Rounding of abrupt phase transitions in brain networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villa Martín, Paula; Moretti, Paolo; Muñoz, Miguel A.
2015-01-01
The observation of critical-like behavior in cortical networks represents a major step forward in elucidating how the brain manages information. Understanding the origin and functionality of critical-like dynamics, as well as its robustness, is a major challenge in contemporary neuroscience. Here, we present an extensive numerical study of a family of simple dynamical models, which describe activity propagation in brain networks through the integration of different neighboring spiking potentials, mimicking basic neural interactions. The requirement of signal integration may lead to discontinuous phase transitions in networks that are well described by the mean-field approximation, thus preventing the emergence of critical points in such systems. Brain networks, however, are finite dimensional and exhibit a heterogeneous hierarchical structure that cannot be encoded in mean-field models. Here we propose that, as a consequence of the presence of such a heterogeneous substrate with its concomitant structural disorder, critical-like features may emerge even in the presence of integration. These conclusions may prove significant in explaining the observation of traits of critical behavior in large-scale measurements of brain activity.
A steep-slope transistor based on abrupt electronic phase transition
Shukla, Nikhil; Thathachary, Arun V.; Agrawal, Ashish; Paik, Hanjong; Aziz, Ahmedullah; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gupta, Sumeet Kumar; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Datta, Suman
2015-01-01
Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep (‘sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications. PMID:26249212
A steep-slope transistor based on abrupt electronic phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Nikhil; Thathachary, Arun V.; Agrawal, Ashish; Paik, Hanjong; Aziz, Ahmedullah; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gupta, Sumeet Kumar; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Datta, Suman
2015-08-01
Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep (`sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications.
Analysis of abrupt transitions in ecological systems
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The occurrence and causes of abrupt transitions, thresholds, or regime shifts between ecosystem states are of great concern and the likelihood of such transitions is increasing for many ecological systems. General understanding of abrupt transitions has been advanced by theory, but hindered by the l...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Hao; Torchinsky, Darius; Zhao, Liuyan; Rall, Patrick; Terrace, Jasminka; Cao, Gang; Hsieh, David; InstituteQuantum Information; Matter, California Institute of Technology Collaboration; Department of Physics; Astronomy, University of Kentucky Collaboration
2015-03-01
Ca2RuO4 is a multiband strongly correlated electron system that undergoes a structural phase transition at Ts 360K that is concomitant with an insulator-to-metal transition and a rearrangement of orbital occupancy. Understanding its structural and electronic response to ultrafast optical excitation can provide insight about the microscopic mechanism of this phase transition.We report temperature and fluence dependent time resolved optical reflectivity measurements from lightly doped Ca2RuO4 single crystals. Abrupt changes in both the electronic relaxation dynamics and multiple lattice vibrational modes are observed, including the softening of two optical phonon modes as Ts is approached. We will discuss the relevance of our results to existing theories of the mechanism underlying the structural phase transition in Ca2RuO4 as well as the possibility of photo-inducing this phase transition on ultrafast time scales.
Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Ning; Dumas, Christophe; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille
2016-04-01
During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), global annual mean temperature is warmer by 2-3 degree than pre-industrial. Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to be a 50% reduction compared to nowadays [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ~ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, there is already full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. How does Greenland ice sheet evolve from a half size to a glaciation level during 3 Ma - 2.5 Ma? Data show that there is a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process. In order to diagnose whether the ice sheet build-up is an abrupt event or a cumulative process, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables to investigate waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. To reach this goal, we use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014) which combines the evolution of CO2 concentration, orbital parameters and Greenland ice sheet sizes in an off-line way by interpolating snapshots simulations. Thanks to this new method, we can build a transient like simulation through asynchronous coupling between GCM and ice sheet model. With this method, we may consistently answer the question of the build-up of Greenland: abrupt or cumulative process.
Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.
2014-12-01
As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has
Gradual and abrupt changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, Heather L.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Raymo, Maureen E.
2016-09-01
During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), the dominant glacial-interglacial cyclicity as inferred from the marine δ18O records of benthic foraminifera (δ18Obenthic) changed from 41 kyr to 100 kyr years in the absence of a comparable change in orbital forcing. Currently, only two Mg/Ca-derived, high-resolution bottom water temperature (BWT) records exist that can be used with δ18Obenthic records to separate temperature and ice volume signals over the Pleistocene. However, these two BWT records suggest a different pattern of climate change occurred over the MPT-a record from North Atlantic DSDP Site 607 suggests BWT decreased with no long-term trend in ice volume over the MPT, while South Pacific ODP Site 1123 suggests that BWT has been relatively stable over the last 1.5 Myr but that there was an abrupt increase in ice volume at ∼900 kyr. In this paper we attempt to reconcile these two views of climate change across the MPT. Specifically, we investigated the suggestion that the secular BWT trend obtained from Mg/Ca measurements on Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Oridorsalis umbonatus species from N. Atlantic Site 607 is biased by the possible influence of Δ[CO32-] on Mg/Ca values in these species by generating a low-resolution BWT record using Uvigerina spp., a genus whose Mg/Ca values are not thought to be influenced by Δ[CO32-]. We find a long-term BWT cooling of ∼2-3°C occurred from 1500 to ∼500 kyr in the N. Atlantic, consistent with the previously generated C. wuellerstorfi and O. umbonatus BWT record. We also find that changes in ocean circulation likely influenced δ18Obenthic, BWT, and δ18Oseawater records across the MPT. N. Atlantic BWT cooling starting at ∼1.2 Ma, presumably driven by high-latitude cooling, may have been a necessary precursor to a threshold response in climate-ice sheet behavior at ∼900 ka. At that point, a modest increase in ice volume and thermohaline reorganization may have caused enhanced sensitivity to the 100 kyr
Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age
WAIS Divide Project Members; Buizert, Christo; Adrian, Betty M.; Ahn, Jinho; Albert, Mary; Alley, Richard B.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Bauska, Thomas K.; Bay, Ryan C.; Bencivengo, Brian B.; Bentley, Charles R.; Brook, Edward J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Clow, Gary D.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Conway, Howard; Cravens, Eric; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Edwards, Jon S.; Fegyveresi, John M.; Ferris, Dave G.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Fudge, T. J.; Gibson, Chris J.; Gkinis, Vasileios; Goetz, Joshua J.; Gregory, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Geoffrey Mill; Iverson, Nels; Johnson, Jay A.; Jones, Tyler R.; Kalk, Michael L.; Kippenhan, Matthew J.; Koffman, Bess G.; Kreutz, Karl; Kuhl, Tanner W.; Lebar, Donald A.; Lee, James E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Markle, Bradley R.; Maselli, Olivia J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mitchell, Logan E.; Mortensen, Nicolai B.; Neff, Peter D.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Nunn, Richard M.; Orsi, Anais J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Pedro, Joel B.; Pettit, Erin C.; Price, P. Buford; Priscu, John C.; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Rosen, Julia L.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.; Sendelbach, Paul J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Shturmakov, Alexander J.; Sigl, Michael; Slawny, Kristina R.; Souney, Joseph M.; Sowers, Todd A.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Steig, Eric J.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Twickler, Mark S.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; Voigt, Donald E.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Welten, Kees C.; Wendricks, Anthony W.; White, James W. C.; Winstrup, Mai; Wong, Gifford J.; Woodruff, Thomas E.
2015-01-01
The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives1. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard–Oeschger cycle and vice versa2, 3, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw4, 5, 6. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events7, 8, 9. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision2, 3,10. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard–Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard–Oeschger dynamics.
Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age.
2015-04-30
The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard-Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard-Oeschger dynamics. PMID:25925479
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-09-01
In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...
Analysis of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions
Li, Z. P.; Meng, J.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2009-08-26
A microscopic analysis, based on nuclear energy density functionals, is presented for shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes. Low-lying excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian, with parameters determined by constrained relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data, and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N = 90, that corresponds to a first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.
The grain size gap and abrupt gravel-sand transitions in rivers due to suspension fallout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, Michael P.; Venditti, Jeremy G.
2016-04-01
Median grain sizes on riverbeds range from boulders in uplands to silt in lowlands; however, rivers with ~1-5 mm diameter bed sediment are rare. This grain size gap also marks an abrupt transition between gravel- and sand-bedded reaches that is unlike any other part of the fluvial network. Abrupt gravel-sand transitions have been attributed to rapid breakdown or rapid transport of fine gravel, or a bimodal sediment supply, but supporting evidence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that rivers dramatically lose the ability to transport sand as wash load where bed shear velocity drops below ~0.1 m/s, forcing an abrupt transition in bed-material grain size. Using thresholds for wash load and initial motion, we show that the gap emerges only for median bed-material grain sizes of ~1-5 mm due to Reynolds number dependencies in suspension transport. The grain size gap, therefore, is sensitive to material properties and gravity, with coarser gaps predicted on Mars and Titan.
The role of stochastic noise in the abrupt climatic transitions of the pleistocene
Matteucci, G.
1991-01-01
Analyses of marine [delta][sup 18]O records suggest that the variations of the Earth's orbital parameters have induced and provided the timing of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. This dissertation analyses some statistical properties of the Pleistocene climate by estimating the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the [delta][sup 18]O record. The results allow to define statistically what were the [open quotes]typical conditions[close quotes] (in a probabilistic sense) of the Quaternary, to identify the modes of the PDF as the mean glacial and interglacial climatic states, and to clarify the meaning and the abruptness of the climatic transitions. A zero-dimensional Energy Balance Model is developed. The nonlinearity of the ice albedo-temperature feedback leads to multiple steady-state equilibria. The role of stochastic perturbations and their interaction with the orbital forcing in producing the periodic and abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene are illustrated. A stochastic sensitivity analysis is used to clarify the results, especially the selective amplification of the orbitally-induced 100 kyr cycle, and the predictability of the system on the time scales of the orbital cycles. From the analysis of GCM simulations and observational zonally- averaged data a one-dimensional EBM is then developed. The strong nonlinearity of this model and the occurrence of multiple equilibria is caused by the presence of the Thin Ice Cap Instability. A discussion of the features that stochastic perturbations would introduce, follows. Finally a GCM sensitivity study to atmospheric CO[sub 2] shows how the effects of varying CO[sub 2] concentrations can be included in simple EBMs. The role that stochastic perturbations, orbital forcing, and the known past concentrations of atmospheric CO[sub 2] have played in producing the abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Pengcheng; Hou, Wei; Feng, Guolin
2016-05-01
A new detection method has been proposed to study the transition process of abrupt climate change. With this method, the climate system transiting from one stable state to another can be verified clearly. By applying this method to the global sea surface temperature over the past century, several climate changes and their processes are detected, including the start state (moment), persist time, and end state (moment). According to the spatial distribution, the locations of climate changes mainly have occurred in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific before the middle twentieth century, in the 1970s in the equatorial middle-eastern Pacific, and in the middle and southern Pacific since the end of the twentieth century. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the transition process parameters is verified in theory and practice: (1) the relationship between the rate and stability parameters is linear, and (2) the relationship between the rate and change amplitude parameters is quadratic.
Geometry Transition in the Cocos Plate, from Flat-Steep to Constant Dip: Smooth or Abrupt?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Campos, X.; Clayton, R. W.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Valdés-González, C. M.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Córdoba-Montiel, F.
2013-05-01
Subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath North America has a variable and complex behavior along the Middle-American Trench. Initially, its geometry was delineated from regional seismicity. In the last 10 years, seismic experiments have illuminated some details in the geometry. They have reported, from NW to SE an abrupt dip transition, from 50 to 26°, as the result of a tear that splits Cocos North from Cocos South; then there is a smooth transition to a horizontal geometry under central Mexico. Further southeast, under the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the Cocos plate shows a constant ~26° subduction dip. This last transition has been assumed to be smooth from the sparse seismicity in the region. A first glimpse of the slab geometry under Oaxaca, shows the slab continues to be flat at least until 97.5°W longitude, where the slab suddenly changes to a ~55° dip to the northeast. This occurs at a distance of ~75 km from the Pico de Orizaba volcano, which is a similar distance as the active Popocatepetl volcano from the place where the slab dives into the mantle along the Meso-American Subduction Experiment line, in central Mexico. East of this region, receiver function images show an abrupt change in the geometry and length of the slab.
Precise Interhemispheric Phasing of the Bipolar Seesaw during Abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buizert, C.; Baggenstos, D.; Brook, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fudge, T. J.; Markle, B. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Rhodes, R.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Sowers, T. A.; Steig, E. J.; Taylor, K.
2014-12-01
Late Pleistocene glacial periods exhibit abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of northern hemisphere (NH) palaeoclimatic archives. Ice cores show Antarctica is cooling during the warm phases of the Greenland DO cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism dubbed the bipolar seesaw. While it is generally accepted that variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength play an important role, great uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of the abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large and poorly constrained ice age-gas age difference (Dage) in Antarctic ice cores has precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we present a new high accumulation deep Antarctic ice core, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)-Divide core, that is used to resolve the timing of the bipolar seesaw at unprecedented temporal resolution. We find that the abrupt Greenland warming phase leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling by 195 ± 59 years for DO-events, including the Bølling period; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding Antarctic warming by 179 ± 61 years. The centennial NH lead time shows that the abrupt phases of the DO cycle are initiated in the NH, after which the temperature anomaly is propagated to the southern hemisphere (SH) high latitudes via an oceanic teleconnection. The similar phasing of warming and cooling events suggests that to first order the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm the central role ocean circulation plays in the seesaw, and provide a clear criterion for testing hypotheses and model simulations of DO dynamics.
Abrupt transitions to a cold North Atlantic in the late Holocene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford; Larsen, Darren; Florian, Christopher; Pendleton, Simon
2015-04-01
The Holocene provides a time interval with boundary conditions similar to present, except for greenhouse gas concentrations. Recent high-resolution Northern Hemisphere records show general cooling related to orbital terms through the late Holocene, but also highly non-linear abrupt departures of centennial scale summer cold periods. These abrupt departures are evident within the last two millennia (the transitions between the Roman Warm Period (RWP, ~2,000 yr BP), the Dark Ages Cold Period (DACP, ~500-900 years AD), the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, 1000-1200 years AD) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~1300-1900 AD). A series of new, high-resolution and securely dated lake records from Iceland also show abrupt climate departures over the past 2 ka, characterized by shifts to persistent cold summers and an expanded cryosphere. Despite substantial differences in catchment-specific processes that dominate the lake records, the multi-proxy reconstructions are remarkably similar. After nearly a millennium with little evidence of significant climate shifts, the beginning of the first millennium AD is characterized by renewed summer cooling that leads to an expanding cryosphere. Slow summer cooling over the first five centuries is succeeded by widespread substantial cooling, with evidence for substantial expansion of glaciers and ice caps throughout our field areas between 530 and 900 AD, and an accompanying reduction in vegetation cover across much of Iceland that led to widespread landscape instability. These data suggest that the North Atlantic system began a transition into a new cold state early in the first millennium AD, which was amplified after 500 AD, until it was interrupted by warmer Medieval times between ~1000 and 1250 AD. Although severe soil erosion in Iceland is frequently associated with human settlement dated to 871 ±2 AD our reconstructions indicate that soil erosion began several centuries before settlement, during the DACP, whereas for several centuries
Holographic magnetic phase transition
Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew
2009-09-15
We study four-dimensional interacting fermions in a strong magnetic field, using the holographic Sakai-Sugimoto model of intersecting D4- and D8-branes in the deconfined, chiral-symmetric parallel phase. We find that as the magnetic field is varied, while staying in the parallel phase, the fermions exhibit a first-order phase transition in which their magnetization jumps discontinuously. Properties of this transition are consistent with a picture in which some of the fermions jump to the lowest Landau level. Similarities to known magnetic phase transitions are discussed.
Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papasavvas, Christoforos A.; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kaiser, Marcus
2015-09-01
Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics.
Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model
Papasavvas, Christoforos A.; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kaiser, Marcus
2016-01-01
Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics. PMID:26465514
Photoinduced phase transitions.
Bennemann, K H
2011-02-23
Optically induced ultrafast electronic excitations with sufficiently long lifetimes may cause strong effects on phase transitions like structural and nonmetal→metal ones and on supercooling, supersaturation, etc. Examples are the transitions diamond→graphite, graphite→graphene, non-metal→metal, solid→liquid and vapor→liquid, solid. Photoinduced formation of graphene and water condensation of saturated or supersaturated vapor due to increased bonding amongst water molecules are of particular interest. These nonequilibrium transitions are an ultrafast response, on a few hundred fs time scale, to the fast low to large energy electronic excitations. The energy of the photons is converted into electronic energy via electronic excitations changing the cohesive energy. This changes the chemical potential controlling the phase transition. In view of the advances in laser optics photon induced transitions are expected to become an active area in nonequilibrium physics and phase transition dynamics. Conservation laws like energy or angular momentum conservation control the time during which the transitions occur. Since the photon induced effects result from weakening or strengthening of the bonding between the atoms or molecules transitions like solid/liquid, etc can be shifted in both directions. Photoinduced transitions will be discussed from a unified point of view. PMID:21411879
Hu, Yanqing; Ksherim, Baruch; Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo
2011-12-01
Robustness of two coupled networks systems has been studied separately only for dependency coupling [Buldyrev et al., Nature (London) 464, 1025 (2010)] and only for connectivity coupling [Leicht and D'Souza, e-print arXiv:0907.0894]. Here we study, using a percolation approach, a more realistic coupled networks system where both interdependent and interconnected links exist. We find rich and unusual phase-transition phenomena including hybrid transition of mixed first and second order, i.e., discontinuities like in a first-order transition of the giant component followed by a continuous decrease to zero like in a second-order transition. Moreover, we find unusual discontinuous changes from second-order to first-order transition as a function of the dependency coupling between the two networks. PMID:22304164
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yanqing; Ksherim, Baruch; Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo
2011-12-01
Robustness of two coupled networks systems has been studied separately only for dependency coupling [Buldyrev , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature08932 464, 1025 (2010)] and only for connectivity coupling [Leicht and D’Souza, e-print arXiv:0907.0894]. Here we study, using a percolation approach, a more realistic coupled networks system where both interdependent and interconnected links exist. We find rich and unusual phase-transition phenomena including hybrid transition of mixed first and second order, i.e., discontinuities like in a first-order transition of the giant component followed by a continuous decrease to zero like in a second-order transition. Moreover, we find unusual discontinuous changes from second-order to first-order transition as a function of the dependency coupling between the two networks.
Explosive transitions to synchronization in networks of phase oscillators
Leyva, I.; Navas, A.; Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Almendral, J. A.; Buldú, J. M.; Zanin, M.; Papo, D.; Boccaletti, S.
2013-01-01
The emergence of dynamical abrupt transitions in the macroscopic state of a system is currently a subject of the utmost interest. The occurrence of a first-order phase transition to synchronization of an ensemble of networked phase oscillators was reported, so far, for very particular network architectures. Here, we show how a sharp, discontinuous transition can occur, instead, as a generic feature of networks of phase oscillators. Precisely, we set conditions for the transition from unsynchronized to synchronized states to be first-order, and demonstrate how these conditions can be attained in a very wide spectrum of situations. We then show how the occurrence of such transitions is always accompanied by the spontaneous setting of frequency-degree correlation features. Third, we show that the conditions for abrupt transitions can be even softened in several cases. Finally, we discuss, as a possible application, the use of this phenomenon to express magnetic-like states of synchronization. PMID:23412391
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Gregory Wayne
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles, and completes at a temperature where the order parameter,
Anderson, G.W.
1991-09-16
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.
Anderson, G.W.
1991-09-16
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l_angle}{phi}{r_angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.
Houghton, D.D.; Keller, L.M.
1997-11-01
The purpose of this study is to quantitatively identify the overall characteristics of the abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation patterns during the extratropical transition season from summer to winter. Both observations and comprehensive global atmospheric model simulations are examined. Emphasis is placed on the large scale and overall Northern Hemisphere circulation characteristics. A testing procedure for abrupt changes is developed, incorporating several established approaches. The analysis found significant abrupt change events in all the observational and model simulation years. The mean dates for the changes are September 7 and 22 for the observations and model, respectively, but there is considerable variability in the dates from year to year. The large scale patterns associated with the abrupt change have a hemispheric scope with centers of activity in the western Pacific and Atlantic sectors. The model captures the general nature of the abrupt shifts. However, the model simulations have smaller magnitudes in kinetic energy values and changes than observed, especially in the Atlantic Ocean and central Asia areas. These limitations should not negate the utility of the model for process studies. 17 refs., 7 figs.
String mediated phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.
1988-01-01
It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.
Abrupt transitions in the NAO control of explosive North Atlantic cyclone development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómara, Iñigo; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.
2016-02-01
Explosive cyclones are intense extra-tropical low pressure systems featuring large deepening rates. In the Euro-Atlantic sector, they are a major source of life-threatening weather impacts due to their associated strong wind gusts, heavy precipitation and storm surges. The wintertime variability of the North Atlantic cyclonic activity is primarily modulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this study, we investigate the interannual and multi-decadal variability of explosive North Atlantic cyclones using track density data from two reanalysis datasets (NCEP and ERA-40) and a control simulation of an atmosphere/ocean coupled General Circulation Model (GCM—ECHAM5/MPIOM1). The leading interannual and multi-decadal modes of variability of explosive cyclone track density are characterized by a strengthening/weakening pattern between Newfoundland and Iceland, which is mainly modulated by the NAO at both timescales. However, the NAO control of interannual cyclone variability is not stationary in time and abruptly fluctuates during periods of 20-25 years long both in NCEP and ECHAM5/MPIOM1. These transitions are accompanied by structural changes in the leading mode of explosive cyclone variability, and by decreased/enhanced baroclinicity over the sub-polar/sub-tropical North Atlantic. The influence of the ocean is apparently important for both the occurrence and persistence of such anomalous periods. In the GCM, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation appears to influence the large-scale baroclinicity and explosive cyclone development over the North Atlantic. These results permit a better understanding of explosive cyclogenesis variability at different climatic timescales and might help to improve predictions of these hazardous events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotstein, Horacio G.
2013-12-01
Hyperexcitability of neuronal networks is one of the hallmarks of epileptic brain seizure generation, and results from a net imbalance between excitation and inhibition that promotes excessive abnormal firing frequencies. The transition between low and high firing frequencies as the levels of recurrent AMPA excitation change can occur either gradually or abruptly. We used modeling, numerical simulations, and dynamical systems tools to investigate the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms that underlie these two identified modes of transition in recurrently connected neurons via AMPA excitation. We compare our results and demonstrate that these two modes of transition are qualitatively different and can be linked to different intrinsic properties of the participating neurons.
Emergence and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikkema, Arnold
2006-05-01
Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.
Analytical Model for Gyro-Phase Drift Arising from Abrupt Inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Jeffrey J.; Koepke, M. E.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Demidov, V. I.
2013-01-01
If a magnetized-orbit-charged grain encounters any abrupt inhomogeneity in plasma conditions during a gyro-orbit, such that the resulting in-situ equilibrium charge is significantly different between these regions (q(sub1)/q(sub 2) approximately 2, where q(sub 1) is the in-situ equilibrium charge on one side of the inhomogeneity, q(sub 2) is the in-situ equilibrium charge on the other side, and q(sub1) less than q(sub 2) less than 0), then the capacitive effects of charging and discharging of the dust grain can result in a modification to the orbit-averaged grain trajectory, i.e. gyro-phase drift. The special case of q(sub 1)/q(sub 2) is notioned for the purpose of illustrating the utility of the method. An analytical expression is derived for the grain velocity, assuming a capacitor approximation to the OML charging model. For cases in which a strong electric field suddenly appears in the wake or at the space-plasma-to-crater interface from solar wind and/or ultraviolet illumination and in which a magnetic field permeates an asteroid, comet, or moon, this model could contribute to the interpretation of the distribution of fields and particles.
Quantum phase transition in space
Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H
2008-01-01
A quantum phase transition between the symmetric (polar) phase and the phase with broken symmetry can be induced in a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in space (rather than in time). We consider such a phase transition and show that the transition region in the vicinity of the critical point exhibits scalings that reflect a compromise between the rate at which the transition is imposed (i.e., the gradient of the control parameter) and the scaling of the divergent healing length in the critical region. Our results suggest a method for the direct measurement of the scaling exponent {nu}.
Theory of antiferroelectric phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolédano, Pierre; Guennou, Mael
2016-07-01
At variance with structural ferroic phase transitions which give rise to macroscopic tensors coupled to macroscopic fields, criteria defining antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transitions are still under discussion due to the absence of specific symmetry properties characterizing their existence. They are recognized by the proximity of a ferroelectric (FE) phase induced under applied electric field, with a double hysteresis loop relating the induced polarization to the electric field and a typical anomaly of the dielectric permittivity. Here, we show that there exist indeed symmetry criteria defining AFE transitions. They relate the local symmetry of the polar crystallographic sites emerging at an AFE phase transition with the macroscopic symmetry of the AFE phase. The dielectric properties of AFE transitions are deduced from a Landau theoretical model in which ferroelectric and ferrielectric phases are shown to stabilize as the result of specific symmetry-allowed couplings of the AFE order parameter with the field-induced polarization.
Phase Transitions for Suspension Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iommi, Godofredo; Jordan, Thomas
2013-06-01
This paper is devoted to studying the thermodynamic formalism for suspension flows defined over countable alphabets. We are mostly interested in the regularity properties of the pressure function. We establish conditions for the pressure function to be real analytic or to exhibit a phase transition. We also construct an example of a potential for which the pressure has countably many phase transitions.
Phase transitions in disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrahsheh, Fawaz Y.
Disorder can have a wide variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this thesis we study the effects of disorder on several classical and quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. After a brief introduction, we study the ferromagnetic phase transition in a randomly layered Heisenberg magnet using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results provide numerical evidence for the exotic infinite-randomness scenario. We study classical and quantum smeared phase transitions in substitutional alloys A1-xBx. Our results show that the disorder completely destroys the phase transition with a pronounced tail of the ordered phase developing for all compositions x < 1. In addition, we find that short-ranged disorder correlations can have a dramatic effect on the transition. Moreover, we show an experimental realization of the composition-tuned ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCa xRuO3. We investigate the effects of disorder on first-order quantum phase transitions on the example of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model. By means of a strong disorder renormalization group, we demonstrate that disorder rounds the first-order transition to a continuous one for both weak and strong coupling between the colors. Finally, we investigate the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition of one-dimensional bosons with off-diagonal disorder by means of large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. Beyond a critical disorder strength, we find nonuniversal, disorder dependent critical behavior.
Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.
1991-01-01
We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, T.; Cahay, M.; Roenker, K.
1996-11-01
The average base transit time is computed using a current impulse response technique for three typical abrupt Npn heterojunction bipolar transistors as a function of the emitter-base bias, VBE. This technique is based on a hybrid model of carrier transport incorporating a quantum-mechanical analysis of carrier injection at the emitter-base junction and a Monte Carlo analysis of base transport. For typical AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs structures, the base transit time first increases with VBE, reaches a maximum, and then decreases towards a value close to the one predicted using a semi-Maxwellian injection of carriers into the base at an energy equal to the emitter-base conduction band spike. For a typical InAlAs/InGaAs structure, the average base transit time is found to decrease with an increase in VBE. For all structures, we show that there is a correlation between the bias dependence of the average base transit time and the bias dependence of the average number of collisions per carrier (calculated for carriers transmitted across the base).
Topological phase transition driven by a spatially periodic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Bo; Zheng, Huaixiu; Li, Qunxiang; Shi, Qinwei; Yang, Jinlong
2014-12-01
We propose a simple approach to realize a topological phase transition using a spatial periodic potential. As an example, we examine the electronic structures of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells, and demonstrate that their band structures can be effectively manipulated by the periodic potential. At a critical potential, we find that a conventional band insulator undergoes a topological phase transition into a quantum spin Hall system, which is characterized by an abrupt change of the spin Chern number and emerging edge states. Our proposal provides an interesting way to dynamically turn on or off topologically protected edge states for application in switching devices.
Interplay between micelle formation and waterlike phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinzelmann, G.; Figueiredo, W.; Girardi, M.
2010-02-01
A lattice model for amphiphilic aggregation in the presence of a structured waterlike solvent is studied through Monte Carlo simulations. We investigate the interplay between the micelle formation and the solvent phase transition in two different regions of temperature-density phase diagram of pure water. A second order phase transition between the gaseous (G) and high density liquid (HDL) phases that occurs at very high temperatures, and a first order phase transition between the low density liquid (LDL) and (HDL) phases that takes place at lower temperatures. In both cases, we find the aggregate size distribution curve and the critical micellar concentration as a function of the solvent density across the transitions. We show that micelle formation drives the LDL-HDL first order phase transition to lower solvent densities, while the transition G-HDL is driven to higher densities, which can be explained by the markedly different degrees of micellization in both cases. The diffusion coefficient of surfactants was also calculated in the LDL and HDL phases, changing abruptly its behavior due to the restructuring of waterlike solvent when we cross the first order LDL-HDL phase transition. To understand such behavior, we calculate the solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule close to micelles. The curves of the interfacial solvent density and the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in the first hydration signal a local phase change of the interfacial water, clarifying the diffusion mechanism of free surfactants in the solvent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, Stefan; Hoek, Wim; Lane, Christine; Sachse, Dirk; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike
2015-04-01
Lake Hämelsee (Germany) is one of the northernmost sites in NW Europe that has varved sediments throughout large parts of its Lateglacial and Early Holocene sediment sequence. Previous research on this site has shown its potential, in terms of chronological resolution and palaeoecological reconstructions, for reconstructing the abrupt transitions into and out of the Younger Dryas, the last cold period of the last glacial. The site was revisited during a 1-week summer school for Early Stage Researchers (2013), within the INTIMATE Example training and research project, supported by EU Cost Action ES0907. Two overlapping sediment sequences were retrieved from the centre of the lake during the summer school. These sediments have since formed the basis for follow-up research projects, which have sparked the collaboration of around 30 researchers in 12 laboratories across Europe. A chronological framework for the core has been composed from a combination of varve counting, radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. Tephrostratigraphic correlations allow direct correlation and precise comparison of the record to marine and ice core records from the North Atlantic region, and other terrestrial European archives. Furthermore, the core is has been subjected to multiple sedimentological (e.g. XRF, loss-on-ignition), geochemical (e.g. lipid biomarkers, GDGTs) and palaeoecological (e.g. pollen, chironomids) proxy-based reconstructions of past environmental and climatic conditions. The results provide important insights into the nature of the abrupt climate transitions of the Lateglacial and Early Holocene, both locally and on a continental scale. The INTIMATE Example participants: Illaria Baneschi, Achim Brauer, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Renee de Bruijn, Siwan Davies, Aritina Haliuc, Katalin Hubay, Gwydion Jones, Meike Müller, Johanna Menges, Josef Merkt, Tom Peters, Francien Peterse, Anneke ter Schure, Kathrin Schuetrumpf, Richard Staff, Falko Turner, Valerie van den Bos.
Adams, N.K.; Houghton, B.F.; Hildreth, W.
2006-01-01
Plinian/ignimbrite activity stopped briefly and abruptly 16 and 45 h after commencement of the 1912 Novarupta eruption defining three episodes of explosive volcanism before finally giving way after 60 h to effusion of lava domes. We focus here on the processes leading to the termination of the second and third of these three episodes. Early erupted pumice from both episodes show a very similar range in bulk vesicularity, but the modal values markedly decrease and the vesicularity range widens toward the end of Episode III. Clasts erupted at the end of each episode represent textural extremes; at the end of Episode II, clasts have very thin glass walls and a predominance of large bubbles, whereas at the end of Episode III, clasts have thick interstices and more small bubbles. Quantitatively, all clasts have very similar vesicle size distributions which show a division in the bubble population at 30 ??m vesicle diameter and cumulative number densities ranging from 107-109 cm-3. Patterns seen in histograms of volume fraction and the trends in the vesicle size data can be explained by coalescence signatures superimposed on an interval of prolonged nucleation and free growth of bubbles. Compared to experimental data for bubble growth in silicic melts, the high 1912 number densities suggest homogeneous nucleation was a significant if not dominant mechanism of bubble nucleation in the dacitic magma. The most distinct clast populations occurred toward the end of Plinian activity preceding effusive dome growth. Distributions skewed toward small sizes, thick walls, and teardrop vesicle shapes are indicative of bubble wall collapse marking maturation of the melt and onset of processes of outgassing. The data suggest that the superficially similar pauses in the 1912 eruption which marked the ends of episodes II and III had very different causes. Through Episode III, the trend in vesicle size data reflects a progressive shift in the degassing process from rapid magma ascent and
Abrupt transitions between gyroscopic and internal gravity waves: the mid-latitude case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Haren, Hans
The large-scale vertical density stratification, represented by buoyancy frequency N, is generally very stable in the upper half of the ocean, and relatively weak in the lower half. However, closer inspection of density profiles demonstrates steps rather than a smooth increase with depth. As is demonstrated here using Richardson number, geostrophic balance and slantwise convective mixing arguments, these layers have a limited set of minimum, weak stratification, N-values Nmin indicating the transition between stably stratified and convective layers. Adopting the viewpoint that the transition occurs for neutral stability in the direction of Earth's rotation ) and (iii) Nmin = 4fh, both under nonlinear stability, where horizontal component fh = 2 sin , because the effect of fh is the tilting of vortex tubes away from the local vertical in the direction of Ω. The above explains very well deep-ocean North-Atlantic and Mediterranean observations on transitions in conductivity-temperature with depth profiles, inertial polarization and near-inertial shear. The latter peaks at sub-inertial 0.97f, which is associated with the lower inertio-gravity wave limit for Nmin = 4fh, thereby stressing the importance of fh for the dominant physics associated with mixing in the ocean.
Transition of Bery Phase and Pancharatnam Phase and Phase Change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Guolan; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng
2016-07-01
Berry Phase and time-dependent Pancharatnam phase are investigated for nuclear spin polarization in a liquid by a rotation magnetic field, where two-state mixture effect is exactly included in the geometric phases. We find that when the system of nuclear spin polarization is in the unpolarized state, the transitive phenomena of both Berry phase and Pancharatnam phase are taken place. For the polarized system, in contrast, such a transition is not taken place. It is obvious that the transitions of geometric phase correspond to the phase change of physical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Villar, David; Vázquez-Navarro, Juan A.; Carrasco, Rosa M.
2012-08-01
During the Holocene a series of tufa sediments were deposited from a karstic spring along the Trabaque Canyon, central Spain. A long-term lowering of the water table caused the location of the spring to be displaced from the upper sector of the canyon during the early Holocene to the lower sector in the late Holocene. This progressive shift was in response to decreased precipitation in the region. The depositional environments and their geomorphologic relationships were characterized. Thus, five morphosedimentary units (MSUs) were identified within the Holocene tufa deposits. Erosive episodes were recognized between MSUs and, as most of the MSUs partially overlap, the older ones are perched in relation to the younger ones. The chronology of the MSUs is based on 14C dates, and stable isotopes and total organic carbon content provided environmental information during the period of tufa sedimentation. The successive dissection episodes in the Trabaque Canyon tufa deposits took place during transitioning climate conditions from the relatively wet early Holocene to the more arid late Holocene. During this transitional period in the mid-Holocene, wet phases alternated with more arid conditions, causing the largest hydrological regime gradients in the Holocene. Thus, the four erosive episodes causing tufa dissection in Trabaque during the Holocene are interpreted as the result of abrupt transitional periods towards arid conditions.
Cavagnoli, Rafael; Menezes, Debora P.; Providencia, Constanca
2009-06-03
In the present work we study the hadron-quarkphase transition with boson condensation by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram.
Smooth Functional Transition along a Mutational Pathway with an Abrupt Protein Fold Switch
Holzgräfe, Christian; Wallin, Stefan
2014-01-01
Recent protein design experiments have demonstrated that proteins can migrate between folds through the accumulation of substitution mutations without visiting disordered or nonfunctional points in sequence space. To explore the biophysical mechanism underlying such transitions we use a three-letter continuous protein model with seven atoms per amino acid to provide realistic sequence-structure and sequence-function mappings through explicit simulation of the folding and interaction of model sequences. We start from two 16-amino-acid sequences folding into an α-helix and a β-hairpin, respectively, each of which has a preferred binding partner with 35 amino acids. We identify a mutational pathway between the two folds, which features a sharp fold switch. By contrast, we find that the transition in function is smooth. Moreover, the switch in preferred binding partner does not coincide with the fold switch. Discovery of new folds in evolution might therefore be facilitated by following fitness slopes in sequence space underpinned by binding-induced conformational switching. PMID:25185557
Abrupt onset of a second energy gap at the superconducting transition of underdoped Bi2212
Hussain, Zahid; Lee, W.S.; Vishik, I.M.; Tanaka, K.; Lu, D.H.; Sasagawa, T.; Nagaosa, N.; Devereaux, T.P.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.
2007-05-26
he superconducting gap--an energy scale tied to the superconducting phenomena--opens on the Fermi surface at the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in conventional BCS superconductors. In underdoped high-Tc superconducting copper oxides, a pseudogap (whose relation to the superconducting gap remains a mystery) develops well above Tc (refs 1, 2). Whether the pseudogap is a distinct phenomenon or the incoherent continuation of the superconducting gap above Tc is one of the central questions in high-Tc research3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Although some experimental evidence suggests that the two gaps are distinct9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, this issue is still under intense debate. A crucial piece of evidence to firmly establish this two-gap picture is still missing: a direct and unambiguous observation of a single-particle gap tied to the superconducting transition as function of temperature. Here we report the discovery of such an energy gap in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta in the momentum space region overlooked in previous measurements. Near the diagonal of Cu?O bond direction (nodal direction), we found a gap that opens at Tc and has a canonical (BCS-like) temperature dependence accompanied by the appearance of the so-called Bogoliubov quasi-particles, a classical signature of superconductivity. This is in sharp contrast to the pseudogap near the Cu?O bond direction (antinodal region) measured in earlier experiments19, 20, 21.
Nagatomi, Kaori; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Hara, Kunio; Shigemoto, Akira; Hoshiko, Michiko; Tsuji, Yoshiyasu; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Tamaki, Hideki; Furumura, Mitsuyo; Muramoto, Junko
2010-01-01
The study aimed to examine the effects of long-term unemployment and the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy on the mental health of unemployed Japanese. The cases of 96 men and 54 women who were laid off by a large shoemaking company because of sudden bankruptcy in 1998, were examined for one year. The mental health of these individuals was evaluated using a 'self-rating questionnaire for depression (SRQ-D)'. The respondents were categorized by employment transition status into four groups: (1) still employed full-time, (2) unemployment to full-time employment, (3) unemployment to part-time employment, and (4) still unemployed. The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in the 'still unemployed' group was significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.33) than in the still employed group. Moreover, high levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the individuals in the 'unemployment to part-time employment' group (adjusted OR = 4.93). There was no significant risk of depressive tendency among individuals in the 'unemployment to full-time employment' group. The results suggest that the negative effect of re-employment to part-time employment on depressive symptoms is similar to that in long-term unemployment. PMID:21186340
Holographic approach to phase transitions
Franco, Sebastian; Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego
2010-02-15
We provide a description of phase transitions at finite temperature in strongly coupled field theories using holography. For this purpose, we introduce a general class of gravity duals to superconducting theories that exhibit various types of phase transitions (first or second order with both mean and non-mean field behavior) as parameters in their Lagrangian are changed. Moreover the size and strength of the conductivity coherence peak can also be controlled. Our results suggest that certain parameters in the gravitational dual control the interactions responsible for binding the condensate and the magnitude of its fluctuations close to the transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, P. G.
2015-12-01
The evidences of climate changes during the Quaternary are abundant but the physical mechanisms behind the climate transitions are controversial. The theory of Milankovitch takes into account the periodic orbital variations and the solar radiation received by the Earth as the main explanation for the glacial-interglacial cycles. However, some gaps in the theory still remain. In this study, we propose elucidating some of these gaps by approaching the Equatorial Pacific Ocean as a large oscillator, capable of triggering climate changes in different temporal scales. A mathematical model representing El Ninõ-like phenomena, based on Duffing equation and modulated by the astronomical cycle of 100 ka, was used to simulate the variability of the equatorial Pacific climate system over the last 2 Ma. The physical configuration of the Pacific Ocean, expressed in the equation, explains the temporal limit of the glacial-interglacial cycles. According to the simulation results, consistent with paleoclimate records, the amplification of the effects of the gradual variation of the Earth's orbit eccentricity - another unclear question - is due to the feedback mechanism of the Pacific ocean-atmosphere system, which responds non-linearly to small variations in insolation forcing and determines the ENSO-like phase (warm or cold) at different time scales and different intensities. The approach proposed here takes into account that the abrupt transitions between the ENSO-like phases, and the consequent changes in the sea surface temperature (SST) along the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, produce reactions that act as secondary causes of the temperature fluctuations that result in a glaciation (or deglaciation) - as the drastic change on the rate of evaporation/precipitation around the globe, and the increase (or decrease) of the atmospheric CO2 absorption by the phytoplankton. The transitional behavior between the warm and the cold phases, according to the presented model, is enhanced as
Ramoutar, Virin; Landa, Cristian; James, Leighton R
2014-01-01
A 50-year-old African-American man presented with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to hypotension from non-typhoid Salmonella gastroenteritis and bacteraemia. The oliguric phase lasted only 24 h followed by prolonged polyuria for 20 days, with urine output in excess of 16 L/day at maximum. As indexed in PubMed this is only the second published case of this nature since 1974, in which an abrupt oliguric phase of 24 h or less heralded prolonged polyuria in ATN. The diagnosis is challenging as fractional excretion of sodium early in the clinical course and rapid normalisation of serum creatinine with intravenous fluids (IVF) may point towards prerenal azotaemia resulting in a premature discharge from hospital. Patients with an abrupt oliguric phase may suffer a secondary renal insult from the profound fluid loss that is to follow and may need inpatient monitoring with supplemental IVF to prevent deleterious outcomes. PMID:25150229
Phase transitions in nuclear matter
Glendenning, N.K.
1984-11-01
The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.
New Phase Transition of Solid Bromine under High Pressure
San-Miguel, A.; Libotte, H.; Gaspard, J.-P.; Gauthier, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Pascarelli, S.
2007-07-06
Solid bromine has been studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments up to a maximum pressure of 75 GPa. The data analysis of the extended fine structure reveals that the intramolecular distance first increases, reaching its maximum value at 25{+-}5 GPa. From this value the intramolecular distance abruptly begins to decrease evidencing a nonpreviously observed phase transformation taking place at 25{+-}5 GPa. A maximum variation of 0.08 A ring is observed at 65{+-}5 GPa where again a phase transition occurs. This last transformation could correspond with the recently observed change to an incommensurate modulated phase. We discuss the possible generalization of the observed new phase transition at 25{+-}5 GPa to the case of the other halogens.
Elastically controlled magnetic phase transition in Ga-FeRh/BaTiO3(001) heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Ippei; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu
2014-01-01
We demonstrate elastically induced ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition of Ga-substituted FeRh thin films on BaTiO3(001). It is found that two abrupt changes of magnetization occur at the successive phase transitions from the tetragonal to orthorhombic and the orthorhombic to rhombohedral phases of BaTiO3. Magnetization and magnetoresistance together clearly reveal that a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition is induced due to the compressive lattice strain accompanied by the orthorhombic to rhombohedral structural phase transition, while the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition causes a change in the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic phase of FeRh.
Cliver, E. W.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Ling, A. G.
2012-09-10
We compared time profiles of changes of the unsigned photospheric magnetic flux in active regions with those of their associated soft X-ray (SXR) bursts for a sample of 75 {>=} M5 flares well observed by Global Oscillation Network Group longitudinal magnetographs. Sixty-six of these events had stepwise changes in the spatially integrated unsigned flux during the SXR flares. In superposed epoch plots for these 66 events, there is a sharp increase in the unsigned magnetic flux coincident with the onset of the flare impulsive phase while the end of the stepwise change corresponds to the time of peak SXR emission. We substantiated this result with a histogram-based comparison of the timing of flux steps (onset, midpoint of step, and end) for representative points in the flaring regions with their associated SXR event time markers (flare onset, onset of impulsive phase, time of peak logarithmic derivative, maximum). On an individual event basis, the principal part of the stepwise magnetic flux change occurred during the main rise phase of the SXR burst (impulsive phase onset to SXR peak) for {approx}60% of the 66 cases. We find a close timing agreement between magnetic flux steps and >100 keV emission for the three largest hard X-ray (>100 keV) bursts in our sample. These results identify the abrupt changes in photospheric magnetic fields as an impulsive phase phenomenon and indicate that the coronal magnetic field changes that drive flares are rapidly transmitted to the photosphere.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend
Ortiz, M.G.
1998-02-10
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend
Ortiz, Marcos German
1998-01-01
A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.
Entropy, chaos, and excited-state quantum phase transitions in the Dicke model.
Lóbez, C M; Relaño, A
2016-07-01
We study nonequilibrium processes in an isolated quantum system-the Dicke model-focusing on the role played by the transition from integrability to chaos and the presence of excited-state quantum phase transitions. We show that both diagonal and entanglement entropies are abruptly increased by the onset of chaos. Also, this increase ends in both cases just after the system crosses the critical energy of the excited-state quantum phase transition. The link between entropy production, the development of chaos, and the excited-state quantum phase transition is more clear for the entanglement entropy. PMID:27575109
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken.
Phase Transitions in Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Monolayers.
Zuo, Yi Y; Chen, Rimei; Wang, Xianju; Yang, Jinlong; Policova, Zdenka; Neumann, A Wilhelm
2016-08-23
A self-assembled phospholipid monolayer at an air-water interface is a well-defined model system for studying surface thermodynamics, membrane biophysics, thin-film materials, and colloidal soft matter. Here we report a study of two-dimensional phase transitions in the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface using a newly developed methodology called constrained drop surfactometry (CDS). CDS is superior to the classical Langmuir balance in its capacity for rigorous temperature control and leak-proof environments, thus making it an ideal alternative to the Langmuir balance for studying lipid polymorphism. In addition, we have developed a novel Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer technique that allows the direct transfer of lipid monolayers from the droplet surface under well-controlled conditions. This LB transfer technique permits the direct visualization of phase coexistence in the DPPC monolayer. With these technological advances, we found that the two-dimensional phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer is analogous to the three-dimensional phase transition of a pure substance. This study has implications in the fundamental understanding of surface thermodynamics as well as applications such as self-assembled monolayers and pulmonary surfactant biophysics. PMID:27479299
Polarized gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina
2015-08-01
We estimate the degree of circular polarization for the gravitational waves generated during the electroweak and QCD phase transitions from the kinetic and magnetic helicity generated by bubble collisions during those cosmological phase transitions.
Phase transition dynamics and gravitational waves
Megevand, Ariel
2009-04-20
During a first-order phase transition, gravitational radiation is generated either by bubble collisions or by turbulence. For phase transitions which took place at the electroweak scale and beyond, the signal is expected to be within the sensitivity range of planned interferometers such as LISA or BBO. We review the generation of gravitational waves in a first-order phase transition and discuss the dependence of the spectrum on the dynamics of the phase transition.
Brain Performance versus Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Joaquín J.; Marro, J.
2015-07-01
We here illustrate how a well-founded study of the brain may originate in assuming analogies with phase-transition phenomena. Analyzing to what extent a weak signal endures in noisy environments, we identify the underlying mechanisms, and it results a description of how the excitability associated to (non-equilibrium) phase changes and criticality optimizes the processing of the signal. Our setting is a network of integrate-and-fire nodes in which connections are heterogeneous with rapid time-varying intensities mimicking fatigue and potentiation. Emergence then becomes quite robust against wiring topology modification—in fact, we considered from a fully connected network to the Homo sapiens connectome—showing the essential role of synaptic flickering on computations. We also suggest how to experimentally disclose significant changes during actual brain operation.
Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.
Mascarenhas, E; Bragança, H; Dorner, R; França Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J
2014-06-01
We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. PMID:25019721
Nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagne, Carmen Jeanne
2001-11-01
Phase transitions occur in such diverse and important systems as ferromagnets, liquid crystals and the early Universe. The dynamics of phase transitions such as these have been studied for decades, but the analytical models still need a great deal of improvement before they can adequately describe all time stages and regions under the coexistence curve. Numerical studies can supplement these analytical theories, but they need to accurately describe the continuum equations that they are intended to solve. This thesis describes a method for removing the lattice- spacing and renormalization-mass dependence of Langevin simulations of phase mixing in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Ginzburg-Landau models with short-ranged interactions. Also, the spread in the order parameter near the critical value of the control parameter due to critical slowing down is used to more accurately determine this value of the control parameter in these simulations. In addition, a new method is proposed for quantifying the departure from equilibrium. The method explores the behavior of the rate of change of the momentum-integrated structure function, ΔStot( t), as it evolves in time. As an illustration, we examine a (1 + 1)-dimensional model of a stochastic Ginzburg-Landau model at varying cooling rates. We show that ΔStot(t) displays a peak which scales with cooling time-scale as t1/2q in the over-damped limit and t1/3q in the underdamped limit. The peak amplitude was found to scale with cooling time-scale as t6/5q in all viscosities studied.
QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15
Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.
1999-03-20
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyun-Tak; Chae, Byung-Gyu; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong-Wook; Yun, Sun-Jin; Kang, Kwang-Yong
2006-03-01
An abrupt first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed during the application of a switching pulse voltage to VO2-based two-terminal devices. When the abrupt MIT occurs, the structural phase transition (SPT) is investigated by a micro- Raman spectroscopy and a micro-XRD. The result shows that the MIT is not accompanied with the structural phase transition (SPT); the abrupt MIT is prior to the SPT. Moreover, any switching pulse over a threshold voltage of 7.1 V for the MIT enabled the device material to transform efficiently from an insulator to a metal. The measured delay time from the source switching pulse to an induced MIT pulse is an order of 20 nsec which is much less than a delay time of about one msec deduced by thermal model. This indicates that the first-order MIT does not occur due to thermal. We think this MIT is the Mott transition. (Reference: New J. Phys. 6 (1994) 52 (www.njp.org), Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 242101, Physica B 369 (2005. December) xxxx)
Dynamics of a Quantum Phase Transition
Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dorner, Uwe; Zoller, Peter
2005-09-02
We present two approaches to the dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in the quantum Ising model. One follows the standard treatment of thermodynamic second order phase transitions but applies it to the quantum phase transitions. The other approach is quantum, and uses Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in avoided level crossings. We show that predictions of the two approaches of how the density of defects scales with the quench rate are compatible, and discuss the ensuing insights into the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Q. L.; Mizukami, S.; Kubota, T.; Zhang, X. M.; Ando, Y.; Miyazaki, T.
2014-04-01
An abrupt transition of the interfacial exchange coupling from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic was observed in the interface of perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa /Fe1-xCox epitaxial bilayers when x was around 25%. By considering the special band structure of the MnGa alloy, we present a model explaining this transition by the spin-polarization reversal of Fe1-xCox alloys due to the rise of the Fermi level as the Co content increases. The effect of interfacial exchange coupling on the coercive force (Hc) and the spin-dependent tunneling effect in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) based on the coupled composite were also studied. Changes from the normal spin valve to inverted magnetoresistance loops corresponding to the coupling transition were observed in pMTJs with MnGa /Fe1-xCox as an electrode.
Phase Transition of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yuldashev, S. U.; Ihm, G.; Kang, T. W.
2011-12-01
Three types of phase transitions in diluted magnetic semiconductor, first-order, second-order and mixed-order, are found in theory. Especially the mixed type transition shows two steps transition and novel specific heat property. Specific heat properties disclose a possible meta ferromagnetic phase confirmed by the experimental qualitative result.
Cloud regimes as phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott
2016-06-01
Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.
Accessing hidden isosymmetric phase transitions in perovskite thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rondinelli, James; Coh, Sinisa
2011-03-01
Isosymmetric phase transitions (IPT), which show no change in occupied Wyckoff positions or crystallographic space group, are exceedingly rare in crystalline matter because most condensed systems respond to external stimuli by undergoing ``conventional'' symmetry-lowering displacive, martensitic or reconstructive transitions. In this work, we use first-principles density functional calculations to identify an elusive IPT in orthorhombic AB O3 perovskite oxides with tendency towards rhombohedral symmetry. Using perovskite LaGa O3 as our prototypical system, we show that the latent isosymmetric phase transition, which manifests as an abrupt change in the octahedral rotation axis, is accessible only with an external elastic constraint---bi-axial strain. We show the transition originates from a soft phonon that describes the geometric connectivity and relative phase of the Ga O6 polyhedra. By connecting the origin of IPT to a chemical and structural incompatibility between the lattice and the elastic constraints, we describe how subtle changes in bulk orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetries are critical to the complete engineering of structure-correlated electronic properties in thin films. Because bi-axial strain is the critical parameter controlling the IPT, we suggest heteroepitaxial synthesis of IPT materials is a plausible route to realize high- κ dielectric actuators with variable band gaps and dielectric anisotropies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casey, J. F.; Fujiwara, T.
2001-12-01
Detailed multibeam, gravity, and magnetics studies, as well as abundant submersible and dredge sampling studies, conducted during multiple cruises over the last 13 years in the region of 14-16°N along the Mid-Atlantic have produced a remarkably complete picture of an abrupt and striking along-axis transition. The transition is from lithosphere and crust formed in a magma-starved setting to the north of ~14o20'N to lithosphere and crust formed where the magma budget was high in the south. The abrupt transition is manifest by abundant serpentinized mantle and plutonic outcrops on both sides of the rift valley to the north of 14o30' N and largely basaltic outcrops to the south of 14o30'N. In addition, morphotectonic studies indicates regularly spaced and linear N-S high-angle normal faults directly south of 14o30"N, but non-linear, highly irregularly spaced major fault line scarps and large expanses of low-angle fault surfaces exposed immediately to the north of 14o30'N. This is coupled with the formation of multiple and obvious seafloor core complexes exposing ultramafic and gabbroic rocks to the north. Core complexes are observed on both off-axis ridge flanks, even at the same latitude, suggesting flips in the polarity of low-angle detachments and a lack of strict adherence to the inside-outside corner pattern observed elsewhere for predicting polarity of detachment faulting. Detailed seafloor fabric studies also show that an E-W fabric trend exists in the north reflecting abundant linear E-W corrugations on the seafloor that abruptly disappear to the south of 14o30'N. This is consistent with a change from abundant long-lived low-angle detachment faulting and exposure of these fault surfaces to the north and a shorter offset high-angle faults to the south. A steep MBA and basalt geochemical gradient exists across the 14o30' transition and both indicate significantly thicker crust to the south. A change from regular magnetic anomalies to the south to disrupted
Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations
Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-01-01
Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856
Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations.
Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-04-19
Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856
Nonequilibrium Second-Order Phase Transition in a Cooper-Pair Insulator.
Doron, A; Tamir, I; Mitra, S; Zeltzer, G; Ovadia, M; Shahar, D
2016-02-01
In certain disordered superconductors, upon increasing the magnetic field, superconductivity terminates with a direct transition into an insulating phase. This phase is comprised of localized Cooper pairs and is termed a Cooper-pair insulator. The current-voltage characteristics measured in this insulating phase are highly nonlinear and, at low temperatures, exhibit abrupt current jumps. Increasing the temperature diminishes the jumps until the current-voltage characteristics become continuous. We show that a direct correspondence exists between our system and systems that undergo an equilibrium, second-order, phase transition. We illustrate this correspondence by comparing our results to the van der Waals equation of state for the liquid-gas mixture. We use the similarities to identify a critical point where an out of equilibrium second-order-like phase transition occurs in our system. Approaching the critical point, we find a power-law behavior with critical exponents that characterizes the transition. PMID:26894728
Nonequilibrium Second-Order Phase Transition in a Cooper-Pair Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doron, A.; Tamir, I.; Mitra, S.; Zeltzer, G.; Ovadia, M.; Shahar, D.
2016-02-01
In certain disordered superconductors, upon increasing the magnetic field, superconductivity terminates with a direct transition into an insulating phase. This phase is comprised of localized Cooper pairs and is termed a Cooper-pair insulator. The current-voltage characteristics measured in this insulating phase are highly nonlinear and, at low temperatures, exhibit abrupt current jumps. Increasing the temperature diminishes the jumps until the current-voltage characteristics become continuous. We show that a direct correspondence exists between our system and systems that undergo an equilibrium, second-order, phase transition. We illustrate this correspondence by comparing our results to the van der Waals equation of state for the liquid-gas mixture. We use the similarities to identify a critical point where an out of equilibrium second-order-like phase transition occurs in our system. Approaching the critical point, we find a power-law behavior with critical exponents that characterizes the transition.
Phase transitions in the web of science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, J. C.
2015-06-01
The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.
Simple theory of transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelyanenko, A. V.; Khokhlov, A. R.
2015-05-01
The transitions between smectic, nematic, and isotropic phases are investigated in the framework of a unified molecular-statistical approach. The new translational order parameter is different from the one introduced in K. Kobayashi [Phys. Lett. A 31, 125 (1970)] and W. L. McMillan [Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238 (1971)]. The variance of the square sine of intermolecular shift angle along the director is introduced to take self-consistently into account the most probable location of the molecules with respect to each other, which is unique for every liquid crystal (LC) material and is mainly responsible for the order parameters and phase sequences. The mean molecular field was treated in terms of only two parameters specific to any intermolecular potential of elongated molecules: (1) its global minimum position with respect to the shift of two interacting molecules along the director and (2) its inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio. A simple molecular model is also introduced, where the global minimum position is determined by the linking groups elongation Δ/d, while the inhomogeneity/anisotropy ratio Gβ/Gγ is determined by the ratio of electrostatic and dispersion contributions. All possible phase sequences, including abrupt/continuous transformation between the smectic and nematic states and the direct smectic-isotropic phase transition, are predicted. The theoretical prediction is in a good agreement with experimental data for some simple materials correlating with our molecular model, but it is expected to be valid for any LC material.
Quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozadze, David
We study the effects of quenched weak disorder on quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets. The presence of disorder in the system can lead to a variety of exotic phenomena, e.g., the smearing of transitions or quantum Griffiths singularities. Phase transitions are smeared if individual spatial regions can order independently of the bulk system. In paper I, we study smeared quantum phase transitions in binary alloys A1-xBx that are tuned by changing the composition x. We show that in this case the ordered phase is extended over all compositions x < 1. We also study the composition dependence of observables. In paper II, we investigate the influence of spatial disorder correlations on smeared phase transitions. As an experimental example, we demonstrate in paper III, that the composition-driven ferromagnetic-toparamagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCaxRuO3 is smeared. When individual spatial regions cannot order but fluctuate slowly, the phase transition is characterized by strong singularities in the quantum Griffiths phase. In paper IV, we develop a theory of the quantum Griffiths phases in disordered ferromagnetic metals. We show that the quantum Griffiths singularities are stronger than the usual power-law quantum Griffiths singularities in insulating magnets. In paper V, we present an efficient numerical method for studying quantum phase transitions in disordered systems with O(N) order parameter symmetry in the large-N limit. Our algorithm solves iteratively the large-N self-consistent equations for the renormalized distances from criticality. Paper VI is devoted to the study of transport properties in the quantum Griffiths phase associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition in a metal. We find unusual behavior of transport properties which is in contrast to the normal Fermi-liquid behavior.
Exploring structural phase transitions of ion crystals
Yan, L. L.; Wan, W.; Chen, L.; Zhou, F.; Gong, S. J.; Tong, X.; Feng, M.
2016-01-01
Phase transitions have been a research focus in many-body physics over past decades. Cold ions, under strong Coulomb repulsion, provide a repealing paradigm of exploring phase transitions in stable confinement by electromagnetic field. We demonstrate various conformations of up to sixteen laser-cooled 40Ca+ ion crystals in a home-built surface-electrode trap, where besides the usually mentioned structural phase transition from the linear to the zigzag, two additional phase transitions to more complicated two-dimensional configurations are identified. The experimental observation agrees well with the numerical simulation. Heating due to micromotion of the ions is analysed by comparison of the numerical simulation with the experimental observation. Our investigation implies very rich and complicated many-body behaviour in the trapped-ion systems and provides effective mechanism for further exploring quantum phase transitions and quantum information processing with ultracold trapped ions. PMID:26865229
Pressure-induced phase transition in pentacene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farina, L.; Brillante, A.; Della Valle, R. G.; Venuti, E.; Amboage, M.; Syassen, K.
2003-07-01
We have recently studied two solid phases of bulk pentacene (polymorphs H and C) by means of lattice phonon Raman spectroscopy. The assignment, previously based on lattice dynamics calculations alone, is now verified by X-ray diffraction measurements, conclusively confirming the existence of both polymorphs. Furthermore, Raman phonon spectra indicate a pressure-induced phase transition where the polymorph C (lower density phase) transforms to the H form (higher density phase). The onset pressure for the phase transition is only 0.2 GPa. The phase change is irreversible.
Microscopic Description of Nuclear Quantum Phase Transitions
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2007-08-31
The relativistic mean-field framework, extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation, is applied to a study of shape transitions in Nd isotopes. It is demonstrated that the microscopic self-consistent approach, based on global effective interactions, can describe not only general features of transitions between spherical and deformed nuclei, but also the singular properties of excitation spectra and transition rates at the critical point of quantum shape phase transition.
Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.
2014-10-01
Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.
Revisiting the nonequilibrium phase transition of the triplet-creation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardozo, G. O.; Fontanari, J. F.
2006-06-01
The nonequilibrium phase transition in the triplet-creation model is investigated using critical spreading and the conservative diffusive contact process. The results support the claim that at high enough diffusion the phase transition becomes discontinuous. As the diffusion probability increases the critical exponents change continuously from the ordinary directed percolation (DP) class to the compact directed percolation (CDP). The fractal dimension of the critical cluster, however, switches abruptly between those two universality classes. Strong crossover effects in both methods make it difficult, if not impossible, to establish the exact location of the tricritical point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denton, Michael L.; Clark, C. D., III; Noojin, Gary D.; Estlack, Larry E.; Schenk, Adam C.; Burney, Curtis W.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Thomas, Robert J.
2011-03-01
Laser exposure duration dictates whether tissues subjected to short visible wavelengths ( <= 514 nm) are damaged by thermal (e.g. 0.1 s) or non-thermal ( >= 100 s) mechanisms. Somewhere between these extremes, an abrupt transition between the two damage mechanisms has been found for both in vitro and animal retinal models (J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030512, 2010). Non-thermal (photochemical) damage is characterized by an inverse relationship between damage threshold irradiance and exposure duration (irradiance reciprocity). We have found that exposures of 40 - 60 s in an in vitro retinal model require radiant exposures well above the expected requirement for nonthermal damage, introducing the concept that damage was forced to be thermal in mechanism. Here we quantify and compare photo-oxidative processes at ambient temperatures between 35 - 50 °C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrun, Jean-FréDéRic; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Collot, Jean-Yves; Delteil, Jean
2000-08-01
Swath bathymetry and other geophysical data collected over the Fiordland Margin, southwest of New Zealand are used to investigate the mechanism of transform-subduction transition between the Alpine Fault and the Puysegur Trench, two segments of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. In this region the Cenozoic Southeast Tasman Basin, which obliquely underthrusts Fiordland at the Puysegur Trench, is separated from the Cretaceous Tasman Basin by the Resolution Ridge System, a major lithospheric discontinuity of the downgoing plate. Interpretation of seafloor morphology shows that the Alpine Fault extends offshore along the Fiordland coast and splits into West and East Branches. The West Branch cuts obliquely across the margin and connects sharply to the Puysegur subduction front at the northeastern tip of the Resolution Ridge System. Earthquake and seismic reflection data indicate that the West Branch is genetically controlled by downgoing plate structures associated with the Resolution Ridge System. Hence the West Branch is interpreted as the surface trace of the plate boundary segment extending between the Alpine Fault and the Puysegur Trench. We conclude that the development of the strike-slip segment of the plate boundary and its sharp transition to the Puysegur subduction are controlled by inherited structures of the Australian plate. Furthermore, according to geophysical data presented here, a tearing of the downgoing plate can be interpreted beneath the West Branch. A review of geophysical data along the region of the Alpine Fault-Hikurangi Trough, northeast New Zealand, shows a progressive transform-subduction transition that is accommodated by motion partitioning between the subduction interface and strike-slip faults. This transition is accounted for by an interplate coupling that progressively increases toward the Alpine Fault in relation with a gradual thickening of the downgoing crust. The comparison between the Fiordland and the Hikurangi strike
Phase transitions in QCD and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campell, Bruce A.; Ellis, John; Kalara, S.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, Keith A.
1991-02-01
We develop a unified effective field theory approach to the high-temperature phase transitions in QCD and string theory, incorporating winding modes (time-like Polyakov loops, vortices) as well as low-mass states (pseudoscalar mesons and glueballs, matter and dilaton supermultiplets). Anomalous scale invariance and the Z3 structure of the centre of SU(3) decree a first-order phase transition with simultaneous deconfinement and Polyakov loop condensation in QCD, whereas string vortex condensation is a second-order phase transition breaking a Z2 symmetry. We argue that vortex condensation is accompanied by a dilaton phase transition to a strong coupling regime, and comment on the possible role of soliton degrees of freedom in the high-temperature string phase. On leave of absence from the School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming
2016-01-01
Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832
Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming
2016-01-01
Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050-4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400-4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming
2016-06-01
Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions.
Phase transitions and convection in icy satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bercovici, D.; Schubert, G.; Reynolds, R. T.
1986-01-01
The effects of solid-solid phase changes on subsolidus convection in the large icy moons of the outer solar system are considered. Phase transitions affect convection via processes that distort the phase change boundary and/or influence buoyancy through thermal expansion. Linear stability analyses are carried out for ice layers with a phase change at the midplane. Two exothermic phase transitions (ice I - ice II, ice VI - ice VIII) and two endothermic transitions (ice I - ice III, ice II - ice V) are considered. For the exothermic cases, the phase change can either impede or enhance whole-layer convection. For the endothermic cases, the phse change always inhibits whole-layer convective overturn and tends to enforce two-layer convection. These results play some constraints on possible models of icy satellite evolution and structure.
Ghazvini, Saba; Ricke, Brandon; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Dhar, Prajnaparamita
2015-01-01
Active interfacial microrheology is a sensitive tool to detect phase transitions and headgroup order in phospholipid monolayers. The re-orientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod is used to explore changes in the surface rheology of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE), which differ by two CH2 groups in their alkyl chains. Phosphatidylethanolamines such as DLPE and DMPE are a major component of cell membranes in bacteria and in the nervous system. At room temperature, DLPE has a liquid expanded (LE) phase for surface pressure, Π < ~ 38 mN/m; DMPE has an LE phase for Π < ~ 7 mN/m. In their respective LE phases, DLPE and DMPE show no measurable change in surface viscosity with Π, consistent with a surface viscosity < 10−9 Ns/m, the resolution of our technique. However, there is a measurable, discontinuous change in the surface viscosity at the LE to liquid condensed (LC) transition for both DLPE and DMPE. This discontinuous change is correlated with a significant increase in the surface compressibility modulus (or isothermal two-dimensional bulk modulus). In the LC phase of DMPE there is an exponential increase in surface viscosity with Π consistent with a two-dimensional free area model. The second-order LC to solid (S) transition in DMPE is marked by an abrupt onset of surface elasticity; there is no measurable elasticity in the LC phase. A measurable surface elasticity in the S phase suggests a change in the molecular ordering or interactions of the DMPE headgroups that is not reflected in isotherms or in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. This onset of measurable elasticity is also seen in DLPE, even though no indication of a LC-S transition is visible in the isotherms. PMID:25782993
Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho
2015-06-01
This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.
Critical behaviours of contact near phase transitions
Chen, Y.-Y.; Jiang, Y.-Z.; Guan, X.-W.; Zhou, Qi
2014-01-01
A central quantity of importance for ultracold atoms is contact, which measures two-body correlations at short distances in dilute systems. It appears in universal relations among thermodynamic quantities, such as large momentum tails, energy and dynamic structure factors, through the renowned Tan relations. However, a conceptual question remains open as to whether or not contact can signify phase transitions that are insensitive to short-range physics. Here we show that, near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, contact exhibits a variety of critical behaviours, including scaling laws and critical exponents that are uniquely determined by the universality class of the phase transition, and a constant contact per particle. We also use a prototypical exactly solvable model to demonstrate these critical behaviours in one-dimensional strongly interacting fermions. Our work establishes an intrinsic connection between the universality of dilute many-body systems and universal critical phenomena near a phase transition. PMID:25346226
Thermal Phase Transitions in Finite Quantum Systems
Dean, D.J.
2001-10-18
In this Proceedings, the author will describe the behavior of two different quantum-mechanical systems as a function of increasing temperature. While these systems are somewhat different, the questions addressed are very similar, namely, how does one describe transitions in phase of a finite many-body system; how does one recognize these transitions in practical calculations; and how may one obtain the order of the transition.
Phase transition model for community detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jianshe; Lu, Rui; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Yu, Xin; Wang, Da; Sun, Bo
2013-03-01
Motivated by social and biological interactions, a novel type of phase transition model is provided in order to investigate the emergence of the clustering phenomenon in networks. The model has two types of interactions: one is attractive and the other is repulsive. In each iteration, the phase of a node (or an agent) moves toward the average phase of its neighbors and moves away from the average phase of its non-neighbors. The velocities of the two types of phase transition are controlled by two parameters, respectively. It is found that the phase transition phenomenon is closely related to the topological structure of the underlying network, and thus can be applied to identify its communities and overlapping groups. By giving each node of the network a randomly generated initial phase and updating these phases by the phase transition model until they reach stability, one or two communities will be detected according to the nodes’ stable phases, confusable nodes are moved into a set named Of. By removing the detected communities and the nodes in Of, another one or two communities will be detected by an iteration of the algorithm, …. In this way, all communities and the overlapping nodes are detected. Simulations on both real-world networks and the LFR benchmark graphs have verified the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Joushaghani, Arash; Jeong, Junho; Stewart Aitchison, J.; Poon, Joyce K. S.; Paradis, Suzanne; Alain, David
2014-12-08
By controlling the thermal transport of VO{sub 2} nano-gap junctions using device geometry, contact material, and applied voltage waveforms, the electronically induced insulator-metal phase transition is investigated in the adiabatic heating and transient carrier injection regimes. With a gradual ramping of an applied voltage on a microsecond time scale, the transition electric field threshold can be directly reduced by the Joule heating. With an abrupt applied voltage, the transition threshold is initiated by carriers injected within the first tens of nanoseconds, but the complete insulator-metal phase transition is limited by thermal redistribution times to hundreds of nanoseconds.
Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dean
2016-03-01
I review recent ab initio results by the Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory Collaboration showing that nature lies close to a quantum phase transition between an alpha-particle gas and nuclear liquid. I discuss the control parameter of this transition and the implications for clustering in nuclei and improving ab initio nuclear structure calculations.
Phase transitions three-component superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlstrom, Johan; Babaev, Egor
2014-03-01
We discuss phase transitions in three-component models of superfluidity and superconductivity. We present Monte Carlo simulations showing that for certain types of inter-component interactions, these systems exhibit novel types of first order phase transitions that are driven by spin-waves. Supported by NSF CAREER Award DMR-0955902, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences andSwedish Research Council.
Persistent homology analysis of phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donato, Irene; Gori, Matteo; Pettini, Marco; Petri, Giovanni; De Nigris, Sarah; Franzosi, Roberto; Vaccarino, Francesco
2016-05-01
Persistent homology analysis, a recently developed computational method in algebraic topology, is applied to the study of the phase transitions undergone by the so-called mean-field XY model and by the ϕ4 lattice model, respectively. For both models the relationship between phase transitions and the topological properties of certain submanifolds of configuration space are exactly known. It turns out that these a priori known facts are clearly retrieved by persistent homology analysis of dynamically sampled submanifolds of configuration space.
Modelling of phase transitions: do it yourself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medved', I.; Huckaby, D. A.; Trník, A.; Valovičová, L'
2013-01-01
We present the basics of a powerful contemporary statistical mechanical technique that can be used by students to explore first-order phase transitions by themselves and for models of their own construction. The technique is a generalization of the well-known Peierls argument and is applicable to various models on a lattice. We illustrate the technique with the help of two simple models that were recently used to simulate phase transitions on surfaces.
Higgs couplings and electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim
2014-07-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3) c . Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is not colored, an electron-positron Higgs factory, such as the proposed ILC or TLEP, would be required to test the nature of the phase transition. The extremely precise measurement of the Higgsstrahlung cross section possible at such machines will allow for a comprehensive and definitive probe of the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition in all models we considered, including the case when the new scalar is a pure gauge singlet.
Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, Lawrence
2015-06-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.
Supercooling and phase coexistence in cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel; Sanchez, Alejandro D.
2008-03-15
Cosmological phase transitions are predicted by particle physics models, and have a variety of important cosmological consequences, which depend strongly on the dynamics of the transition. In this work we investigate in detail the general features of the development of a first-order phase transition. We find thermodynamical constraints on some quantities that determine the dynamics, namely, the latent heat, the radiation energy density, and the false-vacuum energy density. Using a simple model with a Higgs field, we study numerically the amount and duration of supercooling and the subsequent reheating and phase coexistence. We analyze the dependence of the dynamics on the different parameters of the model, namely, the energy scale, the number of degrees of freedom, and the couplings of the scalar field with bosons and fermions. We also inspect the implications for the cosmological outcomes of the phase transition.
Continuous and discontinuous topological quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Sau, Jay D.
2016-07-01
The continuous quantum phase transition between noninteracting, time-reversal symmetric topological and trivial insulators in three dimensions is described by the massless Dirac fermion. We address the stability of this quantum critical point against short range electronic interactions by using renormalization group analysis and mean field theory. For sufficiently weak interactions, we show that the nature of the direct transition remains unchanged. Beyond a critical strength of interactions we find that either (i) there is a direct first order transition between two time reversal symmetric insulators or (ii) the direct transition is eliminated by an intervening time reversal and inversion odd "axionic" insulator. We also demonstrate the existence of an interaction driven first order quantum phase transition between topological and trivial gapped states in lower dimensions.
Monoclinic phases arising across thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yijia; Xue, Fei; Lei, Shiming; Lummen, Tom T. A.; Wang, Jianjun; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen, Long-Qing
2014-07-01
Thermotropic phase boundaries (TPBs), as thermal analogs of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), are associated with the thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions. Similar to an MPB, a TPB exhibits a characteristically flattened energy profile which favors polarization rotation, thus giving rise to a structurally bridging low-symmetry phase. We report on the kinetic process of thermal inter-ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO3 and KNbO3 using the phase-field method. The domain structures are found to play key roles in stabilizing the monoclinic phase. In simple domain structures, the monoclinic phase is a transient phase and cannot be stabilized into its neighboring phase regimes. However, by introducing structural inhomogeneity (orthogonal in-plane domain twins), we found that the monoclinic phase can be stabilized over a range of over 100 K across the transition. As a result, the piezoelectric properties are enhanced due to the stabilized monoclinic phase. In addition to the emergence of new piezoelectric components with monoclinic symmetry, most of the original components present in the tetragonal symmetry also show substantial enhancement with the rotation of polarization.
Thermochromic phase transitions in two aromatic tetrachlorocuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafa, M. Fareed; Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Arafat, S. S.; Kandeel, E. M.
1991-06-01
Bis(para-toluidinium)2 tetrachlorocuprate and bis(para-chloroanilinium)2 tetrachlorocuprate crystallize in a perovskite-related layer structure. The former crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with a = 6.911 Å, b = 7.052 Å and c = 33.182 Å. It undergoes a thermochromic first order phase transition from a yellow low temperature phase to a dark orange high temperature phase at T = 300 ± 3K with a 10° thermal hysteresis. The latter compound undergoes two thermochromic transitions expressed by the relation. Orange Phase (I) rightleftarrows294 K Yellow Phase (II) rightleftarrows214K Green Phase (III). Both compounds are ferromagnetic at low temperture with exchange interactions J/k = 17.5° and 20° for the two compounds respectively.
Random fields at a nonequilibrium phase transition.
Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas
2012-10-26
We study nonequilibrium phase transitions in the presence of disorder that locally breaks the symmetry between two equivalent macroscopic states. In low-dimensional equilibrium systems, such random-field disorder is known to have dramatic effects: it prevents spontaneous symmetry breaking and completely destroys the phase transition. In contrast, we show that the phase transition of the one-dimensional generalized contact process persists in the presence of random-field disorder. The ultraslow dynamics in the symmetry-broken phase is described by a Sinai walk of the domain walls between two different absorbing states. We discuss the generality and limitations of our theory, and we illustrate our results by large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:23215170
Fisher information, Rényi entropy power and quantum phase transition in the Dicke model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, Á.; Romera, E.
2012-07-01
Fisher information, Rényi entropy power and Fisher-Rényi information product are presented for the Dicke model. There is a quantum phase transition in this quantum optical model. It is pointed out that there is an abrupt change in the Fisher information, Rényi entropy power, the Fisher, Shannon and Rényi lengths at the transition point. It is found that these quantities diverge as the characteristic length: | around the critical value of the coupling strength λc for any value of the parameter β.
Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.
Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar
2016-08-11
Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time. PMID:27437571
Phase transitions at high pressure in tetracyanoethylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, R.; Deb, S. K.; Das, Amitabh; Chaplot, S. L.
2009-11-01
We report in situ x-ray diffraction studies in tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC) at Elettra synchrotron source, Trieste, Italy. Experiments were performed with both the polymorphic phases (monoclinic and cubic) of TCNE as the starting phase. While starting with monoclinic (the high temperature stable) TCNE, it was found that the Bragg peaks get broadened with increase of pressure and above 5 GPa only few broad peaks remained to be observed. On release of pressure from 6.4 GPa, when the sample started turning black, the diffraction pattern at ambient pressure corresponds to cubic, the other crystalline phase of TCNE. Results reconfirm the monoclinic to cubic transition at high pressure but via an intermediate 'disordered' phase. This settles a number of conflicting issues. TCNE represents only system, which undergoes transition from one crystalline to another crystalline phase via a 'disordered' metastable phase at high pressure. When the starting phase was cubic (the low temperature stable) no apparent phase transition was observed up to 10.8 GPa.
Shaping Crystal-Crystal Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xiyu; van Anders, Greg; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Glotzer, Sharon
Previous computational and experimental studies have shown self-assembled structure depends strongly on building block shape. New synthesis techniques have led to building blocks with reconfigurable shape and it has been demonstrated that building block reconfiguration can induce bulk structural reconfiguration. However, we do not understand systematically how this transition happens as a function of building block shape. Using a recently developed ``digital alchemy'' framework, we study the thermodynamics of shape-driven crystal-crystal transitions. We find examples of shape-driven bulk reconfiguration that are accompanied by first-order phase transitions, and bulk reconfiguration that occurs without any thermodynamic phase transition. Our results suggest that for well-chosen shapes and structures, there exist facile means of bulk reconfiguration, and that shape-driven bulk reconfiguration provides a viable mechanism for developing functional materials.
Elastic anomalies at the magnetic phase transitions of TbTe3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saint-Paul, M.; Guttin, C.; Lejay, P.; Leynaud, O.; Monceau, P.
2016-08-01
We report sound velocity and ultrasonic attenuation measurements in the vicinity of the successive magnetic phase transitions Tmag1~6.5 K, Tmag2~5.8 K and Tmag3~5.3 K in the charge density wave TbTe3 compound. A detailed investigation of the critical contributions to the temperature dependences of the sound velocity and ultrasonic attenuation is presented. Anisotropic stress dependences ∂Tmag1 / ∂σ found at the antiferromagnetic phase transition Tmag1 is associated with the layered structure of this compound. An abrupt step-like increase in the velocity and a sharp peak in the attenuation are observed with the longitudinal and shear modes at the lock-in magnetic phase transition Tmag3=5.3 K. The critical velocity and attenuation behaviors in the high temperature paramagnetic above Tmag1 are described in terms of a phenomenological dynamic scaling expression.
Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes
Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst
2005-07-01
We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.
Friction forces on phase transition fronts
Mégevand, Ariel
2013-07-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2016-07-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and nonvanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at nonzero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number Nf of unquenched quarks of the background.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
1990-11-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.
Shape phase transitions and critical points
Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.
2009-05-04
We investigate different aspects connected with shape phase transitions in nuclei and the possible occurrence of dynamical symmetries at the critical points. We discuss in particular the behaviour of the neighbour odd nuclei at the vicinity of the critical points in the even nuclei. We consider both the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the gamma-unstable deformation (characterized within the collective Bohr hamiltonian by the E(5) critical point symmetry) and the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation (characterized by the X(5) symmetry). The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2, a set of orbitals that is known to lead to possible supersymmetric cases. The coupling of the odd particle to the Bohr hamiltonian does lead in fact in the former case at the critical point to the E(5/12) boson-fermion dynamical symmetry. An alternative approach to the two shape transitions is based on the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. In this case suitably parametrized boson-fermion hamiltonians can describe the evolution of the odd system along the shape transitions. At the critical points both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions were found to display characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The behaviour of the odd nuclei can therefore be seen as necessary complementary signatures of the occurrence of the phase transitions.
Network traffic behaviour near phase transition point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawniczak, A. T.; Tang, X.
2006-03-01
We explore packet traffic dynamics in a data network model near phase transition point from free flow to congestion. The model of data network is an abstraction of the Network Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Reference Model of packet switching networks. The Network Layer is responsible for routing packets across the network from their sources to their destinations and for control of congestion in data networks. Using the model we investigate spatio-temporal packets traffic dynamics near the phase transition point for various network connection topologies, and static and adaptive routing algorithms. We present selected simulation results and analyze them.
Solid-liquid phase transition in argon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.
1978-01-01
Starting from the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential, a modified cell theory has been used to describe the solid-liquid phase transition in argon. The cell-size variations may be evaluated by a self-consistent condition. With the inclusion of cell-size variations, the transition temperature, the solid and liquid densities, and the liquid-phase radial-distribution functions have been calculated. These ab initio results are in satisfactory agreement with molecular-dynamics calculations as well as experimental data on argon.
Phase transition in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-04-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature TC . In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature TC may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole, the characteristic temperature TC corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation.
Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-05-15
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in this work, is the process responsible for the classification of the proteins having different biological functions. PMID:19519001
Holographic endpoint of spatially modulated phase transition
Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon
2010-12-15
In a previous paper [S. Nakamura, H. Ooguri, and C. S. Park, Phys. Rev. D 81, 044018 (2010)], we showed that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space coupled to the Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is unstable when the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently large. In the dual conformal field theory, the instability suggests a spatially modulated phase transition. In this paper, we construct and analyze nonlinear solutions which describe the endpoint of this phase transition. In the limit where the Chern-Simons coupling is large, we find that the phase transition is of the second order with the mean field critical exponent. However, the dispersion relation with the Van Hove singularity enhances quantum corrections in the bulk, and we argue that this changes the order of the phase transition from the second to the first. We compute linear response functions in the nonlinear solution and find an infinite off-diagonal DC conductivity in the new phase.
Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.
On configurational weak phase transitions in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfyris, Dimitris
2016-07-01
We report a study on configurational weak phase transitions for a freestanding monolayer graphene. Firstly, we characterize weak transformation neighborhoods by suitably bounding the metric components. Then, we distinguish between structural and configurational phase changes and elaborate on the second class of them. We evaluate the irreducible invariant subspaces corresponding to these phase changes and lay down symmetry-breaking as well as symmetry-preserving stretches. In the reduced bifurcation diagram, symmetry-preserving stretches are related to a turning point with a change of stability but not of symmetry. Symmetry-breaking stretches are related to a first-order weak phase transition. We evaluate symmetry-breaking stretches as well as their generating cosets. The reduced bifurcation diagram consists of three transcritical bifurcating curves which are all unstable but can be stabilized producing a subcritical bifurcation. We, also, shortly comment on the hysteretical behavior that might appear in this case.
Phase transitions in the evolution of gene regulatory networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skanata, Antun; Kussell, Edo
The role of gene regulatory networks is to respond to environmental conditions and optimize growth of the cell. A typical example is found in bacteria, where metabolic genes are activated in response to nutrient availability, and are subsequently turned off to conserve energy when their specific substrates are depleted. However, in fluctuating environmental conditions, regulatory networks could experience strong evolutionary pressures not only to turn the right genes on and off, but also to respond optimally under a wide spectrum of fluctuation timescales. The outcome of evolution is predicted by the long-term growth rate, which differentiates between optimal strategies. Here we present an analytic computation of the long-term growth rate in randomly fluctuating environments, by using mean-field and higher order expansion in the environmental history. We find that optimal strategies correspond to distinct regions in the phase space of fluctuations, separated by first and second order phase transitions. The statistics of environmental randomness are shown to dictate the possible evolutionary modes, which either change the structure of the regulatory network abruptly, or gradually modify and tune the interactions between its components.
Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao
2016-07-01
In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.
Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua
2016-01-01
We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.
Dual condensate and QCD phase transition
Zhang Bo; Bruckmann, Falk; Fodor, Zoltan; Szabo, Kalman K.; Gattringer, Christof
2011-05-23
The dual condensate is a new QCD phase transition order parameter, which connnects confinement and chiral symmetry breaking as different mass limits. We discuss the relation between the fermion spectrum at general boundary conditions and the dual condensate and show numerical results for the latter from unquenched SU(3) lattice configurations.
Theory and phenomenology of electroweak phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Hiren H.
An open problem in cosmology is to explain the origin of baryon abundance implied by observational cosmology. Among the many proposed explanations, electroweak baryogenesis is particularly attractive in that its ingredients is discoverable by modern experiments. The analysis of the electroweak phase transition in the early universe comprises an integral component within the larger study of electroweak baryogenesis. In this work, I make a detailed investigation of the conventional analysis of the electroweak phase transition commonly found in literature, and explicitly demonstrate that results are not independent of the choice of gauge. In its place, I provide a manifestly gauge-independent method for the analysis, review sources of theoretical and numerical uncertainties, and explore avenues for further development. Next, I explore the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in two minimal extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Within these simple models, I describe a novel pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking favorable for baryogenesis that can serve as a paradigm for phase transition analysis in more complicated models.
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Application of epidemic models to phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilge, A. H.; Pekcan, Ö.; Gürol, M. V.
2012-11-01
The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) models describe the spread of epidemics in a society. In the typical case, the ratio of the susceptible individuals fall from a value S 0 close to 1 to a final value Sf , while the ratio of recovered individuals rise from 0 to Rf = 1 - Sf . The sharp passage from the level zero to the level Rf allows also the modeling of phase transitions by the number of "recovered" individuals R(t) of the SIR or SEIR model. In this article, we model the sol-gel transition for polyacrylamide-sodium alginate (SA) composite with different concentrations of SA as SIR and SEIR dynamical systems by solving the corresponding differential equations numerically and we show that the phase transitions of "classical" and "percolation" types are represented, respectively, by the SEIR and SIR models.
Double-Diffusive Layers and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dude, Sabine; Hansen, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Researching the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle on numerical base is very challenging. During the last decade different approaches are put forward in oder to understand the picture of the today's Earth's mantle. One way is to incorporate all the known features and physics (plate tectonics, phase transitions, CMB-topography, ...) into numerical models and make them as complex (or 'complete') as possible to capture Earth's mantle processes and surface signals. Another way is, to take a step back and look at less complex models which account for single processes and their interaction and evolution. With these 'simpler' models one is able look in detail into the physical processes and dependencies on certain parameters. Since the knowledge of slab stagnation in the transitions zone of the Earth's mantle the question whether the mantle is or at least has been layered to some degree is still under debate. On this basis we address two important features that lead to layered mantle convection and may affect each other and with this the thermal evolution of the mantle. It is commonly known the main mantle mineral olivine pass through various phase changes with depth [1]. Detailed numerical studies had been carried out to ascertain the influence on convective motion and planetary evolution [2]. It is still heavily discussed whether the endothermic phase change at 660km depth can lead an isolated lower mantle. Most of the numerical studies favour a model which has phases of layering that are disrupted by catastrophic events. In the last years double-diffusive convection has also been intensively studied with regard to planetary mantle evolution such as pile formation and core-mantle boundary topography [3]. However, another striking feature still posing open questions are evolving layers self-organised from a previous non layered state. Considering a chemical component that influences the density of a fluid in addition to the temperature leads to dynamical phenomena
Nonuniversal surface behavior of dynamic phase transitions.
Riego, Patricia; Berger, Andreas
2015-06-01
We have studied the dynamic phase transition (DPT) of the kinetic Ising model in systems with surfaces within the mean-field approximation. Varying the surface exchange coupling strength J(s), the amplitude of the externally applied oscillating field h(0), and its period P, we explore the dynamic behavior of the layer-dependent magnetization and the associated DPTs. The surface phase diagram shows several features that resemble those of the equilibrium case, with an extraordinary bulk transition and a surface transition for high J(s) values, independent from the value of h(0). For low J(s), however, h(0) is found to be a crucial parameter that leads to nonuniversal surface behavior at the ordinary bulk transition point. Specifically, we observed here a bulk-supported surface DPT for high field amplitudes h(0) and correspondingly short critical periods P(c), whereas this surface transition simultaneous to the bulk one is suppressed for slow critical dynamics occurring for low values of h(0). The suppression of the DPT for low h(0) not only occurs for the topmost surface layer, but also affects a significant number of subsurface layers. We find that the key physical quantity that explains this nonuniversal behavior is the time correlation between the dynamic surface and bulk magnetizations at the bulk critical point. This time correlation has to pass a threshold value to trigger a bulk-induced DPT in the surface layers. Otherwise, dynamic phase transitions are absent at the surface in stark contrast to the equilibrium behavior of the corresponding thermodynamic Ising model. Also, we have analyzed the penetration depth of the dynamically ordered phase for the surface DPT that occurs for large J(s) values. Here we find that the penetration depth depends strongly on J(s) and behaves identically to the corresponding equilibrium Ising model. PMID:26172695
The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael
2013-07-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F → S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F → J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.
Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory
Zhang, H.M.
2000-02-01
This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.
Phase transition theory of sprite halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiraki, Yasutaka
2010-04-01
We present the phase transition theory for sprite halo using measurable lightning parameters (charge moment and discharge time) on the basis of steady state thermodynamics. A halo is located at the upper part of the tree-like structure of a sprite and is produced through electron impact excitation of neutral species under the lightning-induced electric field. We proposed in our previous studies that the occurrence criteria for halos and sprites are characterized by the above lightning parameters, and additionally, the intensity of a halo weakens rapidly with an increase in the discharge time T. We assume that this phenomenon is quite similar to the phase transition between the vapor and the liquid states of water; here the analogy is between the accelerated electrons and the water molecules. We demonstrate analytically a phase transition for a simply modeled halo based on the quasistatic theory of lightning-induced electric field. Choosing the luminosity of a halo as an order parameter, we show that it has a dependence of T-0.25 - Tc-0.25 near the critical point Tc, which is characteristic of the phase transition. Furthermore, the critical time scale Tc ≈ 5.5 ms is provided naturally from our modeling and is somewhat larger than the typical time scale of the halo luminosity in observations. We consider that this kind of formalism is useful in understanding the detailed relationship between lightning activity and occurrence of halos. We discuss this point for future observations along with the possibilities of the transition model of column and carrot structures.
Understanding topological phase transition in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jun; Chang, K. J.
2016-03-01
Despite considerable interest in layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as M X2 with M =(Mo ,W ) and X =(S ,Se ,Te ) , the physical origin of their topological nature is still poorly understood. In the conventional view of topological phase transition (TPT), the nontrivial topology of electron bands in TMDs is caused by the band inversion between metal d - and chalcogen p -orbital bands where the former is pulled down below the latter. Here, we show that, in TMDs, the TPT is entirely different from the conventional speculation. In particular, M S2 and M S e2 exhibits the opposite behavior of TPT such that the chalcogen p -orbital band moves down below the metal d -orbital band. More interestingly, in M T e2 , the band inversion occurs between the metal d -orbital bands. Our findings cast doubts on the common view of TPT and provide clear guidelines for understanding the topological nature in new topological materials to be discovered.
Topological phase transition in layered transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha-Jun; Chang, Kee Joo
Despite considerable interests in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MX2 with M = (Mo, W) and X = (S, Se, Te), the physical origin of their topological nature is still in its infancy. The conventional view of topological phase transition (TPT) in TMDs is that the band inversion occurs between the metal d and chalcogen p orbital bands. More precisely, the former is pulled down below the latter. Here we introduce an explicit scheme for analyzing TPT in topological materials and find that the TPT in TMDs is different from the conventional speculation. When the 1T phase undergoes a structural transformation to the 1T' phase in monolayer MX2, the band topology changes from trivial to non-trivial, leading to the TPT. We discuss the exact role of the metal d and chalcogen p orbital bands during the TPT. Our finding would provide clear guidelines for understanding the topological nature not only in TMDs but also in other topological materials yet to be explored.
Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulidi, H.; van der Weele, K.; Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.
2014-12-01
The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Vicsek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226-1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the "noise parameter" of the problem is increased, whereas Vicsek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attractive forces.
Phase transition to turbulence in a pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldenfeld, Nigel
Leo Kadanoff taught us much about phase transitions, turbulence and collective behavior. Here I explore the transition to turbulence in a pipe, showing how a collective mode determines the universality class. Near the transition, turbulent puffs decay either directly or through splitting, with characteristic time-scales that exhibit a super-exponential dependence on Reynolds number. Direct numerical simulations reveal that a collective mode, a so-called zonal flow emerges at large scales, activated by anisotropic turbulent fluctuations, as represented by Reynolds stress. This zonal flow imposes a shear on the turbulent fluctuations that tends to suppress their anisotropy, leading to a Landau theory of predator-prey type, in the directed percolation universality class. Stochastic simulations of this model reproduce the functional form and phenomenology of pipe flow experiments. Talk based on work performed with Hong-Yan Shih and Tsung-Lin Hsieh. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-DMR-1044901.
Phase transitions in soft-committee machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biehl, M.; Schlösser, E.; Ahr, M.
1998-10-01
Equilibrium statistical physics is applied to the off-line training of layered neural networks with differentiable activation functions. A first analysis of soft-committee machines with an arbitrary number (K) of hidden units and continuous weights learning a perfectly matching rule is performed. Our results are exact in the limit of high training temperatures (β → 0). For K = 2 we find a second-order phase transition from unspecialized to specialized student configurations at a critical size P of the training set, whereas for K >= 3 the transition is first order. The limit K → ∞ can be performed analytically, the transition occurs after presenting on the order of NK/β examples. However, an unspecialized metastable state persists up to P propto NK2/β.
Coupled magnetic, structural, and electronic phase transitions in FeRh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, L. H.; Marrows, C. H.; Langridge, S.
2016-08-01
The B2-ordered intermetallic magnetic compound FeRh exhibits a thermodynamically first-order phase transition in the vicinity of room temperature that makes it a highly intriguing subject for both fundamental and applied study. On heating through the transition the magnetic character changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order with an accompanying large increase in the electrical conductivity and an abrupt expansion in the lattice structure. Accompanying these effects is a very large entropy change comprising both magnetic and lattice contributions. As well as being driven by temperature, these coupled phase transitions may be driven by the application or removal of a magnetic field, or, because of the extremely strong lattice-spin interactions present in this compound, by an applied strain (pressure), and combinations thereof. In addition to these driving factors, the transition temperature can also be tuned by both compositional and finite size effects. Building from historical work on bulk forms of FeRh, the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic parameter variation on the coupled magnetic, structural, and electronic phase transitions are reviewed here, with special attention directed to phenomena that manifest themselves in thin films. Overall, the rich manner in which the physical properties of FeRh change at the phase transition has potential for a wide range of technological applications in areas such as thermally-assisted magnetic recording media, CFC-free magnetic cooling, sensors for energy management, and novel spintronic devices.
Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition.
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-10-30
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_{f} flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios. PMID:26565451
Phase transition in the countdown problem.
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2012-07-01
We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit. PMID:23005354
Evolution of structure during phase transitions
Martin, J.E.; Wilcoxon, J.P.; Anderson, R.A.
1996-03-01
Nanostructured materials can be synthesized by utilizing the domain growth that accompanies first-order phase separation. Structural control can be achieved by appropriately selecting the quench depth and the quench time, but in order to do this in a mindful fashion one must understand the kinetics of domain growth. The authors have completed detailed light scattering studies of the evolution of structure in both temperature- and field-quenched phase transitions in two and three dimensional systems. They have studied these systems in the quiescent state and in shear and have developed theoretical models that account for the experimental results.
Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-03-01
The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.
Phase transitions in Nowak Sznajd opinion dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wołoszyn, Maciej; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kułakowski, Krzysztof
2007-05-01
The Nowak modification of the Sznajd opinion dynamics model on the square lattice assumes that with probability β the opinions flip due to mass-media advertising from down to up, and vice versa. Besides, with probability α the Sznajd rule applies that a neighbour pair agreeing in its two opinions convinces all its six neighbours of that opinion. Our Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory find sharp phase transitions in the parameter space.
Phase Transitions in Delaunay Potts Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Stefan; Eyers, Michael
2016-01-01
We establish phase transitions for certain classes of continuum Delaunay multi-type particle systems (continuum Potts models) with infinite range repulsive interaction between particles of different type. In one class of the Delaunay Potts models studied the repulsive interaction is a triangle (multi-body) interaction whereas in the second class the interaction is between pairs (edges) of the Delaunay graph. The result for the edge model is an extension of finite range results in Bertin et al. (J Stat Phys 114(1-2):79-100, 2004) for the Delaunay graph and in Georgii and Häggström (Commun Math Phys 181:507-528, 1996) for continuum Potts models to an infinite range repulsion decaying with the edge length. This is a proof of an old conjecture of Lebowitz and Lieb. The repulsive triangle interactions have infinite range as well and depend on the underlying geometry and thus are a first step towards studying phase transitions for geometry-dependent multi-body systems. Our approach involves a Delaunay random-cluster representation analogous to the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation of the Potts model. The phase transitions manifest themselves in the percolation of the corresponding random-cluster model. Our proofs rely on recent studies (Dereudre et al. in Probab Theory Relat Fields 153:643-670, 2012) of Gibbs measures for geometry-dependent interactions.
Generalized phase transitions in Lovelock gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camanho, Xián O.; Edelstein, José D.; Giribet, Gastón; Gomberoff, Andrés
2014-09-01
We investigate a novel mechanism for phase transitions that is a distinctive feature of higher-curvature gravity theories. For definiteness, we bound ourselves to the case of Lovelock gravities. These theories are known to have several branches of asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions. Here, extending our previous work, we show that phase transitions among some of these branches are driven by a thermalon configuration: a bubble separating two regions of different effective cosmological constants, generically hosting a black hole in the interior. Above some critical temperature, this thermalon configuration is preferred with respect to the finite-temperature anti-de Sitter space, triggering a sophisticated version of the Hawking-Page transition. After being created, the unstable bubble configuration can in general dynamically change the asymptotic cosmological constant. While this phenomenon already occurs in the case of a gravity action with square curvature terms, we point out that in the case of Lovelock theory with cubic (and higher) terms new effects appear. For instance, the theory may admit more than one type of bubble and branches that are in principle free of pathologies may also decay through the thermalon mechanism. We also find ranges of the gravitational couplings for which the theory becomes sick. These add up to previously found restrictions to impose tighter constraints on higher-curvature gravities. The results of this paper point to an intricate phase diagram which might accommodate similarly rich behavior in the dual conformal field theory side.
Phase transitions in planar bilayer membranes.
White, S H
1975-01-01
Temperature-dependent structural changes in planar bilayer membranes formed from glycerol monooleate (GMO) dispersed in various n-alkane solvents (C12-C17) have been studied using precise measurements of specific geometric capacitance (Cg). Cg generally increases as temperature (T) decreases. A change in the slope of Cg(T) occurs between 15 and 18 degrees C for all solvent systems examined. Measurements of the interfacial tension (gamma) of the bulk GMO-alkane dispersions against 0.1 M NaCl show that gamma generally decreases with decreasing temperature. The data can be fitted with two straight lines of different slope which intersect on the average at 17 degrees C. Pagano et al. (1973, Science (Wash. D.C.). 181:557) have shown using calorimetry that GMO has a phase transition at about 15 degrees C. Thus, the changes in Cg and gamma with temperature are likely to result from a GMO phase transition. A second structural change is observed to occur between 5 and 10 degrees C which has not been detected calorimetrically. Calculations of Cg based on various estimates of the hydrocarbon dielectric coefficient (epsilon-b) and/or hydrocarbon thickness (delta-b) leads to models for the structure of the bilayer above and below the phase transition temperature. PMID:1111634
Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redner, Gabriel S.
The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these
Structural phase transition in evolving networks.
Kim, Sang-Woo; Noh, Jae Dong
2009-08-01
A network as a substrate for dynamic processes may have its own dynamics. We propose a model for networks which evolve together with diffusing particles through a coupled dynamics and investigate emerging structural property. The model consists of an undirected weighted network of fixed mean degree and randomly diffusing particles of fixed density. The weight w of an edge increases by the amount of traffics through its connecting nodes or decreases by a constant factor. Edges are removed with the probability P(rew)=1/(1+w) and replaced by new ones having w=0 at random locations. We find that the model exhibits a structural phase transition between the homogeneous phase characterized by an exponentially decaying degree distribution and the heterogeneous phase characterized by the presence of hubs. The hubs emerge as a consequence of a positive feedback between the particle and the edge dynamics. PMID:19792212
Polymer physics of intracellular phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Tompa, Peter; Pappu, Rohit V.
2015-11-01
Intracellular organelles are either membrane-bound vesicles or membrane-less compartments that are made up of proteins and RNA. These organelles play key biological roles, by compartmentalizing the cell to enable spatiotemporal control of biological reactions. Recent studies suggest that membrane-less intracellular compartments are multicomponent viscous liquid droplets that form via phase separation. Proteins that have an intrinsic tendency for being conformationally heterogeneous seem to be the main drivers of liquid-liquid phase separation in the cell. These findings highlight the relevance of classical concepts from the physics of polymeric phase transitions for understanding the assembly of intracellular membrane-less compartments. However, applying these concepts is challenging, given the heteropolymeric nature of protein sequences, the complex intracellular environment, and non-equilibrium features intrinsic to cells. This provides new opportunities for adapting established theories and for the emergence of new physics.
Abrupt climate change and extinction events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowley, Thomas J.
1988-01-01
There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.
Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption
... page It's been added to your dashboard . The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus (womb) ... abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus before ...
Microscopic analysis of nuclear quantum phase transitions in the N{approx_equal}90 region
Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2009-05-15
The analysis of shape transitions in Nd isotopes, based on the framework of relativistic energy-density functionals and restricted to axially symmetric shapes in T. Niksic, D. Vretenar, G. A. Lalazissis, and P. Ring [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092502 (2007)], is extended to the region Z=60,62,64 with N{approx_equal}90 and includes both {beta} and {gamma} deformations. Collective excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N=90 that can be approximately characterized by the X(5) analytic solution at the critical point of the first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.
Impurity-tuned non-equilibrium phase transition in a bacterial carpet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiao, Yi-Teng; Wu, Kuan-Ting; Uchida, Nariya; Woon, Wei-Yen
2016-05-01
The effects of impurity on the non-equilibrium phase transition in Vibrio alginolyticus bacterial carpets are investigated through a position-sensitive-diode implemented optical tweezers-microsphere assay. The collective flow increases abruptly as we increase the rotation rate of flagella via Na+ concentration. The effects of impurities on the transition behavior are examined by mixing cells of a wild type strain (VIO5) with cells of a mutant strain (NMB136) in different swimming patterns. For dilute impurities, the transition point is shifted toward higher Na+ concentration. Increasing the impurities' ratio to over 0.25 leads to a significant drop in the collective force, suggesting a partial orientational order with a smaller correlation length.
Phase transitions of ɛ-HNIW in compound systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing-yuan; Guo, Xue-yong; Jiao, Qing-jie; Zhang, Pu
2016-05-01
The heat-induced phase transitions of ɛ-HNIW, both neat and coated with various additives used in plastic bonded explosives, were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ɛ-HNIW, after being held at 70°C for 60h, remained in the ɛ-phase. Applying other conditions, various phase transition parameters were determined, including Tc (the critical phase transition temperature), T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the phase transition is complete) and T180 (the percentage of γ-HNIW present in samples heated to 180°C). According to the above three parameters, additives were divided into three categories: those that delay phase transition, those that raise the critical temperature and the transition rate, and those that promote the phase transition. Based on the above data, a phase transition mechanism is proposed.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Antiferromagnets and Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachdev, Subir
2000-03-01
A general introduction to the non-zero temperature dynamic and transport properties of low-dimensional systems near a quantum phase transition shall be presented. Basic results will be reviewed in the context of experiments on the spin-ladder compounds. Recent large N computations (M. Vojta and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 3916 (1999) on an extended t-J model motivate a global scenario of the quantum phases and transitions in the high temperature superconductors, and connections will be made to numerous experiments. A universal theory (S. Sachdev, C. Buragohain, and M. Vojta, Science, in press M. Vojta, C. Buragohain, and S. Sachdev, cond- mat/9912020) of quantum impurities in spin-gap antiferromagnets near a magnetic ordering transition will be compared quantitatively to experiments on Zn doped Y Ba2 Cu3 O7 (Fong et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1939 (1999)
Thin film phase transition materials development program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Case, W. E.
1985-04-01
A number of application concepts have emerged based on the idea that a phase transition thin film such as vanadium dioxide provides a high resolution, two-dimensional format for switching, recording, and processing optical signals. These applications range from high density optical disk recording systems and optical data processing to laser protection devices, infrared FLIRS and seekers, laser radar systems and IR scene simulators. All application candidates have a potential for providing either a totally new capability, an improved performance, a lower cost, or combinations of the three. Probably of greatest significance is the emergence of agile sensor concepts arising out of some of the film's special properties. These are represented by the above FLIRs, seekers and laser radar systems. A three year research program has been completed to advance the state-of-the-art in the preparation and characterization of selected thin film phase transition materials. The objectives of the program were: (1) to expand the data base and improve operational characteristics of Vought prepared vanadium dioxide thin films, (2) to evolve process chemistry and subsequently characterize several new program materials, including rare-earth chalcogenides, organic semiconductor charge complexes, alloys of transition metal oxides, and metal-insulator cermets, and (3) to spin-off new applications and concepts.
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosekilde, E.; Laugesen, J. L.; Zhusubaliyev, Zh. T.
2012-08-01
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization for a periodically driven spiral-type chaotic oscillator is known to involve a dense set of saddle-node bifurcations. By following the synchronization transition through the cascade of period-doubling bifurcations in a forced Rössler system, this paper describes how these saddle-node bifurcations arise and how their characteristic cyclic organisation develops. We identify the cycles that are involved in the various saddle-node bifurcations and descibe how the formation of multi-layered resonance cycles in the synchronization domain is related to the torus doubling bifurcations that take place outside this domain. By examining a physiology-based model of the blood flow regulation to the individual functional unit (nephron) of the kidney we demonstrate how a similar bifurcation structure may arise in this system as a response to a periodically varying arterial blood pressure. The paper finally discusses how an alternative transition to chaotic phase synchronization may occur in the mutual synchronization of two chaotically oscillating period-doubling systems.
Transitional Bubble in Periodic Flow Phase Shift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talan, M.; Hourmouziadis, Jean
2004-01-01
One particular characteristic observed in unsteady shear layers is the phase shift relative to the main flow. In attached boundary layers this will have an effect both on the instantaneous skin friction and heat transfer. In separation bubbles the contribution to the drag is dominated by the pressure distribution. However, the most significant effect appears to be the phase shift on the transition process. Unsteady transition behaviour may determine the bursting of the bubble resulting in an un-recoverable full separation. An early analysis of the phase shift was performed by Stokes for the incompressible boundary layer of an oscillating wall and an oscillating main flow. An amplitude overshoot within the shear layer as well as a phase shift were observed that can be attributed to the relatively slow diffusion of viscous stresses compared to the fast change of pressure. Experiments in a low speed facility with the boundary layer of a flat plate were evaluated in respect to phase shift. A pressure distribution similar to that on the suction surface of a turbomachinery aerofoil was superimposed generating a typical transitional separation bubble. A periodically unsteady main flow in the suction type wind tunnel was introduced via a rotating flap downstream of the test section. The experiments covered a range of the three similarity parameters of momentum-loss-thickness Reynolds-number of 92 to 226 and Strouhal-number (reduced frequency) of 0.0001 to 0.0004 at the separation point, and an amplitude range up to 19 %. The free stream turbulence level was less than 1% .Upstream of the separation point the phase shift in the laminar boundary layer does not appear to be affected significantly bay either of the three parameters. The trend perpendicular to the wall is similar to the Stokes analysis. The problem scales well with the wave velocity introduced by Stokes, however, the lag of the main flow near the wall is less than indicated analytically. The separation point
Exploiting phase transitions for fusion optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenson, Pontus
2005-05-01
Many optimization problems that arise in multi-target tracking and fusion applications are known to be NP-complete, ie, believed to have worst-case complexities that are exponential in problem size. Recently, many such NP-complete problems have been shown to display threshold phenomena: it is possible to define a parameter such that the probability of a random problem instance having a solution jumps from 1 to 0 at a specific value of the parameter. It is also found that the amount of resources needed to solve the problem instance peaks at the transition point. Among the problems found to display this behavior are graph coloring (aka clustering, relevant for multi-target tracking), satisfiability (which occurs in resource allocation and planning problem), and the travelling salesperson problem. Physicists studying these problems have found intriguing similarities to phase transitions in spin models of statistical mechanics. Many methods previously used to analyze spin glasses have been used to explain some of the properties of the behavior at the transition point. It turns out that the transition happens because the fitness landscape of the problem changes as the parameter is varied. Some algorithms have been introduced that exploit this knowledge of the structure of the fitness landscape. In this paper, we review some of the experimental and theoretical work on threshold phenomena in optimization problems and indicate how optimization problems from tracking and sensor resource allocation could be analyzed using these results.
Phase transitions in least-effort communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel
2010-11-01
We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions.
Quantum phase transitions, frustration, and the Fermi surface in the Kondo lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eidelstein, Eitan; Moukouri, S.; Schiller, Avraham
2011-07-01
The quantum phase transition from a spin-Peierls phase with a small Fermi surface to a paramagnetic Luttinger-liquid phase with a large Fermi surface is studied in the framework of a one-dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model that consists of an electron gas away from half filling, coupled to a spin-1/2 chain by Kondo interactions. The Kondo spins are further coupled to each other with isotropic nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions which are tuned to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Focusing on three-eighths filling and using the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) method, we show that the zero-temperature transition between the phases with small and large Fermi momenta appears continuous, and involves a new intermediate phase where the Fermi surface is not well defined. The intermediate phase is spin gapped and has Kondo-spin correlations that show incommensurate modulations. Our results appear incompatible with the local picture for the quantum phase transition in heavy fermion compounds, which predicts an abrupt change in the size of the Fermi momentum.
Phase transitions of Dirac electrons in bismuth.
Li, Lu; Checkelsky, J G; Hor, Y S; Uher, C; Hebard, A F; Cava, R J; Ong, N P
2008-07-25
The Dirac Hamiltonian, which successfully describes relativistic fermions, applies equally well to electrons in solids with linear energy dispersion, for example, in bismuth and graphene. A characteristic of these materials is that a magnetic field less than 10 tesla suffices to force the Dirac electrons into the lowest Landau level, with resultant strong enhancement of the Coulomb interaction energy. Moreover, the Dirac electrons usually come with multiple flavors or valley degeneracy. These ingredients favor transitions to a collective state with novel quantum properties in large field. By using torque magnetometry, we have investigated the magnetization of bismuth to fields of 31 tesla. We report the observation of sharp field-induced phase transitions into a state with striking magnetic anisotropy, consistent with the breaking of the threefold valley degeneracy. PMID:18653888
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotter, Ingrid
2012-02-01
The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.
Topological Phase Transition without Gap Closing
Ezawa, Motohiko; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto
2013-01-01
Topological phase transition is accompanied with a change of topological numbers. According to the bulk-edge correspondence, the gap closing and the breakdown of the adiabaticity are necessary at the phase transition point to make the topological number ill-defined. However, the gap closing is not always needed. In this paper, we show that two topological distinct phases can be continuously connected without gap closing, provided the symmetry of the system changes during the process. Here we propose the generic principles how this is possible by demonstrating various examples such as 1D polyacetylene with the charge-density-wave order, 2D silicene with the antiferromagnetic order, 2D silicene or quantum well made of HgTe with superconducting proximity effects and 3D superconductor Cu doped Bi2Se3. It is argued that such an unusual phenomenon can occur when we detour around the gap closing point provided the connection of the topological numbers is lost along the detour path. PMID:24071900
Finitely Generated Multifractals Can Display Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huillet, Thierrey; Jeannet, Bernard
1996-02-01
A new class of multifractal objects (“skewed” multifractals) is introduced, the mutiplicative generator of which has a finite number of branches of different real-valued depths. Both microscopic and macroscopic scales are represented by such objects, each of these corresponding to a specific thermodynamical regime. In the “diluted” regime, the partition function Z_t is exactly renormalizable which means in the sequel, as is the case in the general multifractal theory, that t^{-1} log Z_t as a non trivial limit as t tends to infinity. In the “condensed” one the partition function converges. Details about the transition between these two regimes are given. Une nouvelle classe de “multifractales” est introduite, pour laquelle le générateur présente un nombre fini de branches de longueur variable à valeurs réelles. Les échelles macroscopiques et microscopiques sont représentables par de tels objets, chacune d'elles correspondant à un régime thermodynamique spécifique. Dans la phase “diluée”, la fonction de partition Z_t est exactement renormalisable, en ce sens (classique) que la limite quand trightarrow infty de t^{-1} log Z_t est non triviale. Dans la phase “condensée” la fonction de partition converge. Les détails thermodynamiques concernant cette transition de phase sont fournis.
Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory
Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa
2007-10-15
The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.
Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.
2014-01-01
Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.
Jahn-Teller solitons, structural phase transitions, and phase separation.
Clougherty, Dennis P
2006-02-01
It is demonstrated that under common conditions a molecular solid subject to Jahn-Teller interactions supports stable Q-ball-like nontopological solitons. Such solitons represent a localized lump of excess electric charge in periodic motion accompanied by a time-dependent shape distortion of a set of adjacent molecules. The motion of the distortion can correspond to a true rotation or to a pseudorotation about the symmetric shape configuration. These solitons are stable for Jahn-Teller coupling strengths below a critical value; however, as the Jahn-Teller coupling approaches this critical value, the size of the soliton diverges signaling an incipient structural phase transition. The soliton phase mimics features commonly attributed to phase separation in complex solids. PMID:16486846
Jahn-Teller Solitons, Structural Phase Transitions, and Phase Separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clougherty, Dennis P.
2006-02-01
It is demonstrated that under common conditions a molecular solid subject to Jahn-Teller interactions supports stable Q-ball-like nontopological solitons. Such solitons represent a localized lump of excess electric charge in periodic motion accompanied by a time-dependent shape distortion of a set of adjacent molecules. The motion of the distortion can correspond to a true rotation or to a pseudorotation about the symmetric shape configuration. These solitons are stable for Jahn-Teller coupling strengths below a critical value; however, as the Jahn-Teller coupling approaches this critical value, the size of the soliton diverges signaling an incipient structural phase transition. The soliton phase mimics features commonly attributed to phase separation in complex solids.
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgieva, A. I.; Drumev, K. P.
2016-01-01
We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott's SU(3) basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence
Millonas, M.M.
1992-12-31
A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.
Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence
Millonas, M.M. . Dept. of Physics)
1992-01-01
A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.
Is ``metamictization`` of zircon a phase transition?
Salje, E.K.H.; Chrosch, J.; Ewing, R.C.
1999-07-01
Metamictization is the transition from the crystalline to an aperiodic or amorphous state due to alpha-decay event damage from constituent radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th) and their daughters. However, this transformation in minerals is part of a larger class of radiation-induced transformations to the amorphous state that has received considerable recent attention as a result of ion- and electron-beam experiments on metals, intermetallics, simple oxides, and complex ceramics and minerals. Diffuse X-ray scattering from single crystals of metamict zircon reveals residual crystallinity even at high fluences (up to 7.2 {times} 10{sup 18} {alpha}-decay events/g). The experimental evidence does not suggest that radiation-induced amorphization is a phase transition. The observations are in good agreement with a nonconvergent, heterogeneous model of amorphization in which damage production is a random process of cascade formation and overlap at increasing fluence. Instead of an amorphization transition, the existence of a percolation transition is postulated. At the level of radiation damage near the percolation point, the heterogeneous strain broadening of X-ray diffraction profiles is reduced whereas the particle-size broadening increases. Simultaneously, the macroscopic swelling of the zircon becomes larger than the maximum expansion of the unit-cell parameters. A suitable empirical parameter that characterizes this transition is the flux, D{sub s}, at which the macroscopic expansion is identical to the maximum expansion of the crystallographic unit cell. In zircon, D{sub s} = 3.5{center_dot}10{sup 18} {alpha}-decay events/g.
Evolutionary Phase Transitions in Random Environments.
Skanata, Antun; Kussell, Edo
2016-07-15
We present analytical results for long-term growth rates of structured populations in randomly fluctuating environments, which we apply to predict how cellular response networks evolve. We show that networks which respond rapidly to a stimulus will evolve phenotypic memory exclusively under random (i.e., nonperiodic) environments. We identify the evolutionary phase diagram for simple response networks, which we show can exhibit both continuous and discontinuous transitions. Our approach enables exact analysis of diverse evolutionary systems, from viral epidemics to emergence of drug resistance. PMID:27472146
Evolutionary Phase Transitions in Random Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skanata, Antun; Kussell, Edo
2016-07-01
We present analytical results for long-term growth rates of structured populations in randomly fluctuating environments, which we apply to predict how cellular response networks evolve. We show that networks which respond rapidly to a stimulus will evolve phenotypic memory exclusively under random (i.e., nonperiodic) environments. We identify the evolutionary phase diagram for simple response networks, which we show can exhibit both continuous and discontinuous transitions. Our approach enables exact analysis of diverse evolutionary systems, from viral epidemics to emergence of drug resistance.
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
Quantum coherence and quantum phase transitions
Li, Yan-Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-01-01
We study the connections between local quantum coherence (LQC) based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transitions (QPTs). When applied on the one-dimensional Hubbard, XY spin chain with three-spin interaction, and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models, the LQC and its derivatives are used successfully to detect different types of QPTs in these spin and fermionic systems. Furthermore, the LQC is effective as the quantum discord (QD) in detecting QPTs at finite temperatures, where the entanglement has lost its effectiveness. We also demonstrate that the LQC can exhibit different behaviors in many forms compared with the QD. PMID:27193057
Bound entanglement in quantum phase transitions
Baghbanzadeh, S.; Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.
2010-04-15
We investigate quantum phase transitions in which a change in the type of entanglement from bound entanglement to either free entanglement or separability may occur. In particular, we present a theoretical method to construct a class of quantum spin-chain Hamiltonians that exhibit this type of quantum criticality. Given parameter-dependent two-site reduced density matrices (with prescribed entanglement properties), we lay out a reverse construction for a compatible pure state for the whole system, as well as a class of Hamiltonians for which this pure state is a ground state. This construction is illustrated through several examples.
Quantum coherence and quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-05-01
We study the connections between local quantum coherence (LQC) based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transitions (QPTs). When applied on the one-dimensional Hubbard, XY spin chain with three-spin interaction, and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models, the LQC and its derivatives are used successfully to detect different types of QPTs in these spin and fermionic systems. Furthermore, the LQC is effective as the quantum discord (QD) in detecting QPTs at finite temperatures, where the entanglement has lost its effectiveness. We also demonstrate that the LQC can exhibit different behaviors in many forms compared with the QD.
Quantum coherence and quantum phase transitions.
Li, Yan-Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-01-01
We study the connections between local quantum coherence (LQC) based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transitions (QPTs). When applied on the one-dimensional Hubbard, XY spin chain with three-spin interaction, and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models, the LQC and its derivatives are used successfully to detect different types of QPTs in these spin and fermionic systems. Furthermore, the LQC is effective as the quantum discord (QD) in detecting QPTs at finite temperatures, where the entanglement has lost its effectiveness. We also demonstrate that the LQC can exhibit different behaviors in many forms compared with the QD. PMID:27193057
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipos, Maksim
metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.
Phase Transitions of Single Semistiff Polymer Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastolla, Ugo; Grassberger, Peter
1997-12-01
We study numerically a lattice model of semiflexible homopolymers with nearest neighbor (nn) attraction and energetic preference for straight joints between bonded monomers. For this we use a new Monte Carlo algorithm, the “prunedenriched Rosenbluth Method” (PERM). It is very efficient both for relatively open configurations at high temperatures and for compact and frozen-in low- T states. This allows us to study in detail the phase diagram as a function of nn attraction ɛ and stiffness x. It shows a θ-collapse line with a transition from open coils (small ɛ) to molten compact globules (large ɛ) and a freezing transition toward a state with orientational global order (large stiffness x). Qualitatively this is similar to a recently studied mean-field theory [S. Doniach, T. Garel, and H. Orland (1996), J. Chem. Phys. 105(4), 1601], but there are important differences in details. In contrast to the mean-field theory and to naive expectations, the θ-temperature increases with stiffness x. The freezing temperature increases even faster, and reaches the θ-line at a finite value of x. For even stiffer chains, the freezing transition takes place directly, without the formation of an intermediate globular state. Although being in conflict with mean-field theory, the latter had been conjectured already by Doniach et al. on the basis of heuristic arguments and of low-statistics Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the present model as a very crude model for protein folding.
Phase transitions in Thirring’s model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Ruffo, Stefano
2016-07-01
In his pioneering work on negative specific heat, Walter Thirring introduced a model that is solvable in the microcanonical ensemble. Here, we give a complete description of the phase-diagram of this model in both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble, highlighting the main features of ensemble inequivalence. In both ensembles, we find a line of first-order phase transitions which ends in a critical point. However, neither the line nor the point have the same location in the phase-diagram of the two ensembles. We also show that the microcanonical and canonical critical points can be analytically related to each other using a Landau expansion of entropy and free energy, respectively, in analogy with what has been done in (Cohen and Mukamel 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P12017). Examples of systems with certain symmetries restricting the Landau expansion have been considered in this reference, while no such restrictions are present in Thirring’s model. This leads to a phase diagram that can be seen as a prototype for what happens in systems of particles with kinematic degrees of freedom dominated by long-range interactions.
Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, Ayaskanta
impurities (or doping) allows further control over the electrical and optical properties of nanocrystals. However, while impurity doping in bulk semiconductors is now routine, doping of nanocrystals remains challenging. In particular, evidence for electronic doping, in which additional electrical carriers are introduced into the nanocrystals, has been very limited. Here, we adopt a new approach to electronic doping of nanocrystals. We utilize a partial cation exchange to introduce silver impurities into cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals. Results indicate that the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals show a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, as compared to pure CdSe nanocrystals. We also observe a switching from n- to p-type doping in the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals with increased silver amounts. Moreover, the silver-doping results in a change in the conductance of both PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals and the magnitude of this change depends on the amount of silver incorporated into the nanocrystals. In the bulk, silver chalcogenides (Ag2E, E=S, Se, and Te) possess a wide array of intriguing properties, including superionic conductivity. In addition, they undergo a reversible temperature-dependent phase transition which induces significant changes in their electronic and ionic properties. While most of these properties have been examined extensively in bulk, very few studies have been conducted at the nanoscale. We have recently developed a versatile synthesis that yields colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystals. Here, we study the size dependence of their phase-transition temperatures. We utilize differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction analyses to observe the phase transition in nanocrystal assemblies. We observe a significant deviation from the bulk alpha (low-temperature) to beta (high-temperature) phase-transition temperature when we reduce their size to a few nanometers. Hence, these nanocrystals provide great
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D. E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar
2012-10-01
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10{sup −4} Hz, and give intensities as high as h{sup 2}Ω{sub GW} ∼ 10{sup −8}.
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2012-10-01
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ~ 10-4 Hz, and give intensities as high as h2ΩGW ~ 10-8.
Thounaojam, Umeshkanta S; Cui, Jianxia; Norman, Sharon E; Butera, Robert J; Canavier, Carmen C
2014-05-01
In order to study the ability of coupled neural oscillators to synchronize in the presence of intrinsic as opposed to synaptic noise, we constructed hybrid circuits consisting of one biological and one computational model neuron with reciprocal synaptic inhibition using the dynamic clamp. Uncoupled, both neurons fired periodic trains of action potentials. Most coupled circuits exhibited qualitative changes between one-to-one phase-locking with fairly constant phasic relationships and phase slipping with a constant progression in the phasic relationships across cycles. The phase resetting curve (PRC) and intrinsic periods were measured for both neurons, and used to construct a map of the firing intervals for both the coupled and externally forced (PRC measurement) conditions. For the coupled network, a stable fixed point of the map predicted phase locking, and its absence produced phase slipping. Repetitive application of the map was used to calibrate different noise models to simultaneously fit the noise level in the measurement of the PRC and the dynamics of the hybrid circuit experiments. Only a noise model that added history-dependent variability to the intrinsic period could fit both data sets with the same parameter values, as well as capture bifurcations in the fixed points of the map that cause switching between slipping and locking. We conclude that the biological neurons in our study have slowly-fluctuating stochastic dynamics that confer history dependence on the period. Theoretical results to date on the behavior of ensembles of noisy biological oscillators may require re-evaluation to account for transitions induced by slow noise dynamics. PMID:24830924
Phase transitions in supercritical explosive percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Nagler, Jan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Xiaolong; Shen, Huawei; Zheng, Zhiming; D'Souza, Raissa M.
2013-05-01
Percolation describes the sudden emergence of large-scale connectivity as edges are added to a lattice or random network. In the Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model (BFW) of percolation, edges sampled from a random graph are considered individually and either added to the graph or rejected provided that the fraction of accepted edges is never smaller than a decreasing function with asymptotic value of α, a constant. The BFW process has been studied as a model system for investigating the underlying mechanisms leading to discontinuous phase transitions in percolation. Here we focus on the regime α∈[0.6,0.95] where it is known that only one giant component, denoted C1, initially appears at the discontinuous phase transition. We show that at some point in the supercritical regime C1 stops growing and eventually a second giant component, denoted C2, emerges in a continuous percolation transition. The delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 and their asymptotic sizes both depend on the value of α and we establish by several techniques that there exists a bifurcation point αc=0.763±0.002. For α∈[0.6,αc), C1 stops growing the instant it emerges and the delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 decreases with increasing α. For α∈(αc,0.95], in contrast, C1 continues growing into the supercritical regime and the delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 increases with increasing α. As we show, αc marks the minimal delay possible between the emergence of C1 and C2 (i.e., the smallest edge density for which C2 can exist). We also establish many features of the continuous percolation of C2 including scaling exponents and relations.
Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures
Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.
2012-02-07
Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.
Does sex induce a phase transition?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Moss de Oliveira, S.; Stauffer, D.; Cebrat, S.; Pękalski, A.
2008-05-01
We discovered a dynamic phase transition induced by sexual reproduction. The dynamics is a pure Darwinian rule applied to diploid bit-strings with both fundamental ingredients to drive Darwin's evolution: (1) random mutations and crossings which act in the sense of increasing the entropy (or diversity); and (2) selection which acts in the opposite sense by limiting the entropy explosion. Selection wins this competition if mutations performed at birth are few enough, and thus the wild genotype dominates the steady-state population. By slowly increasing the average number m of mutations, however, the population suddenly undergoes a mutational degradation precisely at a transition point mc. Above this point, the “bad” alleles (represented by 1-bits) spread over the genetic pool of the population, overcoming the selection pressure. Individuals become selectively alike, and evolution stops. Only below this point, m < mc, evolutionary life is possible. The finite-size-scaling behaviour of this transition is exhibited for large enough “chromosome” lengths L, through lengthy computer simulations. One important and surprising observation is the L-independence of the transition curves, for large L. They are also independent on the population size. Another is that mc is near unity, i.e. life cannot be stable with much more than one mutation per diploid genome, independent of the chromosome length, in agreement with reality. One possible consequence is that an eventual evolutionary jump towards larger L enabling the storage of more genetic information would demand an improved DNA copying machinery in order to keep the same total number of mutations per offspring.
Weyl semimetals and topological phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Shuichi
Weyl semimetals are semimetals with nondegenerate 3D Dirac cones in the bulk. We showed that in a transition between different Z2 topological phases, i.e. between the normal insulator (NI) and topological insulator (TI), the Weyl semimetal phase necessarily appears when inversion symmetry is broken. In the presentation we show that this scenario holds for materials with any space groups without inversion symmetry. Namely, let us take any band insulator without inversion symmetry, and assume that the gap is closed by a change of an external parameter. In such cases we found that the system runs either into (i) a Weyl semimetal or (ii) a nodal-line semimetal, but no insulator-to-insulator transition happens. This is confirmed by classifying the gap closing in terms of the space groups and the wavevector. In the case (i), the number of Weyl nodes produced at the gap closing ranges from 2 to 12 depending on the symmetry. In (ii) the nodal line is protected by mirror symmetry. In the presentation, we explain some Weyl semimetal and nodal-line semimetals which we find by using this classification. As an example, we explain our result on ab initio calculation on tellurium (Te). Tellurium consists of helical chains, and therefore lacks inversion and mirror symmetries. At high pressure the band gap of Te decreases and finally it runs into a Weyl semimetal phase, as confirmed by our ab initio calculation. In such chiral systems as tellurium, we also theoretically propose chiral transport in systems with such helical structures; namely, an orbital magnetization is induced by a current along the chiral axis, in analogy with a solenoid.
High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.
2015-12-01
Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.
Quantum phase transitions in frustrated magnetic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wölfle, P.; Schmitteckert, P.
2015-07-01
We review our recent work on quantum phase transitions in frustrated magnetic systems. In the first part a Pseudo Fermion Functional Renormalization Group (PFFRG) method is presented. By using an exact representation of spin 1/2 operators in terms of pseudofermions a quantum spin Hamiltonian may be mapped onto an interacting fermion system. For the latter an FRG treatment is employed. The results for the J1-J2 model and similar models of frustrated interaction show phase diagrams in agreement with those obtained by other methods, but give more detailed information on the nature of correlations, in particular in the non-magnetic phases. Applications of PFFRG to geometrically frustrated systems and to highly anisotropic Kitaev type models are also reported. In the second part the derivation of quantum spin models from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian is discussed. The results for multiband systems with strong spin-orbit interaction encountered in the iridates class of compounds are shown to resolve some of the questions posed by experiment.
QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS-VOLUME 15.
SCHAFER,T.
1998-11-04
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some. efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Yutao
Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC → dehydrated ACC → biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.
Phase transitions in femtosecond laser ablation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Levashov, Pavel R.
2009-03-01
In this study we simulate an interaction of femtosecond laser pulses (100 fs, 800 nm, 0.1-10 J/cm 2) with metal targets of Al, Au, Cu, and Ni. For analysis of laser-induced phase transitions, melting and shock waves propagation as well as material decomposition we use an Eulerian hydrocode in conjunction with a thermodynamically complete two-temperature equation of state with stable and metastable phases. Isochoric heating, material evaporation from the free surface of the target and fast propagation of the melting and shock waves are observed. On rarefaction the liquid phase becomes metastable and its lifetime is estimated using the theory of homogeneous nucleation. Mechanical spallation of the target material at high strain rates is also possible as a result of void growth and confluence. In our simulation several ablation mechanisms are taken into account but the main issue of the material is found to originate from the metastable liquid state. It can be decomposed either into a liquid-gas mixture in the vicinity of the critical point, or into droplets at high strain rates and negative pressure. The simulation results are in agreement with available experimental findings.
Turner, Sara M. F.; Johnson, Stephen M.
2015-01-01
On postnatal days P10–P15 in rat medulla, neurotransmitter receptor subunit composition shifts towards a more mature phenotype. Since medullary GABAARs regulate cardiorespiratory function, abrupt alterations in GABAergic synaptic inhibition could disrupt homeostasis. We hypothesized that GABAARs on medullary neurons become more resistant to positive allosteric modulation during P10–P15. Medullary and cortical slices from P10–P20 rats were used to record spontaneous action potentials in pre-Botzinger Complex (preBötC-region), hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus, nucleus tractus solitariius (NTS), and cortex during exposure to pentobarbital (positive allosteric modulator of GABAARs). On P14, pentobarbital resistance abruptly increased in preBötC-region and decreased in NTS, but these changes in pentobarbital resistance were not present on P15. Pentobarbital resistance decreased in XII motor nucleus during P11–P15 with a nadir at P14. Abrupt changes in pentobarbital resistance indicate changes in GABAergic receptor composition and function that may compensate for potential increased GABAergic inhibition and respiratory depression that occurs during this key developmental transitional period. PMID:25550216
Evidence for a Phase Transition in Silicate Melt at Extreme Pressure and Temperature Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spaulding, D. K.; McWilliams, R. S.; Jeanloz, R.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.; Collins, G. W.; Smith, R. F.
2012-02-01
Laser-driven shock compression experiments reveal the presence of a phase transition in MgSiO3 over the pressure-temperature range 300-400 GPa and 10 000-16 000 K, with a positive Clapeyron slope and a volume change of ˜6.3 (±2.0) percent. The observations are most readily interpreted as an abrupt liquid-liquid transition in a silicate composition representative of terrestrial planetary mantles, implying potentially significant consequences for the thermal-chemical evolution of extrasolar planetary interiors. In addition, the present results extend the Hugoniot equation of state of MgSiO3 single crystal and glass to 950 GPa.
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions.
Chen, Wei
2016-02-10
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined. PMID:26790004
Topological classification of dynamical phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vajna, Szabolcs; Dóra, Balázs
2015-04-01
We study the nonequilibrium time evolution of a variety of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems (including SSH model, Kitaev-chain, Haldane model, p +i p superconductor, etc.) following a sudden quench. We prove analytically that topology-changing quenches are always followed by nonanalytical temporal behavior of return rates (logarithm of the Loschmidt echo), referred to as dynamical phase transitions (DPTs) in the literature. Similarly to edge states in topological insulators, DPTs can be classified as being topologically protected or not. In 1D systems the number of topologically protected nonequilibrium time scales are determined by the difference between the initial and final winding numbers, while in 2D systems no such relation exists for the Chern numbers. The singularities of dynamical free energy in the 2D case are qualitatively different from those of the 1D case; the cusps appear only in the first time derivative.
Shape phase transition in Nd-152144 isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, J. B.
2015-10-01
Background: The Z =60 Nd-152144 isotopes span the spherical to the well-deformed collective nuclear structures. The shape phase transition at N =86 -88 and N =88 -90 is intermediate between (Ba,Ce) and (Sm,Gd). The role of the Z =64 subshell closure in this forms an interesting subject of study. Objective: To analyze these complex features of the Nd spectra and the effects of the Z =64 subshell by comparing with predictions from the microscopic dynamic pairing plus quadrupole model to explain the shape transition at N =86 -90 . Method: Empirical analysis of the Nd spectra is illustrated. The K -band structures of the collective Iπ=2+ states in Nd-152144 are described. The predicted B (E 2 ) values and the interband B (E 2 ) ratios are compared with experimental data. The potential-energy surfaces of Nd-152146 are illustrated, and the role of protons and neutrons filling the Nilsson orbits is described. Results: The different effects of the Z =64 subshell on the ground-state band and the excited vibrational bands of Nd-148146 are illustrated. Conclusion: The important role of the dynamics of the nucleus, besides the static features, is made more transparent.
Phase transitions in Hidden Markov Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bechhoefer, John; Lathouwers, Emma
In Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), a Markov process is not directly accessible. In the simplest case, a two-state Markov model ``emits'' one of two ``symbols'' at each time step. We can think of these symbols as noisy measurements of the underlying state. With some probability, the symbol implies that the system is in one state when it is actually in the other. The ability to judge which state the system is in sets the efficiency of a Maxwell demon that observes state fluctuations in order to extract heat from a coupled reservoir. The state-inference problem is to infer the underlying state from such noisy measurements at each time step. We show that there can be a phase transition in such measurements: for measurement error rates below a certain threshold, the inferred state always matches the observation. For higher error rates, there can be continuous or discontinuous transitions to situations where keeping a memory of past observations improves the state estimate. We can partly understand this behavior by mapping the HMM onto a 1d random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We also present more recent work that explores a larger parameter space and more states. Research funded by NSERC, Canada.
Phase Transitions in Networks of Memristive Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, Forrest; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The memory features of memristive elements (resistors with memory), analogous to those found in biological synapses, have spurred the development of neuromorphic systems based on them (see, e.g.,). In turn, this requires a fundamental understanding of the collective dynamics of networks of memristive systems. Here, we study an experimentally-inspired model of disordered memristive networks in the limit of a slowly ramped voltage and show through simulations that these networks undergo a first-order phase transition in the conductivity for sufficiently high values of memory, as quantified by the memristive ON/OFF ratio. We provide also a mean-field theory that reproduces many features of the transition and particularly examine the role of boundary conditions and current- vs. voltage-controlled networks. The dynamics of the mean-field theory suggest a distribution of conductance jumps which may be accessible experimentally. We finally discuss the ability of these networks to support massively-parallel computation. Work supported in part by the Center for Memory and Recording Research at UCSD.
100-GHz Phase Switch/Mixer Containing a Slot-Line Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaier, Todd; Wells, Mary; Dawson, Douglas
2009-01-01
A circuit that can function as a phase switch, frequency mixer, or frequency multiplier operates over a broad frequency range in the vicinity of 100 GHz. Among the most notable features of this circuit is a grounded uniplanar transition (in effect, a balun) between a slot line and one of two coplanar waveguides (CPWs). The design of this circuit is well suited to integration of the circuit into a microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) package. One CPW is located at the input end and one at the output end of the top side of a substrate on which the circuit is fabricated (see Figure 1). The input CPW feeds the input signal to antiparallel flip-chip Schottky diodes connected to the edges of the slot line. Phase switching is effected by the combination of (1) the abrupt transition from the input CPW to the slot line and (2) CPW ground tuning effected by switching of the bias on the diodes. Grounding of the slot metal to the bottom metal gives rise to a frequency cutoff in the slot. This cutoff is valuable for separating different frequency components when the circuit is used as a mixer or multiplier. Proceeding along the slot line toward the output end, one encounters the aforementioned transition, which couples the slot line to the output CPW. Impedance tuning of the transition is accomplished by use of a high-impedance section immediately before the transition.
Survey of CRISM Transition Phase Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Choo, T. H.; McGovern, J. A.
2006-12-01
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) transition phase extends from the end of aerobraking (08/30/06) to the start of the Primary Science Phase (PSP) (11/08/2006). Within this timeframe, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will acquire Mars scene observations in association with the deployment of the telescope cover (09/27/06) and during the operational checkout of the full science payload (09/29/06 - 10/05/06). The CRISM cover opening sequence includes scene observations that will be used to verify deployment and to validate the on-orbit instrument wavelength calibration. The limited cover opening observation set consists of: 1. A hyperspectral nadir scan acquired as the cover is deployed (first light) 2. A single targeted (gimbaled) hyperspectral observation in the northern plains 3. A restricted duration nadir multispectral strip The high level objectives for the science payload checkout are to obtain observations in support of in-flight wavelength, radiometric, and geometric instrument calibration, to acquire data that will contribute to the development of a first-order hyperspectral atmospheric correction, and to exercise numerous spacecraft and instrument observing modes and strategies that will be employed during PSP. The science payload checkout also enables a unique collaboration between the Mars Express OMEGA and CRISM teams, with both spectrometers slated to observe common target locations with a minimal time offset for the purpose of instrument cross-calibration. The priority CRISM observations for the payload checkout include: 1. Multispectral nadir and hyperspectral off-nadir targeted observations in support of the cross-calibration experiment with OMEGA 2. Terminator-to-terminator multispectral data acquisition demonstrating the strategy that will be used to construct the global multispectral survey map 3. Terminator-to-terminator atmospheric emission phase function (EPF) data acquisition demonstrating the observation
A Direct Method for Viewing Ferromagnetic Phase Transition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lue, Chin-Shan
1994-01-01
Provides a method, using the Rowland ring as a specimen, to observe the phase transition process directly on the oscilloscope and even extract the critical exponent of ferromagnetic transition. Includes theory, experimental setup, and results. (MVL)
Pressure-induced phase transition in CrO2.
Alptekin, Sebahaddin
2015-12-01
The ab initio constant pressure molecular dynamics technique and density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used to study the pressure-induced phase transition of CrO2. The phase transition of the rutile (P42/mnm) to the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) structure at 30 GPa was determined successfully in a constant pressure simulation. This phase transition was analyzed from total energy calculations and, from the enthalpy calculation, occurred at around 17 GPa. Structural properties such as bulk modules, lattice parameters and phase transition were compared with experimental results. The phase transition at 12 ± 3 GPa was in good agreement with experimental results, as was the phase transition from the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) to the monoclinic (P21/c) structure also found at 35 GPa. PMID:26541468
Diffuse phase transition of Fe doped lead ytterbium tantalate ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rout, Dibyaranjan; Subramanian, V.; Hariharan, K.; Sivasubramanian, V.
2006-02-01
The effect of different concentration of Fe on the phase transition behavior of Lead ytterbium tantalate is investigated by dielectric and differential scanning calrimetry measurements. The samples are prepared through solid state reaction method and it has been found that the sintering temperature significantly lowered when the proportion of Pb(Fe 1/2Ta 1/2)O 3 increased. It has been observed that the doping in small amounts (0≤ x≤0.2) of Fe could meliorate the dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The diffuseness in the mode of phase transition increases and the phase transition temperature decreases as a function of Fe content. It is revealed that the dielectric data and heat capacity data follow a similar trend in the variation of the mode of phase transition and phase transition temperatures. The phase transition temperature values obtained from the heat capacity measurement well agreed with the values obtained from dielectric measurement.
The Roberge-Weiss phase transition and its endpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouno, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yuji; Kashiwa, Kouji; Yahiro, Masanobu
2009-11-01
The Roberge-Weiss (RW) phase transition in the imaginary chemical potential region is analyzed by the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. In the RW phase transition, the charge-conjugation symmetry is spontaneously broken, while the extended {\\mathbb Z}_{3} symmetry (the RW periodicity) is preserved. The RW transition is of second order at the endpoint. At the zero chemical potential, a crossover deconfinement transition appears as a remnant of the second-order RW phase transition at the endpoint, while the charge-conjugation symmetry is always preserved.
Main phase transitions in supported lipid single-bilayer.
Charrier, A; Thibaudau, F
2005-08-01
We have studied the phase transitions of a phospholipidic single-bilayer supported on a mica substrate by real-time temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy. We show the existence of two phase transitions in this bilayer that we attribute to two gel (L(beta))/fluid (L(alpha)) transitions, corresponding to the independent melting of each leaflet of the bilayer. The ratio of each phase with temperature and the large broadening of the transitions' widths have been interpreted through a basic thermodynamic framework in which the surface tension varies during the transitions. The experimental data can be fit with such a model using known thermodynamic parameters. PMID:15879467
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Jr, John T. Giblin; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Quantum phase transition of condensed bosons in optical lattices
Liang Junjun; Liang, J.-Q.; Liu, W.-M.
2003-10-01
In this paper we study the superfluid-Mott-insulator phase transition of ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice by means of Green function method and Bogliubov transformation as well. The superfluid-Mott-insulator phase transition condition is determined by the energy-band structure with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism. Moreover the superfluid phase is explained explicitly from the energy spectrum derived in terms of Bogliubov approach.
Topological phase transition of a Josephson junction and its dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutasoit, Jimmy; Marciani, Marco; Tarasinski, Brian; Beenakker, Carlo
A Josephson junction formed by a superconducting ring interrupted by a semiconductor nanowire can realize a zero-dimensional class D topological superconductor. By coupling the Josephson junction to a ballistic wire and altering the strength of the coupling, one can drive this topological superconductor through a topological phase transition. We study the compressibility of the junction as a probe of the topological phase transition. We also study the dynamics of the phase transition by studying the current pulse injected into the wire.
Chiral phase transition in lattice QCD as a metal-insulator transition
Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Osborn, James C.
2007-02-01
We investigate the lattice QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions at temperatures around the chiral phase transition. We present evidence of a metal-insulator transition in the low lying modes of the Dirac operator around the same temperature as the chiral phase transition. This strongly suggests the phenomenon of Anderson localization drives the QCD vacuum to the chirally symmetric phase in a way similar to a metal-insulator transition in a disordered conductor. We also discuss how Anderson localization affects the usual phenomenological treatment of phase transitions a la Ginzburg-Landau.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hongbao; Li, Li-Fang
2016-05-01
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy-temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy-temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Raman study of thermochromic phase transition in tungsten trioxide nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Dong Yu; Chen, Jian; Chen, Huan Jun; Gong, Li; Deng, Shao Zhi; Xu, Ning Sheng; Liu, Yu Long
2007-01-01
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanowires were synthesized by thermal evaporation of tungsten powder in two steps: tungsten suboxide (WO3-x) nanowires were synthesized, and then oxidized in O2 ambient and transformed into WO3 nanowires. Raman spectroscopy was applied to study the thermochromic phase transition of one-dimensional WO3 nanowires. From the temperature dependence of the characteristic mode at 33cm-1 in WO3, the phase transition temperature was determined. It was found that the phase transition of WO3 nanowires was reversible and the phase transition temperatures were even lower than that of WO3 nanopowder.
Phase transitions in a gas of anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKenzie, R.; Nebia-Rahal, F.; Paranjape, M. B.; Richer, J.
2010-10-01
We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however, now in the presence of a topological term added to the action which corresponds to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using a novel approach employing certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Interpreting the model as an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong-coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the vortex mass as it becomes small. We find the following new results. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop. On the other hand, it does effect the ’t Hooft loop of a given configuration, adding the linking number of the ’t Hooft loop with all of the dynamical vortex loops. We find the unexpected result that both the Wilson loop and the ’t Hooft loop exhibit a perimeter law even though there are no massless particles in the theory, in both phases of the theory. It should be noted that our method suffers from numerical instabilities if the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term is too large; thus, we have restricted our results to small values of this parameter. Furthermore, interpreting the lattice loop gas as an effective theory describing the Abelian Higgs model is only known to be true in the infinite coupling limit; for strong but finite coupling this correspondence is only a conjecture, the validity of which is beyond the scope of this article.
Phase transitions in a gas of anyons
MacKenzie, R.; Nebia-Rahal, F.; Paranjape, M. B.; Richer, J.
2010-10-01
We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however, now in the presence of a topological term added to the action which corresponds to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using a novel approach employing certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Interpreting the model as an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong-coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the vortex mass as it becomes small. We find the following new results. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop. On the other hand, it does effect the 't Hooft loop of a given configuration, adding the linking number of the 't Hooft loop with all of the dynamical vortex loops. We find the unexpected result that both the Wilson loop and the 't Hooft loop exhibit a perimeter law even though there are no massless particles in the theory, in both phases of the theory. It should be noted that our method suffers from numerical instabilities if the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term is too large; thus, we have restricted our results to small values of this parameter. Furthermore, interpreting the lattice loop gas as an effective theory describing the Abelian Higgs model is only known to be true in the infinite coupling limit; for strong but finite coupling this correspondence is only a conjecture, the validity of which is beyond the scope of this article.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.
2014-12-01
Shortly after the climactic eruption of ~600 km3 of Bishop Tuff zoned rhyolitic magma, ~100 km3 of crystal-poor Early Rhyolite erupted inside Long Valley Caldera between ~750-650 ka as domes, glassy lavas, and tuffs (Hildreth, 2004). Despite similarities in bulk composition (e.g., 73-75 wt% SiO2; ~100 ppm Sr), there are marked differences between the Late (≥ 790°C) Bishop Tuff and postcaldera Early Rhyolites. Although crystal-poor (<5%), the Early Rhyolites are often saturated with 7-8 mineral phases (plag + opx + ilm + tmte + biotite + apatite + zircon ± pyrrhotite), but without the quartz, sanidine, and cpx additionally found in the more crystal-rich (12-24%) Late Bishop Tuff. Pre-eruptive temperatures, on the basis of two Fe-Ti oxides, range from 720-860°C, and ∆NNO values range from-0.4 to -0.9 (consistent with abundant ilmenite). Thus the Early Rhyolites record fO2 values that are nearly two orders of magnitude lower than those in the Late Bishop Tuff (∆NNO = +1; Hildreth and Wilson, 2007). Application of the plagioclase-liquid hygrometer to Early Rhyolites gives pre-eruptive water contents ≤ 4.4 wt% H2O. The phenocrysts in Early Rhyolite obsidians often display euhedral and/or diffusion-limited growth textures, suggesting degassing-induced crystallization during rapid ascent. Isotopic data from the literature (e.g., Simon et al., 2014 and references therein) show that Long Valley rhyolites were derived from both crustal and mantle sources. We hypothesize that the drop in fO2 between the Late Bishop Tuff and Early Rhyolites may reflect a transition in their respective mantle source, from subduction-modified lithosphere to asthenosphere. Such a time-progressive transition in the mantle source of erupted basalts is seen throughout the Great Basin, occurring earliest in its central region and more recently toward its western margin (e.g. Cousens et al., 2012). Although the geochemistry of Quaternary basalts erupted around Long Valley indicate a
Electrical Dissipation Measurement of Polymer Phase Transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Long, E. R., R; Schuszler, A., II
1983-01-01
Technique measures solid/solid, glass/rubber, and liquid/liquid transition temperatures in polymers having dipole moments. Technique based on change in dipole packing that occurs with each transition and measured as change in electrical dissipation factor. Change in dipole packing occuring with each transition sensed by effect on dissipation factor.
Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions.
Siebert, D N; Philippi, P C; Mattila, K K
2014-11-01
Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling. PMID:25493907
Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu
2015-09-01
Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo
2016-05-01
We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ettelaie, Rammile; Dickinson, Eric; Pugnaloni, Luis
2014-11-01
The adsorption of surfactants onto a hydrophobic interface, already laden with a fixed number of amphiphilic macromolecules, is studied using the self consistent field calculation method of Scheutjens and Fleer. For biopolymers having unfavourable interactions with the surfactant molecules, the adsorption isotherms show an abrupt jump at a certain value of surfactant bulk concentration. Alternatively, the same behaviour is exhibited when the number of amphiphilic chains on the interface is decreased. We show that this sudden jump is associated with a first-order phase transition, by calculating the free energy values for the stable and the metastable states at both sides of the transition point. We also observe that the transition can occur for two approaching surfaces, from a high surfactant coverage phase to a low surfactant coverage one, at sufficiently close separation distances. The consequence of this finding for the steric colloidal interactions, induced by the overlap of two biopolymer + surfactant films, is explored. In particular, a significantly different interaction, in terms of its magnitude and range, is predicted for these two phases. We also consider the relevance of the current study to problems involving the competitive displacement of proteins by surfactants in food colloid systems.
Strain glass state as the boundary of two phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zhijian; Cui, Jian; Ren, Xiaobing
2015-08-01
A strain glass state was found to be located between B2-B19’ (cubic to monoclinic) phase transition and B2-R (cubic to rhombohedral) phase transition in Ti49Ni51 alloys after aging process. After a short time aging, strong strain glass transition was observed, because the size of the precipitates is small, which means the strain field induced by the precipitates is isotropic and point-defect-like, and the distribution of the precipitates is random. After a long time aging, the average size of the precipitates increases. The strong strain field induced by the precipitates around them forces the symmetry of the matrix materials to conform to the symmetry of the crystalline structure of the precipitates, which results in the new phase transition. The experiment shows that there exists no well-defined boundary in the evolution from the strain glass transition to the new phase transition. Due to its generality, this glass mediated phase transition divergence scheme can be applied to other proper material systems to induce a more important new phase transition path, which can be useful in the field of phase transition engineering.
Strain glass state as the boundary of two phase transitions.
Zhou, Zhijian; Cui, Jian; Ren, Xiaobing
2015-01-01
A strain glass state was found to be located between B2-B19' (cubic to monoclinic) phase transition and B2-R (cubic to rhombohedral) phase transition in Ti49Ni51 alloys after aging process. After a short time aging, strong strain glass transition was observed, because the size of the precipitates is small, which means the strain field induced by the precipitates is isotropic and point-defect-like, and the distribution of the precipitates is random. After a long time aging, the average size of the precipitates increases. The strong strain field induced by the precipitates around them forces the symmetry of the matrix materials to conform to the symmetry of the crystalline structure of the precipitates, which results in the new phase transition. The experiment shows that there exists no well-defined boundary in the evolution from the strain glass transition to the new phase transition. Due to its generality, this glass mediated phase transition divergence scheme can be applied to other proper material systems to induce a more important new phase transition path, which can be useful in the field of phase transition engineering. PMID:26307500
Quantum phase transitions in the presence of disorder and dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotabage, Chetan
A quantum phase transition is a phase transition at absolute zero occurring under variations in an external non-thermal parameter such as magnetic field or pressure. Quantum phase transitions are one among the important topics currently investigated in condensed matter physics. They are observed in various systems, e.g., in the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in LiHoF 4 or in the superconductor-metal phase transition in nanowires. A particular class of quantum phase transitions, which is phase transitions in the presence of disorder and dissipation, is investigated here. An example of this class is the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in Ni 1-xVx or CePd 1-xRhx caused by variations in chemical composition. In these system, disorder is due to random positions of doping element and the dynamics of order-parameter fluctuations is dissipative due to conduction electrons. These quantum phase transitions are explained using the following approach: The Landau-Ginzberg-Wilson functional, which is derived from a microscopic Hamiltonian, is treated by the strong-disorder renormalization group method. For ohmic damping, phase transitions are strongly influenced by disorder and the critical point is an infinite-randomness fixed point, which is in the universality class same as that of the random transverse-field Ising model. The scaling form of observable quantities is activated type rather than conventional power-law type. For superohmic damping, the strong-disorder renormalization group method yields one of the recursion relationships different from ohmic damping. This difference indicates a more conventional transition for superohmic damping.
Dynamics of a photoinduced phase transition in polydiacetylene crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshihara, S.; Tokura, Y.; Takeda, K.; Koda, T.
1995-09-01
The dynamical process of the photoinduced phase transition in polydiacetylene (PDA) single crystals has been investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy with varying temperature, excitation photon energy, and intensity. The photoinduced phase transition can be driven bidirectionally between the two (A and B) phases by dichromatic irradiation of a laser pulse, when the temperature of the PDA crystal is kept around the phase transition temperature (Tc). It was found that primary process of the photoinduced phase transition is mostly completed within 50 ns. In addition, occurrence of a transient domain injection has been confirmed at temperatures far below and above Tc. Together with the time-resolved measurement of photocurrent, we have found a close correlation between the photocurrent intensity and the phase conversion efficiency. This suggests that the domain walls separating the A and B phases can carry the charge.
Method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials
Asay, Blaine W.; Henson, Bryan F.; Sander, Robert K.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Son, Steven F.; Dickson, Peter M.
2002-01-01
The present invention includes a method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. A polymorphic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is interrogated with a beam of laser light at a chosen wavelength and frequency. A phase transition is induced in the material while it is interrogated. The intensity of light scattered by the material and having a wavelength equal to one half the wavelength of the interrogating laser light is detected. If the phase transition results in the production of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light increases; if the phase transition results in the disappearance of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light decreases.
Liquid liquid phase transition in Stillinger Weber silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand
2005-04-01
It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.
Transformation of phase transitions driven by an anisotropic random field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popa-Nita, V.; Kralj, Samo
2005-04-01
We carry out a comparative study of the influence of a random anisotropy field on continuous and discontinuous phase transitions. The ordered phase, which is reached via a continuous symmetry breaking phase transition, is characterized by an order parameter and by a corresponding hydrodynamic continuum field. We assume that the response of the hydrodynamic field to the imposed disorder results in a domainlike pattern of the system. For a strong enough disorder both transitions become gradual. For weaker disorder strengths the disorder converts a second order transition into a discontinuous one.
Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers
Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn
2005-02-01
Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.
Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Ligang; Li, Quan; Corr, Serena A.; Meng, Yue; Park, Changyong; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Ko, Changhyun; Wu, Junqiao; Shen, Guoyin
2015-03-01
We report the results of pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2 based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Our isothermal compression experiments at room temperature and 383 K show that the room temperature monoclinic phase (M 1 ,P 21/c ) and the high-temperature rutile phase (R ,P 42/m n m ) of VO2 undergo phase transitions to a distorted M 1 monoclinic phase (M 1' ,P 21/c ) above 13.0 GPa and to an orthorhombic phase (CaCl2-like, P n n m ) above 13.7 GPa, respectively. Upon further compression, both high-pressure phases transform into a new phase (phase X ) above 34.3 and 38.3 GPa at room temperature and 383 K, respectively. The room temperature M 1 -M 1' phase transition structurally resembles the R -CaCl2 phase transition at 383 K, suggesting a second-order displacive type of transition. Contrary to previous studies, our electrical resistivity results, Raman measurements, as well as ab initio calculations indicate that the new phase X , rather than the M 1' phase, is responsible for the metallization under pressure. The metallization mechanism is discussed based on the proposed crystal structure.
Phase transitions and domain structures in multiferroics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlahos, Eftihia
2011-12-01
Thin film ferroelectrics and multiferroics are two important classes of materials interesting both from a scientific and a technological prospective. The volatility of lead and bismuth as well as environmental issues regarding the toxicity of lead are two disadvantages of the most commonly used ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9. Therefore lead-free thin film ferroelectrics are promising substitutes as long as (a) they can be grown on technologically important substrates such as silicon, and (b) their T c and Pr become comparable to that of well established ferroelectrics. On the other hand, the development of functional room temperature ferroelectric ferromagnetic multiferroics could lead to very interesting phenomena such as control of magnetism with electric fields and control of electrical polarization with magnetic fields. This thesis focuses on the understanding of material structure-property relations using nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Nonlinear spectroscopy is an excellent tool for probing the onset of ferroelectricity, and domain dynamics in strained ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Second harmonic generation was used to detect ferroelectricity and the antiferrodistortive phase transition in thin film SrTiO3. Incipient ferroelectric CaTiO3 has been shown to become ferroelectric when strained with a combination of SHG and dielectric measurements. The tensorial nature of the induced nonlinear polarization allows for probing of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 polarization contributions in nanoscale BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition, nonlinear optics was used to demonstrate ferroelectricity in multiferroic EuTiO3. Finally, confocal SHG and Raman microscopy were utilized to visualize polar domains in incipient ferroelectric and ferroelastic CaTiO3.
Replacing energy by von Neumann entropy in quantum phase transitions
Kopp, Angela; Jia Xun; Chakravarty, Sudip . E-mail: sudip@physics.ucla.edu
2007-06-15
We propose that quantum phase transitions are generally accompanied by non-analyticities of the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy. In particular, the entropy is non-analytic at the Anderson transition, where it exhibits unusual fractal scaling. We also examine two dissipative quantum systems of considerable interest to the study of decoherence and find that non-analyticities occur if and only if the system undergoes a quantum phase transition.
Chiral phase transition in peripheral heavy-ion collisions
Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel
2009-04-20
It has been recently realized that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at high energies, a sizable magnetic field is produced in the interaction region. Although this field becomes weak at the proper times when the chiral phase transition is believed to occur, it is still significant so as to ask whether it influences such transition. We use the linear sigma model to study the chiral phase transition in the presence of weak magnetic fields.
Reexamination of entanglement and the quantum phase transition
Yang, M.-F.
2005-03-01
We show that, for an exactly solvable quantum spin model, a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state concurrence appears in the absence of a quantum phase transition. It is opposed to the popular belief that the nonanalyticity property of ground-state concurrence can be used to determine quantum phase transitions. We further point out that the analyticity property of the ground-state concurrence in general can be more intricate than that of the ground-state energy. Thus there is no one-to-one correspondence between quantum phase transitions and the nonanalyticity property of the concurrence. Moreover, we show that the von Neumann entropy, as another measure of entanglement, cannot reveal quantum phase transitions in the present model. Therefore, in order to link with quantum phase transitions, some other measures of entanglement are needed.
The Condensation Phase Transition in Random Graph Coloring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bapst, Victor; Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Hetterich, Samuel; Raßmann, Felicia; Vilenchik, Dan
2016-01-01
Based on a non-rigorous formalism called the "cavity method", physicists have put forward intriguing predictions on phase transitions in diluted mean-field models, in which the geometry of interactions is induced by a sparse random graph or hypergraph. One example of such a model is the graph coloring problem on the Erdős-Renyi random graph G( n, d/ n), which can be viewed as the zero temperature case of the Potts antiferromagnet. The cavity method predicts that in addition to the k-colorability phase transition studied intensively in combinatorics, there exists a second phase transition called the condensation phase transition (Krzakala et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:10318-10323, 2007). In fact, there is a conjecture as to the precise location of this phase transition in terms of a certain distributional fixed point problem. In this paper we prove this conjecture for k exceeding a certain constant k 0.