seismograms to obtain source time functions. Directivity associated with the three major pulses of moment release in the source time functions indicates a total source duration of 160 s, unilateral rupture in the direction 300°, fault length of 420 km, and average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/s. The three pulses of moment release are located along the fault, and these regions of high moment release are interpreted as asperities. The first asperity extends from the epicenter to 100 km to the WNW. This is the largest asperity and corresponds to a smooth pulse of moment release in the source time function with a duration of 50 s. The second pulse of moment release is very jagged, is less coherent between stations, and is centered ˜200 km WNW of the epicenter. The third pulse of moment release extends from 360 to 420 km WNW of the epicenter. Although the aftershock area is ˜600 km in length, we can not resolve any moment release from the P waves beyond ˜420 km WNW of the epicenter. The Rat Islands event was closely followed by a large tensional outer-rise event on March 30, 1965, (Ms = 7.5), which is located oceanward of the largest moment release associated with the Rat Islands mainshock rupture. Detailed analysis of the P waves for this large outer-rise event confine the depth extent to the upper 30-5 km of the crust. The spatial and temporal association between the February 4 mainshock and the March 30 tensional outer-rise event suggests the tensional event may have been triggered by the large displacement near the mainshock epicenter. The overriding plate along the western Aleutian subduction zone is laterally segmented into a series of rigid tectonic blocks separated by fault controlled canyons and extensional basins (Geist et al., 1988). We suggest that the central undeformed parts of the blocks have the strongest coupling with the down-going plate and hence are the sites of the largest moment release during an underthrusting earthquake. The three asperities determined from the P waves correspond to the Rat, Buldir, and Near tectonic blocks respectively. Hence the P wave seismic moment release of the Rat Islands earthquake is controlled by the lateral segmentation of the overriding plate.

Beck, Susan L.; Christensen, Douglas H.

1991-02-01

391

Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

2012-01-01

392

Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

2012-01-01

393

Pronounced Fixation, Strong Population Differentiation and Complex Population History in the Canary Islands Blue Tit Subspecies Complex  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward re-colonisation of western North Africa from the Canaries remains possible. PMID:24587269

Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

2014-01-01

394

Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

2014-09-01

395

Constructing artificial islands in Canada's Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1972, Esso has constructed 17 artificial islands in the Canadian Beaufort Sea in water shallower than 66 ft (20 m). The sandbag-retained island uses a berm of sandbags around the island, thus reducing the volume of fill required; an alternative construction is the sacrificial beach island characterized by long gradual beaches and used when fill is readily available. The

Dingle

1982-01-01

396

Island Political Economy Geoff Bertram & Bernard Poirine  

E-print Network

323 Chapter 10 Island Political Economy Geoff Bertram & Bernard Poirine Introduction In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

2011-01-01

398

Influences on the Morphologic Response to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm on historical record in the Atlantic basin. The highest waves and storm surge were focused along the New York and New Jersey coasts. At the height of the storm, a wave buoy 55 km offshore of Fire Island, NY recorded a significant wave height of 9.6 m. Storm-tide levels on the beach reached 4.1 m. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after landfall were used to quantify morphologic change in several focus areas. Pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography are used to quantify morphologic change along the length of the island including shoreline and beach change, and volumetric change to the beach and dunes. The extent and thicknesses of washover deposits were also mapped in the field and measurements were used to determine washover volume, distribution and characteristics. The beaches and dunes on Fire Island were severely eroded, and the island breached in three locations on the eastern segment of the island. Landward retreat of the beach averaged -26 m but varied substantially along the coast. The beaches and dunes lost over 50% of their pre-storm volume, and the dunes experienced overwash along 50% of the island. Shoreline change was highly variable with an average progradational trend of 11.4 m, likely due to the deposition of material from the upper beach and dunes onto the lower portion of the beach. Although the entire island experienced extreme erosion in the form of volume loss, beach deflation and dune leveling, the central portion of Fire Island experienced the least impact. Volumetric loss of the beach and dune and overwash extent and volume were lowest in the central segment of the island. Beach and dune volume loss was similar in magnitude on the eastern and western segments of the island, but overwash deposition extent and volume were significantly greater to the east. The variation in the response of the island during Sandy parallels the evolutionary history (decadal to millennial scale behavior) of the coastal system, which is controlled by the antecedent geology. Morphodynamic time series of decades to a century indicate that the central segment of the island is relatively stable, the eastern portion is experiencing shoreward retreat and the western portion is variable but generally stable. The processes driving the differential response on Fire Island are influenced by the geology/morphology of the inner shelf, which is shallowest offshore of central Fire Island and deepens to the east. Sand ridges dominate the shelf offshore of the western segment of the island and influence the distribution of wave energy reaching the coast. The pattern of differential response along the island to this extreme storm event is strikingly similar to variations documented in longer term behavior, suggesting storm response is predictable if the long-term morphodynamics and geology of a coastal system are fairly well understood.

Hapke, C. J.; Brenner, O.; Schwab, W. C.

2013-12-01

399

First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health. PMID:23950989

Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Takuma; Yabe, Tatsuo; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

2013-01-01

400

The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientations of the several hundred ancient stone monuments on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) have now been measured and analysed. The results indicate that approximately fifteen ceremonial platforms were carefully oriented solsticially or equinoctially.

Liller, W.

401

The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientations of the several hundred ancient stone monuments on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) have now been measured and analysed. The results indicate that approximately fifteen ceremonial platforms were carefully oriented solsticially or equinoctially.

W. Liller

1991-01-01

402

Oil Spill Threatens Galapagos Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, the aging Ecuadorean tanker "Jessica" ran aground on San Cristobal Island, threatening the delicate ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands, famous as the location for much of Charles Darwin's key research. The Galapagos, 97 percent of which is a national park, is perhaps the last complete and preserved island archipelago. The captain of the ship has since accepted responsibility for misjudging his entry into the bay and running the ship aground, spilling approximately 160,000 gallons of oil. Efforts continue to refloat the ship and remove the 10,000 gallons left inside. Fortunately, favorable winds and currents have limited the amount of oil washing up on the Galapagos Islands, but the long-term effects remain to be seen.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

2001-01-01

403

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

404

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

405

Island Cosmology in the Landscape  

E-print Network

In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the evolution of standard big bang cosmology. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of curvature perturbation generated during the emergence of island. We find that generally the spectrum obtained is nearly scale invariant, which can be well related to that of slow roll inflation by a simple duality. This in some sense suggests a degeneracy between their scalar spectra. In addition, we also simply estimate the non-Gaussianity of perturbation, which is naturally large, yet, can lie well in the observational bound. The results shown here indicate that the island emergently thermalized in the landscape can be consistent with our observable universe.

Yun-Song Piao

2008-06-11

406

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Massy Halbert

407

Large-amplitude pressure oscillations in the western Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Pressure oscillations with unusually large amplitude of some 3 mb and periods of about 50 min have been registered in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean sea) during summer 1989. These large pressure oscillations are maintained over several hours and have been recorded on several occasions. The synoptic pattern and vertical structure of the atmosphere simultaneous with these oscillations is described. The large amplitude waves described here do not appear to be directly related to convective activity. Some of the characteristics of these waves are described, however, their source mechanism remains unclear.

Monserrat, S.; Ramis, C. (Universitat de les Illes Balears (Spain)); Thorpe, A.J. (Univ. of Reading (England))

1991-02-01

408

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

409

Introduced predator removal from islands. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, artic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western edge of the trajectory of the oil. Surveys indicated that although adequate nesting habitat was available at Simeonof and Chernabura, oystercatcher and guillemot population densities were much lower than at nearby fox-free islands. Elimination of foxes is expected to dramatically increase populations of these injured species as well as other native birds.

Byrd, G.V.; Bailey, E.P.; Stahl, W.

1996-05-01

410

Review of geology of the New Siberian Islands between the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, North East Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Siberian Islands comprise De Long Islands, Anjou Islands, and Lyakhov Islands. Early Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments and igneous rocks are known on the De Long Islands. Cambrian slate, siltstone, mudstone and silicified limestone occur on Bennett Island. Ordovician volcanogenic turbidites, lavas, and small intrusions of andesite-basalt, basalt, dolerite, and porphyritic diorite were mapped on Henrietta Island. The igneous rocks are of calc-alkaline island arc series. The Ordovician age of the sequence was defined radiometrically. Early Paleozoic strata were faulted and folded presumably in the Caledonian time. Early Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone are known on Bennett Island. They are overlain by a 106-124 Ma basalt unit. Cenozoic volcanics are widespread on the De Long Islands. Zhokhov Island is an eroded stratovolcano. The volcanics are mostly of picrite-olivine type and limburgite. Radiometric dating indicates Miocene to Recent ages for Cenozoic volcanism. On the Anjou islands Lower-Middle Paleozoic strata consist of carbonates, siliciclastics, and clay. A Northwest-southeast syn-sedimentary facies zonation has been reconstructed. Upper Paleozoic strata are marine carbonate, clay and siliciclastic facies. Mudstone and clay predominate in the Triassic to Upper Jurassic section. Aptian-Albian coal bearing deposits uconformably overlap lower strata indicating Early Cretaceous tectonism. Upper Cretaceous units are mostly clay and siltstone with brown coal strata resting on Early Cretaceous weathered rhyolite. Cenozoic marine and nonmarine silisiclastics and clay rest upon the older units with a transgressive unconformity including a weathering profile in the older rocks. Manifestations of Paleozoic and Triassic mafic and Cretaceous acidic magmatism are also found on these islands. The pre-Cretaceous structure of the Anjou islands is of a block and fold type Late Cimmerian in age followed by faulting in Cenozoic time. The Lyakhov islands are located at the western end of the Late Cimmerian South Anyui suture. Sequences of variable age, composition, and structural styles are known on the Lyakhov Islands. These include an ancient metamorphic sequence, Late Paleozoic ophiolitic sequence, Late Mesozoic turbidite sequence, Cretaceous granites, and Cenozoic sediments. Fold and thrust imbricate structures have been mapped on southern Bol'shoi Lyakhov Island. North-northwestern vergent thrusts transect the Island and project offshore. Open folds of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strata are characteristic of Stolbovoi and Malyi Lyakhov islands. Geology of the New Siberian Islands supports the concept of a circum Arctic Phanerozoic fold belt. The belt is comprised of Caledonian, Ellesmerian, Early Cimmerian and Late Cimmerian fold systems, manifested in many places on the mainland and on islands around the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the geology of the New Siberian Islands has been used to interpret anomalous gravity and magnetic field maps and Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) lines. Two distinguishing structural stages are universally recognized within the offshore sedimentary cover which correlate with the onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands. Dating of the upper structural stage and constituent seismic units is based on structural and stratigraphic relationships between Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic units in the archipelago. The Laptev Sea-western East Siberian Sea seismostratigraphic model for the upper structural stage has much in common with the seismostratigraphic model in the American Chukchi Sea.

Kos'ko, M.; Korago, E.

2009-09-01

411

Westward shift of western North Pacific tropical cyclogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific or typhoons account for one third of all TCs in the world and the change of the mean TC genesis location can affect billions of people in Pacific islands and Asian countries. The annual mean TC genesis longitude is generally controlled by the east-west shift of the tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT). A pronounced westward shift in the TUTT is found in all of the available reanalysis data sets during 1979-2012, suppressing TC genesis in the eastern portion (east of 145°E) of the western North Pacific basin due to the enhanced vertical wind shear associated with the TUTT shift. As a result, the annual mean TC genesis longitude has significantly shifted westward since 1979. The westward shifting trends in the TUTT and TC genesis are associated with the enhanced tropical tropospheric warming, which is consistent with the response of the tropospheric temperature to global warming.

Wu, Liguang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Bin

2015-03-01

412

Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified in eight cores at higher tidal and freshwater sites, date from about 1.5 ka and 2.0 ka, respectively. A younger silty sand bed, <10 cm beneath the now-eroding low marsh around the lagoon, may record the 1964 tsunami. Correlations of two to three other sandy beds are too uncertain to infer their deposition by tsunamis. Stratigraphic contacts found only in cores and outcrops of the <0.8- to 1-ka tidal section fringing the lagoon may mark coseismic uplift (peat over tidal mud, sometimes with intervening sand) or subsidence (tidal mud over peat, sometimes with intervening sand). We collected samples of modern tidal foraminifera along three elevational transects for the baseline dataset needed to use fossil assemblages to measure the amount of uplift or subsidence recorded by contacts. Foraminiferal assemblages above and below one contact confirm rapid uplift a few hundred years before the 1788 tsunami, but cores are too few to correlate this contact with any of the sandy beds that we infer were deposited by tsunamis farther inland. These initial results demonstrate the promise of this previously unexplored island and similar sites for using stratigraphic evidence of sudden land-level changes and high tsunamis to map prehistoric ruptures of the Aleutian-Alaskan megathrust.

Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

2012-12-01

413

Lake Carnegie, Western Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

2002-01-01

414

Western Water Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

415

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...established to provide habitat for a diversity of birds...particular emphasis on nesting bald eagles and seabirds, as well...conserving wildlife and their habitats, CCPs identify wildlife-dependent...Island to enhance seabird nesting habitat and forest...

2010-08-18

416

A new species of Edaphodon (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) from the Upper Cretaceous Haslam Formation, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete dentition of Edaphodon hesperis, sp. nov., is described from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Campanian) Haslam Formation of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. It is one of the complete specimens for Edaphodon, most species of which are known only from incomplete toothplates. This is the first Cretaceous Edaphodon from western North America, extending the geographical range of the genus

Ji-Yeon Shin

2010-01-01

417

A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

418

Welcome to Paradise Island: The Rise of Jamaica's Cine-Tourist Image, 1891-E.S. Martens  

E-print Network

-induced tourism in predominantly Western, (newly) industrialized countries. The historical context of film (and long imagined the Caribbean as a region of paradoxical islands of both tropical beauty and danger paradise for the sake of colonial (agricultural) modernization and postcolonial (tourism) development. So

van Rooij, Robert

419

Birds, Broom, Bunnies, and Biplanes: Conserving a Remnant Population of Coastal Vesper Sparrows at the Nanaimo Airport, Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Abstract: The coastal vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus affinis) forms a disjunct population of the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), and breeds from southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia (B.C.) south through western Washington and Oregon to the extreme northwest of California (Beauchesne 2003). This subspecies was probably never common in British Columbia, and it is assumed that prior to European settlement,

TRUDY CHATWIN

2004-01-01

420

The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

Matsumoto, Kazuko

2010-01-01

421

ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench-parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

Harding, D.; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J.

2005-05-01

422

ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

2005-01-01

423

Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

2014-05-01

424

Western Soundscape Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can get a good sense of the American West by reading authors as diverse as Sherman Alexie, Mark Twain, John McPhee, but can they really accurately describe the sounds of a resting short-eared owl? Perhaps, but if you're looking to listen to the natural world of the Western states, you should probably click on over to the Western Soundscape Archive website. This aural database is housed at the University of Utah's J. Willard Marriott Library and features recordings contributed by state and federal agencies, conservation groups, and dedicated volunteers. Started in 2007, the archive continues to grow, and currently they have representative sounds from approximately 80% of the West's bird species and 90% of the region's frog and toad species. Visitors can get started here by taking a listen to the "Featured Sound" on the homepage and then move on over to the search engine. The site also has weekly podcasts, and a number of thematic sound collections, like the "Sounds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge". Overall, it's a tremendously well-presented site, and one that will be of interest to naturalists, scholars, and many others.

425

Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

2014-09-01

426

Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using index-based methods.  

PubMed

In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (<90), low (90-110), moderate (110-130), and high (>130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r?=?0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity ?m) values (r?=?-0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and manager with understanding needed to ensure sustainability of the island's aquifer. PMID:25163562

Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Tanko, Adamu Idris; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar

2015-01-01

427

Examination of the meroplankton community in the south-western Ross Sea, Antarctica, using a collapsible plankton net  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meroplankton community in the coastal Antarctic has been poorly studied, in part due to the presence of extensive sea-ice cover during the summer months. In this study, a collapsible plankton net was used to examine the meroplankton community at two sites in the south-western Ross Sea: at Cape Evans on Ross Island, and at Cape Roberts on the Victoria

Mary A. Sewell

2005-01-01

428

Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of islands in the tropical western Pacific are coral atolls. Most are inhabited by indigenous Micronesian populations. Local people have over the millennia developed coping strategies and response mechanisms to difficult natural conditions, including typhoons, erosion, giant swells, and flooding, as well as ensuing famines and epidemics. However, since 1990s residents of atolls in the region have been

Danko Taborosi; Mojca Zega; John W. Jenson

2010-01-01

429

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).  

PubMed

Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

430

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

431

Western Regional Climate Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of six regional climate centers in the United States, the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) was created in 1986. The WRCC is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and is overseen by the National Climatic Data Center. Covering the area from Colorado to the boundary of the continental US (along with the states of Hawaii and Alaska), this website is a true trove of valuable historical climate information and current atmospheric observations and frequently updated forecasts. Along with providing information for scientists and researchers, the site also has a number of educational pages for teachers and young people. Here they can find answers to common questions about climate change and learn about some basic terms and definitions in the field of climatology. The site is rounded out with a nice selection of material about current projects sponsored by the WRCC, including the Yucca Mountain climate data project and a webcam view from its headquarters in Reno.

432

Lightning in Western Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of 8 years (2005-2012) of stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network we describe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of lightning activity over Western Patagonia. This region extends from ~40°S to 55°S along the west coast of South America, is limited to the east by the austral Andes, and features a hyper-humid, maritime climate. Stroke density exhibits a sharp maximum along the coast of southern Chile. Although precipitation there is largely produced by cold nimbostratus, days with more than one stroke occur up to a third of the time somewhere along the coastal strip. Disperse strokes are also observed off southern Chile. In contrast, strokes are virtually nonexistent over the austral Andes—where precipitation is maximum—and farther east over the dry lowlands of Argentina. Atmospheric reanalysis and satellite imagery are used to characterize the synoptic environment of lightning-producing storms, exemplified by a case study and generalized by a compositing analysis. Lightning activity tends to occur when Western Patagonia is immersed in a pool of cold air behind a front that has reached the coast at ~40°S. Under these circumstances, midlevel cooling occurs before and is more prominent than near-surface cooling, leading to a weakly unstable postfrontal condition. Forced uplift of the strong westerlies impinging on the coastal mountains can trigger convection and produces significant lightning activity in this zone. Farther offshore, large-scale ascent near the cyclone's center may lift near-surface air parcels, fostering shallow convection and dispersing lightning activity.

Garreaud, René D.; Gabriela Nicora, M.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Ávila, Eldo E.

2014-04-01

433

Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes  

PubMed Central

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

2014-01-01

434

Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

2014-01-01

435

Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.  

PubMed

Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

2014-01-01

436

Permanent upper plate deformation in western Myanmar during the great 1762 earthquake: Implications for neotectonic behavior of the northern Sunda megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1762 Arakan earthquake resulted from rupture of the northern Sunda megathrust and is one of those rare preinstrumental earthquakes for which early historical accounts document ground deformations. In order to obtain more comprehensive and detailed measurements of coseismic uplift, we conducted comprehensive field investigations and geochronological analyses of marine terraces on the two largest islands in western Myanmar. We confirm 3-4 m of coseismic coastal emergence along southwestern Cheduba Island, diminishing northeastward to less than 1 m. Farther northeast, uplift associated with the earthquake ranges from slightly more than 1 m to 5-6 m along the western coast of Ramree Island but is insignificant along the island's eastern coast. This double-hump pattern of uplift coincides with the long-term anticlinal growth of these two islands. Thus, we propose that the 1762 earthquake resulted from slip on splay faults under the islands, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Elastic modeling implies that fault slip during the 1762 earthquake ranges from about 9 to 16 m beneath the islands and corresponds to a magnitude of Mw 8.5 if the rupture length of the megathrust is ~500 km. The island's uplift histories suggest recurrence intervals of such events of about 500-700 years. Additional detailed paleoseismological studies would add significant additional detail to the history of large earthquakes in this region.

Wang, Yu; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Sieh, Kerry; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Chung-Che; Aung, Thura; Lin, Yu-Nung Nina; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Min, Soe; Than, Oo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Tun, Soe Thura

2013-03-01

437

Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

2014-11-01

438

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

439

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

440

The American Experience: Coney Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before Lawrence Ferlinghetti entitled his famous book of Beat poems A Coney Island of the Mind, the amusement park located on "a tiny spit of land at the foot of Brooklyn, NY" had come to represent a quintessential American desire for mechanized, manic fun. This companion site to the PBS airing this week of the American Experience provides a history of the amusement park, a substantial essay on the history of roller coasters, an enhanced transcript of the broadcast (available July 26), a gallery of Coney Island images, historical film clips of the park in action, a teacher's guide (which was not yet available when we visited), and an essay comparing Coney Island to the Internet. Watch out for that first hyperlink!