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Sample records for abrolhos islands western

  1. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. ); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  2. Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, David A.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900–2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. Conclusions/ Significance In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008–2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ?12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ?50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900–2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the edge of its distribution. PMID:22952797

  3. The Last Interglacial sea level change: new evidence from the Abrolhos islands, West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, A.; Zhu, Z. R.; Collins, L. B.; Wyrwoll, K. H.; Eichstätter, R.

    U-series ages measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) are reported for a Last Interglacial (LI) fossil coral core from the Turtle Bay, Houtman Abrolhos islands, western Australia. The core is 33.4m long the top of which is approximately 5ma.p.s.l. (above present sea level). From the 232Th concentrations and the reliability of the U-series ages, two sections in the core can be distinguished. Calculated U/Th ages in core sectionI (3.3ma.p.s.l to 11mb.p.s.l) vary between 124+/-1.7kaBP (3.3ma.p.s.l.) and 132.5+/-1.8ka (4mb.p.s.l., i.e. below present sea level), and those of sectionII (11-23mb.p.s.l.) between 140+/-3 and 214+/-5kaBP, respectively. The ages of core sectionI are in almost perfect chronological order, whereas for sectionII no clear age-depth relationship of the samples can be recognised. Further assessments based on the ?234U(T) criteria reveal that none of the samples of core sectionII give reliable ages, whereas for core sectionI several samples can be considered to be moderately reliable within 2ka. The data of the Turtle Bay core complement and extend our previous work from the Houtman Abrolhos showing that the sea level reached a height of approximately 4mb.p.s.l at approximately 134kaBP and a sea level highstand of at least 3.3ma.p.s.l. at approximately 124kaBP. Sea level dropped below its present position at approximately 116kaBP. Although the new data are in general accord with the Milankovitch theory of climate change, a detailed comparison reveals considerable differences between the Holocenand LI sea level rise as monitored relative to the Houtman Abrolhos islands. These observation apparently add further evidence to the growing set of data that the LI sea level rise started earlier than recognised by SPECMAP chronology. A reconciliation of these contradictionary observations following the line of arguments presented by Crowley (1994) are discussed with respect to the Milankovitch theory.

  4. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  5. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  6. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed. The predominance of layers with tabular geometry, characteristic of turbidite lobes, the presence of hummocky stratification, trace fossils typical of shallow water (Ophiomorphs and Thalassinoides), all associated with the occurrence of the carbonaceous material as well as plant fragments suggest a deltaic/ plataform depositional context. Textural features and sedimentary structures observed in the conglomerates and sandstones show the action of gravitational flows of high and low density. The fine interlaminated sandstones and siltstones later deformed as slumps or slides, and conglomerates with oriented clasts indicate, respectively, mass movements and action of debris flow. Conglomeratic lags levels record a bypass phenomenon. There are no biostratigraphic data in these studied outcrops. However, petrographic analyses revealed the presence of fragments of igneous rocks (basalts and diabases) in both sandstones and conglomerates, suggesting a relative contemporaneity between igneous activity and sediment deposition. Futhermore, petrographic analyses also found poor permo-porous conditions in the reservoirs due to the presence of fragments of volcanic rocks and the abundance of intraclasts / pseudomatrix.

  7. Mass wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, H.; Sager, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those comprising the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable with the passage of time, resulting in failures of the subaerial and submarine portion of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary source of destruction and loss of volume of many oceanic islands, but our knowledge of mass wasting in seamount and island chains is still rudimentary. To better understand mass wasting in the western Galapagos Islands, multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter and sidescan sonar data were used to examine topography characteristic of mass wasting. Observations show that mass wasting plays an important role in the morphological development of Galapagos volcanoes. While volcanic activity continues to modify the submarine terrain, the data show that several types of mass wasting can be found in this archipelago. The steep upper slopes of the north and west flanks of Fernandina Island and the north and southwest flanks of Isabela Island are characterized by slump sheets. The lower slopes on the north and west flank of Fernandina and the southwest tip of Isabela Island are characterized by debris flows. The northwest tip of Isabela Island is characterized by chaotic slumping and detached blocks originating from the sector collapse of Volcan Ecuador. Unlike the giant landslides documented by GLORIA imagery around the Hawaiian Islands, the western Galapagos Islands appear to be characterized by small slumps and debris flows. Nevertheless, this study indicates that submarine mass wasting is widespread in the western Galapagos Islands and is an important component of erosion of these volcanic edifices.

  8. Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

  9. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  10. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

  11. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  12. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  13. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  14. Island-generated internal waves at Scott Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Deleersnijder, Eric

    1998-11-01

    Oceanographic field studies were carried out, in August-October 1993, of the water circulation around Scott Reef, a 39 km wide island rising nearly vertically in 500 m depth on the outer continental shelf slope of Western Australia. Macro-tide prevailed and generated 0.6 m s -1 tidal currents. Internal waves 60 m peak-to-trough occurred around Scott Reef mainly at the semi-diurnal frequencies. A numerical model and the field data suggested that the internal waves were locally generated by the interaction of the tidal currents and the bathymetry. Also these waves were predicted to rotate counterclockwise around the island with maximum amplitude along the island slopes, while radiating energy as free internal waves propagating freely away in the open ocean. They were generated apparently without eddies forming in the lee of the island. The wave frequencies were not restricted to the diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal frequencies which dominated the sea surface fluctuations, indeed higher frequencies were important. The energy at the inertial frequency was negligible. It appears that oceanic islands are internal wave generators and may contribute to the oceanic variability even far away.

  15. Maps Showing Geology and Shallow Structure of Western Rhode Island Sound, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Needell, Sally W.; O'Hara, Charles J.; Knebel, Harley J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of a high-resolution, seismic-reflection, and sidescan-sonar survey conducted in western Rhode Island Sound south of Narragansett Bay (fig. 1 inset) by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1980. The study defines the geologic framework of the Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf between lat. 41 deg 09' and 41 deg 32'N and long. 71 deg 07' and 71 deg 37'W. A total of 580 kilometers (km) of seismic-reflection profiles and 580 km of sidescan sonographs was collected aboard the RV Neecho. Trackline spacing was 1 to 2 km at the mouth of Narragansett Bay, and dip lines were 2 km apart with widely spaced strike lines in Rhode Island Sound (fig. 1). The maps in this report adjoin those for eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts, of O'Hara and Oldale (1980).

  16. Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers. PMID:12882228

  18. Marine terraces of the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Robert H.

    1971-01-01

    The islands of the Rat Islands group, which includes Amchitka Island, have active sea cliffs, well-developed intertidal platforms, and a prominent submarine platform at -100 m. These features have not been disturbed by tectonic activity for the past 17,000 years. The islands of the Delarof Islands group, located east of Amchitka Pass, have inactive sea cliffs and emergent low terraces that indicate relatively recent uplift, possibly as much as 4 m. Higher and older marine terraces on the islands of both groups cannot be correlated, and some tectonic adjustment between the island groups is suggested.

  19. Western Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Mother and Calf Ecology Off Sakhalin Island 

    E-print Network

    Sychenko, Olga Aleksandrovna

    2012-07-16

    The western population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) is endangered with approximately 130 individuals remaining. Many individuals return annually to the same feeding sites off northeastern Sakhalin Island, indicating ...

  20. Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003 Abstract We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis for western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia of the Indian Ocean. A total of 1309 bp of mitochondrial sequence data was collected from the island sunbird taxa of the western Indian Ocean region, combined with sequence data from a selection of continental

  1. A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks.

    PubMed

    Newmark, W D

    In recent years, a number of authors have suggested several geometric principles for the design of nature reserves based upon the hypothesis that nature reserves are analogous to land-bridge islands. Land-bridge islands are islands that were formerly connected to the mainland and were created by a rise in the level of the ocean. Land-bridge islands are considered supersaturated with species in that the ratio of island to mainland species numbers is higher than expected from the area of the island. As a result, the rate of extinction should exceed the rate of colonization on a land-bridge island, resulting in a loss of species that is suggested to be related to the size and degree of isolation of the island. If nature reserves are considered to be similar to land-bridge islands, because most are slowly becoming isolated from their surroundings by habitat disturbance outside the reserves, several predictions follow. First, the total number of extinctions should exceed the total number of colonizations within a reverse; second, the number of extinctions should be inversely related to reserve size; and third, the number of extinctions should be directly related to reserve age. I report here that the natural post-establishment loss of mammalian species in 14 western North American national parks is consistent with these predictions of the land-bridge island hypothesis and that all but the largest western North American national parks are too small to retain an intact mammalian fauna. PMID:3808043

  2. Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale. PMID:25055095

  3. First record of Anopheles balabacensis from western Sumbawa Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Yoshihide; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Dachlan, Yoes P; Yotoranoto, Subagyo; Basuki, Sukumawati; Uemura, Haruki; Kanbara, Hiroji; Takagi, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    An anopheline mosquito surveillance was conducted in the malaria endemic areas of Utan Rhee and Lunyuk counties, eastern Sumbawa Island, in 2004 and 2005. Eight species of Anopheles were collected, including a new record of An. balabacensis on the island. PMID:19653504

  4. Physical forcing mechanisms controlling the variability of chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

  5. Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003–2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels that start to increase during autumn and reach their peak in June-July. PMID:25700269

  6. Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

  7. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  8. Sedimentation in the coastal reefs of Abrolhos over the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. S.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Costa, A. B.; Souza, J. R. B.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reefs of the coastal area of Abrolhos are located in an environment with a high influx of terrigenous sediments that are carried out to the sea, either as a result of natural processes (river output, coastal erosion, and torrents) or due to anthropogenic influences (deforestation, coastal development, and dredging). Excessive terrigenous sediment in coastal areas has been identified as one of the major threats to coral reefs, leading to their worldwide decline. The present study assessed the evolution of sedimentation in the Abrolhos coastal reefs during the past decades by analyzing samples from sediment cores collected near the reefs of Coroa Vermelha (located 15 km from the coast), Pedra de Leste (located 12 km from the coast) and Popa Verde (located 35 km from the coast). The purpose of this assessment was to observe whether the previously described pattern of surficial bottom sediment distribution in Abrolhos, which consisted of terrigenous mud in the nearshore reefs, to carbonate-dominant sediments towards the offshore reefs, is still a prevalent feature. Sediment color, texture, CaCO3 percentage, biogenic compounds and clay minerals, as well as the sedimentation rate and the geochronology of the sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed indications of an increase in the deposition of terrigenous mud, over the last decade, in the vicinity of the reefs nearest to the coast, though this does not yet constitute a definitive evidence of such a change. However, this observation therefore suggests that local processes resulting from anthropogenic actions are most likely causing an increase of the sedimentation rate of continent-derived sediment runoff in the Abrolhos coastal areas. To minimize this situation, there is an urgent need for the development of new management strategies to protect the already disturbed Abrolhos coastal reefs, especially during times of global changes.

  9. Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

  10. Multiple colonisations of the western Indian Ocean by Pteropus fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae): The furthest islands were colonised first

    E-print Network

    Russell, Amy L.

    Multiple colonisations of the western Indian Ocean by Pteropus fruit bats (Megachiroptera between purported island species of Pteropus fruit bat (Megachi- roptera) from the western Indian Ocean of the genus Pteropus are geographically distributed from the western Indian Ocean to the mid

  11. Coastal changes in sedimentary environments on Disko Island, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change affects Arctic coasts. A rising sea level, increasing fresh water fluxes from glaciers, and decreasing sea-ice extent increase the pressure on the sedimentary areas in these high-latitude regions. In Arctic coastal environments, permafrost, sea-ice, and fluvial input from glacial melt water have an impact in controlling the evolution of the coast. In this study we present the results of annual to decadal coastal changes (rates of change in shoreline positions) along the southern Disko Island in Greenland. These changes are detected and quantified using rectified aerial photos and satellite images. The oldest images used are from the 1940's and the most recent one was 2012. Additional field-measurements are made to identify the responsible processes that cause the coastal development in more detail. The southern coast of Disko Island includes two distinct sedimentary deltas: Skansen and Tuapaat. They consist of sandy, gravelly, and pebbly material. Lagoons, spits, and beaches are present on these deltas and our analyses reveal that these characteristic coastal features have undergone significant morphological changes within the last 60 years: The identified changes within the deltas show a migration of the delta mouths over more than 400 m in an eastward direction, and thus closure of the former inlets. These rapid coastal responses are probably caused by a combination of a shift in channel lobe on the delta plain after 1985, combined with a predominant wave-driven alongshore sediment transport to the east. The shift in delta channels is often recognized as the main responsible agent in controlling the evolution of the sedimentary sites.

  12. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little importance in the southern regions of the south-western Cape of Africa and south-western Western Australia.

  13. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 110711384-1534-02] RIN 0648-XA470 Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures...

  14. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 110711384-1398-01] RIN 0648-XA470 Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures...

  15. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  16. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    E-print Network

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida, J. Geophys

  17. Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia: Nectariniidae).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bowie, Rauri C K; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Thébaud, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis for western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia) and used this to investigate the geographic pattern of their diversification among the islands of the Indian Ocean. A total of 1309 bp of mitochondrial sequence data was collected from the island sunbird taxa of the western Indian Ocean region, combined with sequence data from a selection of continental (African and Asian) sunbirds. Topological and branch length information combined with estimated divergence times are used to present hypotheses for the direction and sequence of colonization events in relation to the geological history of the Indian Ocean region. Indian Ocean sunbirds fall into two well-supported clades, consistent with two independent colonizations from Africa within the last 3.9 million years. The first clade contains island populations representing the species Nectarinia notata, while the second includes Nectarinia souimanga, Nectarinia humbloti, Nectarinia dussumieri, and Nectarinia coquereli. With respect to the latter clade, application of Bremer's [Syst. Biol. 41 (1992) 436] ancestral areas method permits us to posit the Comoros archipelago as the point of initial colonization in the Indian Ocean. The subsequent expansion of the souimanga clade across its Indian Ocean range occurred rapidly, with descendants of this early expansion remaining on the Comoros and granitic Seychelles. The data suggest that a more recent expansion from Anjouan in the Comoros group led to the colonization of Madagascar by sunbirds representing the souimanga clade. In concordance with the very young geological age of the Aldabra group, the sunbirds of this archipelago have diverged little from the Madagascar population; this is attributed to colonization of the Aldabra archipelago in recent times, in one or possibly two or more waves originating from Madagascar. The overall pattern of sunbird radiation across Indian Ocean islands indicates that these birds disperse across ocean barriers with relative ease, but that their subsequent evolutionary success probably depends on a variety of factors including prior island occupation by competing species. PMID:12967608

  18. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (?70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  19. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  20. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  1. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S)

    PubMed Central

    Falter, James L.; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y?1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ?6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm?2 d?1) and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm?2 d?1) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  2. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S).

    PubMed

    Ross, Claire L; Falter, James L; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y(-1) and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ?6 °C (18.2°-24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31-2.02 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) and P. damicornis (0.34-0.90 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°-19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  3. The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

  4. Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

    1999-10-01

    A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

  5. Late Wisconsinan glaciation and postglacial relative sea-level change on western Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Thomas R.; England, John H.

    2013-07-01

    The study revises the maximum extent of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) during the last glaciation and documents subsequent ice sheet retreat and glacioisostatic adjustments across western Banks Island. New geomorphological mapping and maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages indicate that the northwest LIS inundated western Banks Island after ~ 31 14C ka BP and reached a terminal ice margin west of the present coastline. The onset of deglaciation and the age of the marine limit (22-40 m asl) are unresolved. Ice sheet retreat across western Banks Island was characterized by the withdrawal of a thin, cold-based ice margin that reached the central interior of the island by ~ 14 cal ka BP. The elevation of the marine limit is greater than previously recognized and consistent with greater glacioisostatic crustal unloading by a more expansive LIS. These results complement emerging bathymetric observations from the Arctic Ocean, which indicate glacial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to depths of up to 450 m.

  6. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Navas, A; Soto, J; López-Martínez, J

    2005-05-01

    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter. PMID:15763489

  7. Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  8. Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-01-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  9. Three dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. The view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar image on a TOPSAR digital elevation map. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of the shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flowas as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43913.

  10. Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

  11. Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations. PMID:24810172

  12. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... 18242). Anatahan Island is one of the Northern Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific. These islands are situated along the ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  13. Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

  14. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  15. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  16. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Channel Islands Thrust Fault, Southern California: Structure at the Juncture Between the Western Transverse Ranges and the Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.

    2004-12-01

    Potential-field data over the northern Channel Islands and Santa Barbara basin and seismic reflection data collected near these islands show the crustal structure near the tip of the Channel Island thrust fault. This fault dips north to underlie the Santa Barbara basin and is part of the regional fault system that separates the western Transverse Ranges from the California Continental Borderland. Our investigation focuses on Santa Cruz Island, where a local exposure of mainly Jurassic ophiolitic basement rocks includes the Willows Plutonic Complex. These mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks produce strong magnetic and gravity anomalies, showing that fragments of the Willows Plutonic Complex have been carried northwestward into or below the basin by sinistral translation of hanging-wall blocks in the thrust system. The potential-field anomalies indicate a cumulative left-lateral offset of about 20 km along what is probably the Santa Cruz Island fault. This fault is known from onshore trenching to be primarily a left-lateral strike-slip fault that was active during late Quaternary time. Seismic-reflection data show that where the Santa Cruz Island fault projects into the offshore a fault-bend fold deforms stratified rock in the Santa Barbara basin. Slip along this fault is partitioned into strike-slip and southwest-vergent reverse components. The Santa Cruz Island fault formed where structures of the California Borderland terminate to the northwest against the rocks that make up the northern Channel Islands. Structures developed at this termination may be similar to ones that formed where the Newport-Inglewood and the San Pedro Basin faults end to the northwest against the Santa Monica Mountains. These terminating faults pose a considerable earthquake hazard, and findings from the area of Santa Cruz Island may help elucidate this hazard.

  18. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land installation.

  19. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

  20. Spatio-temporal variations in deep-sea demersal communities off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moranta, Joan; Quetglas, Antoni; Massutí, Enric; Guijarro, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Manuel; Diaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of deep-sea megafaunal assemblages from the western Mediterranean are analysed in the present paper. The assemblages from two locations of the Balearic Islands situated 120 km apart were compared using data collected seasonally on a bathymetric stratum covering the 150-750 m depth range during six bottom-trawl surveys. The assemblage structure, in terms of species composition, species dominance and population sizes, was differentially affected by the spatio-temporal variables analysed (depth, location and fishing period). Although depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, the differences obtained between the two locations were also relevant. On the upper slope these between-location differences in the dynamics of megafaunal assemblages were found to be related to the effect of fishing exploitation. Population size-based metrics and biomass spectra were good predictors of meso-scale fishing effects, and were mainly reflected by elasmobranchs and demersal teleosts. Nevertheless, the effects of fishing depended on the species considered. Two dominant large-sized fish species found on the upper slope in both localities, Galeus melastomus and Phycis blennoides, had higher biomass values associated with lower fishing effort. Although the mean body weight (MBW) of both species and also the mean maximum body weight (MMBW) of G. melastomus agreed with this pattern, the P. blennoides MMBW did not. This last case could be indicative of natural size-trends such as the bigger-deeper phenomenon which refers to the displacement of large individuals towards the deeper limit of their bathymetric distribution, beyond the maximum depth sampled in this study for this species. By contrast, the target species of the upper slope fishery, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, was not negatively affected by the direct impact of fishing activity and other environmental factors, such as the presence of specific water masses could also be important.

  1. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  2. A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1

    PubMed Central

    Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

  3. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (?ST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (?ST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  4. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks...

  5. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  6. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline...annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  7. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster...

  8. A survey of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hwan; Han, Eun Taek; Kim, Won Hee; Shin, Eun Hee; Guk, Sang Mee; Kim, Jae Lip; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-12-01

    To determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children living on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, children (3-10 years) in 39 kindergartens and primary schools were examined using the cello-tape anal swab method, during July and August 2000. Of 1,661 children examined, 307 (18.5%) were found to be positive for E. vermicularis eggs. The highest infection rate (59.3%) was found in a kindergarten and a branch school of Shinyang primary school on Chujado, Jeju-do (Province). Remarkable differences in egg positive rates were observed in different localities. The egg positive rate for boys (21.3%) was significantly higher than that of girls (15.4%) (P = 0.02). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on age. The results of the present study show that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among pre-school and primary school children living on the western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, and indicate the need for efforts to control this infection. PMID:16340301

  9. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  10. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  11. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  12. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system. PMID:22141900

  13. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances. PMID:24751287

  14. Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

    2008-12-01

    Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

  15. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...USCG-2011-0999] RIN 1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western...Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display. This...by the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York or the designated...

  16. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2003-07-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ?30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (?30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ?30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

  17. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  18. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  19. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  20. User-driven science: earthquake and tsunami scenarios for the Mentawai Islands, western Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Qiang, Q.; Huang, Z.; Hill, E. M.; Natawidjaja, D.; Sieh, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Following recovery from a large tsunami on 25-Oct-2010 that killed over 500 people, the government of the Mentawai Regency turned its attention to developing a regional disaster-risk-reduction plan. Geodetic and coral studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust, yet there had not been any tsunami-inundation maps produced for the Mentawai Islands based on this scenario. By request from the Mentawai government, we will develop such tsunami-inundation maps for populated areas. Uncertainties in the source models include whether the accumulated strain on the Sunda megathrust is released in one great earthquake or in a series of large earthquakes, limited scientific understanding of the seismic potential of the Mentawai backthrust that lies inboard (east) of the islands, and whether these sources would rupture to the surface in a particular earthquake. Low-resolution bathymetry adds uncertainty to our modeled tsunami flow depths and runups. Because the Mentawai government is currently planning for disaster risk reduction, we chose to produce the inundation map now. However, we may have a communication challenge if, a few years in the future, further research leads to significant revisions of the inundation map. We will communicate the results and uncertainty to the Mentawai government and partner local NGOs through an in-person workshop. Monitoring and evaluation will inform further communication efforts. However, the remote location of the Mentawai Islands and limited internet and phone service significantly limits our ability to communicate with end-users at the community level. Since our maps are likely to be parceled out and distributed to villages in hard copy, we need to include key information for each location, including uncertainty, on a single sheet. With local partners, we will investigate the best way to frame this information in the local context.

  1. Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

  2. Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-02-01

    Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

  3. Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    wasting is a natural part of the evolution of volcanic islands, where deformation and indications of flank. Introduction [2] Largescale mass wasting is a fundamental process in the evolution of ocean volcanic islands volcanic islands, like the Canary Islands, is dominated by catastrophic debris avalanches, with few

  4. San José Island Accommodation Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico: A Key to Onshore-Offshore Fault Relationships along the Western Margin of the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, W. R.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    The two-stage evolution of the southern Gulf of California included protogulf orthogonal rifting from ˜12 to ˜6 Ma, followed by overprinting from ˜6 to 0 Ma by the highly oblique-divergent, modern plate boundary. The San José Island accommodation zone, located ˜70 km north-northwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur, represents the transition between strike-slip partitioning to the south and the oblique-divergent structural overprinting to the north. The accommodation zone includes San José and San Francisquito islands, the San José Canal, and a 4 to 6 km wide belt along the coast of the Baja California peninsula. The accommodation zone separates the La Paz rift segment to the south from the Timbabichi rift segment to the north. The El Carrizal fault bounds the La Paz rift segment, and likely splays onshore in the southernmost accommodation zone. Kinematic data, fault mapping, and geomorphologic and bathymetric observations along the shoreline suggest the presence of en echelon, offshore faults in the San José Canal between the Baja peninsula and islands. The main faults in the southern San José Canal appear to be a series of right-stepping, east-dipping normal faults branching northward from the El Carrizal fault. Based on onshore fault trends in the northern accommodation zone, the northern Canal faults form a left-stepping link to the main bounding fault of the Timbabichi rift segment. The faults bounding the western edge of the islands are likely left-stepping, west-dipping normal faults. Steep, triangular facets and cliffs characterize the western edge of San José Island and suggest that the western island-bounding faults are active. The Pliocene basin, basin-bounding fault, and line of steep coastal cliffs on the eastern side of San José Island are likely associated with the northern end of the Espíritu Santo normal fault, which experienced a major earthquake in 1995. The basin and faults also may be the termination of a series of faults related to the fracture zone emanating from the Alarcón spreading ridge. A similar relationship between basin and accommodation zone development and the evolution of strike-slip/fracture zone systems has been demonstrated in other rifts. Formation of San José and San Francisquito islands along normal faults may be a result of (1) the latest Miocene-early Pliocene tectonic reorganization to oblique rifting, and (2) active normal faulting in the San José Island accommodation zone and southward.

  5. A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stratigraphy and timing of eolianite deposition on Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul J.

    2003-09-01

    Over 100 whole-rock amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios from outcrops around Rottnest Island (32.0° S Latitude near Perth) indicate distinct pulses of eolian deposition during the late Quaternary. Whole-rock D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine (A/I) ratios from bioclastic carbonate deposits fall into three distinct modal classes or "aminozones." The oldest, Aminozone E, averages 0.33 ± 0.04 ( n = 21). Red palaeosol and thick calcrete generally cap the Aminozone E deposits. A younger Aminozone C averages 0.22 ± 0.03 ( n = 63); comprising two submodes at 0.26 ± 0.01 ( n = 14) and 0.21 ± 0.02 ( n = 49). Multiple dune sets of this interval are interrupted by relatively weak, brown to tan "protosols." A dense, dark brown rendzina palaeosol caps the Aminozone C succession. Ratios from Holocene dune and marine deposits ("Aminozone A") center on 0.11 ± 0.02 ( n = 15), comprising submodes of 0.13 ± 0.01 (9) and 0.09 ± 0.01 (6). Calibration of A/ I averages from Aminozones E and A are provided by U/Th and 14C radiometric ages of 125,000 yr (marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5e and 2000-6000 14C yr B.P. (MIS 1), respectively. The whole-rock A/I results support periodic deposition initiated during MIS 5e, continuing through MIS 5c, and then peaking at the end of MIS 5a, about 70,000-80,000 yr ago. Oceanographic evidence indicates the area was subjected to much colder conditions during MIS 2-4 (10,000 to 70,000 yr ago), greatly slowing the epimerization rate. Eolianite deposition resumed in the mid Holocene (˜6000 yr ago) up to the present. The A/I epimerization pathway constructed from Rottnest Island shows remarkable similarity to that of Bermuda in the North Atlantic (32° N Latitude). These findings suggest that, like Bermuda, the eolian activity on Rottnest occurred primarily during or shortly after interglacial highstands when the shoreline was near the present datum, rather than during glacial lowstands when the coastline was positioned 10-20 km to the west.

  7. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  8. Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 ?m) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  9. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Salwa; Sheppeard, Vicky; Peacock, Alisa; Scott, Caroline; Flego, Kristina; Forssman, Bradley; Seale, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (n = 12) and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (n = 7) in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 7–33 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization. PMID:26306217

  10. An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Pamela; Mukabana, W Richard; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mathenge, Evan; Killeen, Gerry F; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Methods Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Results Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Conclusion Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level. PMID:17456231

  11. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National...Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. DATES: NMFS...2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74...

  12. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National...Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The proposed...2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74...

  13. 78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...fish in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. These are [[Page 39584

  14. Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

  15. Distribution of fallout and environmental radionuclides in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandra; Schuller, Paulina; Dercon, Gerd; Nguyen, Minh-Long; Navas, Ana; Ramírez, Paola; López, César

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is progressing at a rate which is several times the global average in Western Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula region has experienced a rise of ca. 3°C for surface air temperature over the last 50 years; and 87% of 244 glaciers along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated in the last 50 years. Examining the impacts of climate change in Antarctic landscapes, in particular in the soils at the foot of retreating glaciers, can provide a better understanding of the future impacts of climate change on landscape dynamics (including land degradation and resulting changes in land, water and ecosystem quality) in the higher mountainous cold regions of the world. In this paper, results of an exploratory assessment of soil movement and identification of sediment sources and sediment sinks by investigating the distribution of fallout (FRN's) and environmental radionuclides (ERN's) in ice-free areas of King George Island (Western Antarctica) are discussed. This assessment has been carried in the context of an Instituto Antártico Chileno project, and supported by the IAEA Technical Cooperation, studying land degradation in the cold regions of South America. To this purpose soil profiles were sampled at depth increments at three different control sites. In addition, topsoil (0-1 cm depth) samples were collected from areas identified as potential soil sources and from others identified as sinks of sediments. The soil profiles at the control sites showed distinctive patterns in the depth distribution of the FRN's and ERN's. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity mass concentration (Bq kg-1) were highest in the topsoil and penetration depth was less than 8 and 25 cm, respectively. The depth distribution of 226Ra and 232Th in the soil profiles was quite homogeneous and greater variation was found for 40K and 238U, possibly related to differences in the mineralogical composition of soils. Average mass activity values of 137Cs and 210Pbex at the source areas were significantly lower than those found at sink areas, suggesting that processes of soil movement are relatively important. The knowledge gained with this research provided baseline information to establish future sampling strategies intended to ensure minimal intervention in the environment. Furthermore, the values of the areal activity density (Bq m-2) of 137Cs, 210Pbex and 7Be in soils and sediments proved the potential for using FRN's to study the redistribution of soil and sediments associated to the process of glacier retreat.

  16. Stewart Head from Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

  17. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  18. Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-04-01

    The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

  19. Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Bastos, Alex C.; Abrantes, Douglas P.; Ferreira, Camilo M.; Gibran, Fernando Z.; Güth, Arthur Z.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Oliveira, Nara L.; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Moura, Rodrigo L.

    2013-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted. PMID:23365655

  20. Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

  1. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... published proposed specifications that are finalized here, and a request for public comments (76 FR 46719... and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch...

  2. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  3. Island shadow effects and the wave climate of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) inferred from altimetry and numerical model data.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Queffeulou, Pierre; Le Gendre, Romain

    2012-01-01

    To implement a numerical model of atoll lagoon circulation, we characterized first the significant wave height (Hs) regime of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago and the local attenuation due to the protection offered by large atolls in the south Tuamotu. Altimetry satellite data and a WAVEWATCH III two-way nested wave model at 5 km resolution from 2000 to 2010 were used. Correlation between altimetry and model was high (0.88) over the period. According to the wave model, the archipelago inner seas experienced attenuated Hs year-long with a yearly average Hs around 1.3m vs a minimum of 1.6m elsewhere. The island shadow effect is especially significant in the austral winter. In contrast with southern atolls, Western Tuamotu experienced only few days per year of Hs larger than 2.5m generated by very high Hs southern swell, transient western local storms, strong easterly winds, and during the passage of distant hurricanes. PMID:22795488

  4. 78 FR 32996 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...0648-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote...rule, NMFS establishes requirements for fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote...background and details of the monuments fishing provisions are described in...

  5. Seasonal and short spatial patterns in European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) recruitment process at the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): The role of environment on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Cartes, Joan; Lloret, Josep; Oliver, Pere; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluates the link between the recruitment process of European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and the environmental and physiological conditions. Spatio-temporal variation of abundance and condition of fish were evaluated at two locations each with different oceanographic conditions, one in the north (Sóller, SO) and another in the south (Cabrera, CA) of Mallorca Island. Environmental variables explored were hydrography, sediment characteristics, phytoplankton pigment concentration (ppc) and the trophic resources of hake. Individuals were divided in three life stages: recruits, post-recruits and young adults. Hepatosomatic index (HSI), relative condition index (K n), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fullness index (FI) were analysed for the three life stages. Recruitment starts in February with the incorporation of smaller hakes, and it can be followed through spring and early summer with a peak in April. However, some spatial heterogeneity in the recruitment process has been found between north and south of the Island. The main pulse of recruitment occurred at a different time in the two areas. Spatial heterogeneity was also consistent with the condition of hake recruits, with higher values of K n and HSI at SO than at CA. Maximum values of K n were found in February at SO and in April at CA, coinciding with the start of the different recruitment pulses to the fishing grounds. Post-recruits and young adults also showed higher condition at SO than at CA. The arrival in spring of the Western Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) drives the spatial-temporal variation in abundance and condition of hake. Ppc was highly correlated with recruit abundance with a time lag of two months, while for post-recruits the time lag was three months. The observed differences in the condition of hake between areas could be a consequence of the fact that the waters to the north of Mallorca are comparatively more under the seasonal influence of WIW which is formed in more productive areas. Thus, this study characterises the short temporal and spatial variability in the hake recruitment process off the Balearic Islands, both in terms of abundance and fish condition. This pattern is explained on the basis of the mesoscale environmental variability observed between north and south of Mallorca and the ecological adaptive strategy of recruiting in the optimal environmental season.

  6. Biophysical responses near equatorial islands in the Western Pacific Ocean during El Nio/La Nia transitions

    E-print Network

    transitions Michelle M. Gierach1 , Monique Messié2 , Tong Lee1 , Kristopher B. Karnauskas3 , and Marie and the underlying physical mechanisms were investigated. A chlorophyll a bloom was observed near the Gilbert Islands during the 2010 El Niño/La Niña transition, whereas no bloom was observed during the 2007 El Niño/La Niña

  7. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The proclamations...: Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument'' (74...

  8. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1557, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR...

  9. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  10. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  11. What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  12. Responses of stable bay-margin and barrier-island systems to Holocene sea-level highstands, western Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Blum, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The microtidal, wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Mexico displays a variety of Holocene geomorphic features indicating higher-than-present water levels that were previously attributed to storm processes while geoidal sea level was at its present position. Field and aerial-photograph examinations of bay margins, barrier islands, and beach-ridge plains following major hurricanes show that the elevated features are inundated periodically by high storm surge. Despite their inundation, these highstand features are not modified by modern storm processes. Instead, storm-related erosion and deposition are always seaward of and lower than the highstand features and are always limited to the extant shorezone, where elevations typically are less than 1.5 m above present sea level. Bay-margin and lagoonal highstand indicators include raised marshes and subtidal flats, wave-cut benches, abandoned wave-cut scarps with fringing marshes and/or beach ridges, and accretionary islands and recurved spits. Other emergent marine features include abandoned compound flood-tidal delta and washover fan complexes attached to barrier islands and anomalously high beach ridges within both the barrier-island complexes and beach-ridge plains. The highest beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and erosional scarps and benches are manifestations of one or more rising phases and highstands in sea level, whereas the lower marshes and accretionary topography are mainly products of the falling phases and shoreface adjustment to present sea level. Different elevations of beach-ridge sets, discordant truncation of beach ridges, and elevated marine- and brackish-water faunal assemblages preserved in beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and natural levees are compelling evidence of sea-level fluctuations of ±1 to 1.5 m from about 5500 to 1200 cal yr BP. Independent evidence from studies of geodynamic, climatic, and glacio-eustatic processes can explain the mid-Holocene highstands and late Holocene lowering of sea level that is observed in tectonically stable coastal regions far from former centers of glaciation.

  13. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. PMID:26024564

  14. Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral ?18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral ?18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana ?18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana ?18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

  15. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  16. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  17. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests. PMID:26126504

  18. Radiocarbon variability in the western equatorial Pacific inferred from a high-resolution coral record from Nauru Island

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T.P.; Schrag, D.P.; Kashgarian, M.; Southon, J.

    1998-10-01

    We have generated a high resolution coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record spanning the last 50 years to document the seasonal and interannual redistribution of surface waters in the western tropical Pacific. Prebomb (1947{endash}1956) {Delta}{sup 14}C values average {minus}63{per_thousand} and have a total range of 30{per_thousand}. Values begin to increase in 1957, reaching a maximum of 137{per_thousand} in mid-1983. Large interannual variability of up to 80{per_thousand} closely follows the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During each ENSO warm phase, {Delta}{sup 14}C values begin to increase, reflecting the reduction of low-{sup 14}C water upwelling in the east and the invasion of subtropical water into the western equatorial tropical Pacific. Maximum {Delta}{sup 14}C values are in phase or lag the corresponding sea surface temperature maxima in the eastern tropical Pacific, whereas the rapid return to more negative {Delta}{sup 14}C is in phase with eastern Pacific ENSO indices. The highest-amplitude excursions occur during the 1965/1966 and 1972/1973 events, when the {sup 14}C contrast is highest between the eastern Pacific and subtropics. The 1982/1983 El Ni{tilde n}o, although a larger ENSO event, has a lower {Delta}{sup 14}C amplitude, reflecting the penetration of bomb radiocarbon into the equatorial undercurrent and the reduced contrast in {Delta}{sup 14}C between thermocline and subtropical surface waters at that time. This coral record demonstrates the potential for using similar radiocarbon time series for documenting variability in Pacific shallow circulation over interannual and decadal timescales. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  19. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  20. Genetic diversification without obvious genitalic morphological divergence in harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Sclerobunus robustus) from montane sky islands of western North America.

    PubMed

    Derkarabetian, Shahan; Ledford, Joel; Hedin, Marshal

    2011-12-01

    The southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent Intermontane Plateau Highlands region of western North America is a geographically diverse area with an active geologic history. Given the topological complexity and extensive geologic activity, organisms inhabiting this region are expected to show some degree of morphological and genetic divergence, especially populations found on the southern montane 'sky islands' of this region. Here we examine the phylogeographic history and diversification of a montane forest inhabiting harvestmen, Sclerobunus robustus, using a combination of genetic and morphological data. Divergence time estimates indicate that much of the diversification within and between major groups S. robustus predate the Pleistocene glacial cycles. The most widespread subspecies, Sclerobunus robustus robustus, is recovered as six genetically distinct, geographically cohesive mitochondrial phylogroups. Gene tree data for a single nuclear gene reveals congruent, albeit slightly more conservative, patterns of genetic divergence. Despite high levels of genetic divergence throughout their distribution, phylogroups show extreme conservation in somatic and reproductive morphology. This uncoupling of morphological and genetic differentiation may be due to morphological conservatism associated with a conserved microhabitat preference. Based on these data, it is obvious that S. robustus has undergone some level of cryptic diversification. PMID:21864691

  1. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ?15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  2. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ?15 years. We found significant increases in respondents’ knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents’ knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  3. Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

    2014-10-01

    The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water column, while postflexion stages presented a wide distribution at night, undergoing vertical displacement to the near-surface layers during the day. The roles of the position of the thermocline, the availability of food and light intensity as factors modulating these differences are discussed.

  4. Molecular compositions and decadal trends of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, ?-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from Chichi-Jima Island in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2010-12-01

    A rapid industrial development in China and East Asian countries for last two decades may have seriously changed the air quality of the North Pacific. To better understand a long-term atmospheric changes of organic aerosols in the western North Pacific, we collected marine aerosol samples on weekly basis at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in 2001-2010. The island is located in the boundary of westerly and easterly wind regimes. The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls employing butyl ester derivatization followed by GC determination, together with total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C11) were detected with a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Unsaturated diacids, including maleic (M), fumaric (F), phthalic, and iso-/tere-phthalic acids, were also detected together with ketoacids and ?-dicarbonyls. Concentrations of total diacids fluctuated significantly in a range of 10-600 ngm-3 with winter/spring maximum and summer minimum. The maximum was explained by a combination of enhanced emissions of polluted aerosols and their precursors in Asia and enhanced atmospheric transport to the North Pacific due to the intensified westerly winds in winter/spring. Concentration ratios of C3 to C4 diacid (range 0.2-28, av. 2.8) showed a maximum during summer, indicating more oxidation of longer-chain diacids to shorter ones. Azelaic acid (C9) that is a specific photo-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid showed a sharp increase relative to other diacids in summer, suggesting enhanced sea-to-air emission of unsaturated fatty acids followed by photochemical oxidation during summer. On the other hand, M/F ratios (range 0-8.7, av. 1.1) significantly decreased from winter to summer due to photochemical cis-to-trans isomerization. We also discuss decadal trends in the concentrations of diacids and related compounds as well as TC and WSOC, and their compositions and relative abundances.

  5. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 ?g/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 ?g/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 ?g/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 ?g/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 ?g/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 ?g/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 ?g/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  6. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL < 30 mm; medium: CL between 30 and 40 mm; large: CL ? 40 mm). Off Cabrera, the highest fullness was recorded in November 2003 among small and medium shrimp, while only large specimens showed patterns similar to that found off Sóller. Off Sóller, the diet of both small (CL < 34 mm) and large (CL ? 34 mm) A. antennatus was mainly influenced by season, with three dietary groups corresponding to August-September 2003, to November 2003/February 2004, and to hauls from April to June 2004. Off Cabrera, hauls (representing diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of mesopelagic prey, was parallel to a significant increase of the gonad weight (GSI, fecundity) in June. Most individuals attain gonad development in the period May-June, after two months of the peak of primary production at the surface. The strong link found between pelagic resources and reproductive processes in a deep-sea species such as the shrimp Aristeus antennatus, situated near the top of the trophic web, suggests a rapid energy flow via mesopelagic fauna between surface primary production and bathyal megabenthic communities at oligotrophic insular areas. In contrast to mainland areas off the Catalan coasts submitted to the influence of submarine canyons, around the island of Mallorca the empoverishment of benthos biomass may enhance consumption of micronektonic prey and a possible accumulation of pre-reproductive females of A. antennatus in areas (e.g., steep slopes and persistent frontal systems found off Sóller) with high zooplankton aggregations.

  7. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

  8. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...Matthew blue king crab, Eastern Aleutian Islands golden king crab, Western Aleutian Islands red king crab, and Pribilof red king and blue...Matthew blue king crab, Eastern Aleutian Islands golden king crab, Western Aleutian...

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  10. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  11. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

  12. Murre Colony on Prince Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

  13. The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom continues to extend across the central portion of the western basin, running from west of West Sister Island, veering southward, then curving to the northeast and past Pelee Island. Scum formed yesterday (Wed July 22)

    E-print Network

    The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom continues to extend across the central portion of the western or missing data. Black represents no cyanobacteria detected. Colored pixels indicate the presence of cyanobacteria. Cooler colors (blue and purple) indicate low concentrations and warmer colors (red, orange

  14. An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

    1991-01-01

    Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

  15. Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  16. Introduction Orcas Island

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    (T. ordinoides), and Western Terrestrial (T. elegans) - and the Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria of the sharp-tailed snake before and had no idea a rare reptile species was found on the island. Blue (All locations are approximate) Outreach and Public Education In order to better educate the public

  17. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2015-08-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. ?ach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures (R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  18. Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers from Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean: Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Boring of the carbonate sequence at the northern end of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, was conducted in 1985, as part of the Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program. The overall goal of the program was to characterize physical effects of large-scale nuclear blasts, which were conducted in the early 1950's, on the sediments of the atoll. In the report the authors document the occurrences of stratigraphically diagnostic planktic microfossils in samples from Enewetak (generally referred to as core) and outline the rationale for incorporating all available diagnostic planktic assemblages into a composite sequence that was used to date the Enewetak benthic zonation.

  19. The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the number of alien marine crustacean species has increased over the past two decades. However, knowledge about small alien marine crustaceans, like caprellid amphipods, is still very scarce. To understand the role of marinas and recreational boating in the early step of the invasion process by non-indigenous caprellids, we studied the recreational boating pressure and the spatial distribution of caprellid species in Mallorca Island. We collected caprellids from 14 marinas and 9 exposed intertidal rocky shores between November 2011 and April 2012 and we analyzed the differences in habitat use of native and exotic caprellids. Eight caprellid species, six native and two exotic, were found. Alien caprellids were only present in marinas, reaching high densities of population. The analysis of recreational boating pressure reveals that Palma-Migjorn is the area that is subject to the highest potential risk of introduction of exotic species via ship fouling. In the secondary dispersal of alien caprellids, the study reflects that recreational boating seems effective as a secondary vector in the transport of exotic species from marinas to marinas but not from marinas to natural and exposed areas. An illustrated key of caprellids from Balearic Island is provided to differentiate native and non-indigenous species.

  20. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W; Jaume, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Psammogammarus wallaceisp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided. PMID:21998551

  1. Western Foot Patrol Western University

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Western Foot Patrol Western University Room 57, University Community Centre London, Ontario N6A 3K7 August 2014 Get involved! Volunteer with Western Foot Patrol Welcome to Western! Thank you for your interest in volunteering for Western Foot Patrol (WFP)! WFP is a free service that promotes

  2. Multi-proxy evidence for Holocene lake-level and salinity changes at An Loch Mór, a coastal lake on the Aran Islands, Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Jones, Richard; Nicolas Haas, Jean; McDermott, Frank; Molloy, Karen; O'Connell, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Curves for Holocene lake levels and salinity changes are presented for An Loch Mór, a small oligohaline lake on the Aran Islands off the west coast of Ireland, based on palaeoecological investigations of a 12 m long, lake-sediment core. New insights are also provided into Holocene sea-level change in the Galway Bay region. Particular emphasis has been placed on the ostracod fauna, both past and present. Salinity and lake-level changes were reconstructed from the fossil ostracod assemblages, based on the known tolerances of individual species and on the assemblages as a whole. Additional evidence was provided by other proxies including strontium-isotope ratios derived from ostracod shells and other carbonates, plant macrofossil and pollen analyses, and sedimentological changes. The early Holocene (pre-Boreal, i.e. 11.5-10 ka) was characterised by low lake levels and slightly elevated salinity values, probably the result of high evapotranspiration and low precipitation rather than elevated sea levels. Early Holocene plant and animal migration to the island does not seem to have been impeded but relative sea levels were not necessarily so low (below -40 m a.s.l.) that landbridges were present to the mainland. Between ca 10 and 8.5 ka, relatively high lake levels prevailed. At 8.3 and 7.5 ka, minor fluctuations (lowering) of the lake level occurred that are assumed to relate to early Holocene abrupt events. Beginning at 7.05 ka, lake levels declined sharply. A general trend towards rising lake levels started at ca 6.4 ka and accelerated at ca 5.6 ka as runoff increased as a result of Neolithic clearances. At ca 4.8 ka, lake levels began to rise once again, probably in response to changes in rainfall and/or evapotranspiration and runoff. Lower lake levels during the first half of the 1st millennium AD were probably a response to decreased runoff as a result of a drier climate coupled with regeneration of woody vegetation. The sharpest rise in both lake levels and salinity began during the ninth century AD, which is attributed to a rapid rise in relative sea level.

  3. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems: Sedimentary architecture, genesis, and implications for climate reconstructions (South Shetland Islands/Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona

    2014-09-01

    The sedimentary architecture of polar gravel-beach ridges is presented and it is shown that ridge internal geometries reflect past wave-climate conditions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie the prograding strand plain. Development of individual ridges is seen to result from multiple storms in periods of increased storm-wave impact on the coast. Strand-plain progradation, by contrast, is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach-face under persistent calm conditions. The sedimentary architecture of beach ridges in sheltered parts of the coast is characterized by seaward-dipping prograding beds, being the result of swash deposition under stormy conditions, or aggrading beds formed by wave overtopping. By contrast, ridges exposed to high-energy waves are composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping strata, bundled by numerous erosional unconformities. These erosional unconformities are the result of sediment starvation or partial reworking of ridge material during exceptional strong storms. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in the low-energy settings up to 1600 years under high-energy conditions. Beach ridges in the study area cluster at 9.5, 7.5, 5.5, and below 3.5 m above the present-day storm beach. Based on radiocarbon data, this is interpreted to reflect distinct periods of increased storminess and/or shortened annual sea-ice coverage in the area of the South Shetland Islands for the times around 4.3, c. 3.1, 1.9 ka cal BP, and after 0.65 ka cal BP. Ages further indicate that even ridges at higher elevations can be subject to later reactivation and reworking. A careful investigation of the stratigraphic architecture is therefore essential prior to sampling for dating purposes.

  4. Impact of a medical waste incinerator on mercury levels in lagoon fish from a small tropical island in the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Denton, Gary R W; Trianni, Michael S; Bearden, Brian G; Houk, Peter C; Starmer, John A

    2011-01-01

    In 2004-2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was launched in early 2007. The study identified a medical waste incinerator as the primary source of Hg enrichment. The incinerator was operational for about 20 years before it was closed down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2006, for multiple violations of the Clean Air Act. Stormwater runoff from this facility entered a drainage network that discharged into the ocean at the southern end of Hafa Adai Beach, about 1 km away. At the time of this investigation storm drain sediments at the coast were only marginally enriched with mercury although values some 50x above background were detected in drainage deposits a few meters down-gradient of the incinerator site. Mercury concentrations in fish from the Hafa Adai Beach area were also significantly lower than those determined in similar species 3 yr earlier. The implications of the data are briefly discussed. PMID:21598167

  5. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  6. Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. The island is Dougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of the Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles).

  7. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, ?-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Kawamura, K.; Lazaar, M.; Kunwar, B.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 ?m in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ?-oxoacids (?C2-?C9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid and ?-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC) and major ions. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant species followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas glyoxylic acid (?C2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ?C2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 ?m in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (?C9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 ?m in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. These results imply that water-soluble species in the marine aerosols could act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific Rim. The organic species are likely produced by a combination of gas-phase photooxidation, and aerosol-phase or in-cloud processing during long-range transport. The coarse mode peaks of malonic and succinic acids were obtained in the samples with marine air masses, suggesting that they may be associated with the reaction on sea salt particles. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (?C9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest their production by photooxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids via heterogeneous reactions on sea salt particles.

  8. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  9. Identifying Environmental Contaminations in Estuaries: Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Jamaica Bay Area, Western Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, R. K.; Beauzile, W.; Ma, N.; Clauson, K.

    2009-12-01

    Nutrient and metal contaminations of estuarine environment is an increasing problem as urbanization continues to extend in many estuary area in the world. Jamaica Bay, an embayment of the Atlantic Ocean on southwestern Long Island receives a large inputs from waste water treatment plants, sewage outflows, and surface runoff enriched with nutrients and heavy metals, poses a serious environmental problem. As an initiative of broader study to understand the spatial and temporal variability of heavy metal and nutrient concentrations in this area, water and sediment samples are being collected periodically from three different sites capturing the wide range of flushing zones. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite) by Lachet QuickChem 8500 and dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn) were measured by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). Temperatures, conductivity, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured on site by YSI multiparameter probe (600 QS) and ranged from 25.7 to 27.1oC, 17.3 to 36.9 mS/cm, 8.1 to 8.4, 74.7 to 160.8 mV, and 5.1 to 9.2 mg/l respectively. The 15 cm sections of 76 cm depth auger samples were analyzed for a suite of 26 elements including major and trace elements by using XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Average Fe concentration was found to be 6.5 ± 2.9 g/kg and distributed consistently in increased concentration with depth which also agree with the observed sediment colors on site; more darker towards surface. The preliminary data from site A showed a consistency in trace metal concentrations in surface water and sediments. Higher aqueous concentrations of Cu (17.5 ± 4.1 ?g/l), Pb (39.1 ± 23.9 ?g/l), Zn (91.1 ± 36.8 ?g/l) correspond to their elevated level in the sediments [Cu (50 ± 10 mg/kg), Pb (30 ± 30 mg/kg), Zn (30 ± 20 mg/kg)]. Trace amount of As (3.3 ± 1.5 ?g/l) and Cd (3.9 ± 1.5 ?g/l) were found in dissolved phase where as no As and Cd was detected by XRF in sediments (LOD: 7 mg/kg). In both solid and liquid phases, significant variation in concentration of heavy metals was observed in meter scales. Limited variation (~ 5%) was observed in concentrations of dissolved Ortho-phosphorus, nitrite with an average concentration of 6.8 ± 0.3 ?M, 7.2 ± 0.4 ?M respectively. On other hand, concentration of nitrate-N (11.3 ± 3.1 ?M), ammonia-N (37.1 ± 10.1 ?M), silica (2.9 ± 0.5 ?M) varies 15-27%. This erratic distributions of heavy metals and nutrients observed in this preliminary set of data suggest that contaminations may be caused by both natural processes and local environmental influences.

  10. Late Permian to Middle Triassic correlations and palaeogeographical reconstructions in south-western European basins: New sedimentological data from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linol, Bastien; Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Diez, José Bienvenido; López-Gómez, José; Broutin, Jean; Durand, Marc; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2009-09-01

    Description of sedimentary sections and interpretations of sequence stratigraphic evolution of Permian-Triassic red beds of Minorca, allow a new proposal of palaeoenvironment reconstructions. The Permian sediments mainly correspond to floodplain and pond deposits with sheetflood sand-bed rivers (environment DE 1), within a warm and semi-arid climate, and the preserved succession forms one complete stratigraphic cycle. The retrogradational phase of this cycle is represented by alluvial/colluvial deposits grading upwards to environment DE 1 and to extensive floodplain and pond deposits. The progradational phase is characterized by increasing fluvial influence (with palaeocurrent mainly oriented to the SW), palaeosol horizons, and preservation of a Late Permian palynoflora. The uppermost part of this succession is truncated by a major erosional surface. The sediments above this unconformity are characterized by braided river deposits (environment DE 2) with palaeocurrent oriented to the SSW within the more basal conglomeratic facies and to the WNW in overlying units. The absence of extensive floodplain deposits, a paucity of evidence for biogenic activity and palaeosols, together with the presence of ventifacts indicate an arid climatic setting for the succession. This environment evolved from braided rivers (palaeocurrents mainly oriented to the SE, environment DE 3) with in situ palaeosols and reworked breccias to fluvial-coastal and shallow marine deposits (environment DE 4) dated as upper Anisian to Ladinian. This succession characterizes a retrogradational trend. Although the transition between DE 2 and DE 3 was not observed, a switch in palaeocurrent directions may indicate a change in source area. A comparison at a regional scale with other Peri-Tethyan basins allows the succession to be placed within a broader palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic context during Late Permian to Middle Triassic. During the Late Permian, sedimentation occurred in alluvial, playa-lake or ponded environments where fluvial systems generally flowed southward, except in south-eastern France (oriented to the NE). Within these SW European basins, such as Minorca, the Late Permian succession shows a major retrogradational (evolution from fluvial or alluvial fan deposits to extensive lake, playa or floodplain deposits) and a progradational trend (fluvial or alluvial fan deposits). The Permian-Triassic transition corresponds to an unconformity overlain by braided river deposits with arid climate indicators (aeolian deposits: ventifacts and aeolian dune sedimentation). At the scale of western Europe, this arid episode is dated as Smithian and the Induan age sedimentation deposits seem to be preserved only in the central part of the Germanic Basin. As with all other Peri-Tethyan basins, environment DE 2 of Minorca (above the major erosional surface) is attributed to the Smithian. In the upper part of the studied succession, braided river deposits indicative of less arid climatic conditions are preserved. This succession contains the earliest Mesozoic palaeosols, dated as Anisian by palynomorphs, and expresses a vertical evolution from fluvial to open marine depositional environments attributed to the Muschelkalk transgression.

  11. Canary Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The Canary Islands     View Larger Image A multi-angle view of the Canary Islands in a dust storm, February 29, 2000. At left is a true-color ... available at JPL February 29, 2000 - Canary Islands during a dust storm. project:  MISR ...

  12. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IUYOWLEDGE OF -MYSIDACEA FROM WESTERN PACIFIC: ABEROMYSIS MURANOI N. GEN., N. SP.

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    chain are deeply weathered, late Tertiary andesitic volcanic. In the south, the islands are capped various marine animals including several mysids. The islands of Palau occupy a position in the Western Atlantic. The southern-most islands of the Palau group are locally known as "Rock Islands" and consist

  13. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Genetic Architecture of a Small, Recently Aggregated Aleut Population: Bering Island

    E-print Network

    Rubicz, Rohina C.; Zlojutro, Mark; Sun, Guangyun; Spitsyn, Victor A.; Deka, Ranjan; Young, Kristin Leigh; Crawford, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    The fishing community of Bering Island, located in the Russian Commander Islands off the Kamchatka Peninsula, was originally founded by a small number of Russian soldiers and merchants, along with Aleuts forcibly relocated from the western region...

  15. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. Western Skink

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is more secretive and prefers more grassy habitat than the Western fence lizard or the side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic ...

  17. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  18. 78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... the 157th Council Meeting to take actions on fishery management issues in the Western Pacific Region... Definition E. Update on Pacific Islands Regional Planning Body F. Marine Conservation Institute (MCI)...

  19. 8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  20. Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

    1983-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

  1. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  2. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  3. Island Panoramic

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

  4. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  5. Island Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Sourish Dutta; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2009-04-29

    If the observed dark energy is a cosmological constant, the canonical state of the universe is de Sitter spacetime. In such a spacetime, quantum fluctuations that violate the null energy condition will create islands of matter that, if large enough, may resemble our observable universe. Phenomenological approaches to calculating density fluctuations yield a scale invariant spectrum with suitable amplitude. With time, the island of matter that is our observable universe, re-enters the cosmological constant sea.

  6. Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

  7. New insights into the biogeography of south-western Europe: spatial

    E-print Network

    Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos

    of a grid covering Iberia and the Balearic Islands, was based on cluster analysis (unweighted pair region: (1) an eastern area of six sectors including the Balearic Islands plus those regions of Iberia separating eastern Iberia plus the Balearic Islands with their basic sub- strates, from western Iberia

  8. GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock

    E-print Network

    146 July 1995 GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION. Gilbert, pers. comm.). POPULATION SIZE Estimates of the total western Atlantic gray seal population, and Muskeget Island (Nantucket) and Monomoy, (Cape Cod) Massachusetts (Table 1). The 1986 population estimate

  9. Happy Island

    E-print Network

    Larry McLerran

    2011-05-20

    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

  10. Assateague Island is Changing

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    and deposition of sand toward the island interior--allows the barrier island to migrate or rollover westward barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland Bay Ocean "Barrier islands such as Assateague will be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change and sea

  11. Submarine landslides in French Polynesia SUBMARINE LANDSLIDES IN SOCIETY AND AUSTRAL ISLANDS,

    E-print Network

    Clouard, Valerie

    generate sand-rubble flows and lead the islands to the stellate morphology known on atolls and guyots. In addition, Tupai atoll and Rurutu Island have been subject to giant slump that deeply modify their shape. Society island chain extends 750 km from the present hotspot location over Meetia to three western atolls

  12. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  13. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  14. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  16. Geographical heterogeneity between Far Eastern and Western countries in prevalence of the virulence plasmid, the superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen, and the high-pathogenicity island among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Matsuda, Y; Seki, R; Tsubokura, M; Takeda, N; Shubin, F N; Paik, I K; Zheng, X B

    2001-10-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces novel superantigenic toxins designated YPMa (Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen), YPMb, and YPMc and has a pathogenicity island termed HPI (high-pathogenicity island) and R-HPI (the right-hand part of the HPI with truncation in its left-hand part) on the chromosome. Analysis of the distribution of these virulence factors allowed for differentiation of species Y. pseudotuberculosis into six subgroups, thus reflecting the geographical spread of two main clones: the YPMa(+) HPI(-) Far Eastern systemic pathogenic type belonging to serotypes O1b, -2a, -2b, -2c, -3, -4a, -4b, -5a, -5b, -6, -10, and UT (untypeable) and the YPMs(-) HPI(+) European gastroenteric pathogenic type belonging to serotypes O1a and -1b. The YPMa(+) HPI(+) pathogenic type belonging to serotypes O1b, -3, -5a, -5b, and UT and the YPMb(+) HPI(-) nonpathogenic type belonging to non-melibiose-fermenting serotypes O1b, -5a, -5b, -6, -7, -9, -10, -11, and -12 were prevalent in the Far East. The YPMc(+) R-HPI(+) European low-pathogenicity type belonging to non-melibiose-fermenting serotype O3 and the YPMs(-) HPI(-) pathogenic type belonging to 15 serotypes were found to be prevalent all over the world. This new information is useful for a better understanding of the evolution and spread of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:11574570

  17. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

    This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of Mari" (Charlie Gibuma); "Islanders:…

  19. The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom continues in the western basin. The bloom extends from west of West Sister Island, veering southward to the coast, then curving to the northeast through the islands toward the central basin and up to the Canadian coast

    E-print Network

    The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom continues in the western basin. The bloom extends from west no cyanobacteria detected. Colored pixels indicate the presence of cyanobacteria. Cooler colors (blue and purple. The estimated threshold for cyanobacteria detection is 20,000 cells/mL. Figure 2. Nowcast position of bloom

  20. The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom extends across the central portion of the western basin, running from west of West Sister Island, then around to the northeast and past Pelee Island. Scum formed yesterday (Mon July 2) around and north of West Sister.

    E-print Network

    The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom extends across the central portion of the western basin July 2015 at 12:25 pm EDT. Grey indicates clouds or missing data. Black represents no cyanobacteria detected. Colored pixels indicate the presence of cyanobacteria. Cooler colors (blue and purple) indicate

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  2. 33 CFR 100.100 - Special Local Regulations; Regattas and Boat Races in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Submarine Base may not cause waves which result in damage to submarines...area: All water of Long Island Sound within a nine mile long and half...heads south crossing Long Island Sound to a point east of Crab Meadow Beach, Crab...turns north crossing Long Island Sound to the western boundary of Calf Pasture...

  3. 33 CFR 100.100 - Special Local Regulations; Regattas and Boat Races in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Submarine Base may not cause waves which result in damage to submarines...area: All water of Long Island Sound within a nine mile long and half...heads south crossing Long Island Sound to a point east of Crab Meadow Beach, Crab...turns north crossing Long Island Sound to the western boundary of Calf Pasture...

  4. Barrier island evolution and reworking by inlet migration along the Mississippi-Alabama gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, J.B.; Snowden, J.O. )

    1990-09-01

    The five barrier islands along the Mississippi-Alabama coast are located 10 to 14 mi (16 to 23 km) offshore and separate Mississippi Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The barrier islands in the chain are, from east to west: Dauphin Island, Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, Ship Island, and Cat Island. The islands are low sand bodies situated on a relatively broad Holocene sand platform that extends 70 mi (113 km) from Dauphin Island on the east to Cat Island on the west. The platform varies in thickness from 25 to 75 ft (7.6 to 23 m) and rests on Holocene marine clays or on Pleistocene sediments. The barrier island chain predates the St. Bernard lobe of the Mississippi delta complex, which began to prograde about 3,000 years ago, and continued until it was abandoned approximately 1,500 years ago. In contrast to the other islands, Cat Island at the western down-drift end of the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain is characterized by more than 12 prominent east west-oriented progradational linear ridges. The ridge system of Cat Island is interpreted as a relict of an earlier stage in the life cycle of the barrier platform when there was a more robust littoral drift system and an abundant sediment supply During the Pre-St. Bernard Delta period of vigorous sedimentation, all of the islands in the barrier chain probably exhibited progradational ridges similar to those now found only on Cat Island. Presently, only vestigial traces of these progradational features remain on the islands to the east of Cat Island. Unlike Cat Island, which has been protected and preserved by the St. Bernard Delta, the other barrier islands have been modified and reworked during the past 1,500 years by processes of island and tidal inlet migration, accompanied by a general weakening of the littoral drift and a reduction of the available sediment supply.

  5. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  6. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  7. Rhizamoeba neglecta n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea) from the bottom sediments of freshwater Lake Leshevoe (Valamo Island, North-Western Russia), with notes on the phylogeny of the order Leptomyxida.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexey; Nassonova, Elena; Fahrni, Jose; Pawlowski, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A new species of Leptomyxida, named Rhizamoeba neglecta was found during studies of the amoeba fauna of the inner Lake Leshevoe located at Valamo archipelago (The Lake Ladoga, North-Western Russia). Light-microscopical and ultrastructural studies indicated that it represents a new species of Leptomyxida. The partial 18S rDNA sequence of this amoeba is very similar to that of Leptomyxa reticulata.. These organisms, however, are very different in LM morphology and biology. Organisms assigned to the genus Rhizamoeba do not form a single clade in the 18S rDNA tree. This may indicate that the genus is an artificial grouping or that a number of studied strains were misidentified. The phylogeny and the systematics of leptomyxids require further investigation. PMID:19651498

  8. Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Tropical Rain Forest 5 Linear Algebra Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 5 / 26 #12Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands

  9. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc magmatism in the Early Jurassic. Early Eocene plutons that intruded the accretionary complex outboard of the arc on Baranof Island are attributed to anatectic melting of trench sediments resulting from subduction of a spreading center. Oligocene intrusive rocks on Baranof Island correlate in age and composition with intrusive rocks in the Kano Plutonic Suite on Haida Gwaii, and similar magmatic sources are inferred.

  10. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...islands, which are among the most biologically diverse in the western Pacific Ocean, and includes the greatest diversity of seamount and hydrothermal vent life yet discovered. The MMP Planning Process The MMP's format will include elements similar to...

  11. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack - Duration: 2 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  12. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY...U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF WESTERN ATLANTIC BLUEFIN TUNAl RAYMOND E. BAGLIN, JR.

    E-print Network

    Newfoundland to Brazil and from Norway to the Canary Islands (Gibbs and Collette 1967). In the western Atlantic and in the Gulf of Mexico. In the eastern Atlantic, a sport fishery for bluefin tuna exists around the Canary BULLETIN: VOL. 80, NO.1, 1982. Canary Islands, the Mediterranean coast of Spain, and occasionally off

  14. 77 FR 23654 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Modification of American Samoa Large Vessel Prohibited Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Swain's Island and one around Tutuila, the Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll (67 FR 4369, January 30, 2002... Rose Atoll Marine National Monument (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The monument comprises Rose Atoll... of the Western Pacific Region. Subsequent Presidential Proclamation 8337 (74 FR 1577; January...

  15. 78 FR 65292 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (WPFMC) Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    The Western Pacific Fisheries Management Council (Council) will convene public informational scoping meetings in Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) to solicit comments on the management of the bottomfish fishery within the EEZ of the Mariana Islands. The scoping meeting will, among other things, describe the existing federal management regime for bottomfish species,......

  16. Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Robin, V V; Gupta, Pooja; Thatte, Prachi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation of species that live in naturally patchy metapopulations such as mountaintops or sky islands experiences two levels of patchiness. Effects of such multilevel patchiness on species have rarely been examined. Metapopulation theory suggests that patchy habitats could have varied impacts on persistence, dependent on differential migration. It is not known whether montane endemic species, evolutionarily adapted to natural patchiness, are able to disperse between anthropogenic fragments at similar spatial scales as natural patches. We investigated historic and contemporary gene flow between natural and anthropogenic patches across the distribution range of a Western Ghats sky-island-endemic bird species complex. Data from 14 microsatellites for 218 individuals detected major genetic structuring by deep valleys, including one hitherto undescribed barrier. As expected, we found strong effects of historic genetic differentiation across natural patches, but not across anthropogenic fragments. Contrastingly, contemporary differentiation (D(PS)) was higher relative to historic differentiation (F(ST)) in anthropogenic fragments, despite the species' ability to historically traverse shallow valleys. Simulations of recent isolation resulted in high D(PS)/F(ST) values, confirming recent isolation in Western Ghats anthropogenic fragments and also suggesting that this ratio can be used to identifying recent fragmentation in the context of historic connectedness. We suggest that in this landscape, in addition to natural patchiness affecting population connectivity, anthropogenic fragmentation additionally impacts connectivity, making anthropogenic fragments akin to islands within natural islands of montane habitat, a pattern that may be recovered in other sky-island systems. PMID:26133900

  17. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  18. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  19. Sampling Strategy for Enumerating the Western Arctic Population

    E-print Network

    ). The range extends from the west-central Be- ring Sea north of approximately lat. 60 o N, throughout the Chukchi and eastern East Siberian Seas, and east- ward throughout the U.S. Beaufort Sea to Banks Island. Hatched lines indicate distribution of the western Arctic and Okhotsk populations of bowhead whales prior

  20. GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock

    E-print Network

    121 March 2007 GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE The gray seal is found on both sides of the North Atlantic, with three major populations initiated aerial surveys to monitor gray seal pup production on Muskeget Island and at the Monomoy National

  1. GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock

    E-print Network

    169 May 2015 GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE The gray seal is found on both sides of the North Atlantic, with three major populations surveys to monitor gray seal pup production on Muskeget Island and adjacent sites in Nantucket Sound

  2. GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock

    E-print Network

    April 2014 GRAY SEAL (Halichoerus grypus grypus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE The gray seal is found on both sides of the North Atlantic, with three major populations initiated aerial surveys to monitor gray seal pup production on Muskeget Island and adjacent sites

  3. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  4. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  5. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  6. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  7. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  9. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  10. Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks Foundations of Ecology Clemson University #12;Larger the area(c) + zlog(A) Is the relationship between species and area linear? Island Biogeography Theory ­ (1963 Foundation Present ­ Prof. of Entomology at Harvard University #12;Island Biogeography Theory (1963) E

  11. WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan January 2015 Disaster Plan #12;WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan.4.2 Manmade Threats 1.5 Definitions 1.6 Scope of Western's Planning for Major Emergencies and Disasters 1/Administrative Unit Responsibilities 1.8.8 Situation Reports 2. UTILIZING THE DISASTER PLAN 2.1 Emergency Process

  12. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  13. The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water Information Network Collaboration................................................................................................. 27 3.3 Stakeholder Analysis

  14. LIS1' OF ILLUSTRATIONS. THE ItUSSIAN FURSEAL ISLANDS.

    E-print Network

    LIS1' OF ILLUSTRATIONS. THE ItUSSIAN FUR·SEAL ISLANDS. Plate. Page. I. Map of Western Portion. Distribution of Seals, 1882. 148 8. Mup of North Rookery, Bering Inland. Dlstrlbutlon of Scala, 1895 , . "" 148 9. Sketch map of Poludionnoyo Rookery. Dlstrfbution of Seal s, 1882

  15. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 9495. The image covers an area of 369 kilometers x 567 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 58 to 64 within World Reference System-2 path 181.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. 75 FR 53606 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 100630283-0388-02] RIN 0648-XX15 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish Total Allowable Catch AGENCY: National Marine...

  17. 75 FR 45085 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 100630283-0300-01] RIN 0648-XX15 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish Total Allowable Catch AGENCY: National Marine...

  18. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  19. Invertebrate macrobenthos of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1969-01-01

    The present report contributes to knowledge of the relative abundance of major groups of benthic invertebrates in western Lake Superior, primarily in the Apostle Islands region. Observations are made on the depth habitation of certain species, and some of the fauna are compared to that in some of the other Great Lakes. Also included is a note on the catch of benthic organisms in a plankton-net tow, and a note on Oligochaeta from Chequamegon Bay and the harbors of Duluth and Superior.

  20. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  1. WESTERN PACIFIC INVERTEBR ATE FISHERIES western pacific

    E-print Network

    agencies in the region. The now-closed Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands (NWHI; Figure 16-1) lobster trap-scale, primarily rec- reational, fishery for different species of lobster ex- ists in the Main Hawaiian Islands of Com- merce, and implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The NWHI lobster fishery

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Sibley, F.C.; Estabrook, T.S.; Lazell, J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

  4. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western

  5. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. PMID:25937559

  6. Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival Praktikumszeitraum: Sommer 2005 Mein in Island lebenden, deutsch-schweizer Künstlers Dieter Roth motiviert, die den Kern des diesjährigen städtische Kultureinrichtung Islands als auch für das landesweit größte Kunstfestival tätig zu sein

  7. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  8. Island-arc magmatic processes beneath South Pagan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The island-arc volcanoes that make up the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most historically active stratovolcanoes along the Pacific plate, yet they have been poorly studied due to their remote location and difficult accessibility. One of the least studied areas in the Northern Mariana Islands is Pagan Island, located near the center of the Mariana ridge. Pagan Island consists of two Holocene stratovolcanoes, Mount Pagan and South Pagan. Remarkably little is known about South Pagan including its eruptive history, potential volcanic hazards, and geochemical evolution due to a small population of inhabitants, a short and intermittent recorded history, and few geological studies. There is abundant evidence that eruption of South Pagan could pose significant hazards to both residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and to aircraft flying in the western Pacific. For example, following Mount Pagan's most recent explosive eruption (VEI = 4) in 1981, destructive rain-triggered volcanic debris flows buried large tracts of land, including the site of a village that contained a school, dispensary, church, and power generating buildings. Preliminary field studies in May 2006 by the USGS showed that a full spectrum of hazardous phenomena originated from South Pagan in the past, including pyroclastic flows and surges, caldera collapses, and volcanic debris flows. Two previously unrecognized active fumaroles near the summit of South Pagan were discovered suggesting that potential volcanic hazards currently exist in this area. A majority of the new lava samples are vesicular, clinopyroxene-plagioclase basalts with minor plagioclase xenocrysts and gabbroic xenoliths. The purpose of this study is to understand the compositional history of South Pagan and how it relates to the crustal and mantle magmatic processes beneath the central Northern Mariana Islands. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, major and trace element abundances, and mineral chemistry were determined and will be presented.

  9. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  10. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  11. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  12. Western White Pine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A western white pine (Pinus monticola) in Kings Canyon National Park, Calif., towers over USGS ecologist Nathan Stephenson. Scientists analyzed data from 403 species of trees from around the world -- including western white pine (Pinus monticola), pictured here -- and learned that in general, a tre...

  13. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  14. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  15. Rhode Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor on the Rhode Island coast and shows a skate on a fine-grained, likely silty or muddy seafloor. This photograph was collected to support research and management activities (e.g., wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf....

  16. Barnacles on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  17. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  18. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  19. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the ... entire west end of Honshu Island, which crosses the upper half of the images, is covered with broken clouds. Away from the clouds, the ...

  20. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  1. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  2. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  3. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  4. STS-65 Earth observation of western Pacific Ocean with large typhoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This photograph was fairly characteristic of the western Pacific Ocean between the Philippine Islands and the area just south of the Japanese Islands during the duration of the STS-65 shuttle mission. The western half of a large typhoon can be seen near the horizon and terminator. Numerous small thunderstorms are visible toward the center of the photograph, and an extensive area of scattered clouds (with possibly dissipated or collapsed thunderstorms) can be seen towards the bottom of the picture. View was taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  5. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  6. Western Glacier Stonefly

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The rare western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) is native to Glacier National Park and is seeking habitat at higher elevations due to warming stream temperature and glacier loss due to climate warming. ...

  7. Using hydrogeochemical methods to evaluate complex quaternary subsurface stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Stone, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems in Hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant of the late Wisconsinan terminal moraine, located approximately 16 km south of the Rhode Island mainland. Two chemically distinct water types are recognized on the island: 1) high-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels in excess of 20 mg/L, bicarbonate greater than 30 mg/L and dissolved iron ranging from 1-20 mg/L; and 2) low-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels below 16 mg/L, bicarbonate less than 30 mg/L, and less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved iron. The spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter and the resulting redox conditions are believed to control the occurrence of highiron groundwater. The high-iron waters occur almost exclusively in the eastern half of the island and appear to coincide with the presence of allochthonous blocks of Cretaceous-age coastal-plain sediments that were incorporated into Pleistocene-age deposits derived from the Narragansett Bay-Buzzard's Bay lobe of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet. The low-iron waters occur in the western half of the island, where the occurrence of these Cretaceous-age blocks is rare and the sediments are attributed to a sublobe of the Hudson-Champlain lobe of the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  8. Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.; Sako, Maurice K.

    2006-01-01

    Pagan Island is the subaerial portion of two adjoining Quaternary stratovolcanoes near the middle of the active Mariana Arc, [FAT1]north of Saipan. Pagan and the other volcanic islands that constitute part of the Arc form the northern half of the East Mariana Ridge[FAT2], which extends about 2-4 km above the ocean floor. The > 6-km-deep Mariana Trench adjoins the East Mariana Ridge on the east, and the Mariana Trough, partly filled with young lava flows and volcaniclastic sediment, lies on the west of the Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge. The submarine West Mariana Ridge, Tertiary in age, bounds the western side of the Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trench and Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge) overlie an active subduction zone where the Pacific Plate, moving northwest at about 10.3 cm/year, is passing beneath the Philippine Plate, moving west-northwest at 6.8 cm/year. Beneath the Northern Mariana Islands, earthquake hypocenters at depths of 50-250 km identify the location of the west-dipping subduction zone, which farther west becomes nearly vertical and extends to 700 km depth. During the past century, more than 40 earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-8.1 have shaken the Mariana Trench. The Mariana Islands form two sub-parallel, concentric, concave-west arcs. The southern islands comprise the outer arc and extend north from Guam to Farallon de Medinilla. They consist of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks and uplifted Tertiary and Quaternary limestone. The nine northern islands extend from Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros and form part of the inner arc. The active inner arc extends south from Anatahan, where volcanoes, some of which are active, form seamounts west of the older outer arc. Other volcanic seamounts of the active arc surmount the East Mariana Ridge in the vicinity of Anatahan and Sarigan and north and south of Farallon de Pajaros. Six volcanoes (Farallon de Pajaros, Asuncion, Agrigan, Mount Pagan, Guguan, and Anatahan) in the northern islands have erupted during the past century, and Ruby Seamount erupted in 1996.

  9. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  11. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  12. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  13. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  14. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  15. Pacific Islands Regional Office

    E-print Network

    kinds of dolphins and whales that live in the waters around the Hawaiian Islands, one species has become to harass, hunt, capture or kill, or attempt to do any of these activities to a marine mammal. Activities

  16. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  17. Kinematic studies of transport across an island wake, with application to the Canary islands

    E-print Network

    Mathias Sandulescu; Emilio Hernandez-Garcia; Cristobal Lopez; Ulrike Feudel

    2006-05-29

    Transport from nutrient-rich coastal upwellings is a key factor influencing biological activity in surrounding waters and even in the open ocean. The rich upwelling in the North-Western African coast is known to interact strongly with the wake of the Canary islands, giving rise to filaments and other mesoscale structures of increased productivity. Motivated by this scenario, we introduce a simplified two-dimensional kinematic flow describing the wake of an island in a stream, and study the conditions under which there is a net transport of substances across the wake. For small vorticity values in the wake, it acts as a barrier, but there is a transition when increasing vorticity so that for values appropriate to the Canary area, it entrains fluid and enhances cross-wake transport.

  18. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  19. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  20. Antecedent and anthropogenic influences on the Galveston Island shoreface 

    E-print Network

    Pitkewicz, Jennifer Lynn

    2009-05-15

    shallows to within 65 cm of the seafloor. In addition, there is a small shell hash layer observed just above the interface with the BC. 30 Figure 18: Stratigraphic correlations of transect 17 with percent sand silt and clay profiles Figure... near the ancestral incised Trinity River valley and becomes shallower towards the western portion of the island. (White et al., 1985; Bernard et al., 1970). This westward shallowing of the hard, consolidated, indurated BC corresponds...

  1. The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in western Lake Erie

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Koenig, B.G.; Haffner, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In order to determine whether biota in western Lake Erie are exposed to elevated concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors collected biota along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie and determined concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebra mussels, and levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile of freshwater drum and gizzard shad. In addition, they deployed semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) at various locations along this corridor to monitor for PAHs in water. PAHs were elevated in SPMDs and zebra mussels from the Detroit River, and PAH concentrations declined from west to east in Lake Erie. There were elevated levels of bile FACs in drum and gizzard shad from highly contaminated regions of the Detroit River. These data are consistent with the Detroit River being a significant source of PAH contamination in western Lake Erie. Since the ratios of concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in zebra mussels did not vary throughout the study area, it appears that both classes of aromatic contaminants are distributed by similar mechanisms throughout western Lake Erie.

  2. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

  3. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the 'Austronesian expansion,' which began 4,000-5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  4. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and pyroclastic flows. Capelo Complex, which is partially contemporary to the previous formation, comprises the western fissural volcanism and the historical eruptions of Cabeço do Fogo and Capelinhos. Groundwater occurs in two main aquifer systems: (1) the basal aquifer that corresponds to the freshwater lens floating over underlying salt water and (2) perched water bodies. 15 drilled wells and 10 hand dug wells extract water from the basal aquifer and about 80 springs drain the volcanic edifices at different altitudes. In what concerns hydrodynamic characterisation, an estimate of the recession constant of the springs yielded values from 2x10-3 to 14.2x10-3. Calculated transmissivity values for the basal aquifer and a perched aquifer are within the range of 9.5x10-3 to 3x10-2 m2/s. Hydraulic diffusivity estimated from tidal effect measurements has a value of 2634 m2/d. Physical and chemical water analysis shows that they are cold, except for two of them. Four water samples show high CO2 contents. Water from springs and from wells not contaminated by salt water intrusion are bicarbonated and sodium rich in composition while water from contaminated wells has higher chloride and magnesium contents. Geochemical modelling indicates that the major mineralizing processes are silicate dissolution and salt water intrusion.

  5. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long Island Power Authority (Authority), and Long Island Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...

  6. /sup 7/Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboe, E.; Dion, E.P.; Turekian, K.K.

    1981-04-20

    /sup 7/Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in /sup 7/Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments. A possible sink for the missing /sup 7/Be may be the salt marshes or tidal mud flats ringing Long Island Sound.

  7. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  8. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  9. Studies on the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) of the Nansei Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasa, M

    1990-06-01

    The Nansei Islands are located in the subtropical zone of the western Pacific Ocean between Kyushu and Taiwan, and are composed of the two main island groups, the Amami and the Ryukyu Archipelagoes. This area has been known for the presence of a number of indigenous animal species. Prior to the present studies, collections of the chironomids mainly in the urban areas of the three main islands of the Ryukyus were carried out by Sasa and Hasegawa, and a total of 42 species, including 25 new species, were recorded. Additional collections of the chironomids mainly in the mountainous areas of this region were carried out by the present author during 1988 and 1989, and a total of 26 species (including 12 new species) were recorded from Amami Island, and a total of 27 species (including 10 new species) were recorded from the Ryukyu Islands. Eight species among them, including 3 new species, were common to the two archipelagos. PMID:2214255

  10. Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  12. Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  13. Western Fence Lizard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a relatively common and widespread lizard in Southern California. It is larger and prefers less open habitat than the related side-blotched lizard, yet USGS and National Park Service biologists are finding signs of genetic isolation in both speci...

  14. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  15. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  16. THE SURVEY WESTERN PALESTINE

    E-print Network

    McKay, Brendan

    PALESTINE MEMOIRS OF THE TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY, AND ARCHAEOLOGY. r,v LIEUT. C. R. CONDER, R. H. PALMER, M.A. AND WALTER BESANT, M.A., FOR THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION EUND, I into 'Sheets' corresponding with the divisions of the Great Map of Western Palestine, in twenty-six sheets

  17. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  18. 76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY...: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 808-944-2108. SUPPLEMENTARY... Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by the Council. Additionally, amounts received by the...

  19. 77 FR 4822 - Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative: Designation of an Approved Native American Tribal Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... known as the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) at U.S. land and sea ports of entry. See 73 FR... Caribbean Sea, except Cuba.'' This definition applies to 8 CFR 212.1 and 235.1. Upon the designation by the... members entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at land and sea ports...

  20. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  1. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  2. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  3. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

  4. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  5. When Might Barrier Island Chains 'Collapse'? An Initial Model Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slott, J. M.; Murray, A. B.

    2007-12-01

    There has been recent speculation that, in response to the accelerated sea-level rise and intensified storms expected over the coming century, barrier island chains such as those found on the US Atlantic and Gulf coastlines, could develop large (10-kilometer-scale) gaps in their most narrow stretches, or might disappear completely (Riggs, S. R., 2001). Such a collapse along the North Carolina Outer Banks barrier island chain, for example, would leave the mainland vulnerable to direct hits from Western Atlantic storm systems, and also would dramatically alter the estuarine system it encloses with potentially devastating effects to marine life. Concern for the future of the Outer Banks is also motivated by the decimation of the Chandeleur Islands in 2005 from Hurricane Katrina. We will present a series of initial numerical modeling experiments addressing how barrier island morphodynamics respond to the sudden creation of kilometer-scale gaps. Large-scale barrier island evolution is influenced by sea-level rise and barrier island overwash, alongshore sediment transport, tidal currents, and the availability of mobile sediment. Barrier islands transgress towards the mainland in response to sea-level rise through overwash: ocean-facing shorelines provide sediment that is transported onto the island to maintain its subaerial height and behind the island to maintain its width, while gradients in alongshore sediment transport typically dictate the large-scale shape of a coastline over long time frames (decades to millenia). Tidal currents also tend to scour inlet channels; the relative strength of this effect depends in part upon the width of the inlet channel. Our exploratory model includes both a one-line alongshore transport component and a cross-shore overwash component, as well as representations of underlying geology (weathering rates and material compositions). In our modeling experiments, we test the effects of perforating a 30 km barrier island chain with variable-sized gaps, ranging between 2.5-10 km. In preliminary model experiments, where we do not limit the availability of mobile sediment nor include tidal inlet dynamics, large gaps tend to close under all of the erosion rate scenarios and gap sizes. The ends of barrier islands extend to fill in the gaps and recurve landward. The rate of closure of gaps is unaffected by sea-level rise rates even under the most extreme cases; alongshore sediment fluxes exceed those associated with sea-level rise as highly curved isolated islands migrate rapidly landward before coalescing into an island chain again at a new location. In a natural setting, the overwash and spit-growth that maintain sub-aerial islands and tend to knit them back together (respectively) could be inhibited by a lack of mobile sediment. The shoreface of the Outer Banks, for example, consists of sometimes patchy Holocene sands perched atop a semi-lithified, sometimes more muddy Pleistocene substrate. Weathering of the Pleistocene substrate over long timescales generates mobile sediment consisting of both sands and muds. The fine-grained material, however, is typically lost to the nearshore system. The shoreface may not be able to weather fast enough to keep up with rapidly migrating islands. This effect, combined with that of substrate composition, will tend to limit the rate that sediment can be liberated, and, in turn, could prevent island-chain recovery. We conduct a series of model experiments to determine the combinations of geological parameters (weathering rates, composition) and forcing parameters (rate of sea-level rise, frequency of storms) that prevent barrier-island-chain recovery.

  6. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  7. Ian Cahatol Channel Islands

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    High Cruz, Jessie West Adams Prep Jimmy Du Temple City High Michael Goulis Palos Verdes High Dana HandyStudents Ian Cahatol Channel Islands Chen, Catherine Palos Verdes High Hayward (Adam) Cox Ridgeview Fallbrook High Garrett Hara Mark Keppel High Hill, Timothy Daniel (Danny) Servite High Kenneth Holstad Long

  8. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  9. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  10. Plum Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Plum Island coast and shows spider crabs on seabed characterized by coarse sand, gravelly sediment and shell fragments. This photograph was collected as part of a collaborative seafloor mapping program between the USGS and the Connecticut Department of Envi...

  11. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  12. Atsena Otie Key Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

  13. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  14. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  15. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  16. Annotated Satellite Image of southern Alaska Showing Anchorage and Kodiak Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This MODIS Aqua 1-km-resolution, true-color satellite image shows a resuspended ash cloud generated from high winds scouring the dry, unvegetated deposits in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The cloud stretches across Shelikof Strait to western Kodiak Island. Location: south-central Alaska, from...

  17. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National...using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species...or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the coral reef ecosystem...

  18. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel...

  19. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  20. 78 FR 9373 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... (55 FR 49204). After division into two stocks, the western stock was listed as endangered under the ESA on May 4, 1997 and the eastern stock remained classified as threatened (62 FR 24345). In 2006 the... Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and Friday Harbor Ferry Terminals AGENCY: National...

  1. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the designated low-use... regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the...

  2. Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  3. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida immunocontraception demonstrate some promise of this technology as a population management tool.. Success appears to be linked directly to factors affecting access to deer, which vary considerably among treatment locations. Continued high National Park Service visibility among communities in the form of interpretive programs, extension and outreach activities, and continued support of research and monitoring of deer and their effects on island biota are keys to successful resolution of persistent issues.

  4. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  5. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  6. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  7. Approximate Bayesian Computation Reveals the Crucial Role of Oceanic Islands for the Assembly of Continental Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark; Mardulyn, Patrick; Devos, Nicolas; Mateo, Rubén G; González-Mancebo, Juana M; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The perceived low levels of genetic diversity, poor interspecific competitive and defensive ability, and loss of dispersal capacities of insular lineages have driven the view that oceanic islands are evolutionary dead ends. Focusing on the Atlantic bryophyte flora distributed across the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Western Europe, and northwestern Africa, we used an integrative approach with species distribution modeling and population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation to determine whether this view applies to organisms with inherent high dispersal capacities. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in island than in continental populations, contributing to mounting evidence that, contrary to theoretical expectations, island populations are not necessarily genetically depauperate. Patterns of genetic variation among island and continental populations consistently fitted those simulated under a scenario of de novo foundation of continental populations from insular ancestors better than those expected if islands would represent a sink or a refugium of continental biodiversity. We, suggest that the northeastern Atlantic archipelagos have played a key role as a stepping stone for transoceanic migrants. Our results challenge the traditional notion that oceanic islands are the end of the colonization road and illustrate the significant role of oceanic islands as reservoirs of novel biodiversity for the assembly of continental floras. PMID:25713307

  8. Determining rates of Quaternary uplift across the Santa Rosa Island Fault, Channel Islands National Park, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, A.; Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Channel Islands, southern California, form the southern margin of the western Transverse Ranges. They constitute a roughly east-west trending emergent ridge uplifted as a result of south-vergent shortening and left-lateral slip, mostly on west-striking, north-dipping faults. Late Quaternary uplift of these islands is recorded by two prominent wave-cut platforms, which occur at elevations of ~5-7 and ~6-24 meters above sea level, have been attributed by previous workers to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5a (~80ka) and 5e (~120 ka), and indicate low and somewhat spatially variable, uplift rates of 0.1-0.2 mm/yr. We have documented evidence of older, higher marine features, such as shoreline angles, beveled surfaces buried by aeolian sand, and pholad borings, in the interior of Santa Rosa Island. Our simple steady uplift models indicate that the highest of these paleo shore line markers, which occur at ~275 m, could be anywhere from ~1.2 Ma to ~2.7 Ma. However, despite their importance for understanding longer term uplift rates associated with the Santa Rosa Island fault and/or other faults, their ages remain unknown. As part of a cooperative effort with the National Park Service to complete a new Quaternary geologic map of the northern Channel Islands, we collected samples of quartz-bearing rock and sediment at seven locations on Santa Rosa Island, representative of 6 paleo shorelines spanning elevations between ~65 and ~275 meters above sea level, from both sides of the Santa Rosa Island fault. Rock samples were collected from moderately indurated fossiliferous marine sands that either contain pholad-bored clasts or overlie a beveled bedrock surface in order to determine 10Be exposure ages. Sediments were collected from where they directly overlie shoreline angles for determination of 10Be-26Al burial ages. Ages of these paleo sea level markers will enable us to test previous assumptions of steady island uplift, as well as allow us to test hypotheses related to the timing of differential uplift across the Santa Rosa Island fault as documented by differential GPS surveys of the MIS platform edges. The timing and distribution of long-term uplift rates will allow us to distinguish between ramp-flat or listric models of deep, low-angle thrusts responsible for the long-term uplift of Santa Rosa Island.

  9. Recent acoustic studies of western Canadian continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bornhold, B.D.; Brandon, M.T.; Clowes, R.M.; Currie, R.G.; Davis, E.E.; Hussong, D.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Riddihough, R.P.; Rogers, G.C.; Yorath, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    A regional survey of the western Canadian continental margin from the central Queen Charlotte Island, 52/sup 0/40'N, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 47/sup 0/40'N, has been completed with the acoustic imaging system SeaMARC II. These data, combined with single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection data, reveal many new insights concerning the deep structure of the subduction margin off Vancouver Island. Clearly evident in the imagery are the deformation of sediments at the base of the slope, the surface expression of seismically active faults, the mass wasting of sediment frequently observed at the base of the slope, and the erosional canyons and sediment transport channels on the slope and adjacent abyssal plain. The variability in the surficial and deep structures along the length of the margin is great and corresponds well with the postulated variations in the local ocean/continent motion vectors: motion along the southern Queen Charlotte Islands margin is primarily transform (about 55 mm/year) with a small component of convergence (about 10 mm/year); motion south of the triple junction at the Wilson Knolls is convergent but at a very slow rate (about 10 mm/year); and motion along the central and southern Vancouver Island margin is nearly orthogonal to the coast and more rapid (about 40 mm/year).

  10. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  11. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

  13. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  14. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, M.G.; Hapke, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dunebeach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ???4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites. Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast. National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human-induced modifications can affect park resources and beachdune response to storms. This study is the first to conduct a systematic analysis on how anthropogenic modifications affect resources at Fire Island National Seashore and provides essential information for effective management and preservation of coastal resources within the park. ?? 2012, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  15. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

  16. Western habitats - Session summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determining the status of all habitats in the nine western states considered in this symposium is a difficult task. The authors of habitat status papers commented that the diversity of habitat classification systems limited their ability to relate habitat status to raptors. Differences of scale, objectives and survey design have hindered integration of habitat classification methods used by land managers with the habitat relationships understood by wildlife biologists, but examples now exist for successful integration of these methods. We suggest that land managers and wildlife biologists use common survey and classification schemes so that data can be combined and that results will be applicable over broader areas.

  17. Influence of inner-continental shelf geologic framework on the evolution and behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Island Inlet and Shinnecock Inlet, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Thieler, E.R.; Allen, J.R.; Foster, D.S.; Swift, B.A.; Denny, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution, sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidescan-sonar and subbottom profiling, were used to investigate how the geologic framework of the inner-continental shelf influenced the Holocene evolution and modern behavior of the Fire Island barrier-island system, Long Island, New York. The inner-continental shelf off Long Island is divided into two physiographic provinces by a broad outcrop of Cretaceous coastal-plain strata offshore of Watch Hill; this outcrop was part of a subaerial headland during the Holocene marine transgression. Erosion of the headland during transgression furnished sediment to the inner-continental shelf downdrift to the west. The sediment was, in turn, reworked by oceanographic processes into a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges. The oldest (~1200 yr BP) and most stable part of the barrier-island system is immediately landward of the outcropping coastal-plain strata and thickest sand ridges. East of Watch Hill, Pleistocene sediment either is exposed on the inner-continental shelf or is buried by a veneer of modern reworked sediment. Here the barrier-island system has migrated landward at a faster rate than the segment west of Watch Hill and has been breached by numerous historic inlets. Because the Pleistocene sedimentary deposit is generally of uniform thickness throughout the study area and unconformably overlies the Cretaceous coastal-plain strata, both the Holocene and historical evolution of the Fire Island barrier-island system are controlled by the physiography of this regional unconformity. In particular, the shoreface-connected sand ridges appear to be a significant source of sediment to the western portion of Fire Island. Previous attempts to develop a sediment budget for this coastal system have failed to explain volumetric discrepancies, primarily because poor assumptions were made about the nature of sediment transport in the system. A more realistic sediment budget must include a significantly larger spatial scale, including sediment input from the inner-continental shelf.

  18. Westward shift of western North Pacific tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific or typhoons account for one third of all TCs in the world and the change of the mean TC genesis location can affect billions of people in Pacific islands and Asian countries. The annual mean TC genesis longitude is generally controlled by the east-west shift of the tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT). A pronounced westward shift in the TUTT is found in all of the available reanalysis data sets during 1979-2012, suppressing TC genesis in the eastern portion (east of 145°E) of the western North Pacific basin due to the enhanced vertical wind shear associated with the TUTT shift. As a result, the annual mean TC genesis longitude has significantly shifted westward since 1979. The westward shifting trends in the TUTT and TC genesis are associated with the enhanced tropical tropospheric warming, which is consistent with the response of the tropospheric temperature to global warming.

  19. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  20. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  1. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a subtle morphologic scar covered by recent lava flows erupted from alignments of basaltic strombolian cones. The predominance of the N150° and N75° trends in the island suggest that the tectonics of the Terceira Rift controlled the location and the distribution of the volcanism, and to some extent the various destruction events.

  2. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  3. Dental survey of the Falkland Islands' child population.

    PubMed

    Jones, C M; Walters, B

    2015-09-01

    In November 2013 the first dental epidemiological survey of 5, 12 and 15 year old children was undertaken on The Falkland Islands. The census survey used the ICDAS II system and achieved an overall response rate of 87.4%. To allow international comparisons obvious decay experience is reported. The mean dmft of 5-year-olds was 1.2 teeth, the prevalence of decay experience was 34.6%. The mean DMFT of 12-year-old children was 0.9 teeth, the prevalence of decay experience was 36.7%. The mean DMFT of 15-year-olds was 1.78 teeth, and the prevalence of decay experience was 66.7%. This first dental survey showed that levels of child dental decay in the Falkland Islands are similar to western European countries. The results can now be used as a baseline and benchmark to follow future trends in dental health in this British Overseas Territory. PMID:26513857

  4. Effects of the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the Western Samoan coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, Beatriz; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tonini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The Samoa islands are located between 169.5°W to 172.9°W and at about 14°S. The main islands are Savaii, Upolu and Tutuila. The islands lay on the Pacific Plate, are of volcanic origin, rise sharply from the seafloor from depths of about 4000 m and are surrounded by smaller islands that are usually coral atolls. Upolu and Savaii are part of the Western Samoa while the Tutuila Island is an American territory. A regional tsunami was triggered on September the 29th 2009 by an offshore earthquake with Mw=8.1 and epicentre located at about 190 km south of Samoa, near the subduction zone between the Pacific and the Australian Plate. The tsunami waves struck severely the islands of Upolu, Manono and Savaii in Western Samoa, and their effects were also observed in Tutuila, Niuatoputapu in northern Tonga, Wallis and Funtuna. A few weeks after the event, a post tsunami field survey was organised by the UNESCO with the cooperation of the University of South Pacific and The Australian Tsunami Research Centre. The field survey had several tasks, including building damage assessment and measurement of tsunami run-ups and inundation along the Western Samoa coast. In this work, measured values of run-up and inundation along some land profiles are shown. The values vary from 0.7 to 6.5 meters, being the most affected zone the south east coast. The measurements have been taken using levelling procedures performed by the UNIBO-INGV team. Damage building assessment was also performed by the team, retrieving information of some structures such as type of material used, age of the structure, degree of exposure to the waves, content of damage and water depth when there were watermarks available.

  5. Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from the tags compare across these different focal foraging areas.

  6. Distribution patterns of Babesia gibsoni infection in hunting dogs from nine Japanese islands.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

  7. Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands

    E-print Network

    Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

  8. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  9. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  10. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  11. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and...

  12. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  13. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  14. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  15. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  16. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  17. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  18. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  20. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  1. Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

    1986-05-01

    Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

  2. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Lightning in Western Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, René D.; Gabriela Nicora, M.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of 8 years (2005-2012) of stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network we describe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of lightning activity over Western Patagonia. This region extends from ~40°S to 55°S along the west coast of South America, is limited to the east by the austral Andes, and features a hyper-humid, maritime climate. Stroke density exhibits a sharp maximum along the coast of southern Chile. Although precipitation there is largely produced by cold nimbostratus, days with more than one stroke occur up to a third of the time somewhere along the coastal strip. Disperse strokes are also observed off southern Chile. In contrast, strokes are virtually nonexistent over the austral Andes—where precipitation is maximum—and farther east over the dry lowlands of Argentina. Atmospheric reanalysis and satellite imagery are used to characterize the synoptic environment of lightning-producing storms, exemplified by a case study and generalized by a compositing analysis. Lightning activity tends to occur when Western Patagonia is immersed in a pool of cold air behind a front that has reached the coast at ~40°S. Under these circumstances, midlevel cooling occurs before and is more prominent than near-surface cooling, leading to a weakly unstable postfrontal condition. Forced uplift of the strong westerlies impinging on the coastal mountains can trigger convection and produces significant lightning activity in this zone. Farther offshore, large-scale ascent near the cyclone's center may lift near-surface air parcels, fostering shallow convection and dispersing lightning activity.

  5. Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.

    2007-02-01

    High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest Middle Holocene movement of people at this time from southern California desert environs westward to the southern islands, a migration perhaps stimulated by increased continental aridity.

  6. Long Island Sound Report Card

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Long Island Sound Report Card Grading the water quality and ecosystem health of the Urban Sea #12 EasternCentralEastern Narrows The east-west gradient of people and pollution Long Island Sound (100 meters). Both development and density of people increase from east to west along the Sound

  7. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

  8. Tidal Pool on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

  9. 2014 State of Western's Assets

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    In this report we document the State of Western’s Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

  10. WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

  11. Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

    Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

  12. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  13. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  14. Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.; Soloviev, A.

    2007-12-01

    It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview of Kos'ko et al. (1993, Geol. Surv.Canada Bull. 461). In 2006, an international team of geologists (S.Sokolov, M.Tuchkova, V.Verzhbitsky, E.Miller and V.Pease) visited the island with the help and logistic support of the director and scientific staff of the Wrangel Island Wildlife Preserve. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed and metamorphosed, but may match part of the section described for the Hannah Trough, Alaska (Sherwood et al., 2002 GSA Spec.Paper 360): Coarse clastic strata overlie late Precambrian basement (630-700 Ma Kos'ko et al. (1993)), followed by a succession of mid to Late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks. Wrangel Island differs from the N.Slope and Brooks Range in that a thick sequence of basinal Triassic clastics constitutes the upper part of the section. Comparison of single grain U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Triassic of Wrangel to the Russian Arctic mainland and to the Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity and similar source regions between these three regions (but not the N. Slope) in the Triassic. Single grain ages as young as 215 Ma validate the inferred Triassic age of these sediments on Wrangel Island. Penetrative deformation, increasing in strain and metamorphic grade with depth in the section, is defined by a foliation that dips south and a pronounced N-S mineral elongation or stretching lineation. The structural style of deformation is unlike the style of folding and thrusting in the external (northern) part of the Brooks Range, but similar to that of the internal (southern) zone of the Brooks Range. Limited thin section observations suggest that this deformation may have been superimposed on an earlier, lower strain event but its evidence has been largely obliterated. The main foliation is axial planar to tight to isoclinal folds in all units; these folds (and associated thrust faults) intricately involve the sediment-basement interface (no brittle detachment). Low-angle faults and map-scale boudinage omit section and structurally thin the stack of folded rocks. Low greenschist facies metamorphism (chlorite-white mica) transitional to mid-greenschist (biotite) accompanied deformation. Fifteen oriented thin sections show that the high strain in these rocks was accompanied by formation of mylonitic textures in quartz: subgrain formation, grain size reduction, grain boundary migration and syn-tectonic recrystallization. Fabrics indicate mostly flattening perpendicular to foliation and stretching in a NS direction; they are not highly asymmetric. The excellent preservation of deformation-related structures in quartz suggests that the observed deformation may be related to unroofing rather than to (thrust) burial. Apatite fission track ages from structurally deepest crystalline basement rocks (samples provided by M. Cecile, GSC) are 82.9 +/- 6.7 and 82.5 +/- 6.4 Ma (1 sigma errors) and have relatively long (14 micron) unimodal track lengths, supporting this possibility.

  15. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

  16. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  17. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our...) 457-9778. U.S. Mail: Kevin Ryan, Project Leader, Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge...

  18. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. This temporary safety zone is necessary...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. The temporary safety zone is...

  19. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. VII. Overview and discussion I. W. B. Thornton1 *, S. Cook2 , J. S. Edwards3 , R. D by volcanic eruption in c. 1645, and Motmot, an emergent island in its caldera lake, was re-created in 1968 species-poor islands. The mid-level caldera plateau, as in 1932, was covered in fairly open forest

  20. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  1. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  2. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  3. INTEGRATED INSAR AND GPS STUDIES OF CRUSTAL DEFORMATION IN THE WESTERN GREAT BASIN, WESTERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    Faulds, James E.

    INTEGRATED INSAR AND GPS STUDIES OF CRUSTAL DEFORMATION IN THE WESTERN GREAT BASIN, WESTERN UNITEDSAR measurements of the patterns and rates of crustal deformation in the western Great Basin, western United States background crustal deformation in the western Great Basin, western United States, using integrated In

  4. Introduced predator removal from islands. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, G.V.; Bailey, E.P.; Stahl, W.

    1996-05-01

    In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, artic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western edge of the trajectory of the oil. Surveys indicated that although adequate nesting habitat was available at Simeonof and Chernabura, oystercatcher and guillemot population densities were much lower than at nearby fox-free islands. Elimination of foxes is expected to dramatically increase populations of these injured species as well as other native birds.

  5. Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).

    PubMed

    Hugel, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.  PMID:25543745

  6. The Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh. N.; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

    2014-05-01

    Makronisos, which lies 3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion, is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The Cyclades and adjacent part of Attica are dominated by Miocene low-angle detachments that developed during top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the West Cycladic Detachment System. Although extension is well documented on the other Western Cycladic islands and in Attica, the geology of Makronisos is poorly known. The aim of this study is to provide data on the structural, microstructural and metamorphic evolution of Makronisos to resolve its tectonostratigraphic position and its relationships within the Cycladic realm. Most of Makronisos consists of grey, locally graphitic, pelitic schists and yellowish impure marbles, interlayed with blue-grey mylonitic marbles and quartzites, forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasites are present as small bodies along the east side of the island but are thicker and more continuous in the southeast. Petrography shows that metabasites usually contain blue amphiboles, although generally only as relicts after greenschist facies retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The structurally highest level of the island consists of white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites up to 40 m thick. These mainly lie on the central ridge of the island, but, due to large-scale upright folding, also crop out along the east and west coasts. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 m of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and macroscopic shear-criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analyses consistently show the same shear-sense, indicated by shape and crystal preferred orientations, ?- and ?-clasts, mica-fish, rotated veins and SCC' structures. Deformation mechanisms observed in quartz (LT-bulging) and calcite (recrystallization) are evidence for deformation temperatures of c. 300°C. Albite porphyroclasts may preserve an older foliation and layering, exhibiting features of an earlier, higher grade metamorphism and deformation phase. This evolution is consistent with progressive cooling during top-to-SSW deformation. The relict HP-mineral assemblages indicate a correlation with the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and hence the white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites forming the structurally uppermost part of the island can be interpreted as a part of the footwall of the Western Cycladic Detachment System. 40Ar/39Ar analyses on metamorphic white mica from pelitic schists, quartzites and marble mylonites/ultramylonites yield ages between 15 and 22 Ma, with a positive correlation between young ages and higher strain. These results are younger than 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Evvia (55-45 Ma and 35-30 Ma) but are similar to white mica ages on nearby Kea. In combination with the given tectonometamorphic data, this suggests that Makronisos underwent a similar geological history as other Western Cycladic islands.

  7. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  8. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  10. PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

  11. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  12. The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

  13. 6.0 References Agee, J. K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Covelo, California,

    E-print Network

    251 6.0 References Agee, J. K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press., T. T. Veblen, and R. L. Sherriff. 2007. Fire, fuels and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas fir.C. Lee, J.L. Kershner, G.H. Reeves, and R.E. Gresswell 2003 . Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western

  14. A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

  15. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  16. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  17. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  18. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  19. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  20. Natural hazards on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The island of Hawaii and the other islands of the Hawaiian chain are products of volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from hundreds of thousands of eruptions through countless centuries have built the Hawaiian Islands. Some volcanoes on the island of Hawaii have been very active during historic time, and similar activity is expected to continue throughout the foreseeable future.

  1. YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island Leader's Forum Wednesday, March 9, 2011 The Long Island Leader's Forum is a valuable and long standing tradition for the horticulture industry on Long Island and success of the green industry on Long Island. Thanks to Fred Soviero, this year's Leader's Forum

  2. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud-free profiles were acquired in the fall of 2003 and 2004. During February-March, 2005 ICESat's precise pointing capability will be used to exactly repeat these three profiles, with a cross-track accuracy of better than 100 m, providing trench- parallel and -perpendicular observations of topographic change of the Andaman Islands that will compliment geodetic field surveys. The observed elevation changes will be compared to models of coseismic deformation associated with the mainshock and large aftershocks in the Andaman Islands region.

  3. Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Donna M.

    2005-07-01

    The Department of Energy's second Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) site in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region was established on the island of Nauru as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Analysis of data taken during the Nauru99 intensive field experiment indicated that the cloud and radiation measurements at the ARCS site were being affected by a cloud plume, which was induced by the island due to diurnal heating relative to the ocean and the predominantly easterly flow of the tradewinds. The Nauru Island Effects Study (NIES) was developed to identify times when the island cloud effect occurs and to quantify the effect on the ARCS measurements. The Nauru cloud plume is found to be highly correlated with surface wind direction. During suppressed conditions the plume heading is predominantly to the west because of the consistency of the easterly trade winds. During El Nino conditions, the cloud plume can occur with almost any heading due to the variability of the surface winds. During suppressed conditions the cloud plume was observed in 60% of the visible satellite images after 10:30 LST. During active conditions, the plume was observed in only 25% of the satellite images and only half of the observed plumes were downwind of the ARCS site. This study indicates that the absolute increase in low cloud frequency due to the cloud plume is on the order of 10% and the effect of the cloud plume on the average daily surface radiation is around 50-60 wm. By installing a simple measurement platform consisting of surface meteorological instruments and a global shortwave radiometer at a site on the opposite side of the island, the effect of the cloud plume on the radiation field at the ARCS site can be quantified on a long term basis.

  4. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately...

  5. AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 USA 3 4638 14th Street, Boulder, CO 80304 USA July 16, 2002 Report oceanic islands is extremely limited. We photo-identified bottlenose dolphins around the islands of Oahu

  6. Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory in a temperate island archipelago. The theory of island biogeography (ToIB) predicts that island area affects species diversity by reducing immigration rates. The passive sampling hypothesis predicts that island area

  7. Cretaceous and Tertiary rhyncholites from the western Atlantic Ocean and from Mississippi

    E-print Network

    Teichert, C.; Spinosa, C.

    1971-12-07

    PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS December 7, 1971 Paper 58 CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY RHYNCHOLITES FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN AND FROM MISSISSIPPI CURT TEICHERT and CLAUDE SPINOSA University of Kansas, Lawrence; Boise State College, Boise, Idaho ABSTRACT The first.... OCCURRENCE.-Lower Cretaceous strata (Barremian- Hauterivian) at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, north- east of San Salvador Island. [Holotype KU62172 and two paratypes KU62173, 62174 were recovered from the base of a 139 cm long core (Core no. V 24...

  8. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified in eight cores at higher tidal and freshwater sites, date from about 1.5 ka and 2.0 ka, respectively. A younger silty sand bed, <10 cm beneath the now-eroding low marsh around the lagoon, may record the 1964 tsunami. Correlations of two to three other sandy beds are too uncertain to infer their deposition by tsunamis. Stratigraphic contacts found only in cores and outcrops of the <0.8- to 1-ka tidal section fringing the lagoon may mark coseismic uplift (peat over tidal mud, sometimes with intervening sand) or subsidence (tidal mud over peat, sometimes with intervening sand). We collected samples of modern tidal foraminifera along three elevational transects for the baseline dataset needed to use fossil assemblages to measure the amount of uplift or subsidence recorded by contacts. Foraminiferal assemblages above and below one contact confirm rapid uplift a few hundred years before the 1788 tsunami, but cores are too few to correlate this contact with any of the sandy beds that we infer were deposited by tsunamis farther inland. These initial results demonstrate the promise of this previously unexplored island and similar sites for using stratigraphic evidence of sudden land-level changes and high tsunamis to map prehistoric ruptures of the Aleutian-Alaskan megathrust.

  9. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  10. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  11. Science Students' Council Western University

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    Science Students' Council Western University Natural Sciences Centre, Room 1 Science Students' Council Presents: Intent to Register Information Fair Faculties Participating: Faculty of Science and Schulich School of Medicine

  12. 2007 Western States Fire Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

  13. Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Letetrel, C.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A.; Delcroix, T.

    2012-01-01

    The western tropical Pacific is usually considered as one of the most vulnerable regions of the world under present-day and future global warming. It is often reported that some islands of the region already suffer significant sea level rise. To clarify the latter concern, in the present study we estimate sea level rise and variability since 1950 in the western tropical Pacific region (20°S-15°N; 120°E-135°W). We estimate the total rate of sea level change at selected individual islands, as a result of climate variability and change, plus vertical ground motion where available. For that purpose, we reconstruct a global sea level field from 1950 to 2009, combining long (over 1950-2009) good quality tide gauge records with 50-year-long (1958-2007) gridded sea surface heights from the Ocean General Circulation Model DRAKKAR. The results confirm that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have a strong modulating effect on the interannual sea level variability of the western tropical Pacific, with lower/higher-than-average sea level during El Niño/La Niña events, of the order of ± 20-30 cm. Besides this sub-decadal ENSO signature, sea level of the studied region also shows low-frequency (multi decadal) variability which superimposes to, thus in some areas amplifies current global mean sea level rise due to ocean warming and land ice loss. We use GPS precise positioning records whenever possible to estimate the vertical ground motion component that is locally superimposed to the climate-related sea level components. Superposition of global mean sea level rise, low-frequency regional variability and vertical ground motion shows that some islands of the region suffered significant 'total' sea level rise (i.e., that felt by the population) during the past 60 years. This is especially the case for the Funafuti Island (Tuvalu) where the "total" rate of rise is found to be about 3 times larger than the global mean sea level rise over 1950-2009.

  14. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  15. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  16. Island Cosmology in the Landscape

    E-print Network

    Yun-Song Piao

    2008-06-11

    In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the evolution of standard big bang cosmology. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of curvature perturbation generated during the emergence of island. We find that generally the spectrum obtained is nearly scale invariant, which can be well related to that of slow roll inflation by a simple duality. This in some sense suggests a degeneracy between their scalar spectra. In addition, we also simply estimate the non-Gaussianity of perturbation, which is naturally large, yet, can lie well in the observational bound. The results shown here indicate that the island emergently thermalized in the landscape can be consistent with our observable universe.

  17. No Company Is An Island 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, A.

    1989-01-01

    No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

  18. Tsunami trapping near circular islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

    1995-09-01

    Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

  19. A Flatworm from the Genus Waminoa (Acoela: Convolutidae) Associated with Bleached Corals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystal; Clode, Peta L; Thomson, Damian P; Stat, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A flatworm isolated from bleached colonies of the coral Coscinaraea marshae at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, is described using a combination of morphological and molecular systematics. This flatworm shares morphological features characteristic of the genus Waminoa (Acoelomorpha: Acoela), including the presence of two algal symbionts, but appears to have genital regions different from those of other described species of Waminoa. The design of new oligonucleotide primers enabled the amplification of partial 18S rDNA of the Rottnest Island acoel specimens, and phylogenetic analysis positioned them within Waminoa, confirming their placement in the genus. Furthermore, Waminoa specimens from Rottnest Island grouped into a sister clade to Waminoa brickneri, indicating that the morphological and genetic differences observed are most likely intraspecific and due to geographic variation. As such, we name these Rottnest Island specimens W. cf. brickneri, but highlight that key differences warrant further exploration before assignment to this species can be confirmed. This is the first acoel flatworm described from Western Australia and contributes to our understanding of the diversity and evolutionary relationship of the Acoela. PMID:26428725

  20. Single-cell western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Spelke, Dawn P.; Xu, Zhuchen; Kang, Chi-Chih; Schaffer, David V.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    To measure cell-to-cell variation in protein-mediated functions — a hallmark of biological processes — we developed an approach to conduct ~103 concurrent single-cell western blots (scWesterns) in ~4 hours. A microscope slide supporting a 30 µm-thick photoactive polyacrylamide gel enables western blotting comprised of: settling of single cells into microwells, lysis in situ, gel electrophoresis, photoinitiated blotting to immobilize proteins, and antibody probing. We apply this scWestern to monitor single rat neural stem cell differentiation and responses to mitogen stimulation. The scWestern quantifies target proteins even with off-target antibody binding, multiplexes to 11 protein targets per single cell with detection thresholds of <30,000 molecules, and supports analyses of low starting cell numbers (~200) when integrated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. The scWestern thus overcomes limitations in single-cell protein analysis (i.e., antibody fidelity, sensitivity, and starting cell number) and constitutes a versatile tool for the study of complex cell populations at single-cell resolution. PMID:24880876

  1. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  2. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  3. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  4. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  6. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island...vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone...vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. This rule is intended to...

  7. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  8. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  9. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  10. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  11. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  12. 76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N222; 10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan,...

  13. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the...

  14. Preliminary interpretation of the upper crustal structure beneath Prince Edward Island

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    , measurements were made in the period range 0.0026-1820 s, and, in general, the data quality was very high. For the western part ofthe Island there is a resistive zone which can be identified from the borehole logs as pre-Carboniferous indicated a gradient of only 14 mK/m. The depth to the base of the mainly Permo-Carboniferous sediments

  15. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. V. Colonization by ®gs (Ficus spp.), their dispersers and pollinators M. Shanahan1 activity in the early 1950s produced a series of temporary islands in the volcano's caldera lake. One

  16. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  17. Scaling properties of rainfall and desert dust in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñate, I.; Martín-González, J. M.; Rodríguez, G.; Cianca, A.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation and desert dust event occurrence time series measured in the Canary Islands region are examined with the primary intention of exploring their scaling characteristics as well as their spatial variability in terms of the island's topography and geographical orientation. In particular, the desert dust intrusion regime in the islands is studied in terms of its relationship with visibility. Analysis of dust and rainfall events over the archipelago exhibits distributions in time that obey power laws. Results show that the rain process presents a high clustering and irregular pattern on short timescales and a more scattered structure for long ones. In contrast, dustiness presents a more uniform and dense structure and, consequently, a more persistent behaviour on short timescales. It was observed that the fractal dimension of rainfall events shows an important spatial variability, which increases with altitude, as well as towards northern latitudes and western longitudes.

  18. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  19. Partnerships for health: decimating tuberculosis in the Cook Islands, 1920-1975.

    PubMed

    Futter-Puati, Debbie; Bryder, Linda; Park, Julie; Littleton, Judith; Herda, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    How did the Cook Islands manage to achieve a significant reduction in tuberculosis from a high rate in the early 20th century to low rates by 1975? With the mid-century invention of effective drug therapy there was a widespread belief around the Western world that TB could be eradicated. The Cook Islands was one place which almost reached this goal. Based on primary and secondary historical and anthropological research, we argue that the geo-political emplacement of the Cook Islands and development of multi-scale partnerships were crucial to success. Our research indicates the value of understanding and engaging with local community networks and culturally appropriate partnerships in dealing with health issues. PMID:24216025

  20. The Hegemony of Western Business Management Literature in Non-Western Settings: A Hong Kong Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Alma M.

    1995-01-01

    Western management literature presents a model of organizational life that may or may not be appropriate in a non-Western business context. A Hong Kong study suggests even students professing to be westernized maintain home cultural attitudes. It is argued that non-Western management teachers have the added responsibility of relating Western

  1. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    The majority of islands in the tropical western Pacific are coral atolls. Most are inhabited by indigenous Micronesian populations. Local people have over the millennia developed coping strategies and response mechanisms to difficult natural conditions, including typhoons, erosion, giant swells, and flooding, as well as ensuing famines and epidemics. However, since 1990s residents of atolls in the region have been appealing for help. They indicate that their islands are being rapidly eroded along coastlines, land areas are becoming smaller, and taro patches and other vegetation are being damaged. Such concerns were corroborated by one sweeping assessment by South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission in 1998, as well as various isolated field observations since. Evidence of recent coastal erosion is found locally on many islands, both on windward and leeward sides and ocean and lagoon facing shores. Examples include retreating modern beaches, exhumed beachrock, scouring and undercutting of vegetation, overhanging scarps, etc. In addition, a considerable number of uninhabited islets have been completely obliterated by storms in the recent past; unusually high tides and swells have swept over large populated islands, destroying homes and harming agriculture; and at least one atoll has been abandoned due to irrecoverable typhoon damage. Those problems have received much worldwide media coverage, in which they are generally presented as "sinking" of islands due to global climate change and accompanying sea level rise. In reality, modern atolls are now known to be artifacts of the Pacific mid-Holocene High-Stand, and no first-hand data are available from Pacific islands to discern what proportion of observed erosional phenomena are 1) due to local natural and anthropogenic coastal processes as opposed to global and regional changes, and 2) caused by continuous natural dynamics as opposed to episodic extreme events. It is clear that some islands are faring better than others, and that land is not always eroding but in some cases accreting. We are currently engaged in a systematic survey of islands across the region in order to differentiate local problems from wide-ranging phenomena and gain insight into the temporal and geospatial "big picture." The direct aim is to comprehensively and more precisely assess coastal erosion and quantify changes in land area of different islands over the past 50 years. The project consists of fieldwork and GIS analyses, and it is the first to employ such methods to evaluate shoreline transformation in the western Pacific. We visit each island, interview local people regarding recent land changes and events, and carry out site investigations and mapping. Each inhabited island is circumambulated on foot, and beach slopes and scarps are measured, sediments examined, human activities and vegetation damage noted, etc. More importantly, the entire coast of each island is mapped using MobileMapper PRO portable units capable of generating GIS shapefiles in the field. Created coverages include the actual shoreline, sandy banks, vegetated areas, coastal engineering, control points, etc. Data collected on the ground is imported into ArcGIS and rectified using remote sensing imagery. It is then compared to all available historical maps, notably US Army Corps of Engineers 1960s topographic charts, which were previously assembled, digitized, and georeferenced for the purposes of this project. Any discrepancies in island outline and land area would have occurred over the past half a century. Due to the vastness of western Pacific region and logistical obstacles to working on remote islands, data are accumulated gradually. Ultimately, this island-by-island approach will allow documentation of historical and regional erosion patterns, contribute to understanding of local and global components of recent coastal changes, and deliver recommendations for environmental management and emergency avoidance on atolls and other oceanic low islands.

  2. Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin and diversification patterns of lineages across the Indian Ocean islands are varied due to the interplay of the complex geographic and geologic island histories, the varying dispersal abilities of biotas, and the proximity to major continental landmasses. Our aim was to reconstruct phylogeographic history of the giant orbweaving spider (Nephila) on western Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues), to test its origin and route of dispersal, and to examine the consequences of good dispersal abilities for colonization and diversification, in comparison with related spiders (Nephilengys) inhabiting the same islands, and with other organisms known for over water dispersal. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS2) markers to examine phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in Nephila populations and species. We employed Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, respectively, and calculated genetic distances, fixation indices, and estimated clade ages under a relaxed clock model. Results Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephila inaurata populations via Cenozoic dispersal, and the colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and Comoros. The Mascarene islands share a common 'ancestral' COI haplotype closely related to those found on Madagascar, but itself absent, or as yet unsampled, from Madagascar. Each island has one or more unique haplotypes related to the ancestral Mascarene haplotype. The Indian Ocean N. inaurata are genetically distinct from the African populations. Conclusions Nephila spiders colonized Madagascar from Africa about 2.5 (0.6-5.3) Ma. Our results are consistent with subsequent, recent and rapid, colonization of all three Mascarene islands. On each island, however, we detected unique haplotypes, consistent with a limited gene flow among the islands subsequent to colonization, a scenario that might be referred to as speciation in progress. However, due to relatively small sample sizes, we cannot rule out that we simply failed to collect Mascarene haplotypes on Madagascar, a scenario that might imply human mediated dispersal. Nonetheless, the former interpretation better fits the available data and results in a pattern similar to the related Nephilengys. Nephilengys, however, shows higher genetic divergences with diversification on more remote islands. That the better disperser of the two lineages, Nephila, has colonized more islands but failed to diversify, demonstrates how dispersal ability can shape both the patterns of colonization and formation of species across archipelagos. PMID:21554687

  3. The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Amir; Gidaszewski, Nelly; Albert, Béatrice; Hivert, Jean; David, Jean R.; Orgogozo, Virginie; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen drosophilid species belonging to seven genera and two subfamilies are reported from three coral islands (namely Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso) that belong to the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. Five species are cosmopolitan and five are African. Three are endemic to the insular Western Indian Ocean, including a presumably new Scaptodrosophila species. On the island of Juan de Nova, most captured flies had pollinia attached to the bases of their proboscis. DNA analysis using the rbcl gene revealed that these pollinia belong to the genus Leptadenia (Apocynaceae), of which a single species L. madagascariensis, endemic in Madagascar and Comoros, is present in this island. This is the first reported association between this plant and drosophilids. PMID:23222006

  4. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination, and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  5. Genetic variation among mainland and island populations of a native perennial grass used in restoration

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Mazer, Susan J.; Hodges, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic marker studies can assist restoration practice through selection of seed sources that conserve historical levels of gene diversity and population genetic differentiation. We examined genetic variation and structure within and among mainland and island populations of Elymus glaucus, a perennial bunchgrass species native to western North American grasslands that is targeted for grassland restoration. Island populations of E. glaucus represent sensitive sites and potentially distinctive seed sources for reintroduction, and little is known of their genetic composition. Genetic diversity and structure were estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for 21 populations and 416 individuals distributed across two coastal California mainland locations and three California Channel Islands. Eight primer combinations resulted in 166 markers, of which 165 (99.4 %) were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands was significantly greater among mainland populations relative to island sites, and locally common alleles were present for each sampled island and mainland location. Population structure was high (62.9 %), with most variation (55.8 %) distributed among populations, 7.1 % between mainland and island locations, and the remainder (37.1 %) within populations. Isolation by distance was only apparent among islands. Using marker data to recommend appropriate seed sources for restoration, E. glaucus seeds are best derived within islands with collections representing a large number of individuals from matching environments. Given the limited gene flow and prior evidence of adaptive divergence among populations of this species, regional collections are recommended in all cases to maintain diversity and to avoid long-distance introductions of highly differentiated plant material. PMID:24790118

  6. Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

    2007-12-01

    The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it was uplifted 3 m above sea level and remains completely exposed. Sediment samples were collected along transects extended from offshore to onshore environments for larger islands, such as Ghizo, where the tsunami did not pass over the entire island. Smaller islands, such as Nusa Aghana, a transect was conducted from the outer barrier reefs, through the lagoon, across the island, and offshore on the opposing side of the island. Offshore data was collected using a side-scan sonar system that records bathymetry and images coral reef morphology. This data was coupled with snorkeling and SCUBA diving to ground truth the offshore lagoon and reef environments. Sediment samples were collected offshore every 5 m and were documented by underwater photos and GPS coordinates. Offshore to onshore sediment transects reveal that sediment was eroded from seaward facing shorelines, deposited a thin veneer of sediment on islands, and transported the majority of the sediment on coral reefs on the lagoon side of islands, essentially burying coral and lagoonal sediment. Coral reef damaged by the earthquake and tsunami represents a major concern for an already threatened ecosystem. Recovery of the fishing and dive tourism economies rely on the healthy reestablishment of the reef.

  7. Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and Epidemiological Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; LeMinter, Gildas; Licciardi, Séverine; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frédéric; Laudisoit, Anne; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on Indian Ocean islands with the exception of Madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. In the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in Reunion Island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on Reunion Island. Small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were trapped from November 2012 to November 2013 along two altitudinal transects, one on the windward eastern and one on the leeward western sides of the island. A total of 960 animals were trapped, and 286 fleas were morphologically and molecularly identified. Four species were reported: (i) two cosmopolitan Xenopsylla species which appeared by far as the prominent species, X. cheopis and X. brasiliensis; (ii) fewer fleas belonging to Echidnophaga gallinacea and Leptopsylla segnis. Rattus rattus was found to be the most abundant host species in our sample, and also the most parasitized host, predominantly by X. cheopis. A marked decrease in flea abundance was observed during the cool-dry season, which indicates seasonal fluctuation in infestation. Importantly, our data reveal that flea abundance was strongly biased on the island, with 81% of all collected fleas coming from the western dry side and no Xenopsylla flea collected on almost four hundred rodents trapped along the windward humid eastern side. The possible consequences of this sharp spatio-temporal pattern are discussed in terms of flea-borne disease risks in Reunion Island, particularly with regard to plague and the currently emerging murine typhus outbreak. PMID:25188026

  8. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  9. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  10. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on islands at its northern range.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  11. SSW-directed low-angled extension on Makronisos, Western Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. H. N.; Huet, B.; Grasemann, B.; Soukis, K.; Tschegg, C.

    2012-04-01

    Makronisos is the most northwesterly island in the Western Cycladic archipelago, lying only a few kilometres from the Attica mainland port of Lavrion. The island is pencil-shaped, 13 km long (NNE-SSW) by 2.5 km wide, with a single axial ridge irregularly rising from 120 m in the south to 260 m in the north. Most of the island comprises a sequence of schists and interlayered blue-grey marbles that exhibit chocolate-tablet pinch-and-swell. The tectonostratigraphically highest level of the central to northern parts of the island consists of pale coloured calcite ultramylonites overlying cataclastically deformed schists. These form outliers on the crest of the island and also crop-out along the west and east coasts. Stretching lineations in all units trend NNE-SSW and all shear criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense (S-C-?, asymmetric porphyroclasts). Large-scale (~0.35 km wavelength) upright folds, with axes parallel to the stretching direction, control the overall outcrop pattern. The style of deformation is consistent with that found in more southeasterly parts of the W. Cyclades (Kea, Kythnos, Serifos) and also to that seen in the adjacent Attica mainland and confirms the continuity of top-to-SSE extension in that part of the Aegean. These observations allow the tectonostratigraphy of the mainland to be correlated with that of the W. Cyclades and hence a scenario for the exhumation of the metamorphic units in this region to be proposed.

  12. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  13. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  14. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  15. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  9. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  11. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8?mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5?mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25?mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  12. Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

  13. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

  15. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  16. Across the Southern Alps by river capture? Freshwater fish phylogeography in South Island, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; Wallis, G P

    2000-10-01

    We used DNA analysis of galaxiid fish to test a hypothesis of localized headwater capture in South Island, New Zealand. The restricted western, but widespread eastern, distributions of three nonmigratory freshwater fish species suggest that part of the east-flowing Waiau River has been captured by the west-flowing Buller River. However, mitochondrial control region (Kimura 2-parameter distance = 4.1-5.4%) and microsatellite flanking sequences do not support a relationship between Waiau (N = 4 fish sequences) and western populations (N = 8) of Galaxias vulgaris. Instead, the point of capture is probably to the north-east, perhaps the Nelson lakes region. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that western populations, along with populations in the north-east (N = 18), represent a previously unidentified monophyletic Evolutionarily Significant Unit, possibly a cryptic species. We suggest a general caveat for zoogeographic conclusions based on distributional data alone. PMID:11050552

  17. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  18. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

  19. Bidding the CpG island goodbye

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands. PMID:23467495

  20. Biodiversity on island chains: Neutral model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2010-11-01

    A neutral ecology model is simulated on an island chain, in which neighboring islands can exchange individuals but only the first island is able to receive immigrants from a metacommunity. It is found by several measures that ? -diversity decreases along the chain. Subtle changes in taxon abundance distributions can be detected when islands in the chain are compared to diversity-matched single islands. The island chain is found to have unexpectedly rich dynamics. Significant ? -diversity correlations are found between islands in the chain, which are absent between diversity-matched single islands. The results potentially apply to human microbial biodiversity and biogeography and suggest that measurements of interindividual and intraindividual ? -diversity may give insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms.

  1. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least 60 ka at the southeastern end of the island, inside the scar left by a fourth sector collapse towards the SE, which affected most previous complexes. Contemporaneously, parasitic strombolian cones formed all over the island. Despite the location of Graciosa inside the active Terceira Rift, the new data indicate that the evolution of the island has been driven by a competition between volcano growth and repeated destruction by catastrophic sector collapses, rather than by slow incremental faulting associated with the tectonics of the rift.

  2. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. (a) The area....

  3. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  4. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  5. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  7. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  8. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  11. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  1. Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island

    E-print Network

    Wait, D. Alexander

    Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography the subsidized island biogeography (SIB) hypothesis, which predicts that spatial subsidies may cause insular. Methods To evaluate the SIB hypothesis, we first identified subsidized and unsubsidized islands based

  2. ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

  3. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R. Fitzpatrick, P. G. Watson, and F. L. Waelbroeck the phase-velocity of a comparatively wide, isolated, magnetic island, formed as a result of a nonlinear

  4. The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands

    E-print Network

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands by Joseph ^ Corresponding author: e-mail, jpedlosky@whoi.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT The flow around planetary scale islands is examined when the island possesses a topographic skirt representing a steep continental shelf. The model

  5. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  6. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix E to Part 622...622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1 of...

  8. The Status of Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica) on Catalina Island, California1

    E-print Network

    The Status of Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica) on Catalina Island, California1 Denise A. Knapp2 The island scrub oak is characterized by a shrubby (to 2 meters) or arborescent (to 5 meters or taller) growth form. It is the dominant species of the scrub oak chaparral community on Catalina Island, which

  9. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix E to Part 622...622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1 of...

  10. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  11. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  12. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  13. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  14. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  15. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  16. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  17. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  18. A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

  19. Processes Driving Natural Acidification of Western Pacific Coral Reef Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamberger, K. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Golbuu, Y.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.; Barkley, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are acidifying the oceans, reducing seawater pH, aragonite saturation state (?ar) and the availability of carbonate ions (CO32-) that calcifying organisms use to build coral reefs. Today's most extensive reef ecosystems are located where open ocean CO32- concentration ([CO32-]) and ?ar exceed 200 ?mol kg-1 and 3.3, respectively. However, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and long residence times of water can result in carbonate chemistry conditions within coral reef systems that differ greatly from those of nearby open ocean waters. In the Palauan archipelago, water moving across the reef platform is altered by both biological and hydrographic processes that combine to produce seawater pH, ?ar, [CO32-] significantly lower than that of open ocean source water. Just inshore of the barrier reefs, average ?ar values are 0.2 to 0.3 and pH values are 0.02 to 0.03 lower than they are offshore, declining further as water moves across the back reef, lagoon and into the meandering bays and inlets that characterize the Rock Islands. In the Rock Island bays, coral communities inhabit seawater with average ?ar values of 2.7 or less, and as low as 1.9. Levels of ?ar as low as these are not predicted to occur in the western tropical Pacific open ocean until near the end of the century. Calcification by coral reef organisms is the principal biological process responsible for lowering ?ar and pH, accounting for 68 - 99 % of the difference in ?ar between offshore source water and reef water at our sites. However, in the Rock Island bays where ?ar is lowest, CO2 production by net respiration contributes between 17 - 30 % of the difference in ?ar between offshore source water and reef water. Furthermore, the residence time of seawater in the Rock Island bays is much longer than at the well flushed exposed sites, enabling calcification and respiration to drive ?ar to very low levels despite lower net ecosystem calcification rates in the Rock Island bays than on the barrier reef.

  20. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (<70 km2) on Skovbjerg hill island in the western part of Denmark. Existing discharge data are limited but the hydrographs downstream Abild Stream appear to be strongly influenced by event flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a catchment with at least two different hydrogeological settings. To further investigate the spatial variation along the stream we plan to finish the hydrogeological interpretation and build a model and on this basis choose appropriate locations for further monitoring of discharge at different spatial scales (gaging stations), monitoring hydraulic head variations and quantifying hydraulic parameters (piezometers), mapping the shallow subsurface more detailed (DC/IP) and qualifying flow components at representative stream sections through temperature methods (temperature loggers and distributed temperature sensing). We will present an overview of the initial investigations in a poster.