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Sample records for absolute asymmetric synthesis

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of (+)-geranyllinaloisocyanide: assignment of absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yoshiyasu; Matsuda, Yasunori; Okumura, Ken; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Toshiya; Kotsuki, Hiyoshizo; Nakano, Keiji

    2011-05-20

    The first nonracemic synthesis of (+)-geranyllinaloisocyanide, starting with (-)-lactic acid methyl ester, has been accomplished by exploiting a [3.3] sigmatropic rearrangement of allyl cyanate. The synthesis enables assignment of the S configuration of the C(3) isocyano substituted, quaternary stereogenic center in natural geranyllinaloisocyanide. PMID:21491897

  2. Absolute asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure organozinc reagents, followed by highly enantioselective chlorination.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Susanne; Lennartson, Anders; Håkansson, Mikael

    2013-09-01

    We report the absolute asymmetric synthesis (AAS) of indenylzinc reagents by using total spontaneous resolution followed by enantiospecific conversion into 1-chloroindene. The chiral complex [Zn(dcp)(ind)(tmeda)] (dcp = 2,6-dichlorophenoxy and tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) (3) was prepared from the achiral starting materials indene, potassium, zinc chloride, TMEDA, and 2,6-dichlorophenol. The reagent resolved spontaneously on crystallization, and single crystals of 3 react with N-chlorosuccinimide in the presence of benzoquinone in 2-propanol to give 1-chloroindene in >98 % enantiomeric excess. It was found that (R)-3 gave (R)-1-chloroindene upon reaction, indicating an SE 2'-mechanism. Since bulk samples of 3 gave optically active product upon chlorination, total spontaneous resolution must have occurred. This demonstrates that enantiopure products can be obtained through the absolute asymmetric synthesis of organometallic reagents starting from achiral materials. The general absolute asymmetric synthesis (AAS) method offers easy access to both enantiomers and an almost limitless variation in the design of the product. PMID:23881740

  3. Competitive exclusion principle in ecology and absolute asymmetric synthesis in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-10-01

    The key concepts underlying the Frank model (1953) for spontaneous asymmetric synthesis in chemistry are traced back to the pioneering works of Volterra (1926) and Lotka (1932) on biological species competition. The Lotka-Volterra (L-V) two-species exclusive competition model reduces to the Frank model for the special case of distinguishable but degenerate species (i.e., the enantiomers). The important ecological principle of competitive exclusion, originally derived from the L-V two-competitors model, is a consequence of sufficiently antagonistic interactions between the species competing for limited common resources, or mutual inhibition, as the term is known in the chemical literature on absolute asymmetric synthesis. The L-V and Frank models are described by the same general differential equations, nevertheless a crucial thermodynamic distinction between these models is necessary to correlate ecological selection and chemical selectivity arising from 1) the absence of reversibility in biological transformations, in marked contrast to chemical reactions, and 2) the constraints in chemical scenarios on the reaction rate constants required to fulfill the principle of micro-reversibility. PMID:26301597

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of neoxaline.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Takeshi; Shirahata, Tatsuya; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Sugawara, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ōmura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki

    2013-08-28

    A first asymmetric total synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of neoxaline has been accomplished through the highly stereoselective introduction of a reverse prenyl group to create a quaternary carbon stereocenter using (-)-3a-hydroxyfuroindoline as a building block, construction of the indoline spiroaminal via cautious stepwise oxidations with cyclizations from the indoline, assembly of (Z)-dehydrohistidine, and photoisomerization of unnatural (Z)-neoxaline to the natural (E)-neoxaline as the key steps. PMID:23957424

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of umuravumbolide.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Rearick, J P; Hoch, N; Ramachandran, P V

    2001-01-11

    [figure: see text] This first asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure desacetylumuravumbolide and umuravumbolide via asymmetric reduction, allylboration, and ring-closing metathesis confirms their revised structures and configurations. A convenient procedure to upgrade the enantiopurity of alpha,beta-acetylenic alcohols is also described. PMID:11429860

  6. On the Traces of Absolute Enantioselective Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabás, Béla; Caglioti, Luciano; Faglioni, Francesco; Florini, Nicola; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Maioli, Marco; Micskei, Károly; Rábai, Gyula; Taddei, Ferdinando; Zucchi, Claudia; Pályi, Gyula

    2007-12-01

    The main goal of this communication is to show the utility of empirical approaches combined with mathematical methods in the research regarding the molecular basis of biological chirality. Preparative results (enantiomeric excesses, e.e.) obtained in asymmetric autocatalysis with (AAC) and without (AES) chiral additive were analyzed. Statistical calculations show, that AES (absolute enantioselective synthesis) experiments yield two independent groups of results with prevalence of the R- or S-enantiomer. These are distributed asymmetrically in a second-order beta distribution. Empirical calculations both on AAC and EAS enable to identify the very low (statistical) e.e.-s amplified by AES. These initial e.e.-s show normal distribution. Possible molecular-level reasons of these results were controlled by quantum chemical MO calculations and compatible mechanism(s) are discussed.

  7. Hydroxamic Acids in Asymmetric Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst’s center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Due to their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation, which uses titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Hedyosumins A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wang-Bin; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Bing-Feng; Zou, Jian-Ping; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2016-03-18

    The first and asymmetric total synthesis of hedyosumins A, B, and C was accomplished in 13-14 steps from simple starting materials. The essential tools that allow us to access the tetracyclic skeleton include an organocatalytic [4 + 3] cycloaddition reaction, an intramolecular aldol condensation, and an intramolecular carboxymercuration/demercuration enabled lactonization. A CBS-catalyzed asymmetric reduction was employed to boost the ee of the synthetic natural products to an excellent level. This synthesis established the absolute configurations of hedyosumins A, B, and C. PMID:26925758

  9. Total synthesis of (+)-perophoramidine and determination of the absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoxing; Xue, Fei; Xiao, Xue; Qin, Yong

    2010-10-13

    The first asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-perophoramidine has been achieved in 17 steps with ∼11% overall yield. The key step relies on an asymmetric biomimetic Diels-Alder reaction between the in situ-generated chiral diene T-24 and the substituted tryptamine 23 to assemble the core structure 27a in a highly efficient way. An acid-catalyzed thermodynamic equilibrium results in C═N double-bond migration of the amidine moiety in 37, which guarantees a regioselective methylation on N(1) at the end of the synthesis. The absolute configuration of (+)-perophoramidine was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the chiral intermediate 32 and comparison of the rotation of synthetic (+)-perophoramidine with that of the natural product. PMID:20857935

  10. Photochirogenesis: Photochemical models on the absolute asymmetric formation of amino acids in interstellar space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinert, Cornelia; de Marcellus, Pierre; Le Sergeant D'Hendecourt, Louis; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2011-10-01

    Proteins of all living organisms including plants, animals, and humans are made up of amino acid monomers that show identical stereochemical L-configuration. Hypotheses for the origin of this symmetry breaking in biomolecules include the absolute asymmetric photochemistry model by which interstellar ultraviolet (UV) circularly polarized light (CPL) induces an enantiomeric excess in chiral organic molecules in the interstellar/circumstellar media. This scenario is supported by a) the detection of amino acids in the organic residues of UV-photo-processed interstellar ice analogues, b) the occurrence of L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites, and c) the observation of CPL of the same helicity over large distance scales in the massive star-forming region of Orion. These topics are of high importance in topical biophysical research and will be discussed in this review. Further evidence that amino acids and other molecules of prebiotic interest are asymmetrically formed in space comes from studies on the enantioselective photolysis of amino acids by UV-CPL. Also, experiments have been performed on the absolute asymmetric photochemical synthesis of enantiomer-enriched amino acids from mixtures of astrophysically relevant achiral precursor molecules using UV-circularly polarized photons. Both approaches are based on circular dichroic transitions of amino acids that will be highlighted here as well. These results have strong implications on our current understanding of how life's precursor molecules were possibly built and how life selected the left-handed form of proteinogenic amino acids.

  11. Establishment of relative and absolute configurations of phaeosphaeride A: total synthesis of ent-phaeosphaeride A.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Nakamura, Misato; Tamura, Osamu; Kogen, Hiroshi

    2015-01-16

    The relative and absolute configurations of phaeosphaeride A have been established via the first total synthesis of ent-phaeosphaeride A. The three contiguous stereogenic centers were installed by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and a stereoselective intramolecular vinyl anion aldol reaction. This synthesis has altered the originally proposed structure of natural phaeosphaeride A. PMID:25517514

  12. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  13. Asymmetric Synthesis of Axinellamines A and B.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiao; Ma, Yuyong; Chen, Chuo

    2016-04-01

    Axinellamines A and B are broad-spectrum antibacterial pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids that have a complex polycyclic skeleton. A new asymmetric synthesis of these marine sponge metabolites is described herein, featuring an oxidative rearrangement and an anchimeric chlorination reaction. PMID:27037993

  14. Asymmetric synthesis: Cascades of catalytic selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Rian D.; Marder, Todd B.

    2014-04-01

    A combination of catalytic asymmetric diboration of terminal alkenes and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been exploited in the synthesis of a variety of important medicinal agents. The process overcomes a number of problems in the application of these important catalytic processes.

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Actinophyllic Acid.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lingchao; Zhang, Kui; Kwon, Ohyun

    2016-03-16

    Described herein is a catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-actinophyllic acid, with the key step being a chiral phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation between an imine and an allenoate to form a pyrroline intermediate in 99% yield and 94% ee. The synthesis also features CuI-catalyzed coupling between a ketoester and a 2-iodoindole to shape the tetrahydroazocine ring; intramolecular alkylative lactonization; SmI2-mediated intramolecular pinacol coupling between ketone and lactone subunits to assemble the complex skeleton of (-)-actinophyllic acid; and an unprecedented regioselective dehydroxylation. PMID:26910382

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of ent-Pyripyropene A.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Ikebe, Ayako; Oosumi, Kazuya; Karasawa, Tomoya; Matsumura, Keisuke; Izumikawa, Miho; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-22

    An asymmetric total synthesis of ent-pyripyropene A was achieved by a convergent synthetic route. We used our originally developed Ti(III) -catalyzed radical cyclization to construct an AB-ring portion that consisted of a trans-decalin skeleton with five contiguous stereogenic centers. The coupling between the AB-ring and the DE-ring portions, and a subsequent C-ring cyclization, led to the total synthesis of ent-pyripyropene A. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of ent-pyripyropene A against two aphid species revealed that ent-pyripyropene A was 35-175 times less active than naturally occurring pyripyropene A. This result indicated that the biological target of pyripyropene A recognizes the absolute configuration of pyripyropene A. PMID:26014374

  17. Amitorines A and B, Nitrogenous Diterpene Metabolites of Theonella swinhoei: Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Asymmetric Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ota, Koichiro; Hamamoto, Yukiko; Eda, Wakiko; Tamura, Kenta; Sawada, Akiyoshi; Hoshino, Ayako; Mitome, Hidemichi; Kamaike, Kazuo; Miyaoka, Hiroaki

    2016-04-22

    Two new nitrogenous prenylbisabolanes never before found in Lithistid sponges have been isolated from Theonella swinhoei. These new diterpenes, named amitorine A (1) and amitorine B (2), containing a prenylbisabolane skeleton have been characterized by spectroscopic analyses, and the relative and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by asymmetric synthesis of both diastereomers via the common bicyclic lactone 6 intermediate. PMID:27007992

  18. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.D.; Click, D.R.; Grumbine, S.K.; Scott, B.L.; Watkins, J.G.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the project was to prepare new catalyst systems, which would perform chemical reactions in an enantioselective manner so as to produce only one of the possible optical isomers of the product molecule. The authors have investigated the use of lanthanide metals bearing both diolate and Schiff-base ligands as catalysts for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to secondary alcohols. The ligands were prepared from cheap, readily available starting materials, and their synthesis was performed in a ''modular'' manner such that tailoring of specific groups within the ligand could be carried out without repeating the entire synthetic procedure. In addition, they have developed a new ligand system for Group IV and lanthanide-based olefin polymerization catalysts. The ligand system is easily prepared from readily available starting materials and offers the opportunity to rapidly prepare a wide range of closely related ligands that differ only in their substitution patterns at an aromatic ring. When attached to a metal center, the ligand system has the potential to carry out polymerization reactions in a stereocontrolled manner.

  19. Studies Culminating in the Total Synthesis and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of (-)-Saudin

    PubMed Central

    Boeckman, Robert K.; del Rosario Ferreira, Maria Rico; Mitchell, Lorna H.; Shao, Pengcheng; Neeb, Michael J.; Fang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A full account of studies that culminated in the total synthesis of both antipodes and the assignment of its absolute configuration of Saudin, a hypoglycemic natural product. Two approaches are described, the first proceeding though bicyclic lactone intermediates and related second monocyclic esters. The former was obtained via asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition and the latter by an asymmetric annulation protocol. Both approaches employ a Lewis acid promoted Claisen rearrangement, with the successful approach taking advantage of bidentate chelation to control the facial selectivity of the key Claisen rearrangement PMID:22523435

  20. Catalytic asymmetric formal synthesis of beraprost

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kuramoto, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the key intermediate for beraprost has been achieved through an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael reaction of an α,β-unsaturated amide mediated by a newly developed benzothiadiazine catalyst. The Weinreb amide moiety and bromo substituent of the Michael adduct were utilized for the C–C bond formations to construct the scaffold. All four contiguous stereocenters of the tricyclic core were controlled via Rh-catalyzed stereoselective C–H insertion and the subsequent reduction from the convex face. PMID:26734111

  1. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  2. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan; Ye, Deyong; Zhou, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  3. Microscale Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols via Asymmetric Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Christine M.; Deliever, Rik; De Vos, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of pure enantiomers is a key issue in industry, especially in areas connected to life sciences. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis has emerged as a powerful and practical tool. Here we describe an experiment on racemic reduction and asymmetric reduction via a catalytic hydrogen transfer process. Acetophenone and substituted acetophenones are…

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spiroketals with Aminothiourea Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Naoki; Fukata, Yukihiro; Asano, Keisuke; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2015-12-14

    Chiral spiroketal skeletons are found as core structures in a range of bioactive compounds. These natural compounds and their analogues have attracted much attention in the field of drug discovery. However, methods for their enantioselective construction are limited, and easily available optically active spiroketals are rare. We demonstrate a novel catalytic asymmetric synthesis of spiroketal compounds that proceeds through an intramolecular hemiacetalization/oxy-Michael addition cascade mediated by a bifunctional aminothiourea catalyst. This results in spiroketal structures through the relay formation of contiguous oxacycles, in which multipoint recognition by the catalyst through hydrogen bonding imparts high enantioselectivity. This method offers facile access to spiroketal frameworks bearing an alkyl group at the 2-position, which are prevalent in insect pheromones. Optically active (2S,5S)-chalcogran, a pheromone of the six-spined spruce bark beetle, and an azide derivative could be readily synthesized from the bicyclic reaction product. PMID:26510921

  5. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Allylic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Kirsch, Stefan F.; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    A broadly useful catalytic enantioselective synthesis of branched allylic esters from prochiral (Z)-2-alkene-1-ols has been developed. The starting allylic alcohol is converted to its trichloroacetimidate intermediate by reaction with trichloroacetonitrile, either in situ or in a separate step, and this intermediate undergoes clean enantioselective SN2′ substitution with a variety of carboxylic acids in the presence of the palladium(II) catalyst (Rp,S)-di-μ -acetatobis[(η5-2-(2'-(4'-methylethyl)oxazolinyl)cyclopentadienyl,1-C,3'-N)(η4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt]dipalladium, (Rp,S)-[COP-OAc]2 or its enantiomer. The scope and limitations of this useful catalytic asymmetric allylic esterification are defined. PMID:15740118

  6. Synthesis and Determination of Absolute Configuration of Lentztrehalose A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wada, Shun-ichi; Amemiya, Fuyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of lentztrehalose A, a naturally occurring trehalose derivative exhibiting various biological activities including autophagy-inducing activity, was achieved. The synthesis commenced with the selective protection of hydroxyl groups of commercially available trehalose, followed by the introduction of the side chain moiety by two methods: 1) prenylation and successive diastereoselective dihydroxylation; or 2) etherification by opening of the chiral epoxide. The present synthetic study clarified the unreported absolute configuration of the secondary alcohol part in the side chain portion. PMID:26521862

  7. Botcinolide/botcinin: asymmetric synthesis of the key fragments.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Fernández, Jacinto; Botubol, José Manuel; Bustillo, Antonio J; Aleu, Josefina; Collado, Isidro G; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2011-04-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of key fragments of the phytotoxic toxins botcinolide/botcinin is reported. The synthesis of 1 and 1a are based on a convergent route via esterification and alkene metathesis of fragments A, B or C, B, which were obtained by Evans aldol condensation and stereoselective crotylation, respectively. PMID:21560756

  8. Organocatalytic, Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Haliclonin A.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lian-Dong; Huang, Xiong-Zhi; Luo, Shi-Peng; Cao, Wen-Sen; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Ye, Jian-Liang; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2016-03-14

    The first total synthesis of the alkaloid (-)-haliclonin A is reported. The asymmetric synthesis relied on a novel organocatalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of nitromethane with 3-alkenyl cyclohex-2-enone to set the stereochemistry of the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center. The synthesis also features a Pd-promoted cyclization to form the 3-azabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane core, a SmI2 -mediated intermolecular reductive coupling of enone with aldehyde to form the requisite secondary chiral alcohol, ring-closing alkene and alkyne metathesis reactions to build the two aza-macrocyclic ring systems, and an unprecedented direct transformation of enol into enone. PMID:26890255

  9. Magnetically Retrievable Catalysts for Asymmetric Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles with chiral scaffolds for asymmetric catalytic applications is an elegant way of providing a special pseudo homogenous phase which could be separated using an external magnet. In this review, we summarize the use of magnetic nanopart...

  10. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Bioactive Natural Lipid Mycalol.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhendu; Kuilya, Tapan Kumar; Goswami, Rajib Kumar

    2015-06-19

    A concise and convergent route for stereoselective total synthesis of promising anticancer natural lipid mycalol has been achieved using cheap and readily available l-arabinose as a chiral pool. The notable features of our synthesis comprised regioselective Wacker oxidation, Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, Julia-Kocienski olefination, Wittig olefination, Zipper reaction, and Sonogashira reaction. Comparison of the spectroscopic data on a series of isomers supports the revised structure (Org. Lett. 2015, 17, 1652) instead of the one originally proposed. PMID:25992780

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones by Sequential Organo- and Silver Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Daniel; Dürr, Alexander B; Deckers, Kristina; Chauhan, Pankaj; Seling, Nico; Rübenach, Lukas; Mertens, Lucas; Raabe, Gerhard; Schoenebeck, Franziska; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    A stereoselective one-pot synthesis of spiropyrazolones through an organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition and a formal Conia-ene reaction has been developed. Depending on the nitroalkene, the 5-exo-dig-cyclization could be achieved by silver-catalyzed alkyne activation or by oxidation of the intermediate enolate. The mechanistic pathways have been investigated using computational chemistry and mechanistic experiments. PMID:26676875

  12. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones by Sequential Organo- and Silver Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hack, Daniel; Dürr, Alexander B; Deckers, Kristina; Chauhan, Pankaj; Seling, Nico; Rübenach, Lukas; Mertens, Lucas; Raabe, Gerhard; Schoenebeck, Franziska; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-26

    A stereoselective one-pot synthesis of spiropyrazolones through an organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition and a formal Conia-ene reaction has been developed. Depending on the nitroalkene, the 5-exo-dig-cyclization could be achieved by silver-catalyzed alkyne activation or by oxidation of the intermediate enolate. The mechanistic pathways have been investigated using computational chemistry and mechanistic experiments. PMID:26676875

  13. Studies towards the synthesis of halomon: asymmetric hexafunctionalisation of myrcene.

    PubMed

    Braddock, D Christopher; Gao, Alison X; White, Andrew J P; Whyte, Mariko

    2014-11-18

    A novel dihydroxylation-dibromination-dihydroxylation sequence employing in situ protection of diols as boronate esters during the dihydroxylation reactions provides the first enantiomerically pure hexafunctionalised myrcene derivative. This concise four-step asymmetric sequence provides an advanced intermediate for the targeted synthesis of halomon via stereospecific transformations, where both stereogenic centres of the natural product have been set. PMID:25249474

  14. Asymmetric, stereodivergent synthesis of (-)-clusianone utilizing a biomimetic cationic cyclization.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jonathan H; Porco, John A

    2014-07-21

    We report a stereodivergent, asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-clusianone in six steps from commercial materials. We implement a challenging cationic cyclization forging a bond between two sterically encumbered quaternary carbon atoms. Mechanistic studies point to the unique ability of formic acid to mediate the cyclization forming the clusianone framework. PMID:24916169

  15. The first asymmetric total synthesis of lycoposerramine-R.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shinya; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2015-07-28

    The first asymmetric total synthesis of lycoposerramine-R, a Lycopodium alkaloid possessing a novel skeleton, was accomplished by a strategy featuring the stereoselective intramolecular aldol cyclization giving a cis-fused 5/6 bicyclic skeleton and a new method for the construction of the pyridone ring via the aza-Wittig reaction. PMID:26091485

  16. The asymmetric total synthesis of cinbotolide: a revision of the original structure.

    PubMed

    Botubol, José Manuel; Durán-Peña, María Jesús; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Hanson, James R; Collado, Isidro G; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    The structure 3,4-dihydroxy-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldec-8-enolide (1) was assigned to a metabolite of Botrytis cinerea, but the spectra of several synthetic analogues had significant differences from that of 1. Examination of the constituents of a B. cinerea mutant that overproduces polyketides gave sufficient quantities of 1, now named cinbotolide, for chemical transformations. These led to a revised γ-butyrolactone structure for the metabolite. This structure has been confirmed by an asymmetric total synthesis, which also established its absolute configuration. PMID:25372296

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of the Aminocyclitol Pactamycin, a Universal Translocation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Malinowski, Justin T.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the aminocyclopentitol pactamycin is described, which delivers the title compound in 15 steps from 2,4-pentanedione. Critical to this approach was the exploitation of a complex symmetry-breaking reduction strategy to assemble the C1, C2, and C7 relative stereochemistry within the first four steps of the synthesis. Multiple iterations of this reduction strategy are described, and a thorough analysis of stereochemical outcomes is detailed. In the final case, an asymmetric Mannich reaction was developed to install a protected amine directly at the C2 position. Symmetry-breaking reduction of this material gave way to a remarkable series of stereochemical outcomes leading to the title compound without recourse to non-strategic downstream manipulations. This synthesis is immediately accommodating to the facile preparation of structural analogs. PMID:24245656

  18. Phase-transfer-catalysed asymmetric synthesis of tetrasubstituted allenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Sakata, Kazuki; Tamakuni, Fumiko; Dutton, Mark J.; Maruoka, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    Allenes are molecules based on three carbons connected by two cumulated carbon-carbon double bonds. Given their axially chiral nature and unique reactivity, substituted allenes have a variety of applications in organic chemistry as key synthetic intermediates and directly as part of biologically active compounds. Although the demands for these motivated many endeavours to make axially chiral, substituted allenes by exercising asymmetric catalysis, the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of fully substituted ones (tetrasubstituted allenes) remained largely an unsolved issue. The fundamental obstacle to solving this conundrum is the lack of a simple synthetic transformation that provides tetrasubstituted allenes in the action of catalysis. We report herein a strategy to overcome this issue by the use of a phase-transfer-catalysed asymmetric functionalization of 1-alkylallene-1,3-dicarboxylates with N-arylsulfonyl imines and benzylic and allylic bromides.

  19. Asymmetric organic/metal(oxide) hybrid nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Liu, Yijing; Hood, Taylor C.; Zhang, Peng; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong

    2013-05-01

    Asymmetric particles (APs) with broken centrosymmetry are of great interest, due to the asymmetric surface properties and diverse functionalities. In particular, organic/metal(oxide) APs naturally combine the significantly different and complementary properties of organic and inorganic species, leading to their unique applications in various fields. In this review article, we highlighted recent advances in the synthesis and applications of organic/metal(oxide) APs. This type of APs is grounded on chemical or physical interactions between metal(oxide) NPs and organic small molecular or polymeric ligands. The synthetic methodologies were summarized in three categories, including the selective surface modifications, phase separation of mixed ligands on the surface of metal(oxide) NPs, and direct synthesis of APs. We further discussed the unique applications of organic/metal(oxide) APs in self-assembly, sensors, catalysis, and biomedicine, as a result of the distinctions between asymmetrically distributed organic and inorganic components. Finally, challenges and future directions are discussed in an outlook section.

  20. Synthesis of novel metallocenes: Asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts to conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research was to synthesize conductive polymers based on repeating ferrocene units. During the course of this study, the design of the conductive polymers evolved from the initial model based on [open quotes]stacked[open quotes] ferrocenes where ethano bridged cyclophentadienyl rings are linked by iron(II), to the latest ferrocene-diene model where ferrocene units were linked by double bonds. In the pursuit of these elusive monomers, attempts at their synthesis led down dead-end routes, even though new molecules were synthesized. Some of these dead-end routes, even though new molecules were synthesized. All the work reported in this dissertation had the eventual goal of synthesizing potential monomers for ferrocene conductive polymers. This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Chapter one describes the attempted synthesis of thiophene derivatives where a cyclopentadienyl ring is fused to the [c]-face. Although the target molecule was never synthesized, a convenient and safe new synthesis of 3,4-dibromo=2,5-dimethyl thiophene was developed along with the synthesis and full characterization of 3-bromo-4-trimethylsilyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Chapter two describes the design of asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts and the convenient synthesis of chiral titanocene derivatives. Chapter three summarizes the history of the attempts to prepare ferrocene containing conductive polymers and describes the synthesis of ferrocenophenes and diethano bridged bis(cyclophentadienyl) compounds for use as monomeric precursors to conductive polymers based on repeating ferrocene units.

  1. Catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine and (-)-lycoramine.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Qiao; Wang, Yuan; Jia, Yanxing

    2015-05-18

    The catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of (-)-galanthamine (1) and (-)-lycoramine (2) have been achieved by using a conceptually new strategy featuring two metal-catalyzed reactions as the key steps. A new method for the construction of 3,4-fused benzofurans has been developed through a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Larock annulation reaction, which was successfully applied to the construction of the ABD tricyclic skeleton of 1 and 2. To achieve the asymmetric synthesis of 1 and 2, a Sc(III)/N,N'-dioxide complex was used to catalyze the enantioselective conjugate addition of 3-alkyl-substituted benzofuranone to methyl vinyl ketone for the construction of a chiral quaternary carbon center. PMID:25847447

  2. A Facile Synthesis of Asymmetric Hybrid Colloidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Akira; Cho, Eun Chul; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Au, Leslie; Ohtani, Bunsho; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple approach to the synthesis of asymmetric, hybrid colloidal particles by precipitation polymerization. The key is to introduce Au or Ag colloids 2 min after (rather than before) starting the polymerization. The hybrid particles were uniform in size, and each one of them only contained one Au (or Ag) nanoparticle in its surface. Due to the simplicity of this procedure, it should be possible to use it for large-scale production. This method can be extended to metal nanoparticles other than Au and Ag and with a range of sizes, as long as they have appropriate charges on the surface. PMID:19140763

  3. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are gaining importance, and biocatalysis has emerged as an essential tool in this context. A number of chemo-enzymatic strategies for alkaloid synthesis have been developed over the years, in which the biotransformations nowadays take an increasingly ‘central’ role. This review summarises different applications of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids and discusses how recent developments and novel enzymes render innovative and efficient chemo-enzymatic production routes possible. PMID:25580241

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of spongistatins 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Michael T; Katz, Jason D; Washburn, David G; Allwein, Shawn P; McAtee, Laura F

    2002-05-22

    The total synthesis of spongistatin 1 (1) and spongistatin 2 (2) has been achieved through an advanced-stage intermediate. The synthesis is highlighted by a highly convergent assembly of the four key fragments (the C1-C15 AB fragment 2, the C16-C28 CD fragment 3, the C29-C43 EF fragment 4, and the C44-C51 side chain 5) at a very advanced stage of the synthesis with minimal functional group interconversion. The CD fragment 3 functions as the central building block to which the other fragments are attached. The synthesis of the AB and CD spiroketal fragments is accomplished through the addition of a metalated gamma-pyrone to a beta-alkoxy aldehyde followed by spiroketalization. The EF subunit was assembled with high diastereoselectivity relying on asymmetric aldol reactions of chlorotitanium enolates of N-propionyl oxazolidinethiones and a double diastereoselective boron aldol to join the E and F fragments. Wittig coupling of the CD and EF fragments followed by a diastereoselective aldol reaction between the CDEF ketone and an AB aldehyde set the stage for attachment of the C44-C51 side chains and final macrolactonization and deprotection. PMID:12010038

  5. High-turnover hypoiodite catalysis for asymmetric synthesis of tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Uyanik, Muhammet; Hayashi, Hiroki; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2014-07-18

    The diverse biological activities of tocopherols and their analogs have inspired considerable interest in the development of routes for their efficient asymmetric synthesis. Here, we report that chiral ammonium hypoiodite salts catalyze highly chemo- and enantioselective oxidative cyclization of γ-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ketones to 2-acyl chromans bearing a quaternary stereocenter, which serve as productive synthetic intermediates for tocopherols. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a solution of tetrabutylammonium iodide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide revealed the in situ generation of the hypoiodite salt as an unstable catalytic active species and triiodide salt as a stable inert species. A high-performance catalytic oxidation system (turnover number of ~200) has been achieved through reversible equilibration between hypoiodite and triiodide in the presence of potassium carbonate base. We anticipate that these findings will open further prospects for the development of high-turnover redox organocatalysis. PMID:25035486

  6. Synthesis of asymmetric biphenyl derivatives for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cai-Cai; Guo, Kun-Ping; Liu, Wang-Bo; He, Yan-Bo; Li, Zhi-Mei; Gao, Xi-Cun; Deng, Feng-Jie; Wei, Bin

    2013-10-01

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of a series of ten organic compounds with biphenyl as the backbone and asymmetrically modified by triphenylamines, carbazoles and tetraphenylsilanes (BP 1-10). BP 1-10 were synthesized mainly by Ullmann coupling reaction and Suzuki cross-coupling reaction and characterized by EA, NMR, MS, UV-Vis, DSC, TGA, fluorescence spectra and cyclic voltammetry. They exhibit reversible electrochemical behavior with low oxidation potentials and emit intense pure-blue light with high fluorescence quantum yields (up to 80%). BP 1 was fabricated into multi-layered light-emitting diodes as blue-emitting, host and hole transport materials. Based on the performance of BP 1 and the similarity in chemical structure to those compounds reported in literature, these compounds are expected to be good and versatile hole transport, host and blue emitting materials.

  7. Absolute Configuration Determination of Azulenyl Diols Isolated From Asymmetric Pinacol Coupling.

    PubMed

    Dragu, Eugenia Andreea; Naubron, Jean-Valere; Hanganu, Anamaria; Razus, Alexandru C; Nica, Simona

    2015-11-01

    A convenient enantioselective approach for the pinacol coupling of 1-acetylazulene involving easily accessible (R)- or (S)-BINOLs as chiral additive is reported. This supposes the preformation of the chiral titanium-BINOL complex in 1:2 ratio and subsequent reduction with zinc when, 2,3-di(azulen-1-yl)butane-2,3-diol can be isolated in around 60% enantiomeric excess. The absolute configuration of the isolated enantiomers was assigned by comparison of the experimental and Boltzmann-weighted calculated VCD and ECD spectra and assigned as (+)-(2S;3S)-di(azulen-1-yl)butane-2,3-diol. Chirality 27:826-834, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26364568

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of cyclo-archaeol and β-glucosyl cyclo-archaeol.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Catalina; Fodran, Peter; Barroso, Santiago; Gibson, Robert; Hopmans, Ellen C; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2013-04-21

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of cyclo-archaeol and β-glucosyl cyclo-archaeol is presented employing catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition and catalytic epoxide ring opening as the key steps. Their occurrence in deep sea hydrothermal vents has been confirmed by chromatographic comparison with natural samples. PMID:23440078

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of trans-2,5-Disubstituted Pyrrolidines from Enantiopure Homoallylic Amines. Synthesis of Pyrrolidine (?)-197B

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Franklin A.; Song, Minsoo; Augustine, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Iodocyclization of sulfinimine-derived enantiopure homoallylic sulfonamides affords trans-2,5-disubstituted 3-iodopyrrolidines and represents valuable methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of this important heterocyclic ring system. PMID:16555832

  10. Revised structure, total synthesis, and absolute configuration of kopeolin and kopeolone.

    PubMed

    Miquet, Stéphanie; Brémond, Paul; Ayela, Benjamin; Marque, Sylvain R A; Audran, Gérard

    2014-03-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of two sesquiterpenoids, kopeolin and kopeolone, has been achieved. Using the diastereoselective addition of an organocerate as a key step, we controlled the absolute stereochemistry of a crucial stereocenter present in these natural products. This approach allowed us to confirm a structural revision that we previously proposed (Chem.-Eur. J. 2013, 19, 10632-10642) and to fully characterize these natural products while elucidating their absolute stereochemistry. PMID:24533539

  11. Synthesis of asymmetric tetracarboxylic acids and corresponding dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to processes for preparing asymmetrical biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids and the corresponding asymmetrical dianhydrides, namely 2,3,3',4'-biphenyl dianhydride (a-BPDA), 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) and 3,4'-methylenediphthalic anhydride (-MDPA). By cross-coupling reactions of reactive metal substituted o-xylenes or by cross-coupling o-xylene derivatives in the presence of catalysts, this invention specifically produces asymmetrical biphenyl intermediates that are subsequently oxidized or hydrolyzed and oxidized to provide asymmetric biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids in comparatively high yields. These asymmetrical biphenyl tetracarboxylic acids are subsequently converted to the corresponding asymmetrical dianhydrides without contamination by symmetrical biphenyl dianhydrides.

  12. NHC-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized Succinimides from Enals and α-Ketoamides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Ni, Qijian; Blümel, Marcus; Shu, Tao; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The efficient asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted succinimides from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and α-ketoamides via NHC-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition has been developed. The new scalable protocol significantly expands the utility of NHC catalysis for the synthesis of heterocycles and provides easy access to assemble a wide range of succinimides from simple starting materials. PMID:25877658

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (-)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  14. Formal synthesis of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid berbamunine by asymmetric substitution of chiral organolithium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gawley, Robert E.; Smith, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric alkylation of enantiomeric tetrahydroisoquinolyl oxazolines was achieved with 96–97% diastereoselectivity. Removal of the oxazoline chiral auxiliary and further transformations provide a straightforward synthesis of the two synthetic intermediates that were previously synthesized by resolution, and which comprise a formal synthesis of berbamunine by Ullman coupling. PMID:22003473

  15. Asymmetric oxidation of sulfides catalyzed by titanium and vanadium complexes in the synthesis of biologically active sulfoxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcho, Konstantin P.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.

    2009-05-01

    Published data on the asymmetric synthesis of chiral biologically active sulfoxides by oxidation of appropriate sulfides catalyzed by titanium and vanadium complexes are generalized. Bibliography — 87 references.

  16. Total synthesis of 10-isocyano-4-cadinene and determination of its absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Shirokura, Yousuke; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Erina; Umezawa, Taiki; Okino, Tatsufumi; Matsuda, Fuyuhiko

    2010-03-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of 10-isocyano-4-cadinene, a marine sesquiterpene isolated from nudibranchs of the family Phyllidiidae, was achieved. The cadinene is expected to be a novel nontoxic antifouling agent. In the synthesis, an intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction and a SmI(2)-induced Barbier-type reaction were employed as key steps. The absolute configuration of 10-isocyano-4-cadinene was determined to be (1S, 6S, 7R, 10S) on the basis of the total synthesis. Antifouling activities against Balanus amphitrite with both enantiomers of 10-isocyano-4-cadinene were also evaluated. PMID:20131890

  17. Enantiopure sulforaphane analogues with various substituents at the sulfinyl sulfur: asymmetric synthesis and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Khiar, Noureddine; Werner, Sabine; Mallouk, Siham; Lieder, Franziska; Alcudia, Ana; Fernández, Inmaculada

    2009-08-21

    A convergent and high-yielding approach for the asymmetric synthesis of sulforaphane 2 and four analogues differently substituted at the sulfinyl sulfur has been developed. The key step of the synthesis is the diastereoselective synthesis of sulfinate ester 23-S(S), using the DAG (diacetone-D-glucofuranose)-methodology. The biological activity of these compounds as inductors of phase II detoxifying enzyme has been studied by determining their ability to activate the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. PMID:20560566

  18. Quantifying absolute protein synthesis rates reveals principles underlying allocation of cellular resources

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gene-Wei; Burkhardt, David; Gross, Carol; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative views of cellular functions requires precise measures of rates of biomolecule production, especially proteins—the direct effectors of biological processes. Here we present a genome-wide approach, based on ribosome profiling, for measuring absolute protein synthesis rates. The resultant E. coli dataset transforms our understanding of the extent to which protein synthesis is precisely controlled to optimize function and efficiency. Members of multi-protein complexes are made in precise proportion to their stoichiometry, whereas components of functional modules are produced differentially according to their hierarchical role. Estimates of absolute protein abundance also reveal principles used to optimize design. These include how the level of different types of transcription factors is optimized for rapid response, and how a metabolic pathway (methionine biosynthesis) balances production cost with activity requirements. Our studies reveal how general principles, important both for understanding natural systems and for synthesizing new ones, emerge from quantitative analyses of protein synthesis. PMID:24766808

  19. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2015-11-16

    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine. PMID:26422780

  20. Asymmetric synthesis and evaluation of α-quaternary chiral lactam derivatives as novel anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwanhyuk; Hwang, Su Jung; Jung, Jisung; Hong, Suckchang; Lee, Myungmo; Park, Hyeung-geun; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Park, Yohan

    2014-10-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of α-quaternary chiral lactam derivatives as novel anticancer agents and evaluation of their cytotoxic potentials and spectrums are reported. Among the developed lactam derivatives, the most active new compounds (S)-4m and (S)-4n synthesized via asymmetric phase-transfer catalytic alkylation in very high optical yields (98 % ee) show promising in vitro anticancer activities with low micromolar IC50 values against colon, uterus, lung, and breast human cancer cells. PMID:24185506

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Atropisomeric Bis-Aryl Organophosphorus from Menthyl H-Phosphinate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2016-04-01

    This review describes new methods for the synthesis of chiral monophosphine ligands with menthyl phenylphosphinate as a chiral auxiliary through asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions and asymmetric C-H functionalization. The chiral menthyl phenylphosphinate as a chiral auxiliary is easy to prepare and the menthyl group can easily be transformed into other functional groups, with the chiral center synchronously remaining. These methodologies provide highly efficient and practical strategies for the synthesis of novel axially chiral biaryl monophosphine oxides and their corresponding phosphines. Meanwhile, these reactions are easy to handle and exhibit wide scope for substrates with excellent diastereomeric ratios. PMID:26991107

  2. Efficient asymmetric synthesis of lamivudine via enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Schaufelberger, Fredrik; Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof

    2013-11-14

    The anti-HIV nucleoside lamivudine was asymmetrically synthesized in only three steps via a novel surfactant-treated subtilisin Carlsberg-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution protocol. The enantiomer of lamivudine could also be accessed using the same protocol catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. PMID:24071972

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  5. Asymmetric total synthesis of onoseriolide, bolivianine, and isobolivianine.

    PubMed

    Du, Biao; Yuan, Changchun; Yu, Tianzi; Yang, Li; Yang, Yang; Liu, Bo; Qin, Song

    2014-02-24

    In this article, we describe our efforts on the total synthesis of bolivianine (1) and isobolivianine (2), involving the synthesis of onoseriolide (3). The first generation synthesis of bolivianine was completed in 21 steps by following a chiral resolution strategy. Based on the potential biogenetic relationship between bolivianine (1), onoseriolide (3), and β-(E)-ocimene (8), the second generation synthesis of bolivianine was biomimetically achieved from commercially available (+)-verbenone in 14 steps. The improved total synthesis features an unprecedented palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation through an allylic metal carbene, for the construction of the ABC tricyclic system, and a Diels-Alder/intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder (DA/IMHDA) cascade for installation of the EFG tricyclic skeleton with the correct stereochemistry. Transformation from bolivianine to isobolivianine was facilitated in the presence of acid. The biosynthetic mechanism and the excellent regio- and endo selectivities in the cascade are well supported by theoretical chemistry based on the DFT calculations. PMID:24488706

  6. Catalytic enantioselective diboration, disilation and silaboration: new opportunities for asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burks, Heather E; Morken, James P

    2007-12-01

    This article summarizes recent developments in the area of catalytic enantioselective reactions of unsaturated organic substrates with diboron, silylboron, and disilane reagents. These reactions provide new routes to the functionalization of prochiral substrates and therefore offer new strategies in asymmetric organic synthesis. PMID:18004420

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of trifluoromethylated amines via catalytic enantioselective isomerization of imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongwei; Deng, Li

    2012-09-01

    A new approach toward the asymmetric synthesis of optically active trifluoromethylated amines was enabled by an unprecedented, highly enantioselective catalytic isomerization of trifluoromethyl imines with a new chiral organic catalyst. Not only aryl but also alkyl trifluoromethylated amines could be obtained in high enantioselectivities. PMID:22906148

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of Crispine A: constructing tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffolds using pummerer cyclizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the first time, a concise, linear and protecting group-free stereoselective synthesis of both enantiomers of crispine A have been achieved in six steps with an overall yield of less than or equal to 20%,starting from commercially available veratraldehyde. Asymmetric Keck allylation and trifluoro...

  9. Asymmetric, Stereodivergent Synthesis of (−)-Clusianone Utilizing a Biomimetic Cationic Cyclization **

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a stereodivergent, asymmetric total synthesis of (−)-clusianone in six steps from commercial materials. We implement a challenging cationic cyclization forging a bond between two sterically encumbered quaternary carbons. Mechanistic studies point to the unique ability of formic acid to bring about successful cyclization to the clusianone framework. PMID:24916169

  10. New ureas containing glycosyl and diphenylphosphinyl scaffolds: synthesis and the first attempts to use them in asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Porwa?ski, Stanis?aw

    2014-07-23

    Chiral ureas containing glycosyl and diphenylphosphinyl scaffolds were found to be an effective organocatalyst. They were synthesised in high yields by a one-pot tandem Staudinger/aza-Wittig coupling reaction. The first attempts of using them in asymmetric synthesis are presented. Yields of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction were moderate with an enantiomeric excess of up to 80%. PMID:24905550

  11. Synthesis of helical and supplementary chirally doped PMO materials. Suitable catalysts for asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Rafael A; Morales, Victoria; Linares, María; Rico-Oller, Beatriz

    2014-01-28

    Exciting helical mesoporous organosilicas including supplementary chirally doped moieties into their spiral walls were one-pot successfully synthesized with good structural order for, to the best of our knowledge, the first time. This one-step direct synthesis of helical chirally doped periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials was carried out by combination of a tartrate-based bis-organosilicon precursor with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and two surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and perfluoroctanoic acid (CTAB and PFOA). For comparison purposes, a conventional two-step postsynthetic grafting methodology was carried out. In this method, the chiral tartrate-based moieties were grafted onto the helical silica mesoporous materials previously prepared by the dual-templating approach (CTAB and PFOA). The chirally doped materials prepared by both methodologies exhibited helical structure and high BET surface area, pore size distributions, and total pore volume in the range of mesopores. Solid-state (13)C and (29)Si MAS NMR experiments confirmed the presence of the chiral organic precursor in the silica wall covalently bonded to silicon atoms. Nevertheless, one-pot direct synthesis led to a greater control of surface properties and presented larger incorporation of organic species compared with the two-step postsynthetic methodology. To further prove the potential feasibility of these materials in enantiomeric applications, Mannich diastereoselective asymmetric synthesis was chosen as catalytic test. In the case of the one-pot PMO material, the rigidity of the chiral ligand backbone provided by its integration into the inorganic helical wall in combination with the steric impediments supplied by the twisted geometry led to the reagents to adopt specific orientations. These geometrical constrictions resulted in an outstanding diastereomeric induction toward the preferred enantiomer. PMID:24397575

  12. Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Carboamination Reactions for the Synthesis of Cyclic Sulfamides.

    PubMed

    Garlets, Zachary J; Parenti, Kaia R; Wolfe, John P

    2016-04-18

    The synthesis of cyclic sulfamides by enantioselective Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions between N-allylsulfamides and aryl or alkenyl bromides is described. High levels of asymmetric induction (up to 95:5 e.r.) are achieved using a catalyst composed of [Pd2 (dba)3 ] and (S)-Siphos-PE. Deuterium-labelling studies indicate the reactions proceed through syn-aminopalladation of the alkene and suggest that the control of syn- versus anti-aminopalladation pathways is important for asymmetric induction. PMID:26968748

  13. A concise, asymmetric synthesis of (2R,3R)-3-hydroxyaspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, J K; Datta, A

    2008-08-01

    3-Hydroxyaspartic acid and its derivatives are found both in the free form and as peptide constituents in various microorganisms and fungi. Considering the biological importance of this amino acid and its potential utility as a multifunctional building block in organic syntheses, we have developed a short-step, asymmetric synthetic route to a strategically protected 3-hydroxyaspartic acid derivative in enantiopure form. The key steps in the synthesis involve, Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation of commercially available trans-ethyl cinnamate, and, utilization of the phenyl group as a masked carboxylic acid synthon towards construction of the complete structural framework of the title compound. PMID:17914600

  14. Asymmetric total synthesis and structural elucidation of NFAT-68.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xi, Yumeng; Yang, Shouliang; Zhu, Rong; Liang, Yufan; Chen, Jiahua; Yang, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Total synthesis of NFAT-68 (7) has been achieved and its relative stereochemistry has been determined. A key step thereof is the utilization of the chelation-controlled vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction (VMAR) to stereoselectively synthesize the syn-aldol product 8. This developed chemistry is anticipated to have wider application in total syntheses of many other natural products. PMID:21121639

  15. Total synthesis and absolute configuration assignment of MRSA active garcinol and isogarcinol.

    PubMed

    Socolsky, Cecilia; Plietker, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    A short total synthesis of (±)-garcinol and (±)-isogarcinol, two endo-type B PPAPs with reported activity against methiciline resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is presented. The separation of framework-constructing from framework-decorating steps and the application of two highly regio- and stereoselective Pd-catalysed allylations, that is, the Pd-catalysed decarboxylative Tsuji-Trost allylation and the diastereoselective Pd-catalysed allyl-allyl cross-coupling, are key elements that allowed the total synthesis to be accomplished within 13 steps starting from acetylacetone. After separation of the enantiomers the absolute configurations of the four natural products (i.e., (-)-garcinol, (+)-guttiferone E (i.e., ent-garcinol), (-)-isogarcinol, and (+)-isoxanthochymol (i.e., ent-isogarcinol)) were assigned based on ECD spectroscopy. PMID:25537962

  16. Asymmetric Catalysis with Ethylene. Synthesis of Functionalized Chiral Enolates

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Souvagya; Page, Jordan P.; Dewese, Kendra R.; RajanBabu, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    Trialkylsilyl enol ethers are versatile intermediates often used as enolate surrogates for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds. Yet there are no reports of broadly applicable, catalytic methods for the synthesis of chiral silyl enol ethers carrying latent functionalities useful for synthetic operations beyond the many possible reactions of the silyl enol ether moiety itself. Here we report a general procedure for highly catalytic (substrate:catalyst ratio up to 1000:1) and enantioselective (92% to 98% major enantiomer) synthesis of such compounds bearing a vinyl group at a chiral carbon at the β-position. The reactions, run under ambient conditions, use trialkylsiloxy-1,3-dienes and ethylene (1 atmosphere) as precursors, and readily available (bis-phosphine)-cobalt(II) complexes as catalysts. The silyl enolates can be readily converted into novel enantiopure vinyl triflates, a class of highly versatile cross-coupling reagents, enabling the syntheses of other enantiomerically pure, stereo-defined trisubstituted alkene intermediates not easily accessible by current methods. Examples of Kumada, Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions are illustrated. PMID:26529467

  17. Asymmetric Catalysis with Ethylene. Synthesis of Functionalized Chiral Enolates.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Souvagya; Page, Jordan P; Dewese, Kendra R; RajanBabu, T V

    2015-11-18

    Trialkylsilyl enol ethers are versatile intermediates often used as enolate surrogates for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds. Yet there are no reports of broadly applicable, catalytic methods for the synthesis of chiral silyl enol ethers carrying latent functionalities useful for synthetic operations beyond the many possible reactions of the silyl enol ether moiety itself. Here we report a general procedure for highly catalytic (substrate:catalyst ratio up to 1000:1) and enantioselective (92% to 98% major enantiomer) synthesis of such compounds bearing a vinyl group at a chiral carbon at the β-position. The reactions, run under ambient conditions, use trialkylsiloxy-1,3-dienes and ethylene (1 atm) as precursors and readily available (bis-phosphine)-cobalt(II) complexes as catalysts. The silyl enolates can be readily converted into novel enantiopure vinyl triflates, a class of highly versatile cross-coupling reagents, enabling the syntheses of other enantiomerically pure, stereodefined trisubstituted alkene intermediates not easily accessible by current methods. Examples of Kumada, Stille, and Suzuki coupling reactions are illustrated. PMID:26529467

  18. An Enantioselective Synthesis of the ABD Tricycle for (-)-Phomactin A Featuring Rawal's Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    You, Ling-Feng; Hsung, Richard P; Bedermann, Aaron A; Kurdyumov, Aleksey V; Tang, Yu; Buchanan, Grant S; Cole, Kevin P

    2008-12-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of the ABD-ring of (-)-phomactin A is described here. The sequence features Rawal's asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The overall length is significantly reduced from our previous attempt. PMID:20351791

  19. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral cyclic amides based on a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reaction.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Kazunobu; Ichikawa, Nobumasa; Ano, Yusuke; Katanoda, Keisuke; Ito, Masato; Akiyama, Toshiyuki; Tomooka, Katsuhiko

    2015-06-17

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral nine-membered cyclic amides was achieved by the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic cyclization of achiral linear precursors in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral ligand. PMID:26053786

  20. Synthesis of Chiral Tertiary Boronic Esters by Oxime-Directed Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroboration.

    PubMed

    Shoba, Veronika M; Thacker, Nathan C; Bochat, Andrew J; Takacs, James M

    2016-01-01

    Chiral boronic esters are useful intermediates in asymmetric synthesis. We have previously shown that carbonyl-directed catalytic asymmetric hydroboration (CAHB) is an efficient approach to the synthesis of functionalized primary and secondary chiral boronic esters. We now report that the oxime-directed CAHB of alkyl-substituted methylidene and trisubstituted alkene substrates by pinacolborane (pinBH) affords oxime-containing chiral tertiary boronic esters with yields up to 87 % and enantiomeric ratios up to 96:4 e.r. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the formation of chiral diols and O-substituted hydroxylamines, the generation of quaternary carbon stereocenters through carbon-carbon coupling reactions, and the preparation of chiral 3,4,4-trisubstituted isoxazolines. PMID:26662460

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fully Substituted Cyclopentane-Oxindoles through an Organocatalytic Triple Michael Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C–C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. PMID:25470781

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy amino acids via aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Mettath, Sashikumar; Srikanth, G S C; Dangerfield, Benjamin S; Castle, Steven L

    2004-09-17

    The Cinchona alkaloid derived chiral ammonium salt developed by Park and Jew functions as an effective catalyst for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy alpha-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions under homogeneous conditions. The syn diastereomers are obtained in good ee, and aryl-substituted aliphatic aldehydes are the best substrates for the reaction. These results represent the highest ee's obtained to date in direct aldol reactions of glycine equivalents catalyzed by inexpensive, readily prepared chiral ammonium salts. PMID:15357616

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fluorinated Isoindolinones through Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Amination of Enantioenriched Benzylic Carbamates.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Ibáñez, Ignacio; Herrera, Lidia; Román, Raquel; Catalán, Silvia; Fustero, Santos

    2015-08-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of fluorinated isoindolinones has been achieved by a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of the corresponding α-fluoroalkyl o-iodobenzylamines. A base-mediated anti β-hydride elimination process was suggested to explain the partial erosion of the optical purity observed in some cases. This mechanistic rationale enabled the minimization of this partial racemization by fine-tuning the pKa of the base. PMID:26121312

  4. C2-Symmetric diamines and their derivatives as promising organocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotin, S. G.; Kochetkov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The review is devoted to the application of C2-symmetric diamines and their derivatives as organocatalysts for asymmetric reactions (aldol, Michael, Mannich, Diels-Alder reactions, desymmetrization, allylation, etc.). Amino acid derivatives, di- and polyamides (sulfamides), bisureas, bisthioureas, bisamidines and bisguanidines are considered. Significant attention is given to the effect of the catalyst structure on the mechanism of catalytic action. Successful applications of such catalysts in enantioselective synthesis of chiral biologically active compounds are summarized. The bibliography includes 181 references.

  5. Asymmetric catalytic alkynylation of acetaldehyde and its application to the synthesis of (+)-tetrahydropyrenophorol

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry. M.; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    By controlling the kinetics of alkynylation over aldolisation (by slowing adding the acceptor), the challenging asymmetric catalytic alkynylation of acetaldehyde has been realized. This protocol yields the corresponding attractive synthons in good to excellent enantiocontrol and shows broad tolerance and applicability. This was highlighted by its application to the synthesis of several natural products such as the rapid construction of the macrocyclic diolide (+)-tetrahydropyrenophorol. PMID:22674869

  6. Asymmetric, Organocatalytic, Three-Step Synthesis of α-Hydroxy-(E)-β,γ-Unsaturated Esters

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Lindsey C.; Posner, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and enantiocontrolled 3-step synthesis of α-hydroxy-(E)-β,γ-unsaturated esters is reported. Enantioenriched α-selenyl aldehydes, prepared in one step by asymmetric, organocatalytic α-selenylation of aldehydes, were directly subjected to a Wittig reaction followed by allylic selenide to selenoxide oxidation and final spontaneous [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to yield the target compounds in 43–65 % overall yield and in 94–97 % ee. PMID:20377201

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of fully substituted cyclopentane-oxindoles through an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-12

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C-C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. PMID:25470781

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis of Heterocyclic Analogues of a CGRP Receptor Antagonist for Treating Migraine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Conway, Charles M; Kostich, Walter; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2015-12-18

    An asymmetric synthesis of novel heterocyclic analogue of the CGRP receptor antagonist rimegepant (BMS-927711, 3) is reported. The cycloheptane ring was constructed by an intramolecular Heck reaction. The application of Hayashi-Miyaura and Ellman reactions furnished the aryl and the amine chiral centers, while the separable diastereomeric third chiral center alcohols led to both carbamate and urea analogues. This synthetic approach was applicable to both 6- and 5-membered heterocycles as exemplified by pyrazine and thiazole derivatives. PMID:26650258

  9. Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides: enantioselective synthesis of (+)-Centrolobine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Lu, Bin; Ding, Guangni; Ren, Kai; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoguo

    2016-02-24

    An efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides catalyzed by a Ru-Xyl-SunPhos-Daipen bifunctional catalyst has been achieved. This method afforded a series of enantio-enriched δ-hydroxy Weinreb amides in good yields (up to 93%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99%). This protocol was successfully applied to the synthesis of the key intermediate of (+)-Centrolobine. PMID:26837278

  10. Bifunctional phase-transfer catalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of biologically active isoindolinones

    PubMed Central

    Di Mola, Antonia; Tiffner, Maximilian; Scorzelli, Francesco; Palombi, Laura; Filosa, Rosanna; De Caprariis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Summary New bifunctional chiral ammonium salts were investigated in an asymmetric cascade synthesis of a key building block for a variety of biologically relevant isoindolinones. With this chiral compound in hand, the development of further transformations allowed for the synthesis of diverse derivatives of high pharmaceutical value, such as the Belliotti (S)-PD172938 and arylated analogues with hypnotic sedative activity, obtained in good overall total yield (50%) and high enantiomeric purity (95% ee). The synthetic routes developed herein are particularly convenient in comparison with the current methods available in literature and are particularly promising for large scale applications. PMID:26734105

  11. Studies Toward the Asymmetric Synthesis of the Right Part of the Mycalamides

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, H. Marlon; Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Rawal, Viresh H.

    2008-01-01

    Described herein is the asymmetric synthesis of a functionalized, trioxadecalin unit that comprises the right-hand part of the mycalamides and related natural products. The synthetic route involves a 16-step sequence that accomplishes the formation of two heterocyclic rings and the generation of five stereocenters. The synthesis commenced with a C2 symmetric starting material, diethyl D-tartrate, and took advantage of a relay of diastereoselective reactions to extend this four-carbon chain and introduce new chiral centers. Subsequent electrophile mediated cyclization afforded the desired pyran ring, which was then transformed into the desired, functionalized trioxadecalin skeleton. PMID:17221953

  12. Bifunctional phase-transfer catalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of biologically active isoindolinones.

    PubMed

    Di Mola, Antonia; Tiffner, Maximilian; Scorzelli, Francesco; Palombi, Laura; Filosa, Rosanna; De Caprariis, Paolo; Waser, Mario; Massa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    New bifunctional chiral ammonium salts were investigated in an asymmetric cascade synthesis of a key building block for a variety of biologically relevant isoindolinones. With this chiral compound in hand, the development of further transformations allowed for the synthesis of diverse derivatives of high pharmaceutical value, such as the Belliotti (S)-PD172938 and arylated analogues with hypnotic sedative activity, obtained in good overall total yield (50%) and high enantiomeric purity (95% ee). The synthetic routes developed herein are particularly convenient in comparison with the current methods available in literature and are particularly promising for large scale applications. PMID:26734105

  13. Practical catalytic asymmetric synthesis of diaryl-, aryl heteroaryl-, and diheteroarylmethanols.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Luca; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-09-01

    Enantioenriched diaryl-, aryl heteroaryl-, and diheteroarylmethanols exhibit important biological and medicinal properties. One-pot catalytic asymmetric syntheses of these compounds beginning from readily available aryl bromides are introduced. Thus, lithium-bromide exchange with commercially available aryl bromides and n-BuLi was followed by salt metathesis with ZnCl(2) to generate ArZnCl. A second equivalent of n-BuLi was added to form the mixed organozinc, ArZnBu. In the presence of enantioenriched amino alcohol-based catalysts, ArZnBu adds to aldehydes to afford essentially racemic diarylmethanols. The low enantioselectivities were attributed to a LiCl-promoted background reaction. To inhibit this background reaction, the chelating diamine TEEDA (tetraethylethylene diamine) was introduced prior to aldehyde addition. Under these conditions, enantioenriched diarylmethanols were obtained with >90% ee. Arylations of enals generated allylic alcohols with 81-90% ee. This procedure was unsuccessful, however, when applied to heteroaryl bromides, which was attributed to decomposition of the heteroaryl lithium under the salt metathesis conditions. To avoid this problem, the metathesis was conducted with EtZnCl, which enabled the salt metathesis to proceed at low temperatures. The resulting EtZn(Ar(Hetero)) intermediates (Ar(Hetero) = 2- and 3-thiophenyl, 2-benzothiophenyl, 3-furyl, and 5-indolyl) were successfully added to aldehydes and heteroaryl aldehydes with enantioselectivities between 81-99%. These are the first examples of catalytic and highly enantioselective syntheses of diheteroarylmethanols. In a similar fashion, ferrocenyl bromide was used to generate FcZnEt and the ferrocenyl group added to benzaldehyde and heteroaromatic aldehydes to form ferrocene-based ligand precursors in 86-95% yield with 96-98% ee. It was also found that the arylation and heteroarylation of enals could be followed by diastereoselective epoxidations to provide epoxy alcohols with high enantio- and diastereoselectivities in a one-pot procedure. PMID:19653691

  14. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Chromanediones via Asymmetric Rearrangement of 3-Allyloxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Marié, Jean-Charles; Xiong, Yuan; Min, Geanna K.; Yeager, Adam R.; Taniguchi, Tohru; Berova, Nina; Schaus, Scott E.; Porco, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric scandium (III)-catalyzed rearrangement of 3-allyloxyflavones was utilized to prepare chiral, non-racemic 3,4-chromanediones in high yields and enantioselectivities. These synthetic intermediates have been further elaborated to novel heterocyclic frameworks including angular pyrazines and dihydropyrazines. The absolute configuration of rearrangement products was initially determined by a nonempirical analysis of circular dichroism (CD) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and verified by x-ray crystallography of a hydrazone derivative. Initial studies of the mechanism support an intramolecular rearrangement pathway that may proceed through a benzopyrylium intermediate. PMID:20527786

  15. Total Synthesis, Structure Revision, and Absolute Configuration of (−)-Brevenal

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Ebine, Makoto; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Sasaki, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Total synthesis of structure 1 originally proposed for brevenal, a nontoxic polycyclic ether natural product isolated from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, was accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involved (i) convergent assembly of the pentacyclic polyether skeleton based on our developed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling chemistry and (ii) stereoselective construction of the multi-substituted (E,E)-dienal side chain by using copper(I) thiophen-2-carboxylate (CuTC)-promoted modified Stille coupling. The disparity of NMR spectra between the synthetic material and the natural product required a revision of the proposed structure. Detailed spectroscopic comparison of synthetic 1 with natural brevenal, coupled with the postulated biosynthetic pathway for marine polyether natural products, suggested that the natural product was most likely represented by 2, the C26 epimer of the proposed structure 1. The revised structure was finally validated by completing the first total synthesis of (−)-2, which also unambiguously established the absolute configuration of the natural product. PMID:17177450

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of 3-substituted tetrahydro-2-benzazepines.

    PubMed

    Quick, Matthias P; Fröhlich, Roland; Schepmann, Dirk; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2015-07-14

    The enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure tricyclic oxazolidine cis-10 was prepared in a five step synthesis starting with 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene. Me3SiCN and allylSiMe3 reacted with cis-10 in the presence of TiCl4 to form the nitrile (3S)-11 and the allyl derivative (3S)-12 with high diastereoselectivity. The hydrogenolytic removal of the chiral auxiliary failed, since the endocyclic benzyl-N-bond was cleaved simultaneously. Therefore the N-(hydroxyethyl)amide of (3S)-12 was transformed into the enamide 27, which was hydrolyzed to afford the secondary amide 28. The enamide strategy to remove the chiral auxiliary from (3S)-11 led to complete racemization due to fast deprotonation in α-position of the cyano moiety. Two pairs of enantiomers 30a-b/ent-30a-b with prototypical σ substituents at the N-atom were prepared. The low σ1 affinity of the tetrahydro-2-benzazepines (ent-30b, Ki = 407 nM) is attributed to the short distance between the two lipophilic aromatic moieties. PMID:26055189

  17. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 3: The Final Phase and Completion of the Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Ting; You, Lin; Li, Yuan-He; Yu, Hai-Xin; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Two independent synthetic approaches were evaluated for the final phase of the asymmetric total synthesis of propindilactone G (1). The key steps that led to the completion of the asymmetric total synthesis included: 1) an intermolecular oxidative heterocoupling reaction of enolsilanes to link the core structure to the side chain; 2) an intermolecular Wittig reaction for the formation of the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated ester; and 3) a regio- and stereoselective OsO4 -catalyzed dihydroxylation of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated enone, followed by an intramolecular lactonization reaction to afford the final product. These reactions enabled the synthesis of (+)-propindilactone G in only 20 steps. As a consequence of our synthetic studies, the structure of (+)-propindilactone G has been revised. Furthermore, the direct oxidative coupling strategy for ligation of the core of propindilactone G with its side chain may find application in the syntheses of other natural products and complex molecules. PMID:26991640

  18. Synthesis and absolute configuration assignment of albucidin: a late-stage reductive deiodination by visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Liu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Qiong; Wu, Qiong-You; Seville, Anne; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Clough, John; Zhou, Shao-Lin; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis of albucidin and its enantiomer are described. It involves a visible-light photocatalysis deiodination at the late stage. The absolute configuration of natural albucidin is determined as (1R,3S). This work provides a basis for structural modification to develop a new type of herbicidal from an old structure. PMID:26972382

  19. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of (13)C Labeled Complex N-Glycans As Internal Standards for the Absolute Glycan Quantification by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Begoña; Etxebarria, Juan; Ruiz, Nerea; Hernandez, Álvaro; Calvo, Javier; Haberger, Markus; Reusch, Dietmar; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2015-11-17

    Methods for the absolute quantification of glycans are needed in glycoproteomics, during development and production of biopharmaceuticals and for the clinical analysis of glycan disease markers. Here we present a strategy for the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of (13)C labeled N-glycan libraries and provide an example for their use as internal standards in the profiling and absolute quantification of mAb glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A synthetic biantennary glycan precursor was (13)C-labeled on all four amino sugar residues and enzymatically derivatized to produce a library of 15 glycan isotopologues with a mass increment of 8 Da over the natural products. Asymmetrically elongated glycans were accessible by performing enzymatic reactions on partially protected UV-absorbing intermediates, subsequent fractionation by preparative HPLC, and final hydrogenation. Using a preformulated mixture of eight internal standards, we quantified the glycans in a monoclonal therapeutic antibody with excellent precision and speed. PMID:26482441

  20. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-ibophyllidine via an asymmetric phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation†

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we performed the total synthesis of the terpene indole alkaloid (+)-ibophyllidine through a pathway involving asymmetric phosphine catalysis, with our novel l-4-hydroxyproline–derived chiral phosphine mediating the key [3 + 2] annulation. Hydrogenation of the [3 + 2] adduct allowed the rapid formation of the stereochemically dense pyrrolidine ring of (+)-ibophyllidine in excellent yield with exceptionally high levels of both diastereo- and enantioselectivity. We constructed the remainder of the pentacyclic skeleton through an intramolecular alkylation and an intramolecular aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction. PMID:22798981

  1. Total synthesis of the hydroxyketone kurasoin A using asymmetric phase-transfer alkylation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Hicken, Erik J; Stephens, Jeffrey C; Bedke, D Karl

    2006-10-27

    The total synthesis of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor kurasoin A has been achieved using a novel asymmetric phase-transfer-catalyzed glycolate alkylation reaction. 2,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone 7 with cinchonidinium catalyst 9(10 mol %) and hydroxide base with pivaloyl benzyl bromide 8 provided S-alkylation product 10 in high yield (80-99%) and excellent enantioselectivity. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, Weinreb amide formation, and benzyl Grignard addition to the TES-ether 17 gave the protected target. Lithium hydroxide and peroxide generated kurasoin A ([alpha](D) +8.4 degrees ) without isomerization. PMID:17064051

  2. Kinetic resolution of 2-substituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation: catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Song; Yu, Wei-Hua; Ding, Qiu-Ping; Ding, Chang-Hua; Hou, Xue-Long

    2014-04-01

    The kinetic resolution of 2-substituted-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones was realized via a Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction using a commercially available (S)-P-Phos as a ligand, affording optically active dihydropyridones and C-allylated dihydropyridones in high yields and good enantioselectivities with the S-factor up to 43. With this protocol, a catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I was realized for the first time. PMID:24661080

  3. Multi-component Cycloaddition Approaches in the Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Alkaloid Targets†

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Stéphane; Rovis, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Cycloaddition reactions are attractive strategies for rapid formation of molecular complexity in organic synthesis as multiple bonds are formed in a single process. To this end, several research groups have been actively involved in the development of catalytic methods to activate readily accessible π-components to achieve cycloadditions. However, the use of C-N π-components for the formation of heterocycles by these processes is less well developed. It has been previously demonstrated that the combination of different isocyanates with two alkynes yields pyridones of several types by metal-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloadditions. The potential of this chemistry has been extended to alkenes as C-C π-components, allowing the formation of sp3-stereocenters. In this tutorial review directed towards [n+2+2] cycloaddition of heterocumulenes, alkynes and alkenes, the recent advances in catalytic asymmetric synthesis of indolizidine, quinolizidine and azocine skeletons are discussed. PMID:19847348

  4. Total synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of 5,6-dihydro-α-pyrone natural product synargentolide B.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kavirayani R; Gutala, Phaneendra

    2013-04-01

    Enantiospecific total synthesis and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of the α-pyrone-containing natural product synargentolide B were accomplished. The absolute stereochemistry of the natural product was established by synthesizing the possible diastereomers and comparison of the data with those reported for the natural product. During the process, total synthesis of the putative structure of related natural product 6R-[1S,2R,5R,6S-(tetraacetyloxy)-3E-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one was also accomplished and confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Wittig-Horner reaction of a chiral phosphonate derived from (S)-lactic acid and ring-closing metathesis were the key reactions during the course of the total synthesis. PMID:23477705

  5. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated symmetrical and asymmetrical zinc phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinçer, Hatice; Mert, Humeyra; Çalışkan, Emel; Atmaca, Göknur Yaşa; Erdoğmuş, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated symmetrical and asymmetrical zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) is described. Copper (I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction between azide functional methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-N3) and tetra terminal alkynyl substituted ZnPc yields star polymer with ZnPc core. Furthermore, CuAAC click reaction between asymmetrically terminal alkynyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (aZnPc) and mPEG-N3 yields aZnPc end functionalized PEG. Spectral, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yield), photochemical (singlet oxygen (ΦΔ), and photodegradation quantum yield (Φd) properties of the symmetrically, and asymmetrically PEGylated ZnPcs are investigated to be used as sensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The quantum yield values of fluorescence (ΦF) and singlet oxygen generation (ΦΔ) for water soluble symmetrically PEGylated ZnPc in aqueous solution are calculated as 0.01 and 0.14 respectively, suggesting its potential as photosensitizer in PDT treatment.

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of syn-propargylamines and unsaturated β-amino acids under Brønsted base catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingcheng; Mo, Mingjie; Zhu, Kongxi; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Propargylamines are important intermediates for the synthesis of polyfunctional amino derivatives and natural products and biologically active compounds. The classic method of synthesizing chiral propargylamines involves the asymmetric alkynylation of imines. Here, we report a significant advance in the catalytic asymmetric Mannich-type synthesis of propargylamines through catalytic asymmetric addition of carbon nucleophiles to C-alkynyl imines, culminating in a highly syn-selective catalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction of C-alkynyl imines that provide syn-configured propargylamines with two adjacent stereogenic centres and a transition metal-free organocatalytic asymmetric approach to β-alkynyl-β-amino acids with high efficiency and practicality, via a chiral Brønsted base-catalysed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction of in situ generated challenging N-Boc C-alkynyl imines from previously unreported C-alkynyl N-Boc-N,O-acetals, with α-substituted β-keto esters and less-acidic malonate (thio)esters as nucleophiles, respectively. A catalytic activation strategy is also disclosed, which may have broad implications for use in catalysis and synthesis. PMID:26423837

  7. Asymmetric synthesis and biological activities of natural product (+)-balasubramide and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Li, Jianzu; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Yunjie; Zhang, Luyong; Ding, Li; Xuan, Yining; Pang, Tao; Lin, Hansen

    2016-04-01

    The natural product (+)-balasubramide (3j) and its derivatives (3a-3i) were synthesized using a two-step asymmetric synthesis, and the biological activities of 3a-3j were determined in vitro. Methyl (2S,3R)-(+)-3-phenyloxirane-2-carboxylate (1h), the asymmetric synthesis of which was described in a previous paper, was selected as the starting material. Compounds 3a-3j were evaluated for their neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. (+)-Balasubramide and its derivatives with different electronegative groups in the 6-phenyl ring produced little neuroprotection and antioxidation, but induced potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in BV-2 microglial cells (with the exception of 3g). Compound 3c, with a trifluoromethyl group in its 6-phenyl ring, was a particularly potent anti-neuroinflammatory agent. These results demonstrated that the electronegativity of the 6-phenyl ring of (+)-balasubramide is an important determinant of its inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation. More electronegative substituents result in more potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Moreover, cytotoxicity assays indicated no significant effects of the tested compounds. PMID:26247374

  8. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and ent-(−)-Yatakemycin and Duocarmycin SA: Evaluation of Yatakemycin Key Partial Structures and its Unnatural Enantiomer

    PubMed Central

    Tichenor, Mark S.; Trzupek, John D.; Kastrinsky, David B.; Shiga, Futoshi; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary to studies that provided the first yatakemycin total synthesis resulting in its structure revision and absolute stereochemistry assignment, a second generation asymmetric total synthesis is disclosed herein. Since the individual yatakemycin subunits are identical to those of duocarmycin SA (alkylation subunit) or CC-1065 (central and right-hand subunits), the studies also provide an improvement in our earlier total synthesis of CC-1065 and, as detailed herein, have been extended to an asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-duocarmycin SA. Further extensions of the studies provided key yatakemycin partial structures and analogues for comparative assessments. This included the definition of the DNA selectivity (adenine central to a five base-pair AT sequence, eg. 5′-AAAAA), efficiency, relative rate, and reversibility of ent-(−)-yatakemycin and its comparison with the natural enantiomer (identical selectivity and efficiency), structural characterization of the adenine N3 adduct confirming the nature of the DNA reaction, and comparisons of the cytotoxic activity of the natural product (L1210 IC50 = 5 pM) with its unnatural enantiomer (IC50 = 5 pM) and a series of key partial structures including those that probe the role of the C-terminus thiomethyl ester. The only distinguishing features between the enantiomers is that ent-(−)-yatakemycin alkylates DNA at a slower rate (krel = 0.13) and is reversible, whereas (+)-yatakemycin is not. Nonetheless, even ent-(−)-yatakemycin alkylates DNA at a faster rate and with a greater thermodynamic stability than (+)-duocarmycin SA illustrating the unique characteristics of such “sandwiched” agents. PMID:17147378

  9. Total synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of rakicidin A.

    PubMed

    Sang, Feng; Li, Dongmei; Sun, Xiaolong; Cao, Xianqiang; Wang, Liang; Sun, Jianlei; Sun, Bingxia; Wu, Lingling; Yang, Guang; Chu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jinghan; Dong, Changming; Geng, Yan; Jiang, Hong; Long, Haibo; Chen, Sijia; Wang, Guiyan; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Yue

    2014-11-01

    Rakicidin A is a cyclic depsipeptide that has exhibited unique growth inhibitory activity against chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells. Furthermore, rakicidin A has five chiral centers with unknown stereochemical assignment, and thus, can be represented by one of 32 possible stereoisomers. To predict the most probable stereochemistry of rakicidin A, calculations and structural comparison with natural cyclic depsipeptides were applied. A total synthesis of the proposed structure was subsequently completed and highlighted by the creation of a sterically hindered ester bond (C1-C15) through trans-acylation from an easily established isomer (C1-C13). The analytic data of the synthetic target were consistent with that of natural rakicidin A, and then the absolute configuration of rakicidin A was assigned as 2S, 3S, 14S, 15S, 16R. This work suggests strategies for the determination of unknown chiral centers in other cyclic depsipeptides, such as rakicidin B, C, D, BE-43547, and vinylamycin, and facilitates the investigations of rakicidin A as an anticancer stem cell agent. PMID:25286338

  10. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 1: Initial Attempts towards the Synthesis of Schiartanes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ming; You, Lin; Shan, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Ruo-Cheng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Yuan-He; Shi, Ying; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Our first-generation synthetic study towards the total synthesis of propindilactone G (1) and its analogues is reported. The key synthetic steps were an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) and a vinylogous Mukaiyama reaction (VMAR). The stereoselective synthesis of the CDE ring moiety with an all-carbon quaternary center through a PKR was difficult, whilst a VMAR afforded a product with the opposite stereochemistry at the C20 position on the side chain. These results led us to redesign our synthetic strategy for the total synthesis of compound 1. PMID:26991268

  11. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Secondary and α-Tertiary Piperazin-2-ones and Piperazines by Catalytic Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Katerina M.; Eidamshaus, Christian; Behenna, Douglas C.; Nam, Sangkil; Horne, David

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of differentially N-protected piperazin-2-ones allows for the synthesis of a variety of highly enantioenriched tertiary piperazine-2-ones. Deprotection and reduction affords the corresponding tertiary piperazines, which can be employed for the synthesis of medicinally important analogs. The introduction of these chiral tertiary piperazines resulted in imatinib analogs that exhibited comparable antiproliferative activity to that of their corresponding imatinib counterparts. PMID:25382664

  12. Short synthesis of berkeleyamide D and determination of the absolute configuration by the vibrational circular dichroism exciton chirality method.

    PubMed

    Komori, Kenta; Taniguchi, Tohru; Mizutani, Shoma; Monde, Kenji; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    The first synthesis of (±)-berkeleyamide D has been accomplished. The key features of this synthesis include the formation of an α,β-epoxy-γ-lactam via a Darzens reaction and the construction of a spirocyclic ring system by a C-acylation reaction followed by an intramolecular spirocyclization via an epoxide-opening reaction. Following optical resolution by chiral HPLC, the absolute configurations of both enantiomers of berkeleyamide D were determined by the vibrational circular dichroism exciton chirality method. PMID:24527805

  13. Iridium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Indole Cyclization: Application to the Total Synthesis and Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of (-)-Aspidophylline A.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Zeng, Xue-Yi; Liang, Xiao; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2016-03-14

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-aspidophylline A, including assignment of its absolute configuration has been accomplished. A key element of the synthesis is a highly enantioselective indole allylic alkylation/iminium cyclization cascade which was developed by employing a combination of Lewis acid activation and an iridium/ligand catalyst. This strategy relies on the direct use of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with secondary allylic alcohols appended at C2 and heteronucleophiles appended at C3, indoles which are easily prepared from simple starting materials under C-H activation conditions. PMID:26891145

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-Incarvillateine Employing an Intramolecular Alkylation via Rh-Catalyzed Olefinic C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Andy; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-02-18

    An asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-incarvillateine, a natural product having potent analgesic properties, has been achieved in 11 steps and 15.4% overall yield. The key step is a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkylation of an olefinic C-H bond to set two stereocenters. Additionally, this transformation produces an exocyclic, tetrasubstituted alkene through which the bicyclic piperidine moiety can readily be accessed.

  15. Multicomponent Synthesis of Cyclic Depsipeptide Mimics by Ugi Reaction Including Cyclic Hemiacetals Derived from Asymmetric Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Alexander F; Rivera, Daniel G; Concepción, Odette; Echemendia, Radell; Correa, Arlene G; Paixão, Márcio W

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of novel cyclic depsipeptide mimics by means of an organocatalytic conjugate addition, leading to chiral cyclic hemiacetals, followed by a multicomponent reaction with α-amino acids and isocyanides, is described. The initial organocatalytic step is employed for the asymmetric derivatization of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to 4,5-disubstituted 2-hydroxytetrahydropyrans, which are next used as chiral bifunctional substrates on the Ugi five-center three-component reaction, giving rise to nine-membered-ring lactones. This sequential approach proved to be suitable for the rapid generation of molecular complexity through the combination of aliphatic, dipeptidic, glucosidic, and lipidic isocyanides with several amino acids, thus giving access to amido-, glyco-, and lipo-depsipeptide scaffolds featuring natural product-like structures. PMID:26720907

  16. [Stereocontrolled synthesis of phosphinyl dipeptide isosteres using an asymmetric center at the phosphorus atom].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Phosphinyl dipeptide isosteres (PDIs) are important compounds for the development of potent and selective inhibitors of various aspartic proteases and Zn metalloproteases. The stereochemistry of PDIs affects their biological activity. PDIs were prepared successfully using the concept of asymmetric induction from the chiral phosphorus atom of the phosphinate moiety to the neighboring carbon atom. This methodology involves diastereoselective ?-alkylation and ?'-alkylation of P-chiral phosphinate derivatives, prepared through lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution, which produces Phe-Ala type and Pro-Phe type PDIs. The synthesis of Leu-Pro type PDIs in a protected form was achieved through a cross-coupling reaction of stereodefined ?-amino-H-phosphinate with alkenyl triflate, followed by diastereoselective hydrogenation of the alkene moiety. PMID:25174361

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin: asymmetric glycolate aldol reactions and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Hicken, Erik J; Simmons, Bryon L; Glancey, Russell R; Ma, Wei

    2003-10-17

    The total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin (GA), following a linear route, has been completed using a demethylative quinone-forming reaction as the last step. Key steps include the use of two new asymmetric boron glycolate aldol reactions. To set the anti-C11,12 hydroxymethoxy functionality, (S,S)-5,6-bis-4-methoxyphenyldioxanone 8 was used. Methylglycolate derived from norephedrine 5 set the C6,7 methoxyurethane stereochemistry. The quinone formation step using nitric acid gave the non-natural o-quino-GA product 55 10:1 over geldanamycin. Other known oxidants gave an unusual azaquinone product 49. o-Quino-GA 55 binds Hsp90 with good affinity but is less cytotoxic compared to GA. PMID:14535799

  18. Asymmetric phosphorylation through catalytic P(III) phosphoramidite transfer: Enantioselective synthesis of d-myo-inositol-6-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Peter A.; Kayser-Bricker, Katherine J.; Miller, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of phosphoramidite chemistry in the synthesis of biophosphates, catalytic asymmetric phosphoramidite transfer remains largely unexplored for phosphate ester synthesis. We have discovered that a tetrazole-functionalized peptide, in the presence of 10-Å molecular sieves, functions as an enantioselective catalyst for phosphite transfer. This chemistry in turn has been used as the key step in a streamlined synthesis of myo-inositol-6-phosphate. Mechanistic insights implicate phosphate as a directing group for a highly selective kinetic resolution of a protected inositol monophosphate. This work represents a distinct and efficient method for the selective catalytic phosphorylation of natural products. PMID:20439750

  19. Enzymatic- and iridium-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of a benzothiazepinylphosphonate bile acid transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David J; Collins, Jon L; Mitchell, Mark B; Ray, John A; Sutton, Peter W; Sarjeant, Amy A; Boros, Eric E

    2013-12-20

    A synthesis of the benzothiazepine phosphonic acid 3, employing both enzymatic and transition metal catalysis, is described. The quaternary chiral center of 3 was obtained by resolution of ethyl (2-ethyl)norleucinate (4) with porcine liver esterase (PLE) immobilized on Sepabeads. The resulting (R)-amino acid (5) was converted in two steps to aminosulfate 7, which was used for construction of the benzothiazepine ring. Benzophenone 15, prepared in four steps from trimethylhydroquinone 11, enabled sequential incorporation of phosphorus (Arbuzov chemistry) and sulfur (Pd(0)-catalyzed thiol coupling) leading to mercaptan intermediate 18. S-Alkylation of 18 with aminosulfate 7 followed by cyclodehydration afforded dihydrobenzothiazepine 20. Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 20 with the complex of [Ir(COD)2BArF] (26) and Taniaphos ligand P afforded the (3R,5R)-tetrahydrobenzothiazepine 30 following flash chromatography. Oxidation of 30 to sulfone 31 and phosphonate hydrolysis completed the synthesis of 3 in 12 steps and 13% overall yield. PMID:24256447

  20. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 2: Enantioselective Construction of the Fully Functionalized BCDE Ring System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Jun; You, Lin; Wang, Yue-Fan; Li, Yuan-He; Liang, Xin-Ting; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Shou-Liang; Su, Qi; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system of propindilactone G (A) is reported. Several synthetic methods were developed and applied to achieve this goal, including: 1) an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of Hayashi's catalyst for the synthesis of optically pure key intermediate 3; 2) an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) for the stereoselective synthesis of the BCDE ring with an all-carbon chiral quaternary center at the C13 position by using the TMS-substituted acetylene as the substrate; and 3) Pd-catalyzed reductive hydrogenolysis for the stereoselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system. The chemistry developed herein provided a greater understanding of the total synthesis propindilactone G (A) and its analogues. PMID:26991420

  1. A Simple Synthesis of Alliin and allo-Alliin: X-ray Diffraction Analysis and Determination of Their Absolute Configurations.

    PubMed

    Hakamata, Wataru; Koyama, Ryosuke; Tanida, Mizuki; Haga, Tomomi; Hirano, Takako; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitomi; Nishio, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-23

    A simple method for the isolation of the bioactive compound alliin from garlic, as well as a method for the synthesis of diastereomerically pure alliin and allo-alliin on a preparative laboratory scale, was developed. The absolute configuration of the sulfur atom in alliin and allo-alliin was assigned on the basis of enzyme reactivity, optical rotatory dispersion, and circular dichroism analyses. A comparison of the results from these analyses, in combination with an X-ray diffraction study on a protected allo-alliin derivative, revealed S and R configurations of the sulfur atoms in alliin and allo-alliin, respectively. In addition, the same (1)H NMR spectrum was observed for synthetic and natural alliin. The absolute configuration of natural alliin was assigned for the first time on the basis of the NMR spectrum and X-ray coordinates. PMID:26638713

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of (S)-Baclofen via Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde with Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ether Mediated Asymmetric Michael Reaction as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Okamura, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    An efficient asymmetric total synthesis of (S)-baclofen was accomplished via a one-pot operation from commercially available materials using sequential reactions, such as aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, diphenylprolinol silyl ether mediated asymmetric Michael reaction of nitromethane, Kraus-Pinnick oxidation, and Raney Ni reduction. Highly enantioenriched baclofen was obtained in one pot with a good yield over four reactions. PMID:26636719

  3. Supported liquid membrane as a novel tool for driving the equilibrium of ω-transaminase catalyzed asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Gustav; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Grey, Carl

    2014-06-10

    An attractive option to produce chiral amines of industrial importance is through asymmetric synthesis using ω-transaminase. However, reaching high yields often requires a strategy for shifting the equilibrium position. This paper describes a novel strategy for handling this problem. It involves the use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) together with a packed bed reactor. The reactor contains Escherichia coli cells with ω-transaminase from Arthrobacter citreus, immobilized by flocculation with chitosan. The SLM consists of a hollow fibre membrane contactor in which the pores contain undecane. The system enables continuous extraction of the amine product and was used to successfully shift the equilibrium in asymmetric synthesis of (S)-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA). A conversion of 98% was reached, compared to 50% without product extraction. Moreover, a selective extraction of the produced MBA was realized. A high product concentration of 55g/l was reached after 80h, and the system showed promising potential for continuous operation. PMID:24675224

  4. Stereoselective Synthesis of Isochromanones by an Asymmetric Ortho-Lithiation Strategy: Synthetic Access to the Isochromanone Core of the Ajudazols.

    PubMed

    Essig, Sebastian; Menche, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Full details on the design, development, and application of a highly stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of isochromanones are reported. The method is based on an asymmetric ortho lithiation with aldehyde electrophiles and utilizes the chiral memory of a preoriented atropisomeric amide axis for stereocontrol. For direct transformation of sterically hindered amides to isochromanones, efficient and mild one-pot protocols involving either O-alkylation or acidic microwave activation were developed. The procedures may be applied also to highly functionalized as well as stereochemically complex and sensitive substrates and demonstrate a high protective group tolerance. Furthermore, asymmetric crotylborations of axially chiral amides were studied in detail. These methodologies enable a general access to all possible stereoisomers of hydroxyl-isochromanones with up to three contiguous stereocenters. The true applicability of our approach was finally demonstrated by synthesis of the authentic anti,anti-configured isochromanone core of the ajudazols, highly potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain from myxobacteria. PMID:26824669

  5. Synthesis, evaluation and absolute configuration assignment of novel dihydropyrimidin-2-ones as picomolar sodium iodide symporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lacotte, Pierre; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Ambroise, Yves

    2013-04-01

    A small library of dihydropyrimidin-2-ones (DHPMs) was synthesized and evaluated for their potency to block iodide entrapment in rat thyroid cells. Synthesis was achieved using the multicomponent Biginelli reaction. Twelve compounds were tested for the inhibition of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in a cell-based assay. One newly synthesized derivative exhibited a remarkably strong activity, with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 65 pM. Three DHPMs were further resolved from racemates using chiral HPLC and absolute configurations were assigned using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Biological evaluation showed that most of the activity against NIS resides in one enantiomer. This study provides new insights for the development of anti-thyroid drugs, as well as for the synthesis of novel pharmacological tools designed to investigate iodide transport mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels. PMID:23454514

  6. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized 1,3,5-Triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones via an Aza-Michael/Aldol Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Enders, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of functionalized 1,3,5-triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones bearing three contiguous stereocenters through an aza-Michael/aldol domino reaction of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The domino products were further derivatized by aldehyde olefination under one-pot conditions. The reaction proceeds with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (60–96% ee). PMID:25278634

  7. Asymmetric aza-Mannich reactions of sulfinimines: scope and application to the total synthesis of a bromopyrrole alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Lanter, James C; Chen, Hongfeng; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua

    2005-12-22

    [reaction: see text] An asymmetric intermolecular aza variant of the Mannich reaction is reported utilizing chiral sulfinimine anions as the nucleophile and N-sulfonyl aldimines as the electrophilic component. A wide range of nucleophiles and electrophiles are tolerated by the reaction conditions, delivering the condensation products in good to excellent yield with a high degree of stereocontrol. Application of this methodology to the total synthesis of a natural product is reported. PMID:16354096

  8. De novo asymmetric synthesis of oligo-rhamno di- and tri-saccharides related to the anthrax tetrasaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; Guo, Haibing; O’Doherty, George A.

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric synthesis of the di- and trisaccharide portion of the naturally occurring anthrax tetrasaccharide from acetylfuran has been developed. The construction of the di- and trisaccharide subunits is based upon our previously disclosed route to anthrax tetrasaccharide. The approach uses iterative diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylations, Luche reductions, diastereoselective dihydroxylations, and regioselective protections for the assembly of the rhamno- di- and tri-saccharide. The route was also modified for the preparation of the mixed D-/L-disaccharide analogue. PMID:23794755

  9. An Enantioselective Synthesis of an 11-β-HSD-1 Inhibitor via an Asymmetric Methallylation Catalyzed by (S)-3,3'-F2-BINOL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongda; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Guisheng; Fandrick, Keith R; Gao, Joe; Tan, Zhulin; Johnson, Joe; Li, Wenjie; Sanyal, Sanjit; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiufeng; Lorenz, Jon C; Rodriguez, Sonia; Reeves, Jonathan T; Grinberg, Nelu; Lee, Heewon; Yee, Nathan; Lu, Bruce Z; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-03-18

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of 11-β-HSD inhibitor 1 has been accomplished in five linear steps and 53% overall yield, starting from the readily available 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one. The key feature of the synthesis includes an asymmetric methallylation of 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one catalyzed by the highly effective organocatalyst (S)-3,3'-F2-BINOL under solvent-free and metal-free conditions. PMID:26909738

  10. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee. PMID:10590709

  11. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine and formal synthesis of (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Xiong; Shen, Xiao-Lei; Li, Ze-Qian; Zou, Li-Wei; Wang, Feng-Qun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zhi-Hui

    2013-11-15

    Evolution of the synthetic strategy that culminated in the first asymmetric total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid limaspermidine is described. The successful enantioselective route to (-)-limaspermidine proceeds in 10 steps and with the isolation of only six intermediates using a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative allylation we have recently developed. This first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine establishes unambiguously its absolute configuration and allows the first asymmetric formal total synthesis of the Aspidoalbine alkaloid (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine. PMID:24131444

  12. Highly asymmetrical glycerol diether bolalipids: synthesis and temperature-dependent aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Thomas; Drescher, Simon; Förster, Günter; Lechner, Bob-Dan; Meister, Annette; Blume, Alfred; Dobner, Bodo

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis and temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of two examples of a new class of highly asymmetrical glycerol diether bolaphospholipids. The bolalipids contain a long alkyl chain (C32) bound to glycerol in the sn-3 position, carrying a hydroxyl group at the ω position. The C16 alkyl chain in the sn-2 position either possesses a racemic methyl branch at the 10 position of the short alkyl chain (lipid II) or does not (lipid I). The sn-1 position of the glycerol is linked to a zwitterionic phosphocholine moiety. The temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of both bolalipids was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering. Aggregate structures were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We show that both bolalipids self-assemble into large lamellar sheetlike aggregates. Closed lipid vesicles or other aggregate structures such as tubes or nanofibers, as usually found for diglycerol tetraether lipids, were not observed. Within the lamellae the bolalipid molecules are arranged in an antiparallel (interdigitated) orientation. Lipid I, without an additional methyl moiety in the short alkyl chain, shows a lamellar phase with high crystallinity up to a temperature of 34 °C, which was not observed before for other phospholipids. PMID:26366715

  13. Synthesis of phosphorescent asymmetrically π-extended porphyrins for two-photon applications.

    PubMed

    Esipova, Tatiana V; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2014-09-19

    Significant effort has been directed in recent years toward porphyrins with enhanced two-photon absorption (2PA). However, the properties of their triplet states, which are central to many applications, have rarely been examined in parallel. Here we report the synthesis of asymmetrically π-extended platinum(II) and palladium(II) porphyrins, whose 2PA into single-photon-absorbing states is enhanced as a result of the broken center-of-inversion symmetry and whose triplet states can be monitored by room-temperature phosphorescence. 5,15-Diaryl-syn-dibenzoporphyrins (DBPs) and syn-dinaphthoporphyrins (DNPs) were synthesized by [2 + 2] condensation of the corresponding dipyrromethanes and subsequent oxidative aromatization. Butoxycarbonyl groups on the meso-aryl rings render these porphyrins well-soluble in a range of organic solvents, while 5,15-meso-aryl substitution causes minimal nonplanar distortion of the macrocycle, ensuring high triplet emissivity. A syn-DBP bearing four alkoxycarbonyl groups in the benzo rings and possessing a large static dipole moment was also synthesized. Photophysical properties (2PA brightness and phosphorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) of the new porphyrins were measured, and their ground-state structures were determined by DFT calculations and/or X-ray analysis. The developed synthetic methods should facilitate the construction of π-extended porphyrins for applications requiring high two-photon triplet action cross sections. PMID:25157580

  14. Mechanism of the Cobalt Oxazoline Palladacycle (COP)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Allylic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Kirsch, Stefan F.; Overman, Larry E.; Sneddon, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic enantioselective SN2? displacement of (Z)-allylic trichloroacetimidates catalyzed by the palladium(II) complex [COP-OAc]2 is a broadly useful method for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral branched allylic esters. A variety of experiments aimed at elucidating the nature of the catalytic mechanism and its rate- and enantiodetermining steps are reported. Key findings include: (a) the demonstration that a variety of bridged-dipalladium complexes are present and constitute resting states of the COP catalyst, however, monomeric palladium (II) complexes are likely involved in the catalytic cycle; (b) labeling experiments establishing that the reaction proceeds in an overall antarafacial fashion; (c) secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects that suggest substantial rehybridization at both C1 and C3 in the rate-limiting step; and (d) DFT computational studies (B3-LYP/def2-TZVP) that provide evidence for bidentate substrate-bound intermediates and an anti-oxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation pathway. These results are consistent with a novel mechanism in which chelation of the imidate nitrogen to form a cationic palladium (II) intermediate activates the alkene for attack by external carboxylate in the enantiodetermining step. Computational modeling of the transition-state structure for the acyloxy palladation step provides a model for enantioinduction. PMID:20942424

  15. Synthesis of Phosphorescent Asymmetrically π-Extended Porphyrins for Two-Photon Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Significant effort has been directed in recent years toward porphyrins with enhanced two-photon absorption (2PA). However, the properties of their triplet states, which are central to many applications, have rarely been examined in parallel. Here we report the synthesis of asymmetrically π-extended platinum(II) and palladium(II) porphyrins, whose 2PA into single-photon-absorbing states is enhanced as a result of the broken center-of-inversion symmetry and whose triplet states can be monitored by room-temperature phosphorescence. 5,15-Diaryl-syn-dibenzoporphyrins (DBPs) and syn-dinaphthoporphyrins (DNPs) were synthesized by [2 + 2] condensation of the corresponding dipyrromethanes and subsequent oxidative aromatization. Butoxycarbonyl groups on the meso-aryl rings render these porphyrins well-soluble in a range of organic solvents, while 5,15-meso-aryl substitution causes minimal nonplanar distortion of the macrocycle, ensuring high triplet emissivity. A syn-DBP bearing four alkoxycarbonyl groups in the benzo rings and possessing a large static dipole moment was also synthesized. Photophysical properties (2PA brightness and phosphorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) of the new porphyrins were measured, and their ground-state structures were determined by DFT calculations and/or X-ray analysis. The developed synthetic methods should facilitate the construction of π-extended porphyrins for applications requiring high two-photon triplet action cross sections. PMID:25157580

  16. A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP2 Synthesis Enzyme for Asymmetric Spindle Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Panbianco, Costanza; Weinkove, David; Zanin, Esther; Jones, David; Divecha, Nullin; Gotta, Monica; Ahringer, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Summary Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asymmetric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins together with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning in animal cells, but how these are linked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Gα regulators GPR-1/2. Here, we establish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a PIP2 synthesis enzyme (PPK-1) transduce PAR polarity to asymmetric Gα regulation. PPK-1 is posteriorly enriched in the one-celled embryo through PAR and CSNK-1 activities. Loss of CSNK-1 causes uniformly high PPK-1 levels, high symmetric cortical levels of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, and increased spindle pulling forces. In contrast, knockdown of ppk-1 leads to low GPR-1/2 levels and decreased spindle forces. Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP2. We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP2 by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. PMID:18694560

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spirocyclic 2-Benzopyrans for Positron Emission Tomography of ?1 Receptors in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Holl, Katharina; Schepmann, Dirk; Fischer, Steffen; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Hiller, Achim; Donat, Cornelius K; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter; Wnsch, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of styrene derivative 6 afforded chiral triols (R)-7 and (S)-7, which were cyclized with tosyl chloride in the presence of Bu2SnO to provide 2-benzopyrans (R)-4 and (S)-4 with high regioselectivity. The additional hydroxy moiety in the 4-position was exploited for the introduction of various substituents. Williamson ether synthesis and replacement of the Boc protective group with a benzyl moiety led to potent ?1 ligands with high ?1/?2-selectivity. With exception of the ethoxy derivative 16, the (R)-configured enantiomers represent eutomers with eudismic ratios of up to 29 for the ester (R)-18. The methyl ether (R)-15 represents the most potent ?1 ligand of this series of compounds, with a Ki value of 1.2 nM and an eudismic ratio of 7. Tosylate (R)-21 was used as precursor for the radiosynthesis of [18F]-(R)-20, which was available by nucleophilic substitution with K[18F]F K222 carbonate complex. The radiochemical yield of [18F]-(R)-20 was 18%-20%, the radiochemical purity greater than 97% and the specific radioactivity 175-300 GBq/mol. Although radiometabolites were detected in plasma, urine and liver samples, radiometabolites were not found in brain samples. After 30 min, the uptake of the radiotracer in the brain was 3.4% of injected dose per gram of tissue and could be reduced by coadministration of the ?1 antagonist haloperidol. [18F]-(R)-20 was able to label those regions of the brain, which were reported to have high density of ?1 receptors. PMID:24451404

  18. Catalytic asymmetric assembly of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones and concise formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine: application of enantioselective Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruirui; Sun, Zhongwen; Mo, Mingjie; Peng, Fangzhi; Shao, Zhihui

    2014-08-15

    The first method for the asymmetric synthesis of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones, structural motifs common in medicinal chemistry, has been achieved using Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones. This methodology has been applied to the first catalytic enantioselective formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine with step economy and simplicity. PMID:25060656

  19. Stereodivergent strategy for neurofuran synthesis via palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic cyclization: total synthesis of 7-epi-ST-Δ(8)-10-neurofuran.

    PubMed

    Valli, Matteo; Bruno, Paolo; Sbarbada, Davide; Porta, Alessio; Vidari, Giovanni; Zanoni, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Neurofurans are formed in vivo in the human brain as a consequence of an increased oxidative stress, and they could be valuable biomarkers of the neuronal oxidative stress. In this paper, an enantioselective stereodivergent approach to two key neurofuran precursors, belonging to the AC and ST classes, has been developed starting from a single achiral precursor, the meso-diol 11. The absolute configuration of the THF cores was secured by a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation using (S,S)-L1 and (R,R)-L2 ligands, respectively. PMID:23641720

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis of 2,4,5-Trisubstituted Δ2-Thiazolines

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Christoffer; Nelander, Hanna; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Δ2-Thiazolines are interesting heterocycles that display a wide variety of biological characteristics. They are also common in chiral ligands used for asymmetric syntheses and as synthetic intermediates. Herein, we present asymmetric routes to 2,4,5-trisubstituted Δ2-thiazolines. These Δ2-thiazolines were synthesized from readily accessible/commercially available α,β-unsaturated methyl esters through a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and an O→N acyl migration reaction as key steps. The final products were obtained in good yields with up to 97% enantiomeric excess. PMID:23776083

  1. Cyclotriveratrylene-BINOL-Based Host Compounds: Synthesis, Absolute Configuration Assignment, and Recognition Properties.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sara; Héloin, Alexandre; Pitrat, Delphine; Mulatier, Jean-Christophe; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Jean, Marion; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Guy, Laure; Martinez, Alexandre

    2016-04-15

    New host compounds combining a cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) unit and three binaphthol moieties have been synthesized enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure. The use of a chemical correlation allows for the assignment of their absolute configuration. The energy barrier of epimerization was measured, suggesting that no intramolecular hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydroxyl groups of the binaphthols. These open-shell host compounds were then tested in the recognition of carbohydrates; a preferential binding of mannose toward glucose was observed, and good diastereoselectivities were reached (up to 1:10). This recognition of sugar derivatives by open-shell CTV-based host compounds is unprecedented and opens up the way for a wider use of this easily accessible class of molecules as chiral sensors. PMID:27010215

  2. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Ma, Jun-An

    2015-11-01

    Dihydrobenzoxazinones and dihydroquinazolinones are the core units present in many anti-HIV agents, such as Efavirenz, DPC 961, DPC 963, and DPC 083. All these molecules contain a trifluoromethyl moiety at the quaternary stereogenic carbon center with S configuration. The enantioselective addition of carbon nucleophiles to ketones or cyclic ketimines could serve as a key step to access these molecules. This tutorial review provides an overview of significant advances in the synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents and relative analogues, with an emphasis on asymmetric addition reactions for the establishment of the CF3-containing quaternary carbon centers. PMID:26177889

  3. Samarium(II) induced asymmetric reductive cyclizations: The total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaebe, M.K.; Little, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Arteannuin B is a member of the qinghaosu family, a novel class of sesquiterpenes that exhibit powerful antimalarial activity even against chloroquinine resistant strains. It is readily convertible to qinghaosu in several high yielding steps and has potential antitumor activity. Several approaches to the construction of the cis-decalin backbone have involved the use of electrochemical and metal promoted reductions as well as alkylations. We report a short convenient total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B utilizing an asymmetric reductive cyclization with samarium (II) iodide which selectively forms the cis-decalin ring structure while setting the trans relationship between the subunits of the {gamma}-hydroxy ester.

  4. Chiral Boron Complex-Promoted Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition and Its Application in Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Han, Jianguang; Jones, Alexander X; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-15

    An efficient method for the asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition of 2'-hydroxychalcones with acyclic or cyclic dienes has been successfully developed. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is mediated by a chiral boron complex with VANOL, affording the corresponding products in high yields and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. This reaction enabled the enantioselective construction of cyclohexene skeletons crucial for the total synthesis of a number of Diels-Alder-type natural products (-)-nicolaioidesin C, (-)-panduratine A, (-)-kuwanon I, (+)-kuwanon J, and (-)-brosimones A and B. PMID:26693852

  5. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  6. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they

  7. Synergistic Kinetic Resolution and Asymmetric Propargyl Claisen Rearrangement for the Synthesis of Chiral Allenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangbin; Liu, Xiaohua; Hu, Haipeng; Guo, Jing; Xia, Yong; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-03-14

    The asymmetric propargyl Claisen rearrangement provides a convenient entry to chiral allene motifs. Herein, we describe the development of a kinetic resolution and asymmetric rearrangement of racemic propargyl vinyl ethers. This transformation afforded chiral allene products along with the enantiomerically enriched substrate in good yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The complete chirality transfer and facially selective rearrangement enabled the simultaneous construction of an axially chiral allenic unit and a quaternary carbon stereocenter. PMID:26889758

  8. Synthesis of chiral sulfoximine-based thioureas and their application in asymmetric organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Frings, Marcus; Thomé, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Summary For the first time, chiral sulfoximine derivatives have been applied as asymmetric organocatalysts. In combination with a thiourea-type backbone the sulfonimidoyl moiety leads to organocatalysts showing good reactivity in the catalytic desymmetrization of a cyclic meso-anhydride and moderate enantioselectivity in the catalytic asymmetric Biginelli reaction. Straightforward synthetic routes provide the newly designed thiourea-sulfoximine catalysts in high overall yields without affecting the stereohomogeneity of the sulfur-containing core fragment. PMID:23019479

  9. Synthesis of chiral sulfoximine-based thioureas and their application in asymmetric organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Marcus; Thomé, Isabelle; Bolm, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, chiral sulfoximine derivatives have been applied as asymmetric organocatalysts. In combination with a thiourea-type backbone the sulfonimidoyl moiety leads to organocatalysts showing good reactivity in the catalytic desymmetrization of a cyclic meso-anhydride and moderate enantioselectivity in the catalytic asymmetric Biginelli reaction. Straightforward synthetic routes provide the newly designed thiourea-sulfoximine catalysts in high overall yields without affecting the stereohomogeneity of the sulfur-containing core fragment. PMID:23019479

  10. One-pot, highly efficient, asymmetric synthesis of ring-fused piperidine derivatives bearing N,O- or N,N-acetal moieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Yao; Li, Zhi-Long; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yan-Kai; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui

    2016-02-16

    We successfully expand the application of lactols or cyclic hemiaminals as nucleophiles for the asymmetric synthesis of both N,O- and N,N-acetal moieties contained in the structure of ring-fused piperidine derivatives. This efficient one-pot protocol involves an organocatalyzed asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction and iminium ion induced cyclization sequence to ultimately deliver heterocyclic compounds with excellent stereoselectivity in high yield, containing three continuous stereogenic centers. PMID:26810888

  11. The Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Use of Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.

    2014-01-01

    All-carbon quaternary stereocenters have posed significant challenges in the synthesis of complex natural products. These important structural motifs have inspired the development of broadly applicable palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions of unstabilized non-biased enolates for the synthesis of enantioenriched α-quaternary products. This microreview outlines key considerations in the application of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions and presents recent total syntheses of complex natural products that have employed these powerful transformations for the direct, catalytic, enantioselective construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24944521

  12. Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Substituted α-Methylenebutyro- lactones via TRIP-Catalyzed Allylation: Mechanistic Studies and Application to the Synthesis of (S)-(−)-Hydroxymatairesinol

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael; Schober, Markus; Orthaber, Andreas; Faber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric allylation of (hetero)aromatic aldehydes by a zinc(II)-allylbutyrolactone species catalyzed by a chiral BINOL-type phosphoric acid gave β-substituted α-methylenebutyrolactones in 68 to >99% ee and 52–91% isolated yield. DFT studies on the intermediate Zn2+-complex – crucial for chiral induction – suggest a six-membered ring intermediate, which allows the phosphoric acid moiety to activate the aldehyde. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of the antitumour natural product (S)-(−)-hydroxymatairesinol. PMID:24415960

  13. Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Substituted α-Methylenebutyro- lactones via TRIP-Catalyzed Allylation: Mechanistic Studies and Application to the Synthesis of (S)-(-)-Hydroxymatairesinol.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michael; Schober, Markus; Orthaber, Andreas; Faber, Kurt

    2013-09-16

    Asymmetric allylation of (hetero)aromatic aldehydes by a zinc(II)-allylbutyrolactone species catalyzed by a chiral BINOL-type phosphoric acid gave β-substituted α-methylenebutyrolactones in 68 to >99% ee and 52-91% isolated yield. DFT studies on the intermediate Zn(2+)-complex - crucial for chiral induction - suggest a six-membered ring intermediate, which allows the phosphoric acid moiety to activate the aldehyde. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of the antitumour natural product (S)-(-)-hydroxymatairesinol. PMID:24415960

  14. Synthesis and characterization of asymmetric polymer/inorganic nanocomposites with pH/temperature sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinjie; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Huang, Yinjuan; Yu, Xiyong; Ding, Enyong

    2013-01-01

    An easy, comprehensive and inexpensive method is demonstrated to produce asymmetric polymer/inorganic nanocomposites in a large quantity. With the aid of Pickering emulsion, unmodified particles aggregate on the surface of emulsion droplets and are fixed in place when the wax solidifies. The exposed surfaces of immobilized SiO2 particles are modified chemically by 2-(dimethylamino) ethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA). With the removal of wax, the exposed side of particles can be further modified chemically by N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm). Based on these procedures, dual responsive asymmetric nanocomposite particles are achieved with both pH and temperature sensitivities. Due to their dual-stimuli and asymmetric structure, these particles have potential applications in molecule targeting, drug delivery and as building blocks for the assembly of complex nanostructure.

  15. Stereoselective terminal functionalization of small peptides for catalytic asymmetric synthesis of unnatural peptides

    PubMed Central

    Maruoka, Keiji; Tayama, Eiji; Ooi, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The asymmetric phase-transfer catalytic alkylation of peptides has been achieved by the use of designed C2-symmetric chiral quaternary ammonium bromide 1 as catalyst. Excellent stereoselectivities were uniformly observed in the alkylation with a variety of alkyl halides and the efficiency of the transmission of stereochemical information was not affected by the side-chain structure of the preexisting amino acid residues. This method also enables an asymmetric construction of noncoded α,α-dialkyl-α-amino acid residues at the peptide terminal. Since this chirality can be efficiently transferred to the adjacent amino acid moiety, our approach provides a general procedure not only for the highly stereoselective terminal functionalization of peptides but also for the sequential asymmetric construction of unnatural oligopeptides, which should play a vital role in the peptide-based drug discovery process. PMID:15079083

  16. Organocatalytic oxyamination of azlactones: kinetic resolution of oxaziridines and asymmetric synthesis of oxazolin-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shunxi; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Yin; He, Peng; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2013-07-10

    The first example of oxyamination of azlactones with oxaziridines was realized using a chiral bisguanidinium salt. Efficient catalytic asymmetric oxyamination and kinetic resolution of oxaziridines occurred simultaneously. Various chiral oxazolin-4-one derivatives with potential biological activity were obtained (up to 92% ee). Meanwhile, a series of optically pure oxaziridines were recovered with up to 99% ee and successfully used in the asymmetric oxyamination of 3-methyl-1H-indole and styrene. The triple stereodifferentiation process was also studied via control experiments. PMID:23773111

  17. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. Comment on "Asymmetric syntheses of sceptrin and massadine and evidence for biosynthetic enantiodivergence".

    PubMed

    Sherman, David H; Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Williams, Robert M

    2015-07-10

    Ma et al. (Reports, 10 October 2014, p. 219) report asymmetric syntheses of sceptrin and massadine and, through a stereochemical reassignment, claim to "uncover enantiodivergence as a new biosynthetic paradigm for natural products." We challenge and clarify this claim with relevant examples from the literature of this well-known phenomenon of enantiodivergent congener biosynthesis within the same producing organism. PMID:26160938

  18. Direct Asymmetric Reductive Amination for the Synthesis of Chiral β-Arylamines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haizhou; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Le; Chang, Mingxin; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-04-18

    The highly efficient and direct asymmetric reductive amination of arylacetones catalyzed by an iridium complex for the preparation of enantiomerically pure β-arylamines is described. The monodentate phosphoramidite ligand exhibits superb reactivity (TONs of up to 20 000) and enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee). Additives played important roles in this reductive coupling reaction. PMID:26992130

  19. A stereoselective synthesis of (-)-viridiofungin A utilizing a TiCl(4)-promoted asymmetric multicomponent reaction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Kass, Jorden

    2012-01-20

    A stereoselective synthesis of (-)-viridiofungin A is described. The convergent synthesis utilized a unique highly diastereoselective multicomponent reaction between optically active phenyldihydrofuran and an α-ketoester to provide two chiral centers including a quarternary carbon center in a single step. Other key steps include an acyloxycarbonium ion-mediated tetrahydrofuran ring-opening reaction and a Julia-Kocienski olefination. PMID:22195730

  20. A Petal-type Chiral NADH Model: Design, Synthesis and its Asymmetric Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Nai-Xing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xing-Wang

    2015-12-01

    A new type of NADH model compound has been synthesized by an efficient and convenient method. This model compound exhibits high reactivity and enantioselectivity in asymmetric reduction reactions. The results show that chiral NADH model S could be effectively combined with Mg2+ to form ternary complexes. This novel C3 symmetrical NADH model is capable of fluorescence emission at 460 nm when excited at 377 nm.

  1. Coordinating Chiral Ionic Liquids: Design, Synthesis, and Application in Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation under Aqueous Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vasiloiu, Maria; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Bica, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic coordinating chiral ionic liquids with an amino alcohol substructure were developed and efficiently applied to the asymmetric reduction of ketones. Their careful design and adaptability to the desired reaction conditions allow for these chiral ionic liquids to be used as the sole source of chirality in a ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation reaction of aromatic ketones. When used in this reaction system, these chiral ionic liquids afforded excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. PMID:26279638

  2. Metal-Free Asymmetric Synthesis of Indanes through Chiral Hypervalent Iodine(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Anees; Silva, Luiz F

    2016-03-01

    The iodine(III)-mediated asymmetric oxidative rearrangement of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes was investigated to prepare optically active 1-substituted indanes. The chiral hypervalent iodine species is generated in situ from a chiral aryl iodide, prepared in 94% yield in one step. This metal-free protocol was applied to different cyclic alkenes, substituted with oxygen, with nitrogen, or at position 1 with aryl or methyl. Indanes can be isolated as an acetal or alcohol in up to 78% ee. PMID:26866897

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of Medium-Sized Rings by Intramolecular Au(I)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Iain D. G.; Ritter, Stefanie; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-01-01

    An efficient method for the asymmetric gold(I)-catalyzed preparation of medium sized rings has been developed. The method provides 7- to 9-membered rings in excellent yield. High enantioselectivities can be achieved for 7- and 8-membered ring products employing chiral gold(I) complexes. The results provide insight into the mechanism, showing the fluxional nature of gold(I)-stabilized vinyl carbenoid intermediates. PMID:19161306

  4. A Petal-type Chiral NADH Model: Design, Synthesis and its Asymmetric Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Nai-Xing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xing-Wang

    2015-01-01

    A new type of NADH model compound has been synthesized by an efficient and convenient method. This model compound exhibits high reactivity and enantioselectivity in asymmetric reduction reactions. The results show that chiral NADH model S could be effectively combined with Mg2+ to form ternary complexes. This novel C3 symmetrical NADH model is capable of fluorescence emission at 460 nm when excited at 377 nm. PMID:26648413

  5. Spiro-fused carbohydrate oxazoline ligands: Synthesis and application as enantio-discrimination agents in asymmetric allylic alkylation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jochen; Golkowski, Martin; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we describe a convenient synthesis of spiro-fused D-fructo- and D-psico-configurated oxazoline ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The ligands were synthesized from readily available 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose and 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-psicopyranose, respectively. The latter compounds were partially deprotected under acidic conditions followed by condensation with thiocyanic acid to give an anomeric mixture of the corresponding 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones. The anomeric 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones were separated after successive benzylation, fully characterized and subjected to palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with 2-pyridineboronic acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester to give the corresponding 2-pyridyl spiro-oxazoline (PyOx) ligands. The spiro-oxazoline ligands showed high asymmetric induction (up to 93% ee) when applied as chiral ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate. The D-fructo-PyOx ligand provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer while the D-psico-configurated ligand gave the (S)-enantiomer with a lower enantiomeric excess. PMID:26877819

  6. Spiro-fused carbohydrate oxazoline ligands: Synthesis and application as enantio-discrimination agents in asymmetric allylic alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Jochen; Golkowski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the present work, we describe a convenient synthesis of spiro-fused D-fructo- and D-psico-configurated oxazoline ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The ligands were synthesized from readily available 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose and 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-psicopyranose, respectively. The latter compounds were partially deprotected under acidic conditions followed by condensation with thiocyanic acid to give an anomeric mixture of the corresponding 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones. The anomeric 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones were separated after successive benzylation, fully characterized and subjected to palladium catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling with 2-pyridineboronic acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester to give the corresponding 2-pyridyl spiro-oxazoline (PyOx) ligands. The spiro-oxazoline ligands showed high asymmetric induction (up to 93% ee) when applied as chiral ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate. The D-fructo-PyOx ligand provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer while the D-psico-configurated ligand gave the (S)-enantiomer with a lower enantiomeric excess. PMID:26877819

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of a CBI-based cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Mika; Boger, Dale L

    2014-10-17

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal-halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N-O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides: Negishi Cross-Couplings of Racemic α,α-Dihaloketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of new approaches to the construction of fluorine-containing target molecules is important for a variety of scientific disciplines, including medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary alkyl fluorides through Negishi reactions of racemic α-halo-α-fluoroketones, which represents the first catalytic asymmetric cross-coupling that employs geminal dihalides as electrophiles. Thus, selective reaction of a C–Br (or C–Cl) bond in the presence of a C–F bond can be achieved with the aid of a nickel/bis(oxazoline) catalyst. The products of the stereoconvergent cross-couplings, enantioenriched tertiary α-fluoroketones, can be converted into an array of interesting organofluorine compounds. PMID:24678878

  9. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Secondary Nitriles via Stereoconvergent Negishi Arylations and Alkenylations of Racemic α-Bromonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Junwon; Fu, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The first method for the stereoconvergent cross-coupling of racemic α-halonitriles is described, specifically, nickel-catalyzed Negishi arylations and alkenylations that furnish an array of enantioenriched α-arylnitriles and allylic nitriles, respectively. Noteworthy features of this investigation include: the highly enantioselective synthesis of α-alkyl-α-aryl nitriles that bear secondary α-alkyl substituents; the first examples of the use of alkenylzinc reagents in stereoconvergent Negishi reactions of alkyl electrophiles; demonstration of the utility of a new family of ligands for asymmetric Negishi cross-couplings (a bidentate bis(oxazoline), rather than a tridentate pybox); in the case of arylzinc reagents, carbon–carbon bond formation at a remarkably low temperature (−78 °C), the lowest reported to date for an enantioselective cross-coupling of an alkyl electrophile; a mechanistic dichotomy between Negishi reactions of an unactivated versus an activated secondary alkyl bromide. PMID:22612264

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino 1,3-Dithianes via Chiral N-Phosphonyl Imine-based Umpolung Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kattamuri, Padmanabha V.; Ai, Teng; Pindi, Suresh; Sun, Yinwei; Gu, Peng; Shi, Min; Li, Guigen

    2011-01-01

    A series of α-amino-1,3-dithianes have been synthesized via the asymmetric Umpolung reaction of 2-lithio-1,3-dithianes with chiral N-phosphonyl imines in good chemical yields (up to 82%) and good to excellent diastereoselectivities (>99:1). The addition manner by which chiral N-phosphonyl imines are slowly added into the solution of 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane was found to be crucial for achieving excellent diastereoselectivity. The current synthesis was proven to follow the GAP chemistry (Group-Assistant-Purification chemistry) process which avoids traditional purification techniques of chromatography or recrystallization, i.e., the pure chiral α-amino-1,3-dithianes attached with the chiral N-phosphonyl group were readily obtained by washing the solid crude products with hexane or the mixture of hexane-ethyl acetate. PMID:21405041

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis of a CBI-Based Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal–halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N–O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  12. Preparation of Enantiomerically Pure Perfluorobutanesulfinamide and Its Application to the Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Wangweerawong, Apiwat; Hummel, Joshua R; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-02-19

    A high yielding and practical two-step synthesis of enantiomerically pure perfluorobutanesulfinamide from Senanayake's 2-aminoindanol-derived sulfinyl transfer reagent was developed and carried out on a multigram scale. Straightforward condensation of this sulfinamide with ethyl glyoxylate provided the N-perfluorobutanesulfinyl imino ester. The utility of this activated N-sulfinyl imino ester was demonstrated for reactions that gave either no product or very low yields with the corresponding less electrophilic N-tert-butanesulfinyl derivative. Specifically, the Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond addition of aromatic compounds to the N-perfluorobutanesulfinyl imino ester provided arylglycines with very high diastereoselectivities for a range of directing groups including pyrrolidine amide, azo, sulfoximine, 1-pyrazole, and 1,2,3-triazole functionalities. Thermal asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reactions also proceeded in good yields and with high selectivity, including for the substituted dienes (E)-1,3-pentadiene and (2E,4E)-2,4-hexadiene. PMID:26844947

  13. Total Synthesis of Gobiusxanthin Stereoisomers and Their Application to Determination of Absolute Configurations of Natural Products: Revision of Reported Absolute Configuration of Epigobiusxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Yamano, Yumiko; Ematsu, Kotaro; Kurimoto, Hiromasa; Maoka, Takashi; Wada, Akimori

    2014-01-01

    (3R)-Gobiusxanthin stereoisomers (1ad) were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reaction of the (3R)-C15-acetylenic tri-n-butylphosphonium salt 7 with C25-apocarotenal stereoisomers 5a,b and 14a,b bearing four kinds of 3,6-dihydroxy-?-end groups. The validity of the reported stereochemistry of gobiusxanthin was demonstrated by the fact that the reported spectral data of natural gobiusxanthin were in agreement with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'R)-gobiusxanthin (1a). On the other hand, the reported CD spectral data of natural epigobiusxanthin, which has been assigned as (3R,3'R,6'R)-isomer (3'-epigobiusxanthin), were identical with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'S)-isomer 1d (6'-epigobiusxanthin) rather than those of the corresponding synthetic 3'-epi-isomer 1b. It was found that the stereochemistry at C3-position has little effect on the shape of their CD spectra. Thus, in order to reinforce the validity of the absolute configurations at C3-position of natural specimens, (3S,3'S,6'R)- and (3S,3'S,6'S)-stereoisomers 1e and 1f were also synthesized and a HPLC analytical method for four stereoisomers was established by using a column carrying a chiral stationary phase. The HPLC analysis has proven that the stereochemistry of the natural epigobiusxanthin is 3R,3'S,6'S. PMID:25561412

  14. Total synthesis of gobiusxanthin stereoisomers and their application to determination of absolute configurations of natural products: revision of reported absolute configuration of epigobiusxanthin.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Yumiko; Ematsu, Kotaro; Kurimoto, Hiromasa; Maoka, Takashi; Wada, Akimori

    2015-01-01

    (3R)-Gobiusxanthin stereoisomers (1a-d) were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reaction of the (3R)-C15-acetylenic tri-n-butylphosphonium salt 7 with C25-apocarotenal stereoisomers 5a,b and 14a,b bearing four kinds of 3,6-dihydroxy-?-end groups. The validity of the reported stereochemistry of gobiusxanthin was demonstrated by the fact that the reported spectral data of natural gobiusxanthin were in agreement with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'R)-gobiusxanthin (1a). On the other hand, the reported CD spectral data of natural epigobiusxanthin, which has been assigned as (3R,3'R,6'R)-isomer (3'-epigobiusxanthin), were identical with those of synthetic (3R,3'S,6'S)-isomer 1d (6'-epigobiusxanthin) rather than those of the corresponding synthetic 3'-epi-isomer 1b. It was found that the stereochemistry at C3-position has little effect on the shape of their CD spectra. Thus, in order to reinforce the validity of the absolute configurations at C3-position of natural specimens, (3S,3'S,6'R)- and (3S,3'S,6'S)-stereoisomers 1e and 1f were also synthesized and a HPLC analytical method for four stereoisomers was established by using a column carrying a chiral stationary phase. The HPLC analysis has proven that the stereochemistry of the natural epigobiusxanthin is 3R,3'S,6'S. PMID:25561412

  15. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reactions of thioamides: toward a stereocontrolled synthesis of 1,3-polyols.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Mitsutaka; Yazaki, Ryo; Suzuki, Yuta; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2009-12-30

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamides with a soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base cooperative catalytic system comprising (R,R)-Ph-BPE/[Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)]PF(6)/LiOAr is described. Highly chemoselective deprotonative activation of thioamides allows for a direct aldol reaction of alpha-nonbranched aliphatic aldehydes, which are susceptible to self-condensation. Facile reduction of the thioamide functionality and a catalyst-controlled second aldol reaction provides 1,3-diols in a highly stereoselective manner. PMID:19994862

  16. Synthesis, photo- and electroluminescence properties of asymmetrical alternating copoly( p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Songting; Zou, Yingping; Zhu, Weiguo; Jiang, Changyun

    2006-06-01

    A series of asymmetrical alternating copoly( p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives (PPVs), poly(2-methoxy-5-alkoxy)-1,4-(phenylene vinylene)-alt-1,4-(phenylene vinylene), have been successfully synthesized via the Wittig polycondensation reaction as potential electroluminescent (EL) materials. These copolymers contain two components, one is phenylene vinylene with asymmetrical flexible side chain to improve the solubility of the copolymer in common solvents and to suppress its crystallization; the other is a rigid phenylene vinylene moiety to improve the luminescent quantum efficiency and the thermal stability. The photoluminescent (PL) properties and thermal behavior of these copolymers have been investigated in detail. The results showed that the PL intensity increased but the thermal stability decreased with increasing side chain length. A double-layer device of ITO/PEDOT-PSS/Polymer 3/Ba/Al showed a greenish yellow emission peaking at 548 nm with a turn-on voltage as low as 6.2 V. A maximum brightness of 534 cd/m 2 was obtained at a driving voltage of 10 V.

  17. A highly enantioselective Biginelli reaction using self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalysts: asymmetric synthesis of 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Hang, Zhijun; Zhu, Jun; Lian, Xiang; Xu, Peng; Yu, Han; Han, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    An efficient self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalyst for the synthesis of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydro-pyrimidines via an asymmetric Biginelli reaction was developed, which is superior to the individual precatalyst. A wide range of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines with remarkable pharmacological interest was obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). A plausible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the activation and the asymmetric induction. PMID:26498376

  18. Large Scale Synthesis of NiCo Layered Double Hydroxides for Superior Asymmetric Electrochemical Capacitor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruchun; Hu, Zhaoxia; Shao, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Pengpeng; Li, Shoushou; Yu, Wendan; Lin, Worong; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2016-01-01

    We report a new environmentally-friendly synthetic strategy for large-scale preparation of 16 nm-ultrathin NiCo based layered double hydroxides (LDH). The Ni50Co50-LDH electrode exhibited excellent specific capacitance of 1537 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 1181 F g−1 even at current density as high as 10 A g−1, which 50% cobalt doped enhances the electrical conductivity and porous and ultrathin structure is helpful with electrolyte diffusion to improve the material utilization. An asymmetric ultracapacitor was assembled with the N-doped graphitic ordered mesoporous carbon as negative electrode and the NiCo LDH as positive electrode. The device achieves a high energy density of 33.7 Wh kg−1 (at power density of 551 W kg−1) with a 1.5 V operating voltage. PMID:26754281

  19. Large Scale Synthesis of NiCo Layered Double Hydroxides for Superior Asymmetric Electrochemical Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruchun; Hu, Zhaoxia; Shao, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Pengpeng; Li, Shoushou; Yu, Wendan; Lin, Worong; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2016-01-01

    We report a new environmentally-friendly synthetic strategy for large-scale preparation of 16 nm-ultrathin NiCo based layered double hydroxides (LDH). The Ni50Co50-LDH electrode exhibited excellent specific capacitance of 1537 F g‑1 at 0.5 A g‑1 and 1181 F g‑1 even at current density as high as 10 A g‑1, which 50% cobalt doped enhances the electrical conductivity and porous and ultrathin structure is helpful with electrolyte diffusion to improve the material utilization. An asymmetric ultracapacitor was assembled with the N-doped graphitic ordered mesoporous carbon as negative electrode and the NiCo LDH as positive electrode. The device achieves a high energy density of 33.7 Wh kg‑1 (at power density of 551 W kg‑1) with a 1.5 V operating voltage.

  20. The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    A binuclear, unsymmetric coordinating ligand that is an effective metal chelator has been designed and synthesized. The new ligand has been shown to react readily with iron(II)/(III) forming a variety of coordination complexes. The binuclear complexes are of significant interest since they represent proof-of-principle for the development of coordinatively asymmetric, binuclear metal chelate compounds. Although this structural type of chelator now appears to be common in biological systems, it has not been previously described for inorganic coordination chemistry. The isolation of oxidation products will be helpful in establishing reaction mechanism(s) of these complexes with molecular oxygen. It is expected that this ligand and derivatives of it will play an important role in the development of bioinorganic complexes that aim to mimic enzyme active sites that function by substrate interaction at only one metal site of a multimetal active site.

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Dihydroindanes by Convergent Alkoxide-Directed Metallacycle-Mediated Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Greszler, Stephen N.; Reichard, Holly A.; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2012-01-01

    A convergent synthesis of highly substituted and stereodefined dihydroindanes is described from alkoxide-directed Ti-mediated cross-coupling of internal alkynes with substituted 4-hydroxy-1,6-enynes (substrates that derive from 2-directional functionalization of readily available epoxy alcohol derivatives). In addition to describing a new and highly stereoselective approach to bimolecular [2+2+2] annulation that delivers products not available with other methods in this area of chemical reactivity, evidence is provided to support annulation by way of regioselective alkyne–alkyne coupling, followed by metal-centered [4+2] rather than stepwise alkene insertion and reductive elimination. Overall, the reaction proceeds with exquisite stereochemical control and defines a convenient, convergent, and enantiospecific entry to fused carbocycles of great potential value in target-oriented synthesis and medicinal chemistry. PMID:22235773

  2. Synthesis, Annealing and Performance of Pd-Au Asymmetric Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi Hua; Chen, Chao-Huang; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico; Payzant, E Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Composite asymmetric Pd-Au membranes, based on porous Inconel and Hastelloy tubular supports, were prepared by means of electroless deposition and galvanic displacement techniques and tested, before and after Au deposition, in pure H2 atmosphere. The final membranes, with Au average bulk composition up to 16.7 wt%, were 9 15 m thick and showed, for the entire duration of characterization, H2/He ideal selectivity in excess of 900. The annealing of the as-prepared membranes was conducted through the coating and diffusion mechanism in He and H2 atmospheres at 500 C. The annealing conditions were chosen after non-isothermal and isothermal HT-XRD studies on coupons synthetized with similar preparation methods. After the formation of the Pd-Au layer, the membranes showed steady flux and a stable Au gradient on the membrane top layer. Comparisons between permeance for Pd/Au and pure Pd membranes indicated that the membranes with an Au average bulk composition of 4.5 and 5.4 wt% had an enhancement, up to 20%, of the H2 permeability in the temperature range 250 450 C with respect to pure Pd membranes. On the other hand, the membrane having the highest Au composition, 16.7 wt%, even though characterized by a lower H2 permeability (77% of pure Pd) had a rather high surface Au composition (approximately 46 wt%), which might provide good H2S poisoning tolerance.

  3. Anisotropic encapsulation-induced synthesis of asymmetric single-hole mesoporous nanocages.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Lei; Wei, Yong; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-05-13

    Asymmetric single-hole mesoporous silica nanocages, which are eccentric hollow structured spheres and consist of mesoporous shell with an open hole on their surface, with uniform particle size (100-240 nm), have successfully been synthesized via a novel anisotropic encapsulation of the mesoporous silica. In this unique nanocarrier, the eccentric hollow cavity and big hole (∼25 nm) can serve as a storage space and passage for large guest molecules. Meanwhile, the uniform mesopores (2-10 nm) with a high surface area (∼500 m(2)/g) in the silica shells of the nanocages can provide storage space for small guest molecules. The obtained single-hole mesoporous nanocages can be endowed upconversion luminescence. The obtained upconversion nanoparticles functionalized eccentric single-hole nanorattles were used to codeliver bovine serum albumin and doxorubicin dual-sized guests. The release of the dual-sized guests can be well controlled independently by heat and near-infrared (NIR) light with the assistance of NIR to ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) optical properties of upconversion nanoparticles and heat-sensitive phase change materials. PMID:25909815

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirobarbiturate-Cyclohexenes through Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric [4 + 2] Annulation of Barbiturate-Derived Alkenes with Allenoates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honglei; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Chunhao; Wang, Guo-Peng; Zhu, Shou-Fei; Wu, Yang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Zhanhu; Xiao, Yumei; Zhou, Qi-Lin; Guo, Hongchao

    2016-03-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of pharmaceutically important spirobarbiturates has been achieved via spirocyclic chiral phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric [4 + 2] annulation of barbiturate-derived alkenes with allenoates. With the use of this tool, various spirobarbiturate-cyclohexenes are obtained in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. A wide range of α-substituted allenoates and barbiturate-derived alkenes were tolerated. PMID:26937706

  5. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B. PMID:26606903

  6. Organocatalytic cascade Michael/Michael reaction for the asymmetric synthesis of spirooxindoles containing five contiguous stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo-Liang; Du, Da-Ming

    2016-05-01

    A bifunctional squaramide-catalyzed Michael/Michael cascade reaction for the construction of five-membered spirooxindoles was developed. This reaction afforded the corresponding products with five contiguous stereocenters including a quaternary center in good to excellent yields (up to 93%) with excellent stereoselectivities (up to >99 : 1 dr, 98% ee). Meanwhile, the practicality of this methodology was illustrated by a gram-scale synthesis, one-pot four-component reaction and synthetic transformation of the resulting adduct. PMID:27075701

  7. α-Allyl-α-aryl α-Amino Esters in the Asymmetric Synthesis of Acyclic and Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives by Alkene Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allylating agents were explored for the asymmetric synthesis of α-allyl-α-aryl α-amino acids by tandem N-alkylation/π-allylation. Cross-metathesis of the tandem product was developed to provide allylic diversity not afforded in the parent reaction; the synthesis of homotyrosine and homoglutamate analogues was completed. Cyclic α-amino acid derivatives could be accessed by ring-closing metathesis presenting a viable strategy to higher ring homologue of enantioenriched α-substituted proline. The eight-membered proline analogue was successfully converted to the pyrrolizidine natural product backbone. PMID:24828423

  8. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF THE ABCD RING SYSTEM OF DAPHNILACTONE B VIA A TANDEM, DOUBLE INTRAMOLECULAR, [4+2]/[3+2] CYCLOADDITION STRATEGY†

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Son T.; Baiazitov, Ramil Y.

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric synthesis of the ABCD ring system of daphnilactone B is described. The synthesis features a tandem, double intramolecular, [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition of a highly functionalized, enantiomerically enriched nitroalkene to generate a pentacyclic nitroso acetal. The cycloaddition establishes six contiguous stereogenic centers including the critical CD ring junction that bears two quaternary stereogenic centers. Hydrogenolysis of the nitroso acetal followed by amide reduction and cyclization provided the AB rings. The methyl substituent on the A ring was installed in the correct configuration via hydrogenation of an exocyclic olefin in the final step. PMID:20151037

  9. Asymmetric synthesis of 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benzo[e]indol-4-one (CBI).

    PubMed

    Lajiness, James P; Boger, Dale L

    2011-01-21

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of the 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benzo[e]indol-4-one (CBI) analogue of the CC-1065 and duocarmycin DNA alkylation subunits is described. Treatment of iodo-epoxide 5, prepared by late-stage alkylation of 4 with (S)-glycidal-3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature directly provides the optically pure alcohol 6 in 87% yield (99% ee) derived from selective metal-halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. The use of MeMgBr or i-PrMgBr also provides the product in high yields (82-87%), but requires larger amounts of the Grignard reagent to effect metal-halogen exchange and cyclization. Direct transannular spirocyclization of 7 following O-debenzylation of 6 provides N-Boc-CBI. This approach represents the most efficient (9-steps, 31% overall) and effective (99% ee) route to the optically pure CBI alkylation subunit yet described. PMID:21192653

  10. Asymmetric phase-transfer catalyzed glycolate alkylation, investigation of the scope, and application to the synthesis of (-)-ragaglitazar.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Hicken, Erik J; Stephens, Jeffrey C; Bedke, D Karl

    2005-11-11

    [Reaction: see text]. Asymmetric glycolate alkylation using a protected acetophenone surrogate under solid-liquid phase-transfer conditions is a new approach to the synthesis of 2-hydroxy esters and acids. Diphenylmethyloxy-2,5-dimethoxyacetophenone 1 with a trifluorobenzyl cinchonidinium bromide catalyst 9 (10 mol %) and cesium hydroxide provided S-alkylation products 2 at -35 degrees C in high yield (80-99%) and with excellent enantioselectivities using a wide range of electrophiles (80-90% ee). Alkylated products were elaborated to useful alpha-hydroxy intermediates 3 using bis-TMS peroxide Baeyer-Villiger conditions and selective transesterification reactions. The ester products have been enantioenriched by simple recrystallization from ether to give a single isomer (99% ee). A tight ion-pair model is proposed for the observed S-stereoinduction that includes van der Waals contacts between the extended enolate and the isoquinoline of the catalyst. To demonstrate the utility of the new methodology, the anti-diabetes drug (-)-ragaglitazar 24 was synthesized in six steps from a key 2-alkoxy-3-p-phenoxypropionic acid 26 that was made using PTC glycolate alkylation. PMID:16268622

  11. Development of a large scale asymmetric synthesis of the glucocorticoid agonist BI 653048 BS H3PO4.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jonathan T; Fandrick, Daniel R; Tan, Zhulin; Song, Jinhua J; Rodriguez, Sonia; Qu, Bo; Kim, Soojin; Niemeier, Oliver; Li, Zhibin; Byrne, Denis; Campbell, Scot; Chitroda, Ashish; DeCroos, Phil; Fachinger, Thomas; Fuchs, Victor; Gonnella, Nina C; Grinberg, Nelu; Haddad, Nizar; Jäger, Burkhard; Lee, Heewon; Lorenz, Jon C; Ma, Shengli; Narayanan, Bikshandarkoil A; Nummy, Larry J; Premasiri, Ajith; Roschangar, Frank; Sarvestani, Max; Shen, Sherry; Spinelli, Earl; Sun, Xiufeng; Varsolona, Richard J; Yee, Nathan; Brenner, Michael; Senanayake, Chris H

    2013-04-19

    The development of a large scale synthesis of the glucocorticoid agonist BI 653048 BS H3PO4 (1·H3PO4) is presented. A key trifluoromethyl ketone intermediate 22 containing an N-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl amide was prepared by an enolization/bromine-magnesium exchange/electrophile trapping reaction. A nonselective propargylation of trifluoromethyl ketone 22 gave the desired diastereomer in 32% yield and with dr = 98:2 from a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture after crystallization. Subsequently, an asymmetric propargylation was developed which provided the desired diastereomer in 4:1 diastereoselectivity and 75% yield with dr = 99:1 after crystallization. The azaindole moiety was efficiently installed by a one-pot cross coupling/indolization reaction. An efficient deprotection of the 4-methoxyphenethyl group was developed using H3PO4/anisole to produce the anisole solvate of the API in high yield and purity. The final form, a phosphoric acid cocrystal, was produced in high yield and purity and with consistent control of particle size. PMID:23544738

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted azapolycyclic compounds via 2-alkenyl sulfoximines: potential scaffolds for peptide mimetics.

    PubMed

    Reggelin, Michael; Junker, Bernd; Heinrich, Timo; Slavik, Stefan; Bühle, Philipp

    2006-03-29

    The application of metalated, enantiomerically pure acyclic and cyclic 2-alkenyl sulfoximines for the synthesis of highly substituted aza(poly)cyclic ring systems is described. The method relies on a one-pot combination of a reagent-controlled allyl transfer reaction to alpha- or beta-amino aldehydes, followed by a Michael-type cyclization of the intermediate vinyl sulfoximines generated in the first step. The sulfur-free target compounds are preferentially obtained by samarium iodide treatment of the sulfonimidoyl substituted heterocycles. In addition to this methodological work, initial results on the biological activity of selected examples are reported. Furthermore, a concept for the transformation of peptidic lead structures into non-peptide mimetics is described, and the relevance of the new approach to highly substituted azaheterocycles in this context is discussed. PMID:16551111

  13. Systematic Asymmetric Synthesis of All Diastereomers of (-)-Talaumidin and Their Neurotrophic Activity.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kenichi; Kubo, Miwa; Horiuchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akiko; Esumi, Tomoyuki; Hioki, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2015-07-17

    (-)-Talaumidin (1), a 2,5-biaryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran lignan isolated from Aristolochia arcuata Masters, shows significant neurite-outgrowth promotion and neuroprotection in primary cultured rat cortical neurons and in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The four stereogenic centers on the tetrahydrofuran moiety in 1 result in the presence of seven diastereomers except for their enantiomers. In order to investigate the stereochemistry-activity relationships of the stereoisomers, the systematic synthesis of all stereoisomers of 1 was accomplished by employing Evans aldol, diastereoselective hydroboration, reductive deoxygenation, and Mitsunobu reactions as key steps. The ability of all of the synthesized stereoisomers to promote neurite-outgrowth in PC12 and neuronal cells was evaluated. All stereoisomers exhibited moderate to potent neurotrophic activities in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells at 30 μM and in primary cultured rat cortical neuronal cells at 0.01 μM. In particular, 1e bearing all cis substituents resulted in the most potent neurite-outgrowth promotion. PMID:26108800

  14. Stereoselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Cyclopropanes. Application to the Asymmetric Synthesis of (1S,2S)-2,3-Methanoamino Acids.

    PubMed

    Dorizon, Philippe; Su, Guifa; Ludvig, Gitte; Nikitina, Lilyia; Paugam, Renée; Ollivier, Jean; Salaün, Jacques

    1999-06-25

    One-pot palladium(0)-catalyzed alkylation and S(N)(') cyclization of 1,4-dichlorobut-2-ene 1 by the anion of alpha-substituted carbonitriles 2a-d can provide highly functionalized cyclopropanes (E)-4a-d, diastereoselectivity, (de 88-100%). Several attempts to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of the 1-amino-2-ethenylcyclopropanecarbonitrile (E)-9, by means of this new procedure, i.e., using chiral palladium ligands, chiral aminoacetonitriles (-)- and (+)-12 (from 1-hydroxypinanone) or chiral allyl chlorides (4S)-20b-d and (4R)-20e (from (2S) ethyl lactate) have pointed up the reversibility of the palladium-catalyzed cyclization step, responsible for the low enantioselectivity observed (ee 88%) and provided the enantiomerically enriched 1-amino-2-propenylcyclopropanecarbonitrile (E)-22 (ee > 83%) suitable precursor of (1S,2S)-2,3-methanoamino acids. PMID:11674544

  15. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spirocyclic 2-Benzopyrans for Positron Emission Tomography of σ1 Receptors in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Katharina; Schepmann, Dirk; Fischer, Steffen; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Hiller, Achim; Donat, Cornelius K.; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of styrene derivative 6 afforded chiral triols (R)-7 and (S)-7, which were cyclized with tosyl chloride in the presence of Bu2SnO to provide 2-benzopyrans (R)-4 and (S)-4 with high regioselectivity. The additional hydroxy moiety in the 4-position was exploited for the introduction of various substituents. Williamson ether synthesis and replacement of the Boc protective group with a benzyl moiety led to potent σ1 ligands with high σ1/σ2-selectivity. With exception of the ethoxy derivative 16, the (R)-configured enantiomers represent eutomers with eudismic ratios of up to 29 for the ester (R)-18. The methyl ether (R)-15 represents the most potent σ1 ligand of this series of compounds, with a Ki value of 1.2 nM and an eudismic ratio of 7. Tosylate (R)-21 was used as precursor for the radiosynthesis of [18F]-(R)-20, which was available by nucleophilic substitution with K[18F]F K222 carbonate complex. The radiochemical yield of [18F]-(R)-20 was 18%–20%, the radiochemical purity greater than 97% and the specific radioactivity 175–300 GBq/µmol. Although radiometabolites were detected in plasma, urine and liver samples, radiometabolites were not found in brain samples. After 30 min, the uptake of the radiotracer in the brain was 3.4% of injected dose per gram of tissue and could be reduced by coadministration of the σ1 antagonist haloperidol. [18F]-(R)-20 was able to label those regions of the brain, which were reported to have high density of σ1 receptors. PMID:24451404

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of 2-azido-1-arylethanols from azido aryl ketone-beta-cyclodextrin complexes and sodium borohydride in water.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M A; Bhanumathi, N; Rao, K R

    2001-10-01

    beta-Cyclodextrin catalyses for the first time the asymmetric reduction of alpha-azido aryl ketones to corresponding alcohols of great significance using sodium borohydride in water. The azido group appeared to be the best fit among various groups studied. This asymmetric reduction using water as solvent overcomes many of the drawbacks in the existing methodologies. PMID:12240246

  17. Asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjie; Shi, Rufei; Zhou, Pei; Qiu, Qiming; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Asymmetric Schiff bases, due to its asymmetric structure, can be used as asymmetric catalyst, antibacterial, and mimic molecules during simulate biological processes, etc. In recent years, research on synthesis and properties of asymmetric Schiff bases have become an increase interest of chemists. This review summarizes asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases metal complexes. Applications of DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases are also discussed in this review.

  18. Brønsted-acid-catalyzed asymmetric multicomponent reactions for the facile synthesis of highly enantioenriched structurally diverse nitrogenous heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Shi, Feng; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2011-11-15

    Optically pure nitrogenous compounds, and especially nitrogen-containing heterocycles, have drawn intense research attention because of their frequent isolation as natural products. These compounds have wide-ranging biological and pharmaceutical activities, offering potential as new drug candidates. Among the various synthetic approaches to nitrogenous heterocycles, the use of asymmetric multicomponent reactions (MCRs) catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids has recently emerged as a particularly robust tool. This method combines the prominent merits of MCRs with organocatalysis, thus affording enantio-enriched nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds with excellent enantioselectivity, atom economy, bond-forming efficiency, structural diversity, and complexity. In this Account, we discuss a variety of asymmetric MCRs catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids that lead to the production of structurally diverse nitrogenous heterocycles. In MCRs, three or more reagents are combined simultaneously to produce a single product containing structural contributions from all the components. These one-pot processes are especially useful in the construction of heterocyclic cores: they can provide a high degree of both complexity and diversity for a targeted set of scaffolds while minimizing the number of synthetic operations. Unfortunately, enantioselective MCRs have thus far been relatively underdeveloped. Particularly lacking are reactions that proceed through imine intermediates, which are formed from the condensation of carbonyls and amines. The concomitant generation of water in the condensation reaction can deactivate some Lewis acid catalysts, resulting in premature termination of the reaction. Thus, chiral catalysts typically must be compatible with water for MCRs to generate nitrogenous compounds. Recently, organocatalytic MCRs have proven valuable in this respect. Brønsted acids, an important class of organocatalysts, are highly compatible with water and thereby offer great potential as chiral catalysts for multicomponent protocols that unavoidably release water molecules during the course of the reaction. We present a detailed investigation of several MCRs catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids, including Biginelli and Biginelli-like reactions; 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions; aza Diels-Alder reactions; and some other cyclization reactions. These approaches have enabled the facile preparation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and dihydropyridines with high optical purity. The synthetic applications of these new protocols are also discussed, together with theoretical studies of the reaction transition states that address the regio- and stereochemistry. In addition, we briefly illustrate the application of a recently developed strategy that involves relay catalysis by a binary system consisting of a chiral phosphoric acid and a metal complex. This technique has provided access to new reactions that generate structurally diverse and complex heterocycles. Enantioselective organocatalytic MCRs remain a challenge, but we illustrate success on several fronts with chiral phosphoric acids as the primary catalysts. Further progress will undoubtedly provide even better access to the chiral nitrogen-containing heterocycles that are not only prevalent as natural products but also serve as key chiral building blocks in organic synthesis. PMID:21800828

  19. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis Using Feedstocks. An Enantioselective Route to 2-Arylpropionic Acids and 1-Arylethyl Amines via Hydrovinylation of Vinyl Arenes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig R.; RajanBabu, T. V.

    2009-01-01

    A three-step procedure for the synthesis of 2-arylpropionic acids (profens) from vinyl arenes in nearly enantiomerically pure form has been developed. Excellent yields (>97%), regioselectivities (>99%), and enantioselectivities (>97% ee) for the desired branched products were obtained in the asymmetric hydrovinylation reactions of vinyl arenes, and the products from these reactions were transformed into 2-arylpropionic acids via oxidative degradation. Subsequent Curtius or Schmidt rearrangements of these acids provided highly valued 1-arylethyl amines, including a prototypical primary amine with an α-chiral tertiary N-alkyl group, in very good yields. PMID:19317393

  20. Copper(II)-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of halo-substituted alkyl aryl and heteroaryl ketones: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Ning; Fang, Qiang; Hu, Yi-Hu; Yang, Li-Yao; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Wu, Jing; Li, Shijun

    2014-02-14

    A set of reaction conditions has been established to facilitate the non-precious copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of a number of structurally diverse β-, γ- or ε-halo-substituted alkyl aryl ketones and α-, β- or γ-halo-substituted alkyl heteroaryl ketones under air to afford a broad spectrum of halo alcohols in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of antidepressant drugs (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine, which highlighted its synthetic utility. PMID:24382650

  1. Synthesis and Application of Chiral Spiro Cp Ligands in Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Oxidative Coupling of Biaryl Compounds with Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Cui, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Chao; You, Shu-Li

    2016-04-27

    The vastly increasing application of chiral Cp ligands in asymmetric catalysis results in growing demand for novel chiral Cp ligands. Herein, we report a new class of chiral Cp ligands based on 1,1'-spirobiindane, a privileged scaffold for chiral ligands and catalysts. The corresponding Rh complexes are shown to be excellent catalysts in asymmetric oxidative coupling reactions, providing axially chiral biaryls in 19-97% yields with up to 98:2 er. PMID:27070297

  2. Absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, A H; Hulse, S H

    1993-03-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify a tone's pitch or to produce a tone at a particular pitch without the use of an external reference pitch. AP exists in varying degrees among people generally described as AP possessors. AP possessors vary not only in the accuracy with which they can identify pitches but also in their ability to produce pitches absolutely and in their ability to identify tones of various timbers and in various pitch registers. AP possessors' memory for pitches is mediated by verbal pitch names; they do not have superior memory for pitches per se. Although the etiology of AP is not yet completely understood, evidence points toward the early-learning theory. This theory states that AP can be learned by anyone during a limited period early in development, up to about age 6, after which a general developmental shift from perceiving individual features to perceiving relations among features makes AP difficult or impossible to acquire. PMID:8451339

  3. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  4. New chiral phosphinephosphinite ligands: Application to stereoselective synthesis of a key intermediate of 1{beta}-methyl carbapenems by Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takao; Yoshida, Akifumi; Matsumura, Kazuhiko

    1995-12-31

    Transition metal catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation is an attractive and highly useful homologation process for organic synthesis. Recently, the authors reported that the Rh(I) complexes of phosphinephosphite BINAPHOS are highly efficient catalysts for enantioselective hydroformylation of a variety of olefins. This time, the authors have designed and synthesized new chiral phosphinephosphinite ligands having binaphthyl backbone, (R)-2-diarylphosphino-2{prime}-diarylphosphinoxy-1,1{prime}-binaphthy1 (hereafter abbreviated (R)-BIPNITE). The Rh(I) complexes of these ligands are effective catalysts for the asymmetric hydroformylation of 4-vinylazetidin-2-one to give the corresponding oxo-aldehyde 3{beta} as the major product in very high diastereoselectivities and in good regioselectivities. Interestingly, modifications of the aryl substituents in phosphine and phosphinite moieties afforded higher selectivities. Aldehyde 3{beta} was easily oxidized with NaClO{sub 2} to 4, a key intermediate of 1{beta}-methyl carbapenems. Thus, the present method provides a new practical route to a versatile key intermediate for the synthesis of carbapenem antibiotics.

  5. Synthesis and absolute configuration of a new 3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline-type alkaloid, 3,4-dehydro-5(S)-5-carboxystrictosidine, isolated from Peruvian Uña de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Aimi, Norio

    2002-10-01

    The structure including the absolute configuration of a new glucoalkaloid, 3,4-dehydro-5(S)-5-carboxystrictosidine, isolated from Peruvian Uña de Gato (Cat's Claw, original plant: Uncaria tomentosa), was confirmed by synthesis starting from secologanin and L-tryptophan. PMID:12372867

  6. Synthesis, Chiral Separation, Absolute Configuration Assignment, and Biological Activity of Enantiomers of Retro-1 as Potent Inhibitors of Shiga Toxin.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Hajer; Michau, Aurélien; Clerget, Alexandra; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Johannes, Ludger; Gillet, Daniel; Barbier, Julien; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    The Shiga toxin (Stx) family is composed of related protein toxins produced by the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae and certain pathogenic strains of E. coli. No effective therapies for Stx intoxication have been developed yet. However, inhibitors that act on the intracellular trafficking of these toxins may provide new options for the development of therapeutic strategies. This study reports the synthesis, chromatographic separation, and pharmacological evaluation of the two enantiomers of Retro-1, a compound active against Stx and other such protein toxins. Retro-1 works by inhibiting retrograde transport of these toxins inside cells. In vitro experiments proved that the configuration of the stereocenter at position 5 is not crucial for the activity of this compound. X-ray diffraction data revealed (S)-Retro-1 to be slightly more active than (R)-Retro-1. PMID:26033849

  7. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  8. Diastereoselective Allylation of "N"-"Tert"-Butanesulfinyl Imines: An Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Yang; Sun, Li-Sen; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Xing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric synthetic experiment that encompasses both diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity is described. In this experiment, Zn-mediated allylation of an ("R")-"N"-"tert"-butanesulfinyl imine is first performed to obtain either diastereomer using two different solvent systems, followed by oxidation of the

  9. Diastereoselective Allylation of "N"-"Tert"-Butanesulfinyl Imines: An Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Yang; Sun, Li-Sen; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Xing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric synthetic experiment that encompasses both diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity is described. In this experiment, Zn-mediated allylation of an ("R")-"N"-"tert"-butanesulfinyl imine is first performed to obtain either diastereomer using two different solvent systems, followed by oxidation of the…

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Branched Amines via Rh(III)-Catalyzed C–H Bond Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first asymmetric intermolecular addition of non-acidic C–H bonds to imines is reported. The use of the activating N-perfluorobutanesulfinyl imine substituent is essential for achieving sufficient reactivity and provides outstanding diastereoselectivity (>98:2 dr). Straightforward removal of the sulfinyl group with HCl yields the highly enantiomerically enriched amine hydrochlorides. PMID:24901217

  11. Direct and post-synthesis incorporation of chiral metallosalen catalysts into metal-organic frameworks for asymmetric organic transformations.

    PubMed

    Xi, Weiqin; Liu, Yan; Xia, Qingchun; Li, Zijian; Cui, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Two chiral porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed from [VO(salen)]-derived dicarboxylate and dipyridine bridging ligands. After oxidation of V(IV) to V(V) , they were found to be highly effective, recyclable, and reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the asymmetric cyanosilylation of aldehydes with up to 95 % ee. Solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) treatment of the pillared-layer MOF with [Cr(salen)Cl]- or [Al(salen)Cl]-derived dipyridine ligands led to the formation of mixed-linker metallosalen-based frameworks and incorporation of [Cr(salen)] enabled its use as a heterogeneous catalyst in the asymmetric epoxide ring-opening reaction. PMID:26200925

  12. Crystallography of Magnetite Plaquettes and their Significance as Asymmetric Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  13. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Alkynyl-3-hydroxyindolin-2-ones by Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Terminal Alkynes to Isatins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Gu, Da-Wei; Zi, Jing; Wu, Xin-Yan; Guo, Xun-Xiang

    2016-05-20

    A highly efficient copper-catalyzed asymmetric addition of terminal alkynes to isatins has been developed. In the presence of a catalytic amount of copper iodide and a chiral phosphine ligand, the reaction gave the corresponding chiral 3-alkynyl-3-hydroxyindolin-2-ones in high yields with high enantioselectivity. This methodology has a broad substrate scope, and the synthetic utility of the present protocol was further demonstrated by the transformation of chiral alkynylation products. PMID:27152462

  14. Chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis in an aqueous medium: combination of metal-catalysed allylic alcohol isomerisation-asymmetric bioamination.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Cocina, María; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2015-07-11

    The ruthenium-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols was coupled, for the first time, with asymmetric bioamination in a one-pot process in an aqueous medium. In the cases involving prochiral ketones, the ω-TA exhibited excellent enantioselectivity, identical to that observed in the single step. As a result, amines were obtained from allylic alcohols with high overall yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses. PMID:26062926

  15. One-step synthesis of graphene nanoribbon-MnO₂ hybrids and their all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-04-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials (GNR-MnO₂) of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and MnO₂ nanoparticles have been prepared via a one-step method. GNR, with unique features such as high aspect ratio and plane integrity, has been obtained by longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By tuning the amount of oxidant used, different mass loadings of MnO₂ nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of GNRs. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated with the GNR-MnO₂ hybrid as the positive electrode and GNR sheets as the negative electrode. Due to the desirable porous structure, excellent electrical conductivity, as well as high rate capability and specific capacitances of both the GNR and GNR-MnO₂ hybrid, the optimized GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in an enlarged potential window of 0-2.0 V. In addition, the fabricated GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a significantly enhanced maximum energy density of 29.4 W h kg(-1) (at a power density of 12.1 kW kg(-1)), compared with that of the symmetric cells based on GNR-MnO₂ hybrids or GNR sheets. This greatly enhanced energy storage ability and high rate capability can be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion and excellent pseudocapacitive performance of MnO₂ nanoparticles and the high electrical conductivity of the GNRs. PMID:24608664

  16. Asymmetric Synthesis of 1,3-Oxazolidine Derivatives with Multi-Component Reaction and Research of Kinetic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Qiang; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Nai-Xing; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xie, Yu; Li, Yi-He

    2015-01-01

    An efficient multi-component reaction to synthesize multi-substituted 1,3-oxazolidine compounds of high optical purity was described. All the products were well-characterized and the absolute configuration of one chiral center was determined. The plausible mechanism was proposed and a kinetic resolution of epoxides process was confirmed. PMID:26393558

  17. Zn-catalyzed enantio- and diastereoselective formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition involving two electron-deficient partners: asymmetric synthesis of piperidines from 1-azadienes and nitro-alkenes.

    PubMed

    Chu, John C K; Dalton, Derek M; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-04-01

    We report a catalytic asymmetric synthesis of piperidines through [4 + 2] cycloaddition of 1-azadienes and nitro-alkenes. The reaction uses earth abundant Zn as catalyst and is highly diastereo- and regioselective. A novel BOPA ligand (F-BOPA) confers high reactivity and enantioselectivity in the process. The presence of ortho substitution on the arenes adjacent to the bis(oxazolines) was found to be particularly impactful, due to limiting the undesired coordination of 1-azadiene to the Lewis acid and thus allowing the reaction to be carried out at lower temperature. A series of secondary kinetic isotope effect studies using a range of ligands implicates a stepwise mechanism for the transformation, involving an initial Michael-type addition of the imine to the nitro-alkene followed by a cyclization event. The stepwise mechanism obviates the electronic requirement inherent to a concerted mechanism, explaining the successful cycloaddition between two electron-deficient partners. PMID:25821893

  18. Asymmetric Formal Total Synthesis of the Stemofoline Alkaloids: The Evolution, Development and Application of a Catalytic Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Charles S.; Fang, Chao; Paull, Daniel H.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A formal synthesis of didehydrostemofoline and isodidehydrostemofoline has been accomplished by preparing an intermediate in the Overman synthesis of these alkaloids from commercially available 2-deoxy-D-ribose. The work presented in this account chronicles the evolution of our explorations to identify the optimal steric and electronic control elements necessary to generate the tricyclic core structure of these alkaloids in a single operation from an acyclic precursor. The key step in the synthesis is a novel dipolar cycloaddition cascade sequence that is initiated by cyclization of a rhodium-derived carbene onto the nitrogen atom of a proximal imine group to generate an azomethine ylide that then undergoes spontaneous cyclization via dipolar cycloaddition. The synthesis features several other interesting reactions, including a Boord elimination to prepare a chiral allylic alcohol, a highly diastereoselective Hirama-Itô cyclization, and a useful modification of the Barton decarboxylation protocol. PMID:24072939

  19. Total Synthesis and Tentative Structural Elucidation of Cryptomoscatone E3: Interplay of Experimental and Computational Studies.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Luiz F T; Sarotti, Ariel M; Pilli, Ronaldo A

    2015-12-18

    A successful combination of computational chemistry and total synthesis was explored to tentatively elucidate the absolute configuration of cryptomoscatone E3, a polyketide isolated from the Brazilian tree Cryptocarya mandiocanna. Two independent synthetic approaches are discussed based on asymmetric allylation, ring closing metathesis, and aldol reactions. PMID:26513545

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides via catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Sone, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Akitake; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of various ketones with dimethyloxosulfonium methylide using a heterobimetallic La-Li(3)-BINOL complex (LLB) is described. The reaction proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of achiral phosphine oxide additives, and 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides were obtained in high enantioselectivity (97%-91% ee) and yield ( > 99%-88%) from a broad range of methyl ketones with 1-5 mol% catalyst loading. Enantioselectivity was strongly dependent on the steric hindrance, and other ketones, such as ethyl ketones and propyl ketones resulted in slightly lower enantioselectivity (88%-67% ee). PMID:22314382

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclopentanones via a Multicatalytic Secondary Amine/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyzed Cascade Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lathrop, Stephen P.; Rovis, Tomislav

    2009-01-01

    A one-pot, asymmetric multicatalytic formal [3+2] reaction between 1,3-dicarbonyls and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The multicatalytic process involves a secondary amine catalyzed Michael addition followed by a N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed intramolecular crossed benzoin reaction to afford densely functionalized cyclopentanones with high enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds with a variety of alkyl and aryl enals as well as a range of 1,3-dicarbonyls (diketones and β-ketoesters). The functionalized products are obtained from cheap, readily available starting materials in a rapid and efficient manner in a one-pot, one-step operation. PMID:19731910

  2. Synthesis of Azacyclic Nucleoside Analogues via Asymmetric [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of 9-(2-Tosylvinyl)-9H-purines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Jie; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Gao, Yao-Wei; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-02-19

    With 9-(2-tosylvinyl)-9H-purines as the dipolarophiles, a series of chiral azacyclic nucleosides with four continuous stereocenters were obtained in 86-99% yields, >20:1 dr, and 94 → 99% ee via the Cu(I)-catalyzed asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloaddition. Both (E)- and (Z)-9-(2-tosylvinyl)-9H-purines were suitable dipolarophiles, enriching the structure diversity of azacyclic nucleosides. Furthermore, when α-methyl imino ester was explored, the corresponding azacyclic nucleoside with a chiral quaternary stereocenter could also be afforded with excellent results. PMID:26844591

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of the main core of kaurane family members triggered by an oxidative polycyclization-pinacol tandem process.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Samuel; Maertens, Gaëtan; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-09-19

    Polycyclization processes represent expeditious routes used in both nature and the laboratory to produce complex polycyclic molecules. A new stereoselective oxidative variant of such a polycyclization has been developed in which the cascade is triggered by a phenol dearomatization and is concluded by a pinacol transposition. This unprecedented avenue combines the synthetic power of a polycyclization and a transposition in tandem and enables the rapid formation of the tetracyclic main core of kaurane diterpenes containing several asymmetric and quaternary carbon centers in a single step from a simple phenol derivative. PMID:25191786

  4. Synthesis of chiral diether and tetraether phospholipids: Regiospecific ring opening of epoxy alcohol intermediates derived from asymmetric epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Svendsen, C.B.; Di Meglio, C.; Anderson, V.C.

    1994-06-03

    Diether and tetraether phospholipids have been synthesized using chiral epoxy alcohol starting materials (e.g. glycidol 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate esters or tert-butyldiphenylsilyl ethers). These chiral precursors provide control over the stereochemistry, substitution patterns, and steric properties of the phosphoglycerol backbone. Configuration at the sn-2 glycerol carbon was controlled by asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohol followed by acid-catalyzed, regioselective opening of the oxirane ring using excess aliphatic n-alcohols to give mono-O-alkylated glycerol intermediates in good yields. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Brak, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  6. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis.

    PubMed

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martnez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martn, Nazario

    2014-08-19

    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-?-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted olefins used in these reactions, pristine fullerene is a noncoordinating dipolarophile. The aforementioned features make the study of stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions onto fullerenes a unique scenario to shed light onto important mechanistic aspects. On the other hand, the availability of achiral starting materials as well as the use of nonexpensive asymmetric catalysts should provide access to chiral fullerenes and their further application in a variety of different fields. In this regard, in addition to biomedical applications, chiral fullerenes are of interest in less-studied areas such as materials science, organic electronics, and nanoscience, where control of the order and morphology at the nanometer scale are critical issues for achieving better device efficiencies. PMID:25080165

  7. A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion. PMID:21446721

  8. Synthesis, absolute configuration, and bacterial mutagenicity of the 8 stereoisomeric vicinal diol epoxides at the terminal benzo ring of carcinogenic dibenz[a,h]anthracene.

    PubMed

    Frank, Heinz; Funk, Mario; Oesch, Franz; Platt, Karl L

    2011-12-19

    The synthesis of the 8 possible stereoisomeric diol epoxides (DEs) at the terminal benzo ring of carcinogenic dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA) is reported. trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-DBA (1) afforded the 4 bay region DEs: the enantiomeric pairs of the anti diastereomers (+)-3/(-)-3 and of the syn diastereomers (-)-4/(+)-4, respectively. trans-1,2-Dihydroxy-1,2-dihydro-DBA (2) served as precursor of the 4 reverse DEs: the enantiomeric pairs of the anti diastereomers (+)-5/(-)-5 and of the syn diastereomers (-)-6/(+)-6, respectively. The transformation of the olefinic double bond in the enantiomeric trans-dihydrodiols to epoxides was achieved by either (i) oxidation with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid or (ii) formation of a bromohydrin with N-bromoacetamide/H(2)O followed by dehydrobromination with an anion exchange resin. Because of the pseudodiequatorial conformation of the hydroxyl groups in 1, both reactions proceeded highly stereoselectively, while the stereoselectivity was impaired by the pseudodiaxial conformation of the hydroxyl groups in 2. Diastereomers and racemic compounds were efficiently separated without derivatization by HPLC on achiral or chiral stationary phases, respectively. The absolute configurations of the DEs were deduced from the absolute configuration of 1 and 2 considering the regio- and stereoselectivity of the subsequent reactions and resulted in (+)-(1R,2S,3S,4R)-3/(-)-(1S,2R,3R,4S)-3, (-)-(1S,2R,3S,4R)-4/(+)-(1R,2S,3R,4S)-4, (+)-(1R,2S,3S,4R)-5/(-)-(1S,2R,3R,4S)-5, and (-)-(1R,2S,3R,4S)-6/(+)-(1S,2R,3S,4R)-6. The bacterial mutagenicity of the 8 stereoisomeric DEs was determined in histidine-dependent strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium in the absence of a metabolizing system. In general, the bay region DEs of DBA were stronger mutagens than the reverse DEs. In strain TA98, the syn diastereomers of bay region DEs were stronger mutagens than their anti isomers, while in the case of reverse DEs the anti diastereomers were more potent than their syn isomers. In strain TA100, all syn diastereomers surpassed the bacterial mutagenicity of their anti isomers. Concerning the bay region DEs of DBA, this corresponds to the situation described for benzo[a]pyrene: of the 4 enantiomeric bay region DEs of DBA and benzo[a]pyrene, the syn diastereomer with [(R,S)-diol (R,S)-epoxide] absolute configuration is the most potent mutagen in both bacterial strains, while the anti isomer with [(S,R)-diol (R,S)-epoxide] configuration is the weakest mutagen. PMID:22087540

  9. Solid-phase synthesis of chiral 3,4-diazaphospholanes and their application to catalytic asymmetric allylic alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Clark R.; Clark, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Functionalized chiral diazaphospholanes ligate to a variety of transition metals, yielding chiral, catalytically active, metal complexes. Previous work has established that amino acid derivatization of the carboxyl groups of (R,R)-N,N′-phthaloyl-2,3-(2-carboxyphenyl)-phenyl-3,4-diazaphospholane (1) yields phosphines that are excellent ligands for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions. Alanine functionalization is particularly effective for allylic alkylation of 1,3-dimethylallyl acetate. Standard Merrifield resins and amino acid coupling methods are used to synthesize the bead-attached phosphine having the topology bead-linker-lAla-(R,R)-1-lAla-OMe, as a 1:1 mixture of linkage isomers. Use of this supported phosphine in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation yields 92% enantiomeric excess, matching prior solution-phase results. A 20-member collection of amino acid-functionalized phosphines on beads with the topology bead-linker-AA2-AA1-1-AA1-AA2 was synthesized by using parallel solid-state methods and screened for efficacy in allylic alkylation. Resulting enantioselectivities indicate that the AA1 position has the strongest effect on the reaction. Catalyst activities can vary widely with the nature of the phosphine ligand and the reaction conditions. Meaningful analysis of intrinsic catalytic activities awaits identification of the structure and abundance of the active catalyst. PMID:14985503

  10. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  11. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  12. Asymmetric 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing naphthalene and stilbene units: synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huixiong; He, Daohang

    2014-04-24

    Six novel asymmetric 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing naphthalene and stilbene units have been efficiently synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The UV-vis absorption maximum wavelength, fluorescence excitation wavelength, fluorescence emission wavelength and fluorescence quantum yield were measured in dilute tetrahydrofuran solution. The solvent effect was also studied. The HOMO and LUMO levels of these compounds were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP, 6-31G(*)) method and cyclic voltammetry. They emit bright violet to blue emission with high fluorescence quantum yields (0.23-0.94) and large Stokes shifts (53-102 nm). These compounds possess high HOMO levels (-5.03 to -5.17 eV) and suitable band gaps, indicating that they could be benefit for hole injection. The results show that they have a potential for application in optoelectronic materials. PMID:24463245

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of (R)-3-quinuclidinol through asymmetric reduction of 3-quinuclidinone with 3-quinuclidinone reductase of Rhodotorula rubra.

    PubMed

    Uzura, Atsuko; Nomoto, Fumiki; Sakoda, Akiko; Nishimoto, Yukifumi; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-06-01

    A novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent carbonyl reductase, 3-quinuclidinone reductase, was isolated from Rhodotorula rubra JCM3782. The enzyme catalyzes the asymmetric reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol. The gene encoding the enzyme was also cloned and sequenced. A 819-bp nucleotide fragment was confirmed to be the gene encoding the 3-quinuclidinone reductase by agreement of the internal amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme. The gene encodes a total of 272 amino acid residues, and the deduced amino acid sequence shows similarity to those of several short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family proteins. An expression vector, pWKLQ, which contains the full length 3-quinuclidinone reductase gene was constructed. Using Escherichia coli cells coexpressing the 3-quinuclidinone reductase and glucose dehydrogenase (cofactor regeneration enzyme) genes, 618 mM 3-quinuclidinone was almost stiochiometrically converted to (R)-3-quinuclidinol with an >99.9% enantiomeric excess within 21 h of reaction. PMID:19234697

  14. Concise Asymmetric Construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-Diarylnonanoids Using a Hypervalent Silicon Complex: Total Synthesis of (-)-Ericanone.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Kai, Kosuke; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hu, Hao; Gao, Shen; Sugiura, Masaharu; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    By using a phosphine oxide-catalyzed enantioselective double aldol reaction, we achieved the concise construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-diarylnonanoids, enabling the synthesis of (-)-ericanone from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in 6 steps with 65 % overall yield. The enantioselective double aldol reaction is useful for establishing C2 -symmetric 1,9-diaryl-3,7-dihydroxy-5-nonanones with a single operation. Furthermore, the use of o-nosyl-protected p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and a 4,4'-disubstituted BINAP dioxide catalyst dramatically improved the reactivity and selectivity in the double aldol reaction, enabling the total synthesis of (-)-ericanone with high yield and with excellent enantiopurity. PMID:26610889

  15. Configurationally Stable, Enantioenriched Organometallic Nucleophiles in Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions: An Alternative Approach to Asymmetric Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Yuan; Derosaa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several research groups have recently developed methods to employ configurationally stable, enantioenriched organometallic nucleophiles in stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. By establishing the absolute configuration of a chiral alkyltin or alkylboron nucleophile prior to its use in cross-coupling reactions, new stereogenic centers may be rapidly and reliably generated with preservation of the known initial stereochemistry. While this area of research is still in its infancy, such stereospecific cross-coupling reactions may emerge as simple, general methods to access diverse, optically active products from common enantioenriched organometallic building blocks. This minireview highlights recent progress towards the development of general, stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using configurationally stable organometallic nucleophiles. PMID:26388985

  16. Synthesis and thermotropic properties of novel double-chained quaternary ammonium chlorides with symmetric and asymmetric hydrocarbon chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhaoyun; Hao, Aiyou

    2009-04-01

    A series of novel double-chained quaternary ammonium chlorides with symmetrical and asymmetrical hydrocarbon chain length R 1-O-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-N +(CH 3) 2-R 2·Cl - (R 1, R 2: C 12H 25, C 14H 29, C 16H 33) have been synthesized by the reaction of 1- O-alkyl glycidyl ether with N, N-dimethylalkylamine and N, N-dimethylalkylamine hydrochloride. Their chemical structures have been characterized through FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. Their thermotropic properties have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that the compounds with longer hydrocarbon chain length and being higher asymmetry in hydrocarbon chain length exhibit lower melting point ( Tm) , isotropization temperature ( Ti) and narrower mesophase temperature range. However, the hydrocarbon chain length and the symmetry in the hydrocarbon chain length have little influence on the type of liquid crystals. All compounds form cholesteric liquid crystal.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous spinel NiCo2O4 using surfactant-assembled dispersion for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chun-Tsung; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2013-11-01

    A simple and scalable process has been developed for synthesizing spinel NiCo2O4 nanocrystals through a thermal decomposition method. The introduction of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, (C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) into precursor solutions significantly enhances the homogeneity and porosity of spinel NiCo2O4. The porosity and high specific surface area of NiCo2O4 preserves the brilliant pseudo-capacitive performances due to providing smooth paths for electrolyte penetration and ion diffusion into inner active sites. Morphologies and microstructures of the active materials are examined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to evaluate the thermal properties of precursor solutions. The electrochemical performances of NiCo2O4 are systematically characterized by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. Asymmetric supercapacitors are assembled with these brilliant binary oxides as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode. The highly porous NiCo2O4 exhibits superior capacitive performances, i.e., high specific capacitance (764 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1) and long cycle life.

  18. Stereoselective Synthesis of β-Hydroxy Enamines, Amino Cyclopropanes and 1,3-Amino Alcohols via Asymmetric Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Petr; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Tandem methods for the catalytic asymmetric preparation of enantioenriched β-hydroxy (E)-enamines and cyclopropylamines are presented. The diastereoselective hydrogenation of enantioenriched (E)-trisubstituted hydroxy enamines to generate 1,2-disubstituted 1,3-amino alcohols is also outlined. These methods are initiated by highly regioselective hydroboration of N-tosyl substituted ynamides with diethylborane to generate β-amino alkenyl boranes. In situ boron to zinc transmetalation generates β-amino alkenyl zinc reagents. These functionalized vinylzinc intermediates were subsequently added to aldehydes in the presence of catalyst derived from an enantioenriched amino alcohol (morpholino isoborneol, MIB). The catalyst promotes highly enantioselective C–C bond-formation to provide β-hydroxy enamines in good isolated yields (68–86%) with 54–98% enantioselectivity. The intermediate zinc β-alkoxy enamines can be subjected to a tandem cyclopropanation to afford amino cyclopropyl carbinols with three continuous stereocenters in a one-pot procedure with good yields (72–82%), enantioselectivities of 76–94% and diastereomeric ratios >20:1. Diastereoselective hydrogenation of isolated enantioenriched β-hydroxy enamines over Pd/C furnished syn-1,2-disubstituted-1,3-amino alcohols with high yields (82–90%) and moderate to excellent diastereoselectivities. These methods were used in an efficient preparation of the enantioenriched precursor to PRC200-SS derivatives, which are potent serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20853837

  19. PEG mediated synthesis and biological evaluation of asymmetrical pyrazole curcumin analogues as potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shravan Y; Bhosale, Raghunath B; Shirame, Sachin P; Patil, Sandeep B; Kulkarni, Suresh D

    2015-03-01

    The new series of asymmetrical pyrazole curcumin analogues 4a-g were synthesized by using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) as a green reaction medium and evaluated for their in vivo analgesic and in vitro antioxidant (H2 O2 , DPPH, Ferrous reducing power and Nitric oxide scavenging activity) and anti-inflammatory activities. All the compounds synthesized 4a-g showed the potential to demonstrate analgesic activity as compared to the standard ibuprofen. Among the tested series, compounds 4e and 4b exhibited good hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity as compared to the standard butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Compounds 4b, 4d, 4f, and 4g showed good DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e and 4g showed excellent ferrous-reducing power activity, whereas all the compounds showed better nitric oxide scavenging activity than standard ascorbic acid. Additionally, all the synthesized compounds were also screened for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 4b, 4d, 4f and 4g showed good anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard diclofenac sodium. PMID:25130070

  20. 1: Mass asymmetric fission barriers for {sup 98}Mo; 2: Synthesis and characterization of actinide-specific chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Veeck, A.C.

    1996-08-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for complex fragment emission from the compound nucleus {sup 98}Mo, produced by the reaction of {sup 86}Kr with {sup 12}C. Mass asymmetric fission barriers have been obtained by fitting the excitation functions with a transition state formalism. The extracted barriers are {approximately} 5.7 MeV higher, on average, than the calculations of the Rotating Finite Range Model (RFRM). These data clearly show an isospin dependence of the conditional barriers when compared with the extracted barriers from {sup 90}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. Eleven different liquid/liquid extractants were synthesized based upon the chelating moieties 3,2-HOPO and 3,4-HOPO; additionally, two liquid/liquid extractants based upon the 1,2-HOPO chelating moiety were obtained for extraction studies. The Pu(IV) extractions, quite surprisingly, yielded results that were very different from the Fe(III) extractions. The first trend remained the same: the 1,2-HOPOs were the best extractants, followed closely by the 3,2-HOPOs, followed by the 3,4-HOPOs; but in these Pu(IV) extractions the 3,4-HOPOs performed much better than in the Fe(III) extractions. 129 refs.

  1. Advanced asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by alkylation/cyclization of newly designed axially chiral Ni(II) complex of glycine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA. PMID:26661034

  2. Catalytic asymmetric sulfenylation to structurally diverse dithioketals.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kui; Zhou, Feng; Yu, Jin-Sheng; Gao, Wei-Ming; Zhou, Jian

    2015-11-21

    We report the first example of the highly enantioselective synthesis of structurally diverse chiral dithioketals via asymmetric sulfenylation of various types of S-based nucleophiles, catalyzed by a cheap cinchona alkaloid derivative, dihydroquinine. PMID:26399606

  3. Nitrogen-functionalized Isohexides in Asymmetric Induction.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Marine; Moebs-Sanchez, Sylvie; Popowycz, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Biosourced isohexides have attracted the considerable attention of both the academic and industrial chemistry communities over the last 50 years. This highlight focuses on the synthesis of nitrogen-containing isohexides and their applications in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:26931221

  4. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  5. Asymmetric Mannich reaction of dicarbonyl compounds with alpha-amido sulfones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and synthesis of chiral dihydropyrimidones.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; Dai, Peng; Schaus, Scott E

    2007-12-21

    The highly enantioselective cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed Mannich reaction of dicarbonyl compounds with alpha-amido sulfones as acyl imine precursors is described. The reaction requires 10 mol % of the cinchona alkaloid catalyst, which serves as a general base to generate acyl imines in situ, and aqueous Na2CO3 to maintain the concentration of free alkaloid catalyst. The reaction products are obtained in good yields and high enantioselectivities, and in diastereoselectivities that range from 1:1 to >95:5. The cinchonine-catalyzed reactions provide practical access to highly functionalized building blocks which have been employed in the synthesis of chiral dihydropyrimidones, a class of compounds rich in diverse biological activity. Dihydropyrimidone modifications include a highly diastereoselective hydrogenation of the enamide moiety, using an H-Cube flow hydrogenator and a Rh(II)-mediated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to afford highly functionalized complex heterocycles. PMID:18047372

  6. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis of Nonracemic Primary Amines via Spiroborate Catalyzed Reduction of pure (E)- and (Z)-O-Benzyloximes: Applications toward the Synthesis of Calcimimetic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Wenhua; Espinosa, Sandraliz; Meléndez, Héctor J.; Farré, Silvia M.; Alvarez, Jaime L.; Torres, Valerie; Martínez, Ileanne; Santiago, Kiara M.; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Highly enantiopure (1-aryl)- and (1-naphthyl)-1-ethylamines were synthesized by the borane-mediated reduction of single-isomeric (E)- and (Z)-O-benzyloxime ethers using the stable spiroborate ester derived from (S)-diphenyl valinol and ethylene glycol as the chiral catalyst. Primary (R)-arylethylamines were prepared by the reduction of pure (Z)-ethanone oxime ethers in up to 99% ee using 15% of catalyst. Two convenient and facile approaches to the synthesis of new and known calcimimetic analogs employing enantiopure (1-naphthalen-1-yl)ethylamine as chiral precursor are described. PMID:23638707

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of alpha-substituted beta-amino ketones from sulfinimines (N-sulfinyl imines). synthesis of the indolizidine alkaloid (-)-223A.

    PubMed

    Davis, Franklin A; Yang, Bin

    2005-06-15

    Of the possible four stereoisomers, addition of the lithium enolate of 4-heptanone to sulfinimines resulted in only the syn- and anti-alpha-substituted beta-amino ketones. The formation of the major syn-beta-amino ketone was rationalized in terms of addition of the E-enolate to the C-N double bond of the sulfinimine via a six-member chelated chairlike transition state. The enolates of 4-heptanone were generated using LiHMDS in THF where a 1:2.5 E:Z enolate ratio was noted. In diethyl ether the E:Z ratio was 15:1 in favor of the E-enolate and explained in terms of Ireland's transition state model. Here increased steric interactions between the ethyl group and the carbonyl-LiN(TMS)(2) moiety destabilize the transition state leading to the Z-enolate in the poorly coordinating diethyl ether solvent. This new synthesis of syn-alpha-substituted-beta-amino ketones was applied to the concise enantioselective total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-223A, a 5,6,8-trisubstituted alkaloid isolated from the skin of the dendrobatide frog. PMID:15941273

  9. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Biginelli-like Reaction Involving Isatin.

    PubMed

    Stucchi, Mattia; Lesma, Giordano; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Rainoldi, Giulia; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Silvani, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    The first asymmetric, Brønsted acid catalyzed Biginelli-like reaction of a ketone has been developed, employing N-substituted isatins as carbonyl substrates, and urea and alkyl acetoacetates as further components. BINOL-derived phosphoric acid catalysts have been used to achieve the synthesis of a small library of chiral, enantioenriched spiro(indoline-pyrimidine)-diones derivatives. The absolute configuration of the new spiro stereocenter was assessed on diastereoisomeric derivatives through computer-assisted NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry allowed the disclosure of the overall molecular conformation in the solid state and the characterization of the crystal packing of a Br-substituted Biginelli-like derivative, while computational studies on the reaction transition state allowed us to rationalize the stereochemical outcome. PMID:26836474

  10. The Origin of Remarkable Chromatographic Differences in Novel Azulenyl-1,5-diols; & Synthesis and Use of Phosphinine and Phosphabarrelene Ligands for Asymmetric Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgen, Dana Ann

    The synthesis, characterization and analysis of novel chiral molecules advance many areas of synthetic organic chemistry, both industrially and academically. This work touches on three of the major methods for obtaining enantiomerically pure compounds. Based on the observation of a remarkably large difference in the silica TLC mobility of a pair of azulene 1,5-diol diastereomers, a series of such azulene 1,5-diols were prepared. Every pair of diastereomers was especially well separated, and X-ray crystallography revealed a conformational explanation of the large differences in mobility. The separation of the diol enantiomers was then studied on two chiral HLPC columns. The enantiomers were well-resolved, the separation appearing to benefit from the presence of the azulene ring. In addition, the more polar diastereomers on silica TLC gave dramatically better enantiomer separations on a Chiralcel-OD-H column. Very few chiral phosphinine and phosphabarrelene ligands have been reported in the literature but have shown promise as good ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Our group had previously synthesized a C2-symmetric chiral bis-camphorphosphinine and the derived bis-camphorphosphabarrelene but neither had been tested as ligands for hydroformylation. In this work, optimization of the synthesis of these two compounds was undertaken. In addition, modifications to the structure of these molecules that incorporated electron donating (N,N-dimethylaminophenyl-) or electron withdrawing (trifluoromethyl-) substituents were made in an attempt to affect the electronic nature of the phosphorus atom. Steric modifications were also done to create a more hindered environment around the phosphorus atom. The activity and selectivity of bis-camphorphosphinine, bis-camphorphosphabarrelene and other chiral phosphinine molecules serving as ligands in the rhodiumcatalyzed hydroformylation of styrene were compared to other phosphorus ligands recently published in the literature. All of these ligands gave complexes that have moderate activity with good regioselectivity but very little enantioselectivity. Therefore, more tuning of these ligands' properties need to be done in order to achieve the activity and selectivity of other chiral monodentate-ligands. The bis-camphorphosphabarrelene was also a successful organocatalyst of the Baylis-Hillman reaction, showing its versatility in both metal-catalyzed and metal-free catalysis.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of (–)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterisation data, copies of 1H and 13C NMR spectra, and HPLC traces. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02141c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (–)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  12. Concise Asymmetric Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of All Stereoisomers of Glutamate Transporter Inhibitor TFB-TBOA and Synthesis of EAAT Photoaffinity Probes.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Michele; Ritler, Andreas; Simonin, Alexandre; Hediger, Matthias A; Lochner, Martin

    2016-05-18

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Its rapid clearance after the release into the synaptic cleft is vital in order to avoid toxic effects and is ensured by several transmembrane transport proteins, so-called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Impairment of glutamate removal has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases and EAATs have therefore received increased attention as therapeutic targets. O-Benzylated l-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives have been developed previously as highly potent inhibitors of EAATs with TFB-TBOA ((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-((3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamido)benzyl)oxy)succinic acid) standing out as low-nanomolar inhibitor. We report the stereoselective synthesis of all four stereoisomers of TFB-TBOA in less than a fifth of synthetic steps than the published route. For the first time, the inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity of these TFB-TBOA enantio- and diastereomers were assessed on human glutamate transporters EAAT1-3. Furthermore, we synthesized potent photoaffinity probes based on TFB-TBOA using our novel synthetic strategy. PMID:26918289

  13. Applications of organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis to drug prototypes--dual action and selective inhibitors of n-nitric oxide synthase with activity against the 5-HT1D/1B subreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Stoffman, Eli; Mi, Xueling; Renton, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The scope of MacMillan's organocatalytic asymmetric conjugate addition reaction of indoles and electron-rich aromatics to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes has been extended to the use of 3-amino crotonaldehydes as substrates. The aromatics used include indoles as well as an aniline and a furan. The scope and effect of the groups on nitrogen (R, R') has also been studied. The method has been applied to the concise synthesis of an advanced precursor to S-(+)-1, a drug prototype for the treatment of migraine headaches. PMID:21271688

  14. Total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-uprolide G acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangyu; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Renze; Tong, Rongbiao

    2015-01-01

    The first, asymmetric total synthesis of the proposed structure of (+)-uprolide?G acetate (UGA) is reported, and the spectral properties of the synthetic compound clearly differed from those reported for natural UGA. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the NMR data, two possible structures for the natural UGA were proposed and their total synthesis achieved, thus leading to the identification and confirmation of the correct structure and absolute configuration of the natural UGA. This synthesis was enabled by development of a novel synthetic strategy, which revolved around three key cyclization reactions: an Achmatowicz rearrangement, Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation/lactonization, and ring-closing metathesis. These synthetic studies pave the way for further studies on this class of structurally unusual cytotoxic cembranolides. PMID:25385395

  15. Diastereoselective Synthesis of 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin, 1-Deoxyaltronojirimycin, and N-Boc-(2S,3S)-3-Hydroxypipecolic Acid via Proline Catalyzed α-Aminoxylation of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Shibin; Ramapanicker, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    An efficient synthesis of deoxygalactonojirimycin and deoxyaltronojirimycin through the use of proline catalyzed asymmetric α-aminoxylation of a higher homologue of Garner's aldehyde, derived from l-aspartic acid, is reported. The method is also used for a highly diastereoselective synthesis of the N-Boc derivative of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxypipecolic acid. The configuration of the proline catalyst used for the asymmetric aminoxylation step ultimately controls the absolute configuration of three adjacent stereogenic centers in the final products. PMID:25860296

  16. Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of (−)-(5R,6Z)-dendrolasin-5-acetate from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni

    PubMed Central

    Mudianta, I Wayan; Challinor, Victoria L; Winters, Anne E; Cheney, Karen L; De Voss, James J

    2013-01-01

    Summary A small sample of (−)-(5R,6Z)-dendrolasin-5-acetate, which was fully characterized by 2D NMR studies, was isolated from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni, along with the sesquiterpenes (+)-agassizin, (−)-furodysinin, (−)-euryfuran, (−)-dehydroherbadysidolide and (+)-pallescensone. A synthetic sample ([α]D −8.7) of the new metabolite was prepared by [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of a geranylfuryl ether followed by acetylation of purified alcohol isomers. The absolute configuration at C-5 was established as R by the analysis of MPA ester derivatives of (Z)-5-hydroxydendrolasin obtained by preparative enantioselective HPLC. PMID:24454572

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Synthesis of (3S,3'S)- and meso-stereoisomers of alloxanthin and determination of absolute configuration of alloxanthin isolated from aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Yumiko; Maoka, Takashi; Wada, Akimori

    2014-05-01

    In order to determine the absolute configuration of naturally occurring alloxanthin, a HPLC analytical method for three stereoisomers 1a-c was established by using a chiral column. Two authentic samples, (3S,3'S)- and meso-stereoisomers 1b and 1c, were chemically synthesized according to the method previously developed for (3R,3'R)-alloxanthin (1a). Application of this method to various alloxanthin specimens of aquatic animals demonstrated that those isolated from shellfishes, tunicates, and crucian carp are identical with (3R,3'R)-stereoisomer 1a, and unexpectedly those from lake shrimp, catfish, biwa goby, and biwa trout are mixtures of three stereoisomers of 1a-c. PMID:24862182

  20. Ligand-enabled multiple absolute stereocontrol in metal-catalysed cycloaddition for construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmatsu, Kohsuke; Imagawa, Naomichi; Ooi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The development of a general catalytic method for the direct and stereoselective construction of contiguous all-carbon quaternary stereocentres remains a formidable challenge in chemical synthesis. Here, we report a highly enantio- and diastereoselective [3+2] annulation reaction of 5-vinyloxazolidinones and activated trisubstituted alkenes catalysed by a palladium complex bearing a newly devised phosphine ligand with a chiral ammonium salt component, which enables the single-step construction of three contiguous stereocentres, including vicinal all-carbon quaternary stereocentres, in a five-membered heterocyclic framework. This stereoselective cycloaddition protocol relies on the remarkable ability of the chiral ligand to rigorously control the absolute stereochemistry of each chiral centre associated with the multiple bond-forming events, and provides a reliable catalytic process for the asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized pyrrolidines.

  1. Bimetallic Gold(I)/Chiral N,N'-Dioxide Nickel(II) Asymmetric Relay Catalysis: Chemo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Spiroketals and Spiroaminals.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Lin, Lili; Hu, Bowen; Lian, Xiangjin; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-05-10

    A highly efficient asymmetric cascade reaction between keto esters and alkynyl alcohols and amides is reported. The success of the reaction was attributed to the combination of chiral Lewis acid N,N'-dioxide nickel(II) catalysis with achiral π-acid gold(I) catalysis working as an asymmetric relay catalytic system. The corresponding spiroketals and spiroaminals were synthesized in up to 99 % yield, 19:1 d.r., and more than 99 % ee under mild reaction conditions. Control experiments suggest that the N,N'-dioxide ligand was essential for the formation of the spiro products. PMID:27062196

  2. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e.g., TRIP and derivatives) brings into solution the resulting chiral Selectfluor reagent, now capable of asymmetric fluorocyclization. This strategy is best applied to a subset of substrates bearing a nucleophilic pendent group (benzamide is best) capable of hydrogen bonding for association with the chiral phosphate catalyst. These contributions focused on fluoroheterocyclization involving either O- or N-nucleophiles. As for other halocyclizations, alkenes armed with π C-nucleophiles represent the most demanding class of substrates for asymmetric F(+)-induced electrophilic fluorination-cyclization. Successful implementation required the design of new chiral Selectfluor reagents featuring stereogenicity on the DABCO core. These reagents, accessible from chiral vicinal diamines, allowed the synthesis of unusual chiral fluorine-containing tetracyclic compounds, some composed of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine exclusively. The challenges associated with F(+)-induced fluorocarbocyclizations prompted methodologists to consider chemistry where the Csp(3)-F bond formation event follows a catalyst-controlled cyclization. An exciting development built on in the area of transition metal π-cyclization of polyenes leading to cationic metal-alkyl intermediates. When intercepted by oxidative fluorodemetalation with a F(+) source, the resulting products are complex polycyclic structures emerging from an overall catalytic cascade fluorocarbocyclization. Complementing F(+)-based reactions, examples of fluorocyclizations with fluoride in the presence of an oxidant were reported. Despite some exciting developments, the field of asymmetric fluorocyclizations is in its infancy and undoubtedly requires new activation modes, catalysts, as well as F(+) and F(-) reagents to progress into general retrosynthetic approach toward enantioenriched fluorocycles. Numerous opportunities emerge, not least the use of a latent fluorine source as a means to minimize background fluorination. PMID:25379791

  3. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Absolute Configuration and Antitumor Activity of the Enantiomers of 5-Bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixu; Li, Linwei; Yan, Ning; Du, Lei; Sun, Changshan; Sun, Tiemin

    2015-01-01

    Pyridinesulfonamide is an important fragment which has a wide range of applications in novel drugs. R- and S-isomers of 5-bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide have been synthesized, and the stereostructures have been researched. Single crystals of both compounds were obtained for X-ray analysis, and the absolute configurations (ACs) have been further confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotation (OR) and quantum chemical calculations. The crystal structures and calculated geometries were extremely similar, which permitted a comparison of the relative reliabilities of ACs obtained by ECD analyses and theoretical simulation. In addition, the effect of stereochemistry on the PI3Kα kinase and anticancer activity were investigated. Compounds 10a and 10b inhibit the activity of PI3Kα kinase with IC50 values of 1.08 and 2.69 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding modes of R- and S-isomers. PMID:26610458

  4. Asymmetric Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Substitution of Diaryl Methanols with Thiols and Alcohols for the Synthesis of Chiral Thioethers and Ethers.

    PubMed

    Chatupheeraphat, Adisak; Liao, Hsuan-Hung; Mader, Steffen; Sako, Makoto; Sasai, Hiroaki; Atodiresei, Iuliana; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    An enantioselective addition of thiols and alcohols to aza-ortho-quinone methides, starting from diaryl methanols, was developed. The asymmetric additions occur under mild reaction conditions in the presence of chiral phosphoric acids and furnish the corresponding adducts with excellent yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:26952288

  5. Palladium catalyzed cyclizations of oxime esters with 1,1-disubstituted alkenes: synthesis of α,α-disubstituted dihydropyrroles and studies towards an asymmetric protocol.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Adele; Scott, James S; Bower, John F

    2013-02-21

    We report efficient Pd-catalyzed cyclizations of oxime esters with 1,1-disubstituted alkenes as the basis of a general entry to α,α-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives. We also demonstrate that catalytic asymmetric variants of this chemistry are feasible by employing a suitable chiral ligand. PMID:23321771

  6. Supernova Absolute Magnitude Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D.; Branch, D.; Casebeer, D.; Deaton, J.; Baron, E.

    1996-12-01

    We have extended the 1990 study of supernova absolute-magnitude distributions by Miller and Branch. Supernova apparent magnitudes are taken from an updated version of the Asiago Supernova Catalog. Where possible, distances are based on Cepheid variables in the SN parent galaxy or a galaxy in the same group; otherwise re-scaled distances from the Nearby Galaxies Catalog, or Hubble-Law distances (for SNe with recession velocities that aren't too small), are used. Mean absolute magnitudes, dispersions, and other characteristics of the observational absolute-magnitude distributions of each of the SN types will be presented. A preliminary model for the statistical distribution of extinction in the parent galaxies, for each of the SN types, is used to estimate the form of the extinction-free absolute magnitude distributions.

  7. Asymmetric Ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy, it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  8. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  9. A catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (–)-perophoramidine† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, spectroscopic data, and copies of 1H and 13C spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01826e

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, M.; Krüger, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report a catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of the ascidian natural product perophoramidine. The synthesis employs a molybdenum-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of an oxindole nucleophile and a monosubstituted allylic electrophile as a key asymmetric step. The enantioenriched oxindole product from this transformation contains vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters, and is obtained in high yield along with high levels of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. To install the second quaternary stereocenter in the target, the route utilizes a novel regio- and diastereoselective allylation of a cyclic imino ether to deliver an allylated imino ether product in near quantitative yield and with complete regio- and diastereocontrol. Oxidative cleavage and reductive amination are used as final steps to access the natural product. PMID:25485074

  10. Application of Catalytic Dynamic Resolution of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine to the Asymmetric Synthesis of 2-Aryl and 2-Vinyl Piperidines

    PubMed Central

    Beng, Timothy K.; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-piperidines has been accomplished through a catalytic dynamic resolution (CDR) of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine. The method has been applied to the synthesis of both enantiomers of the tobacco alkaloid anabasine. PMID:21174392

  11. Asymmetric Redox-Annulation of Cyclic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic amines such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline undergo regiodivergent annulation reactions with 4-nitrobutyraldehydes. These redox-neutral transformations enable the asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted polycyclic ring systems in just two steps from commercial materials. The utility of this process is illustrated in a rapid synthesis of (−)-protoemetinol. Computational studies provide mechanistic insights and implicate the elimination of acetic acid from an ammonium nitronate intermediate as the rate-determining step. PMID:26348653

  12. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  13. Asymmetric AB3 Miktoarm Star Polymers: Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Study of Micelle Stability Using AF4 for Efficient Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Moquin, Alexandre; Sharma, Anjali; Cui, Yiming; Lau, Anthony; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A simple and versatile methodology, which employs a combination of ring-opening polymerization and alkyne-azide click chemistry to synthesize amphiphilic AB3 miktoarm stars, is reported. Their aqueous self-assembly behavior was studied using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). AB3 miktoarm stars form micelles which incorporate curcumin with high efficiency, and significantly reduce the viability of glioblastoma cells in spheroids. We demonstrate that AF4 is an effective technique to determine the size distribution of self-assembled structures exposed to a biological medium. The ease, with which asymmetric AB3 miktoarm polymers are constructed, provides a platform that can be widely employed to deliver a variety of lipophilic drugs. PMID:26259625

  14. Terminating Catalytic Asymmetric Heck Cyclizations by Stereoselective Intramolecular Capture of η3-Allylpalladium Intermediates: Total Synthesis of (−)-Spirotryprostatin B and Three Stereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Rosen, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic intramolecular Heck reaction, followed by capture of the resulting η3-allylpalladium intermediate by a tethered diketopiperazine, is the central step in a concise synthetic route to (−)-spirotryprostatin B and three stereoisomers. This study demonstrates that an acyclic, chiral η3-allylpalladium fragment generated in a catalytic asymmetric Heck cyclization can be trapped by even a weakly nucleophilic diketopiperazine more rapidly than it undergoes diastereomeric equilibration. PMID:20725641

  15. Asymmetric Synthesis of 1,2-Diamines bearing Tetrasubstituted Centers from Nonstabilized Azomethine Ylides and N-Sulfinylketimines under Brønsted Acid Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Cristina; Esteban, Francisco; Ruano, José Luis García; Fraile, Alberto; Alemán, José

    2016-01-01

    The first asymmetric cycloaddition of nonstabilized azomethine ylide and N-sulfinylimines is presented. In reactions with aryl-alkyl and heteroaryl-alkyl ketimines, excellent diastereoselectivities and good yields are obtained in all cases, regardless of the electronic character of the substituents at the aromatic rings. Moreover, the cycloadducts obtained can easily be deprotected in acid media, giving access to free 1,2-diamines which are prevalent in many natural and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26652478

  16. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Porous NiCo2O4 Microspheres: Application as High Performance Asymmetric and Symmetric Supercapacitors with Large Areal Capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Syed; Cao, Chuanbao; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Youqi

    2016-01-01

    Large areal capacitance is essentially required to integrate the energy storage devices at the microscale electronic appliances. Energy storage devices based on metal oxides are mostly fabricated with low mass loading per unit area which demonstrated low areal capacitance. It is still a challenge to fabricate supercapacitor devices of porous metal oxides with large areal capacitance. Herein we report microwave method followed by a pyrolysis of the as-prepared precursor is used to synthesize porous nickel cobaltite microspheres. Porous NiCo2O4 microspheres are capable to deliver large areal capacitance due to their high specific surface area and small crystallite size. The facile strategy is successfully demonstrated to fabricate aqueous-based asymmetric & symmetric supercapacitor devices of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres with high mass loading of electroactive materials. The asymmetric & symmetric devices exhibit maximum areal capacitance and energy density of 380 mF cm−2 & 19.1 Wh Kg−1 and 194 mF cm−2 & 4.5 Wh Kg−1 (based on total mass loading of 6.25 & 6.0 mg) respectively at current density of 1 mA cm−2. The successful fabrication of symmetric device also indicates that NiCo2O4 can also be used as the negative electrode material for futuristic asymmetric devices. PMID:26936283

  17. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Porous NiCo2O4 Microspheres: Application as High Performance Asymmetric and Symmetric Supercapacitors with Large Areal Capacitance.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Syed; Cao, Chuanbao; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Youqi

    2016-01-01

    Large areal capacitance is essentially required to integrate the energy storage devices at the microscale electronic appliances. Energy storage devices based on metal oxides are mostly fabricated with low mass loading per unit area which demonstrated low areal capacitance. It is still a challenge to fabricate supercapacitor devices of porous metal oxides with large areal capacitance. Herein we report microwave method followed by a pyrolysis of the as-prepared precursor is used to synthesize porous nickel cobaltite microspheres. Porous NiCo2O4 microspheres are capable to deliver large areal capacitance due to their high specific surface area and small crystallite size. The facile strategy is successfully demonstrated to fabricate aqueous-based asymmetric &symmetric supercapacitor devices of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres with high mass loading of electroactive materials. The asymmetric &symmetric devices exhibit maximum areal capacitance and energy density of 380 mF cm(-2) &19.1 Wh Kg(-1) and 194 mF cm(-2) &4.5 Wh Kg(-1) (based on total mass loading of 6.25 &6.0 mg) respectively at current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The successful fabrication of symmetric device also indicates that NiCo2O4 can also be used as the negative electrode material for futuristic asymmetric devices. PMID:26936283

  18. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Porous NiCo2O4 Microspheres: Application as High Performance Asymmetric and Symmetric Supercapacitors with Large Areal Capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Syed; Cao, Chuanbao; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Youqi

    2016-03-01

    Large areal capacitance is essentially required to integrate the energy storage devices at the microscale electronic appliances. Energy storage devices based on metal oxides are mostly fabricated with low mass loading per unit area which demonstrated low areal capacitance. It is still a challenge to fabricate supercapacitor devices of porous metal oxides with large areal capacitance. Herein we report microwave method followed by a pyrolysis of the as-prepared precursor is used to synthesize porous nickel cobaltite microspheres. Porous NiCo2O4 microspheres are capable to deliver large areal capacitance due to their high specific surface area and small crystallite size. The facile strategy is successfully demonstrated to fabricate aqueous-based asymmetric & symmetric supercapacitor devices of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres with high mass loading of electroactive materials. The asymmetric & symmetric devices exhibit maximum areal capacitance and energy density of 380 mF cm-2 & 19.1 Wh Kg-1 and 194 mF cm-2 & 4.5 Wh Kg-1 (based on total mass loading of 6.25 & 6.0 mg) respectively at current density of 1 mA cm-2. The successful fabrication of symmetric device also indicates that NiCo2O4 can also be used as the negative electrode material for futuristic asymmetric devices.

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of γ-chloro-α,β-diamino- and β,γ-aziridino-α-aminoacylpyrrolidines and -piperidines via stereoselective Mannich-type additions of N-(diphenylmethylene)glycinamides across α-chloro-N-sulfinylimines

    PubMed Central

    Callebaut, Gert; Mangelinckx, Sven; Van der Veken, Pieter; Törnroos, Karl W; Augustyns, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The asymmetric synthesis of new chiral γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide derivatives by highly diastereoselective Mannich-type reactions of N-(diphenylmethylene)glycinamides across chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimines was developed. The resulting (S S,2S,3S)-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides were formed with the opposite enantiotopic face selectivity as compared to the (S S,2R,3R)-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxyl esters obtained via Mannich-type addition of analogous N-(diphenylmethylene)glycine esters across a chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimine. Selective deprotection under different acidic reaction conditions and ring closure of the γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides was optimized, which resulted in Nα-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides, N-sulfinyl-β,γ-aziridino-α-aminocarboxylamide derivatives, a trans-imidazolidine, and an Nα,Nβ-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide. PMID:23243474

  20. Absolute pitch may not be so absolute.

    PubMed

    Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2013-08-01

    Most people cannot name the musical note that corresponds to a particular pitch without being provided a reference note, but those people with absolute pitch (AP) can do this accurately. Early experience during a developmental period is often thought to convey identity and stability of the note categories in people with AP, but the plasticity of these categories has not been investigated. Here we provide the first evidence that the note categories of adults with AP can change with listening experience. Participants with AP showed shifts in perception in direct accord with prior exposure to music detuned by a fraction of a semitone. This suggests that the apparent stability of AP categories is conferred not by early experience but rather by the cultural norms adopted for tuning music. PMID:23757308

  1. De Novo Asymmetric Synthesis of a 6-O-Methyl-d-glycero-l-gluco-heptopyranose-Derived Thioglycoside for the Preparation of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 Capsular Polysaccharide Fragments.

    PubMed

    Ashmus, Roger A; Jayasuriya, Anushka B; Lim, Ying-Jie; O'Doherty, George A; Lowary, Todd L

    2016-04-01

    An enantioselective de novo synthesis of a thioglycoside derivative of the 6-O-methyl-d-glycero-l-gluco-heptopyranose residue found in the Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 (HS:2) capsular polysaccharide is reported. The compound is obtained from a furfural-derived chiral diol in 11 steps. Notably, compared to the only previous synthesis of this molecule, this approach significantly reduces the number of purification steps required to obtain the target. PMID:26982173

  2. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  3. Bifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    PAULL, DANIEL H.; ABRAHAM, CIBY J.; SCERBA, MICHAEL T.; ALDEN-DANFORTH, ETHAN; LECTKA, THOMAS

    2008-01-01

    CONSPECTUS In the field of catalytic, asymmetric synthesis, there is a growing emphasis on multifunctional systems, in which multiple parts of a catalyst or multiple catalysts work together to promote a specific reaction. These efforts, in part, are result-driven, and they are also part of a movement toward emulating the efficiency and selectivity of nature’s catalysts, enzymes. In this Account, we illustrate the importance of bifunctional catalytic methods, focusing on the cooperative action of Lewis acidic and Lewis basic catalysts by the simultaneous activation of both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction partners. For our part, we have contributed three separate bifunctional methods that combine achiral Lewis acids with chiral cinchona alkaloid nucleophiles, for example, benzoylquinine (BQ), to catalyze highly enantioselective cycloaddition reactions between ketene enolates and various electrophiles. Each method requires a distinct Lewis acid to coordinate and activate the electrophile, which in turn increases the reaction rates and yields, without any detectable influence on the outstanding enantioselectivities inherent to these reactions. To place our results in perspective, many important contributions to this emerging field are highlighted and our own reports are chronicled. PMID:18402470

  4. Catalytic asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic aldehydes with oxiranes by C-C bond cleavage of epoxides: highly efficient synthesis of chiral 1,3-dioxolanes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Lin, Lili; Cai, Yunfei; Xia, Yong; Cao, Weidi; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2014-02-28

    A novel and efficient N,N'-dioxide-Gd(III) complex was developed for the highly diastereo- and enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of aryl oxiranyl diketones and aldehydes via C-C bond cleavage of oxiranes. The corresponding chiral 1,3-dioxolanes were obtained in excellent yields (up to 99%) with high diastereoselectivities (>95 : 5 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). Moreover, a possible transition model was proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction. PMID:24430105

  5. Facile template-free synthesis of vertically aligned polypyrrole nanosheets on nickel foams for flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiangwen; Lin, Zhixing; Zheng, Jingxu; Huang, Yingjuan; Chen, Bin; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window.This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00468g

  6. Bifunctional primary amine-thiourea-TfOH (BPAT·TfOH) as a chiral phase-transfer catalyst: the asymmetric synthesis of dihydropyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyun; Yu, Jipan; Miao, Zhiwei; Chen, Ruyu

    2011-04-21

    An enantioselective Biginelli reaction has been developed by using a bifunctional primary amine-thiourea-TfOH (BPAT·TfOH) as a chiral phase-transfer catalyst and t-BuNH(2)·TFA as an additive in saturated brine at room temperature. The corresponding dihydropyrimidines were obtained in moderate-to-good yields with up to 99% ee under mild conditions. A plausible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the activation and the asymmetric induction. PMID:21394354

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, in vitro acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibition, in vivo herbicidal activity, and 3D-QSAR of new asymmetric aryl disulfides.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jun; Wang, Wei-Min; Li, Yong-Hong; Song, Hai-Bin; Li, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2012-08-29

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 2.2.1.6) is an important bioactive target for the design of environmentally benign herbicides. On the basis of previous virtual screening, 50 asymmetric aryl disulfides containing [1,2,4]triazole groups were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, HRMS, and crystal structure. Compounds I-a, I-b, and I-p show Ki values of 1.70, 4.69, and 5.57 μM, respectively, for wild type Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS (AtAHAS) and low resistance against mutant type AtAHAS W574L. At 100 mg L(-1) concentration, compounds I-a, II-a, and II-b exhibit 86.6, 81.7, and 87.5% in vivo rape root growth inhibition. CoMFA steric and electrostatic contour maps were established, and a possible binding mode was suggested from molecular docking, which provide valuable information to understand the key structural features of these disulfide compounds. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive case suggesting that asymmetric aryl disulfides are novel AHAS inhibitors. PMID:22905906

  8. Facile template-free synthesis of vertically aligned polypyrrole nanosheets on nickel foams for flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangwen; Lin, Zhixing; Zheng, Jingxu; Huang, Yingjuan; Chen, Bin; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-21

    This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg(-1) and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg(-1) were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window. PMID:27050711

  9. Heterobinuclear Zn-Ln (Ln = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Er and Yb) complexes based on asymmetric Schiff-base ligand: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shunsheng; Liu, Xiangrong; Lü, Xingqiang; Wong, Wai-Kwok

    2013-01-01

    With a novel asymmetric Schiff-base zinc complex ZnL (H2 L = N-(3-methoxysalicylidene)-N'-(5-bromo-3-methoxysalicylidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine), obtained from phenylene-1,2-diamine, 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde and 5-bromo-3-methoxysalicylaldehyde, as the precursor, a series of heterobinuclear Zn-Ln complexes [ZnLnL(NO3 )3 (CH3 CN)] (Ln = La, 1; Ln = Nd, 2; Ln = Eu, 3; Ln = Gd, 4; Ln = Tb, 5; Ln = Er, 6; Ln = Yb, 7) were synthesized by the further reaction with Ln(NO3 )3 ·6H2 O, and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Photophysical studies of these complexes show that the strong and characteristic near-infrared luminescence of Nd(3+) , Yb(3+) and Er(3+) with emissive lifetimes in the microsecond range has been sensitized from the excited state of the asymmetric Schiff-base ligand due to effective intramolecular energy transfer; the other complexes do not show characteristic emission due to the energy gap between the chromophore and lanthanide ions. PMID:23001932

  10. Controlled synthesis, asymmetrical transport behavior and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-11-21

    Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln(3+) (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln(3+) nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln(3+) nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln(3+) mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light. PMID:25293373

  11. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. PMID:25932622

  12. Absolute configuration of neostenine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wencai; Shaw, Pang-Chui; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Mak, Thomas C. W.

    2010-03-01

    Heavy atoms bromine and iodine were incorporated into the neostenine ( 1) skeleton through reductive cleavage of the lactone ring, followed by acylation with 4-bromobenzoyl chloride, and salt formation with methyl iodide, respectively. The absolute configuration of the seven chiral centers C1, C9, C9a, C10, C11, C1 and C13 in 1 were assigned as S, S, R, R, R, R, and S, respectively, based on the Flack parameters in X-ray structure refinement, and results from the two heavy atom derivatives are consistent with each other. As many Stemona alkaloids share the same lactone and pyrrolo[1,2-α]azepine nucleus as those in 1, the facile method reported in this paper can be applied for the determination of absolute configurations of similar alkaloids.

  13. Recent progress in asymmetric Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Majid M; Asadi, Shima; Lashkariani, Boshra Malekzadeh

    2013-05-01

    The Biginelli reaction, which involves the interaction of ethyl acetoacetate, urea, and an appropriate aryl aldehyde, was first discovered by Pietro Biginelli about 120 years ago. The Biginelli products (3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones) are interesting materials due to their significant pharmacological and structural profiles. In the last decades, the asymmetric synthesis as a powerful tool has an effective impact on the Biginelli products and has increased their potencies and applications as drugs. Having the importance of this subject in mind, in this review we wish to present the recent rapid progress of asymmetric Biginelli reaction. PMID:23588897

  14. Palladium-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of indolines through regiodivergent C(sp3)-H activation: scope and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Dmitry; Larionov, Evgeny; Nakanishi, Masafumi; Besnard, Céline; Kündig, E Peter

    2014-11-10

    Two bulky, chiral, monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands were applied to palladium-catalyzed asymmetric C-H arylation to incorporate C(sp(3))-H bond activation. Racemic mixtures of the carbamate starting materials underwent regiodivergent reactions to afford different trans-2,3-substituted indolines. Although this CAr-Calkyl coupling requires high temperatures (140-160 °C), chiral induction is high. This regiodivergent reaction, when carried out with enantiopure starting materials, can lead to single structurally different enantiopure products, depending on the catalyst chirality. The C-H activation at a tertiary center was realized only in the case of a cyclopropyl group. No C-H activation takes place alpha to a tertiary center. A detailed DFT study is included and analyses of methyl versus methylene versus methine C-H activation is used to rationalize experimentally observed regio- and enantioselectivities. PMID:25262613

  15. Asymmetric Synthesis of Conformationally Constrained Fingolimod Analogues—Discovery of an Orally Active Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Type-1 Agonist and Receptor Type-3 Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ran; Snyder, Ashley H.; Kharel, Yugesh; Schaffter, Lisa; Sun, Qin; Kennedy, Perry C.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Compound 1 (FTY720, Fingolimod) represents a new generation of immunosuppressant that modulates lymphocyte trafficking by interacting with the S1P1 receptor. Compound 1 also provides a template molecule for studying the molecular biology of S1P receptors and related enzymes (kinases and phosphatases). In this study, two conformationally constrained analogues of 1 (3a and 3c) were asymmetrically synthesized in high optical purity. In vitro assessment documented that both analogues are Sphk2 substrates, their phosphorylated species are potent S1P1 receptor agonists, and 3a-P is a potent S1P3 antagonist. After oral administration in mice, both compounds evoked lymphopenia, but their duration of action differed markedly. PMID:17994678

  16. Controlled synthesis, asymmetrical transport behavior and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln3+ nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln3+ nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln3+ mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln3+ nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln3+ nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln3+ mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: STEM-SEI image and EDS elemental mapping of an individual ZnO: Eu3+ mushroom. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04359f

  17. Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexes of tridentate asymmetrical Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Mustafa; Koçak, Nuriye; Erdenay, Damla; Arslan, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    New asymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligands were synthesized using 1,2-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were synthesised and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, XRD, ESR, elemental analysis and fluorescence studies. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans RSHM 676, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The determination of the antibacterial activity was done using the broth microdilution methods. In general, it has been determined that the studied compounds have MIC values similar to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has been found that Ni, Pb, Zn derivatives of HL1A and ZnL2A has lower MIC values than ampicillin for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain.

  18. A new method for the synthesis of α-aminoalkylidenebisphosphonates and their asymmetric phosphonyl-phosphinyl and phosphonyl-phosphinoyl analogues.

    PubMed

    Kuźnik, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Roman; Grymel, Mirosława; Zielińska, Katarzyna; Adamek, Jakub; Chmielewska, Ewa; Bochno, Marta; Kubica, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    A convenient approach has been developed to α-aminoalkylidenebisphosphonates and their asymmetric phosphonyl-phosphinyl and phosphonyl-phosphinoyl analogues by α-phosphonylation, α-phosphinylation or α-phosphinoylation of 1-(N-acylamino)alkylphosphonates, that, in turn, are easily accessible from N-acyl-α-amino acids. Effective electrophilic activation of the α-position of 1-(N-acetylamino)alkylphosphonates was achieved by electrochemical α-methoxylation of these compounds in methanol, mediated with NaCl, followed by displacement of the methoxy group with triphenylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate to give hitherto unknown 1-(N-acetylamino)-1-triphenylphosphoniumalkylphosphonate tetrafluoroborates. The latter compounds react smoothly with trialkyl phosphites, dialkyl phosphonites or alkyl phosphinites in the presence of Hünig's base and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide in a Michaelis-Arbuzov-like reaction to give the expected alkylidenebisphosphonates, 1-phosphinylalkylphosphonates or 1-phosphinoylalkylphosphonates, respectively, in good yields. PMID:26425197

  19. A new method for the synthesis of α-aminoalkylidenebisphosphonates and their asymmetric phosphonyl-phosphinyl and phosphonyl-phosphinoyl analogues

    PubMed Central

    Mazurkiewicz, Roman; Grymel, Mirosława; Zielińska, Katarzyna; Adamek, Jakub; Chmielewska, Ewa; Bochno, Marta; Kubica, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Summary A convenient approach has been developed to α-aminoalkylidenebisphosphonates and their asymmetric phosphonyl-phosphinyl and phosphonyl-phosphinoyl analogues by α-phosphonylation, α-phosphinylation or α-phosphinoylation of 1-(N-acylamino)alkylphosphonates, that, in turn, are easily accessible from N-acyl-α-amino acids. Effective electrophilic activation of the α-position of 1-(N-acetylamino)alkylphosphonates was achieved by electrochemical α-methoxylation of these compounds in methanol, mediated with NaCl, followed by displacement of the methoxy group with triphenylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate to give hitherto unknown 1-(N-acetylamino)-1-triphenylphosphoniumalkylphosphonate tetrafluoroborates. The latter compounds react smoothly with trialkyl phosphites, dialkyl phosphonites or alkyl phosphinites in the presence of Hünig’s base and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide in a Michaelis–Arbuzov-like reaction to give the expected alkylidenebisphosphonates, 1-phosphinylalkylphosphonates or 1-phosphinoylalkylphosphonates, respectively, in good yields. PMID:26425197

  20. Solvothermal Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hierarchical CuS Microspheres from a Cu-Based Ionic Liquid Precursor for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Feng, Huijie; Yang, Jiaqin; Qin, Qing; Fan, Hongmin; Wei, Caiying; Zheng, Wenjun

    2015-10-01

    It is meaningful to exploit copper sulfide materials with desired structure as well as potential application due to their cheapness and low toxicity. A low-temperature and facile solvothermal method for preparing three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical covellite (CuS) microspheres from an ionic liquid precursor [Bmim]2Cu2Cl6 (Bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) is reported. The formation of CuS nanostructures was achieved by decomposition of intermediate complex Cu(Tu)3Cl (thiourea = Tu), which produced CuS microspheres with diameters of 2.5-4 μm assembled by nanosheets with thicknesses of 10-15 nm. The ionic liquid, as an "all-in-one" medium, played a key role for the fabrication and self-assembly of CuS nanosheets. The alkylimidazolium rings ([Bmim](+)) were found to adsorb onto the (001) facets of CuS crystals, which inhibited the crystal growth along the [001] direction, while the alkyl chain had influence on the assembly of CuS nanosheets. The CuS microspheres showed enhanced electrochemical performance and high stability for the application in supercapacitors due to intriguing structural design and large specific surface area. When this well-defined CuS electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with an activated carbon (AC) electrode, the CuS//AC-ASC demonstrated good cycle performance (∼88% capacitance after 4000 cycles) and high energy density (15.06 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 392.9 W kg(-1)). This work provides new insights into the use of copper sulfide electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices. PMID:26371955

  1. Asymmetric Black Diholes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.

  2. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the mirror is slightly tilted. Hence, one can determine the amount and direction of tilt from the coordinates of the target image on the viewing plane.

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis and Binding Study of New Long-Chain HPA-12 Analogues as Potent Ligands of the Ceramide Transfer Protein CERT.

    PubMed

    Ďuriš, Andrej; Daïch, Adam; Santos, Cécile; Fleury, Laurence; Ausseil, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Ballereau, Stéphanie; Génisson, Yves; Berkeš, Dušan

    2016-05-01

    A series of 12 analogues of the Cer transfer protein (CERT) antagonist HPA-12 with long aliphatic chains were prepared as their (1R,3S)-syn and (1R,3R)-anti stereoisomers from pivotal chiral oxoamino acids. The enantioselective access to these intermediates as well as their ensuing transformation relied on a practical crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT) process. Sonogashira coupling followed by triple bond reduction and thiophene ring hydrodesulfurization (HDS) into the corresponding alkane moieties was then implemented to complete the synthetic routes delivering the targeted HPA-12 analogues in concise 4- to 6-step reaction sequences. Ten compounds were evaluated regarding their ability to bind to the CERT START domain by using the recently developed time-resolved FRET-based homogeneous (HTR-FRET) binding assay. The introduction of a lipophilic appendage on the phenyl moiety led to an overall 10- to 1000-fold enhancement of the protein binding, with the highest effect being observed for a n-hexyl residue in the meta position. The importance of the phenyl ring for the activity was indicated by the reduced potency of the 3-deoxyphytoceramide aliphatic analogues. The 1,3-syn stereoisomers were systematically more potent than their 1,3-anti analogues. In silico studies were used to rationalized these trends, leading to a model of protein recognition coherent with the stronger binding of (1R,3S)-syn HPAs. PMID:27031925

  4. Two 2D Cd(II) coordination polymers based on asymmetrical Schiff-base ligand: synthesis, crystal structures and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dong-Bin; Li, Meng-Meng; Bai, Yan; Zhou, Rui-Min

    2013-02-15

    Two new two-dimensional coordination polymers [Cd(3)L(2)(SCN)(6)](n) (1) and [CdLI(2)](n) (2) have been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, TG technique, XRPD and complete single crystal structure analysis, where L is 4-(pyridine-2-yl)methyleneamino-1,2,4-trizaole. Asymmetrical Schiff-base ligand L with five- and six-membered N-containing heterocyclic rings acts as a tridentate bridging ligand to bind two Cd(II) centers through one terminal N(triazolyl) and one pyridylimine chelate unit in 1 and 2. For polymer 1, tridentate bridging ligands link Cd-(1,3-μ-SCN(-)) 1D inorganic chains to form a 2D layer network. The existence of C-H···π and π-π stacking interactions between 2D hybrid layers further gives rise to a 3D supramolecular network. In comparison with 1, polymer 2 shows a 2D layer network containing hexanuclear macrometallacyclic units. The 2D layers are staggered together through the combination of C-H···π and π-π stacking interactions and forming a 3D supramolecular structure. The luminescent properties of the polymers 1 and 2 were investigated in the solid state at room temperature. PMID:23257335

  5. A new copper(II) Schiff base complex containing asymmetrical tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Baghan, Sara Husseinzadeh; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Tahmasebi, Vida; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2015-02-01

    A new copper (II) Schiff base complex, CuL1, was prepared from the reaction of asymmetrical Schiff base ligand of L1 and Cu(OAC)2 (L1 = salicylidene imino-ethylimino-pentan-2-one). The Schiff base ligand, L1, and its copper (II) complex, CuL1, have been characterized by elemental analysis (CHN) and FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, 1H NMR was employed for characterization of the ligand. Thermogrametric analysis of the CuL1 reveals its thermal stability and its decomposition pattern shows that it is finally decomposed to the copper oxide (CuO). The crystal structure of CuL1 was determined by the single crystal X-ray analysis. The CuL1 complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, with space group P21/n and distorted square planar coordination around the metal ion. The Schiff base ligand of L1 acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via two nitrogen and two oxygen atoms to the copper (II) ion with C1 symmetry. The structure of the CuL1 complex was also studied theoretically at different levels of DFT and basis sets. According to calculated results the Csbnd O bond length of the salicylate fragment is slightly higher than that in the acetylacetonate fragment of ligand, which could be interpreted by resonance increasing between phenyl and chelated rings in ligand in relative to the acetylacetonate fragment.

  6. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, H.; Saito, N.; Alekseev, I.; Sviridia, D.; Bravar, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nass, A.; Wood, J.; Zelenski, A.; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Haeberli, W.; Wise, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Stephenson, E.

    2008-02-06

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of {delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam}<5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of A{sub N} in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001<-t<0.032(GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  7. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  8. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure. PMID:23907862

  9. Asymmetric, Three-Component, One-Pot Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones and 2,5-Chromenediones from Aldol Condensation/NHC-Catalyzed Annulation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Sun; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Philipps, Arne R; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    A novel one-pot, three-component diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of spiropyrazolones has been developed involving the aldol condensation of an enal to generate α,β-unsaturated pyrazolones, which react with a second equivalent of enal through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation. The desired spirocyclopentane pyrazolones are obtained in moderate to good yields and good to excellent stereoselectivities. Alternatively, starting from cyclic 1,3-diketones, 2,5-chromenediones are available through [2+4] annulation. PMID:26864437

  10. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of tertiary α-hydroxy phosphonic acid derivatives with in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds as the oxygen source.

    PubMed

    Maji, Biplab; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2014-12-22

    α-Hydroxy phosphonic acids and their derivatives are highly bioactive structural motifs. It is now reported that these compounds can be accessed through the copper-catalyzed direct α-oxidation of β-ketophosphonates using in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds as an electrophilic oxygen source. These reactions proceeded in high yields (up to 95 %) and enantioselectivities (up to >99 % ee) for both cyclic as well as acyclic substrates. This method was also applied for the synthesis of α,β-dihydroxy phosphonates and β-amino-α-hydroxy phosphonates. PMID:25348199

  11. Theoretical study of the asymmetric phase-transfer mediated epoxidation of chalcone catalyzed by chiral crown ethers derived from monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makó, Attila; Menyhárd, Dóra K.; Bakó, Péter; Keglevich, György; Tőke, László

    2008-12-01

    The synthesis of a novel, optically active crown ether derived from α- D-altropyranoside is described. A significantly different asymmetric induction was generated by the α- D-glucopyranoside-, α- D-mannopyranoside- and α- D-altropyranoside-based chiral crown catalysts in the epoxidation of trans-chalcone with tert-butyl hydroperoxide under phase-transfer catalytic conditions. It was shown that absolute configuration of the crown-ring fused carbon atoms of the monosaccharides has a great impact on the enantioselectivity. The asymmetric induction could be well explained by considering the possible mechanistic pathway. Molecular modeling (MCMM) and subsequent DFT calculations - in accordance with the experimental results - indicate that the use of glucopyranoside-based catalyst 1 and that of mannopyranoside-based crown ether 2 results in the preferred formation of the opposite antipodes (2 R,3 S and 2 S,3 R, respectively) of the corresponding epoxyketone. At the same time, practically no asymmetric induction was proved if altropyranoside-based crown 3 is applied as the catalyst. The computational results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  13. Revisiting absolute gravimeter intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Viron, O.; Van Camp, M.; Francis, O.

    2011-10-01

    An absolute gravimeter allows us to determine the local value of gravity, which makes its accuracy assessment challenging. The instrumental offsets are classically estimated by performing comparisons of the results obtained by a set of instruments measuring at the same location but at different epochs (measuring at the same place and epoch is physically impossible). Such intercomparison campaigns have been done a few times since 1980. In this paper, we discuss the method of data processing used for those comparisons. We demonstrate that one of the methods used is inadequate, as it underestimates the dispersion of the instrumental offsets, which is the only reliable quantity that can be obtained from such a comparison. We also propose a new criterion, based on the minimization of the L1 norm of the offsets, for fixing the constant of the ill-conditioned problem, which we show to be statistically more precise than the one classically used.

  14. Absolute Bioavailability of Tasimelteon.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosarelis; Dressman, Marlene A; Kramer, William G; Baroldi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon is a novel dual melatonin receptor agonist and is the first treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder. This study was conducted to assess the absolute bioavailability of tasimelteon and to further assess the single-dose pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral and intravenous (IV) routes of administration of the drug. This study was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, crossover study in which 14 healthy volunteers were randomly administered tasimelteon as either a 20-mg capsule or IV administration of 2 mg infused over 30 minutes. Each subject received both treatments in a random order, separated by a washout period of 5 ± 2 days. The total clearance and volume of distribution of tasimelteon, from the IV treatment, were 505 mL per minute and 42.7 L, respectively. Based on the statistical comparison of dose-corrected area under the curve to infinity, the absolute bioavailability was 38%, with a 90% confidence interval of 27%-54%. The mean elimination half-life was the same for the oral and IV routes. The exposure ratios, oral-to-IV, for metabolites M9, M11, M12, and M13, were 133.27%, 118.28%, 138.76%, and 112.36%, respectively, suggesting presystemic or first-pass metabolism. Three (21.4%) subjects experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) during the study. All TEAEs were mild, considered related to study medication, and consistent with what has been seen in other studies. There were no deaths, serious adverse events, or discontinuations due to TEAEs. Both tasimelteon treatments were well tolerated during the study. PMID:25658956

  15. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  16. Exploiting the Multidentate Nature of Chiral Disulfonimides in a Multicomponent Reaction for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles: A Remarkable Case of Enantioinversion.

    PubMed

    Galván, Alicia; González-Pérez, Adán B; Álvarez, Rosana; de Lera, Angel R; Fañanás, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Félix

    2016-03-01

    A new multicomponent coupling reaction for the enantioselective synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles under the catalysis of a chiral disulfonimide is described. The high specificity of the reaction is a consequence of the multidentate character of the Brønsted acid catalyst. Insights from DFT calculations helped explain the unexpected high enantioselectivity observed with the simplest 3,3'-unsubstituted binaphthyl catalyst as a result of transition-state stabilization by a network of cooperative noncovalent interactions. The remarkable enantioinversion resulting from the simple introduction of substituents at 3- and 3'-positions, the first reported example of this phenomenon in the context of binaphthalene-derived Brønsted acid catalysis, was instead attributed to destabilizing steric interactions. PMID:26833640

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activity of binuclear metal complexes of a new asymmetrical Schiff base ligand: DNA binding affinity of copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shebl, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    The 1:1 condensation of o-acetoacetylphenol and 1,2-diaminopropane under condition of high dilution gives the mono-condensed Schiff base, (E)-3-(1-aminopropan-2-ylimino)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one. The mono-condensed Schiff base has been used for further condensation with isatin to obtain the new asymmetrical dicompartmental Schiff base ligand, (E)-3-(2-((E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutan-2-ylideneamino) propylimino)indolin-2-one (H3L) with a N2O3 donor set. Reactions of the ligand with metal salts give a series of new binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. The analytical and spectroscopic tools showed that the complexes can be formulated as: [(HL)(VO)2(SO4)(H2O)]·4H2O, [(HL)Fe2Cl4(H2O)3]·EtOH, [(HL)Fe2(ox)Cl2(H2O)3]·2H2O, [(L)M2(OAc)(H2O)m]·nH2O; M=Co, Ni or Cu, m=4, 0 and n=2, 3, [(HL)Cu2Cl]Cl·6H2O and [(L)(UO2)2(OAc)(H2O)3]·6H2O. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometrical arrangements except copper complexes that exhibited tetrahedral geometries and uranyl complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The Schiff base and its metal complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus). The ligand and some of its complexes were found to be biologically active. The DNA-binding properties of the copper complexes (6 and 7) have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The results obtained indicate that these complexes bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant, Kb of 1.34×10(4) and 2.5×10(4) M(-1), respectively. PMID:23988527

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activity of binuclear metal complexes of a new asymmetrical Schiff base ligand: DNA binding affinity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    The 1:1 condensation of o-acetoacetylphenol and 1,2-diaminopropane under condition of high dilution gives the mono-condensed Schiff base, (E)-3-(1-aminopropan-2-ylimino)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one. The mono-condensed Schiff base has been used for further condensation with isatin to obtain the new asymmetrical dicompartmental Schiff base ligand, (E)-3-(2-((E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutan-2-ylideneamino) propylimino)indolin-2-one (H3L) with a N2O3 donor set. Reactions of the ligand with metal salts give a series of new binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. The analytical and spectroscopic tools showed that the complexes can be formulated as: [(HL)(VO)2(SO4)(H2O)]·4H2O, [(HL)Fe2Cl4(H2O)3]·EtOH, [(HL)Fe2(ox)Cl2(H2O)3]·2H2O, [(L)M2(OAc)(H2O)m]·nH2O; M = Co, Ni or Cu, m = 4, 0 and n = 2, 3, [(HL)Cu2Cl]Cl·6H2O and [(L)(UO2)2(OAc)(H2O)3]·6H2O. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometrical arrangements except copper complexes that exhibited tetrahedral geometries and uranyl complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The Schiff base and its metal complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus). The ligand and some of its complexes were found to be biologically active. The DNA-binding properties of the copper complexes (6 and 7) have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The results obtained indicate that these complexes bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant, Kb of 1.34 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 M-1, respectively.

  19. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing

    2015-05-26

    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Unexpectedly Stable Spiroepoxy-β-Lactones Including Facile Conversion to Tetronic Acids: Application to (+)-Maculalactone A

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Richard J.; Morris, Kay A.; Vallakati, Ravikrishna; Zhang, Wei; Romo, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A novel class of small spirocyclic heterocycles, spiroepoxy-β-lactones (1,4-dioxaspiro[2.3]-hexan-5-ones), is described that exhibit a number of interesting reactivity patterns. These spiroheterocycles, including an optically active series, are readily synthesized by epoxidation of ketene dimers (4-alkylidene-2-oxetanones) available from homo- or heteroketene dimerization. An analysis of bond lengths in these systems by X-ray crystallography and comparison to data for known spirocycles and those determined computationally, suggest that anomeric effects in these systems may be more pronounced due to their rigidity and may contribute to their surprising stability. The synthetic utility of spiroepoxy-β-lactones was explored and one facile rearrangement identified under several conditions provides a 3-step route from acid chlorides to optically active tetronic acids, ubiquitous heterocycles in bioactive natural products. The addition of various nucleophiles to these spirocycles leads primarily to addition at C5 and C2. The utility of an optically active spiroepoxy-β-lactone was demonstrated in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of the anti-fouling agent, (+)-maculalactone A, which proceeds in 5 steps from hydrocinnamoyl chloride by way of a tetronic acid intermediate. PMID:19453152

  1. Prediction of Multi-Target Networks of Neuroprotective Compounds with Entropy Indices and Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretical Study of New Asymmetric 1,2-Rasagiline Carbamates

    PubMed Central

    Romero Durán, Francisco J.; Alonso, Nerea; Caamaño, Olga; García-Mera, Xerardo; Yañez, Matilde; Prado-Prado, Francisco J.; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    In a multi-target complex network, the links (Lij) represent the interactions between the drug (di) and the target (tj), characterized by different experimental measures (Ki, Km, IC50, etc.) obtained in pharmacological assays under diverse boundary conditions (cj). In this work, we handle Shannon entropy measures for developing a model encompassing a multi-target network of neuroprotective/neurotoxic compounds reported in the CHEMBL database. The model predicts correctly >8300 experimental outcomes with Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 80%–90% on training and external validation series. Indeed, the model can calculate different outcomes for >30 experimental measures in >400 different experimental protocolsin relation with >150 molecular and cellular targets on 11 different organisms (including human). Hereafter, we reported by the first time the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of a new series of chiral 1,2-rasagiline carbamate derivatives not reported in previous works. The experimental tests included: (1) assay in absence of neurotoxic agents; (2) in the presence of glutamate; and (3) in the presence of H2O2. Lastly, we used the new Assessing Links with Moving Averages (ALMA)-entropy model to predict possible outcomes for the new compounds in a high number of pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. PMID:25255029

  2. Asymmetric transformations of achiral 2,5-cyclohexadienones

    PubMed Central

    Kalstabakken, Kyle A.; Harned, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclohexadienones are versatile platforms for performing asymmetric synthesis as evidenced by the numerous natural product syntheses that exploit their diverse reactivity profile. However, there are few general methods available for the direct asymmetric synthesis of chiral cyclohexadienones. To circumvent this problem, several researchers have developed catalytic asymmetric methods that employ readily available achiral 2,5-cyclohexadienones as substrates. Many of these reactions are desymmetrizations in which one of the enantiotopic alkenes of an achiral dienone is transformed. Others involve selective reaction at one alkene of an unsymmetrically substituted, achiral dienone. This review will cover advances in this area over the last 20 years and the application of these strategies in complex molecule synthesis. PMID:26688596

  3. Synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of novel mononuclear, tetranuclear, and 1D chain Mn(III) complexes involving three related asymmetrical trianionic ligands.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Dahan, Françoise; Donnadieu, Bruno; Rodriguez Douton, Maria-Jesus; Fernandez Garcia, Maria-Isabel; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Tuchagues, Jean-Pierre

    2004-04-19

    The manganese(III) complexes studied in this report derive from asymmetrical trianionic ligands abbreviated H(3)L(i) (i = 4-6). These ligands are obtained through reaction of salicylaldehyde with "half-units", the latter resulting from monocondensation of different diamines with phenylsalicylate,. Upon deprotonation, L(i) (i = 4-6) possess an inner N(2)O(2) coordination site with one amido, one imine, and two phenoxo functions, and an outer amido oxygen donor. The trianionic character of such ligands yields original neutral complexes with the L/Mn stoichiometry. The crystal and molecular structures of three complexes have been determined at 190 K (1) or 180 K (2 and 3). Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P (No. 2): a = 7.8582(14) A, b = 10.9225(16) A, c = 12.4882(18) A, alpha = 67.231(14) degrees, beta = 72.134(14) degrees, gamma = 82.589(13) degrees, V = 940.6(3) A(3), Z = 2. Complex 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn (Nuomicron. 60): a = 23.8283(15) A, b = 11.1605(7) A, c = 26.152(2) A, V = 6954.8(8) A(3), Z = 8, while complex 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c (No. 14) with a = 11.7443(14) A, b = 7.5996(10) A, c = 18.029(2) A, beta = 100.604(10) degrees, V = 1581.6(3) A(3), Z = 4. Owing to hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stackings, the mononuclear neutral molecules of 1 are arranged in a 2D network while complexes 2 and 3 are tetranuclear and polymeric (1D chain) species, respectively, owing to the bridging ability of the oxygen atom of the amido function. The experimental magnetic susceptibilities of complexes 2 and 3 indicate the occurrence of similarly weak Mn(III)-Mn(III) antiferromagnetic interactions (J = -1.1 cm(-1)). Single ion zero-field splitting of manganese(III) must be taken into account for satisfactorily fitting the data by exact calculation of the energy levels associated to the spin Hamiltonian through diagonalization of the full matrix for axial symmetry in 2 (J = - 1.1 cm(-1), D(1) = 2.2 cm(-1), D(2) = -2.8 cm(-1)), D(1) and D(2) being associated to the six- and five-coordinate Mn ions, respectively. A weaker antiferromagnetic interaction (J = - 0.2 cm(-1)) operates through pi-pi stacking in complex 1. Complex 3 is a weak ferromagnet (ordering temperature approximately 7 K) as a result of the spin canting originating from the crystal packing. PMID:15074994

  4. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  5. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-09-10

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  6. Dial A440 for absolute pitch: absolute pitch memory by non-absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas A; Schmuckler, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Listeners without absolute (or "perfect") pitch have difficulty identifying or producing isolated musical pitches from memory. Instead, they process the relative pattern of pitches, which remains invariant across pitch transposition. Musically untrained non-absolute pitch possessors demonstrated absolute pitch memory for the telephone dial tone, a stimulus that is always heard at the same absolute frequency. Listeners accurately classified pitch-shifted versions of the dial tone as "normal," "higher than normal" or "lower than normal." However, the role of relative pitch processing was also evident, in that listeners' pitch judgments were also sensitive to the frequency range of stimuli. PMID:18396925

  7. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of a small parameter at the higher derivatives in the differential equations describing nonlinear systems of the Lur'e-Postnikov class on absolute stability in the parameter space is investigated. The conditions leading to singular perturbations of absolute stability are examined.

  8. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  9. Inductive asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Ishidate, Takao; Kim, Soyoung; Mello, Craig C; Shirayama, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans, with its invariant cell lineage, provides a powerful model system in which to study signaling-dependent asymmetric cell division. The C. elegans ?-catenin-related protein, WRM-1, specifies endoderm at the 4-cell stage during the first cell signaling-induced asymmetric cell division of embryogenesis. During this interaction, Wnt signaling and the cell cycle regulator CDK-1 act together to induce the asymmetric cortical release of WRM-1 at prophase of the EMS cell cycle. Genetic studies suggest that release of WRM-1 unmasks a cortical site that drives EMS spindle rotation onto the polarized axis of the cell, simultaneously making WRM-1 available for nuclear translocation, and downstream signaling to specify endoderm. These studies suggest a general paradigm for how cortical factors like WRM-1 can function at the cell cortex to mask potentially confounding polarity cues, and when released with appropriate cell cycle timing, can also function downstream to define cell fate. PMID:24524013

  10. Cold asymmetrical fermion superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Caldas, Heron

    2003-12-19

    The recent experimental advances in cold atomic traps have induced a great amount of interest in fields from condensed matter to particle physics, including approaches and prospects from the theoretical point of view. In this work we investigate the general properties and the ground state of an asymmetrical dilute gas of cold fermionic atoms, formed by two particle species having different densities. We have show in a recent paper, that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state of such a cold fermionic system. Here we extend the analysis and verify that in fact, the mixed phase is the preferred ground state of an asymmetrical superfluid in various situations. We predict that the mixed phase can serve as a way of detecting superfluidity and estimating the magnitude of the gap parameter in asymmetrical fermionic systems.

  11. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1995-01-01

    Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.

  12. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  13. Absolute stability of a class of trilateral haptic systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Tavakoli, Mahdi; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Trilateral haptic systems can be modeled as three-port networks. We present a criterion for absolute stability of a general class of three-port networks. Traditionally, existing (i.e., Llewellyn's) criteria have facilitated the stability analysis of bilateral haptic systems modeled as two-port networks. If the same criteria were to be used for stability analysis of a three-port network, its third port termination would need to be assumed known for it to reduce to a two-port network. This is restrictive because, for absolute stability, all three terminations of the three-port network must be allowed to be arbitrary (while passive). Extending Llewellyn's criterion, we present closed-form necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of a general class of three-port networks. We first find a symmetrization condition under which a general asymmetric impedance (or admittance) matrix Z3 × 3 has a symmetric equivalent Zeq from a network stability perspective. Then, via the equivalence of passivity and absolute stability for reciprocal networks, an absolute stability condition for the original nonreciprocal network is derived. To demonstrate the convenience and utility of using this criterion for both analysis and design, it is applied to the problem of designing stabilizing controllers for dual-user haptic teleoperation systems, with simulations and experiments validating the criterion. PMID:25248167

  14. Asymmetric Epoxidation Using Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric epoxidation is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis. Although tremendous progress was achieved in this field in the 1980s and 1990s, it is still desirable from both economical and ecological views to develop environmentally friendly catalytic epoxidation with a broad substrate scope. Hydrogen peroxide is a safe and cheap oxidant, which is easy to handle and generates water as the sole byproduct. Therefore, asymmetric epoxidation of olefins using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant has been a very active research field and has been investigated by many research groups in recent years. In this review, the exciting very recent developments of this rapidly growing area are surveyed and organized according to the catalyst systems. PMID:26061144

  15. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  16. Improved synthesis of structural analogues of (-)-epicatechin gallate for modulation of staphylococcal ?-lactam resistance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James C; Grounds, Helen; Reeves, Suzanna; Taylor, Peter W

    2014-05-27

    The high-yielding synthesis of enantiomerically pure epicatechin gallate analogues where the A and/or B-ring hydroxylation is reduced or altered has been achieved by optimising routes to the catechin stereochemistry. The B-ring analogues were synthesised by using an electrophilic ring closure onto an enantiomerically enriched epoxide as a key step. The A and B-ring hydroxyl-deleted analogues were synthesised through a Mitsunobu cyclisation. For the B-ring analogues, the anti- (catechin) stereochemistry was converted to the syn- (epicatechin) stereochemistry by a known oxidation/reduction protocol. Absolute stereochemistry was derived from either a Sharpless epoxidation or asymmetric dihydroxylation. PMID:24876661

  17. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  18. New advances in dual stereocontrol for asymmetric reactions.

    PubMed

    Escorihuela, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2013-06-21

    Achieving dual stereocontrol in asymmetric reactions using a single enantiomer for the building of the chiral catalyst or auxiliary is a very important goal in enantioselective synthesis as it eliminates the need for having available the two enantiomers of the auxiliary or catalyst designed. Recent strategies and advances towards this goal during the last four years will be discussed throughout this review. PMID:23591539

  19. Asymmetric pyrene derivatives for organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Zöphel, Lukas; Beckmann, Dirk; Enkelmann, Volker; Chercka, Dennis; Rieger, Ralph; Müllen, Klaus

    2011-06-28

    For the synthesis of an ortho-dithienylpyrene, a K-region bromination of pyrene was developed which enabled the first reported, non-statistical asymmetric functionalization of pyrene at the 4, 5, 9 and 10 positions. Crystal structures, optical and electronic properties and FET characteristics have been investigated. PMID:21594241

  20. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M{sub A} clones with fidelity F{sup A} and another set of M{sub B} clones with fidelity F{sup B}, the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N{yields}M{sub A}+M{sub B} cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1{yields}1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized.

  1. Asymmetric information and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  2. Asymmetric dipolar ring

    DOEpatents

    Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.

    2010-11-16

    A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

  3. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  4. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

  5. Oscillating asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zurek, Kathryn M. E-mail: haiboyu@umich.edu

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of dark matter (DM) particle-antiparticle oscillations within the context of asymmetric DM. Oscillations arise due to small DM number-violating Majorana-type mass terms, and can lead to recoupling of annihilation after freeze-out and washout of the DM density. Asymmetric DM oscillations 'interpolate' between symmetric and asymmetric DM freeze-out scenarios, and allow for a larger DM model-building parameter space. We derive the density matrix equations for DM oscillations and freeze-out from first principles using nonequilibrium field theory, and our results are qualitatively different than in previous studies. DM dynamics exhibits particle-vs-antiparticle 'flavor' effects, depending on the interaction type, analogous to neutrino oscillations in a medium. 'Flavor-sensitive' DM interactions include scattering or annihilation through a new vector boson, while 'flavor-blind' interactions include scattering or s-channel annihilation through a new scalar boson. In particular, we find that flavor-sensitive annihilation does not recouple when coherent oscillations begin, and that flavor-blind scattering does not lead to decoherence.

  6. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  7. Absolute configuration of naturally occurring glabridin.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Charlotte; Fronczek, Frank R; Pauli, Guido F; Santarsiero, Bernard D

    2013-11-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(3R)-8,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-3-yl]benzene-1,3-diol, commonly named glabridin}, C20H20O4, is a species-specific biomarker from the roots Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (European licorice, Fabaceae). In the present study, this prenylated isoflavan has been purified from an enriched CHCl3 fraction of the extract of the root, using three steps of medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) by employing HW-40F, Sephadex LH-20 and LiChroCN as adsorbents. Pure glabridin was crystallized from an MeOH-H2O mixture (95:5?v/v) to yield colorless crystals containing one molecule per asymmetric unit (Z' = 1) in the space group P212121. Although the crystal structure has been reported before, the determination of the absolute configuration remained uncertain. Stereochemical analysis, including circular dichroism, NMR data and an X-ray diffraction data set with Bijvoet differences, confirms that glabridin, purified from its natural source, is found only in a C3 R configuration. These results can therefore be used as a reference for the assignment of the configuration and enantiopurity of any isolated or synthetic glabridin sample. PMID:24192160

  8. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  9. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  10. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  11. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  12. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  13. (E)-2-boryl 1,3-dienes from the 10-TMS-9-BBDs: highly selective reagents for the asymmetric synthesis of anti-α,β-disubstituted β-allenylamines from the allylboration of aldimines.

    PubMed

    González, Javier R; Soderquist, John A

    2014-07-18

    The asymmetric allylboration of N-H aldimines with optically pure trans-4-substituted-2-boryl-1,3-dienes 6 is described. These organoboranes 6 serve as near-perfect asymmetric allylborating agents for N-H aldimines for the preparation of anti-1,2-disubstituted-3,4-pentadien-1-amines 11 as essentially single diastereomers in enantiomerically pure form (>98% de, ≥98% ee). Enantiomerically pure cis-2,3-disubstitued piperidines 12 and α,β-disubstituted-β-amino acids 17 are readily prepared through the standard protocols. A novel Ru-catalyzed hydroamination provides trans-4,5-disubstituted-1-pyrrolines 21 from 11. PMID:25003976

  14. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  15. Absolute focus lock for microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, C. D., Jr.; Loop, R. W.; Tongier, M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanism absolutely immobilizes microscope stage at a preset focus, preserving focus indefinitely. The lock is a second-class lever consisting of a straight body having a fulcrum with a cylindrical bearing surface at one end and a thumbscrew at the other end.

  16. Asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis of California electricity spot price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new method called asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis, which is an extension of asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) and can assess the asymmetry correlation properties of series with a variable scale range. We investigate the asymmetric correlations in California 1999-2000 power market after filtering some periodic trends by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Our findings show the coexistence of symmetric and asymmetric correlations in the price series of 1999 and strong asymmetric correlations in 2000. What is more, we detect subtle correlation properties of the upward and downward price series for most larger scale intervals in 2000. Meanwhile, the fluctuations of Δα(s) (asymmetry) and | Δα(s) | (absolute asymmetry) are more significant in 2000 than that in 1999 for larger scale intervals, and they have similar characteristics for smaller scale intervals. We conclude that the strong asymmetry property and different correlation properties of upward and downward price series for larger scale intervals in 2000 have important implications on the collapse of California power market, and our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms of power price.

  17. Asymmetric coevolutionary voter dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Stefan; Nunes, Ana

    2013-12-01

    We consider a modification of the adaptive contact process that, interpreted in the context of opinion dynamics, breaks the symmetry of the coevolutionary voter model by assigning to each node type a different strategy to promote consensus: Orthodox opinion holders spread their opinion via social pressure and rewire their connections following a segregationist strategy; heterodox opinion holders adopt a proselytic strategy, converting their neighbors through personal interactions, and relax to the orthodox opinion according to its representation in the population. We give a full description of the phase diagram of this asymmetric model, using the standard pair approximation equations and assessing their performance by comparison with stochastic simulations. We find that although global consensus is favored with regard to the symmetric case, the asymmetric model also features an active phase. We study the stochastic properties of the corresponding metastable state in finite-size networks, discussing the applicability of the analytic approximations developed for the coevolutionary voter model. We find that, in contrast to the symmetric case, the final consensus state is predetermined by the system's parameters and independent of initial conditions for sufficiently large system sizes. We also find that rewiring always favors consensus, both by significantly reducing convergence times and by changing their scaling with system size.

  18. Asymmetric inclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  19. Irradiated asymmetric Friedmann branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.; Keresztes, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    We consider a Friedmann brane moving in a bulk impregnated with radiation. The set-up is strongly asymmetric, with only one black hole in the bulk. The radiation emitted by this left bulk black hole can be reflected, absorbed or transmitted through the brane. Radiation pressure accelerates the brane, behaving as dark energy. Absorption however generates a competing effect: the brane becomes heavier and gravitational attraction increases. We analyse the model numerically, assuming a total absorption on the brane for k = 1. We conclude that due to the two competing effects, in this asymmetric scenario the Hawking radiation from the bulk black hole is not able to change the recollapsing fate of this brane-world universe. We show that for light branes and early times the radiation pressure is the dominant effect. In contrast, for heavy branes the self-gravity of the absorbed radiation is a much stronger effect. We find the critical value of the initial energy density for which these two effects roughly cancel each other.

  20. The synthesis of [(14) C]AZD5122. Incorporation of an IV (14) C-microtracer dose into a first in human study to determine the absolute oral bioavailability of AZD5122.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Michael J; Allen, Paul H; Kingston, Lee P; Wilkinson, David J

    2016-05-30

    AZD5122, N-(2-(2,3-difluorobenzylthio)-6-((2R,3R)-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-ylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)azetidine-1-sulfonamide was under investigation as a potential chemokine receptor CXCR2 antagonist for the treatment for inflammatory diseases. To gain a better understanding of the human pharmacokinetic profile, an exploratory phase I IV microtracer study was conducted using carbon-14 radiolabelled AZD5122. [(14) C]AZD5122 was carbon-14 labelled in the pyrimidine ring in five steps in an overall radiochemical yield of 19% from [(14) C]thiourea. The absolute oral bioavailability of AZD5122 was assessed in healthy subjects by an oral administration of AZD5122, followed by a concomitant intravenous [(14) C]AZD5122 microdose. PMID:27169760

  1. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  2. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  3. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coker, Eric N.

    2012-08-07

    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  4. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Krauss, Martin B.; Nardi, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle-antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM) with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic) SU (2)L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y = 1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU (2) representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  5. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. PMID:23006163

  6. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  7. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  8. Total synthesis of brazilin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngeun; Kim, Ikyon

    2015-02-01

    Described herein is a highly efficient total synthesis of brazilin from commercially available starting materials in 9 steps with 70% overall yield. Mitsunobu coupling followed by In(III)-catalyzed alkyne-aldehyde metathesis allowed for rapid construction of brazilin core skeleton in quantitative yield. Subsequent modulation of oxidation levels and acid-catalyzed cyclization led to the trimethyl ether of brazilin. Asymmetric dihydroxylation of the key intermediate was also demonstrated, which would permit asymmetric access to (+)-brazilin. PMID:25562504

  9. Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Crypto-Optically Active (2) H6 -Neopentane.

    PubMed

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Gerbig, Dennis; Oskar, Liron; Loewenstein, Aharon; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Lesot, Philippe; Schreiner, Peter R; Marek, Ilan

    2015-10-26

    The determination of the absolute configuration of chiral molecules is at the heart of asymmetric synthesis. Here we probe the spectroscopic limits for chiral discrimination with NMR spectroscopy in chiral aligned media and with vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy of the sixfold-deuterated chiral neopentane. The study of this compound presents formidable challenges since its stereogenicity is only due to small mass differences. For this purpose, we selectively prepared both enantiomers of (2) H6 -1 through a concise synthesis utilizing multifunctional intermediates. While NMR spectroscopy in chiral aligned media could be used to characterize the precursors to (2) H6 -1, the final assignment could only be accomplished with VCD spectroscopy, despite the fleetingly small dichroic properties of 1. Both enantiomers were assigned by matching the VCD spectra with those computed with density functional theory. PMID:26480341

  10. Absolute stability of dynamic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosanov, N. N.

    2015-07-01

    The field structure in a cavity composed of an oscillating plane mirror and an immobile spherical mirror has been analyzed within the paraxial approximation. Relations between the radius of curvature of the spherical mirror and the distance between the mirrors at which the initially paraxial beam remains paraxial after multiple propagations through the cavity have been determined. It is shown that the stability is absolute, in contrast to the case of a static cavity (with immobile mirrors); i.e., deviations from the axial direction decrease exponentially with time.

  11. Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Haohua; Shen, Xiaodong; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhang, Lilu; Röse, Philipp; Chen, Liang-An; Harms, Klaus; Marsch, Michael; Hilt, Gerhard; Meggers, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is seen as one of the most economical strategies to satisfy the growing demand for enantiomerically pure small molecules in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. And visible light has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and sustainable form of energy for triggering chemical transformations and catalytic chemical processes. For these reasons, visible-light-driven catalytic asymmetric chemistry is a subject of enormous current interest. Photoredox catalysis provides the opportunity to generate highly reactive radical ion intermediates with often unusual or unconventional reactivities under surprisingly mild reaction conditions. In such systems, photoactivated sensitizers initiate a single electron transfer from (or to) a closed-shell organic molecule to produce radical cations or radical anions whose reactivities are then exploited for interesting or unusual chemical transformations. However, the high reactivity of photoexcited substrates, intermediate radical ions or radicals, and the low activation barriers for follow-up reactions provide significant hurdles for the development of efficient catalytic photochemical processes that work under stereochemical control and provide chiral molecules in an asymmetric fashion. Here we report a highly efficient asymmetric catalyst that uses visible light for the necessary molecular activation, thereby combining asymmetric catalysis and photocatalysis. We show that a chiral iridium complex can serve as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provide very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles. This new asymmetric photoredox catalyst, in which the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre, offers new opportunities for the `green' synthesis of non-racemic chiral molecules.

  12. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  13. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects. PMID:8206802

  14. Absolute Measurement of STIRAP Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Sun, Yuan; Allred, Claire; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Driving atoms from an initial to a final state of the same parity via an intermediate state of opposite parity is most efficiently done using STIRAPfootnotetextU. Gaubatz et al., J. Chem. Phys., 92, 5363 (1990)., because it doesn't populate the intermediate state. For optical transitions this requires appropriate pulses of light in the counter-intuitive order - first coupling the intermediate and final states. We populate Rydberg states of He (n = 26) in a beam of average velocity 1070 m/s by having them cross two laser beams in a tunable dc electric field of ˜100 V/cm. The ``red" light near λ= 796 nm connects the 3^3P states to the Rydberg states and the ``blue" beam connects the metastable 2^3S state atoms emitted by our source to their 3^3P states. By varying the relative position of these beams we can vary the order and overlap encountered by the atoms. We vary the dc field to sweep across several Stark states of the Rydberg manifold. We measure the absolute efficiency using a curved wavefront beam of λ= 1.083,m light to deflect residual 2^3S atoms out of the beam, and we measure their flux with and without the STIRAP beams. This uncontaminated measurement has high absolute accuracy. *Presently at Columbia Univ., 1027 Pupin Hall, New York, NY 10027

  15. Absolute Measurement of STIRAP Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Sun, Yuan; Allred, Claire; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Driving atoms from an initial to a final state of the same parity via an intermediate state of opposite parity is most efficiently done using STIRAPootnotetextU. Gaubatz et al., J. Chem. Phys., 92, 5363 (1990)., because it doesn't populate the intermediate state. For optical transitions this requires appropriate pulses of light in the counter-intuitive order - first coupling the intermediate and final states. We populate Rydberg states of He (n = 26) in a beam of average velocity 1070 m/s by having them cross two laser beams in a tunable dc electric field of ˜100 V/cm. The ``red" light near λ= 796 nm connects the 3^3P states to the Rydberg states and the ``blue" beam connects the metastable 2^3S state atoms emitted by our source to their 3^3P states. By varying the relative position of these beams we can vary the order and overlap encountered by the atoms. We vary the dc field to sweep across several Stark states of the Rydberg manifold. We measure the absolute efficiency using a curved wavefront beam of λ= 1.083,m light to deflect residual 2^3S atoms out of the beam, and we measure their flux with and without the STIRAP beams. This uncontaminated measurement has high absolute accuracy.

  16. Absolute Gravimeter Helium Immersion Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. S.; Courtier, N.; Winester, D.

    2001-12-01

    The FG5 absolute gravimeter uses a laser interferometer to measure the acceleration of a mirror that is free-falling in a vacuum chamber. The recoil caused by the release of the falling mirror produces vibrations in the gravimeter that can systematically affect the measured gravity values. The major effect of the vibrations is to change the vertical position of the window on the vacuum dropping chamber where the laser interferometer beam enters the chamber. Because the window represents an air-vacuum interface, any motion of the window will change the length of the laser path that passes through air and thereby change the total time that the laser beam takes to traverse the interferometer path. Therefore these window vibrations will have the same effect on the measured interferometer phase as changes in the position of the falling mirror. Operating an FG-5 absolute gravimeter in a helium atmosphere should reduce these systematic errors. The helium atmosphere decreases the change in refractivity across the interface by up to 88%, depending on the purity of the helium. We observe a marked reduction in the post-fit residuals at frequencies of about 50 Hz and little or no effect at higher frequencies, and we develop a qualitative explanation of the frequency cutoff in terms of motion of air under compression. Further experiments to measure and characterize the effects of the vibrations are planned.

  17. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Hulme, Lydia; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system. PMID:25361577

  18. Catalytic asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongwei; Hu, Lin; Li, Zhe; Deng, Li

    2015-07-01

    The carbon-nitrogen double bonds in imines are fundamentally important functional groups in organic chemistry. This is largely due to the fact that imines act as electrophiles towards carbon nucleophiles in reactions that form carbon-carbon bonds, thereby serving as one of the most widely used precursors for the formation of amines in both synthetic and biosynthetic settings. If the carbon atom of the imine could be rendered electron-rich, the imine could react as a nucleophile instead of as an electrophile. Such a reversal in the electronic characteristics of the imine functionality would facilitate the development of new chemical transformations that convert imines into amines via carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbon electrophiles, thereby creating new opportunities for the efficient synthesis of amines. The development of asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines (in which the imines act as nucleophiles) remains uncharted territory, in spite of the far-reaching impact such reactions would have in organic synthesis. Here we report the discovery and development of new chiral phase-transfer catalysts that promote the highly efficient asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines with the carbon electrophile enals. These catalysts mediate the deprotonation of imines and direct the 2-azaallyl anions thus formed to react with enals in a highly chemoselective, regioselective, diastereoselective and enantioselective fashion. The reaction tolerates a broad range of imines and enals, and can be carried out in high yield with as little as 0.01 mole per cent catalyst with a moisture- and air-tolerant operational protocol. These umpolung reactions provide a conceptually new and practical approach to chiral amino compounds.

  19. Catalytic asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongwei; Hu, Lin; Li, Zhe; Deng, Li

    2015-07-23

    The carbon-nitrogen double bonds in imines are fundamentally important functional groups in organic chemistry. This is largely due to the fact that imines act as electrophiles towards carbon nucleophiles in reactions that form carbon-carbon bonds, thereby serving as one of the most widely used precursors for the formation of amines in both synthetic and biosynthetic settings. If the carbon atom of the imine could be rendered electron-rich, the imine could react as a nucleophile instead of as an electrophile. Such a reversal in the electronic characteristics of the imine functionality would facilitate the development of new chemical transformations that convert imines into amines via carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbon electrophiles, thereby creating new opportunities for the efficient synthesis of amines. The development of asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines (in which the imines act as nucleophiles) remains uncharted territory, in spite of the far-reaching impact such reactions would have in organic synthesis. Here we report the discovery and development of new chiral phase-transfer catalysts that promote the highly efficient asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines with the carbon electrophile enals. These catalysts mediate the deprotonation of imines and direct the 2-azaallyl anions thus formed to react with enals in a highly chemoselective, regioselective, diastereoselective and enantioselective fashion. The reaction tolerates a broad range of imines and enals, and can be carried out in high yield with as little as 0.01 mole per cent catalyst with a moisture- and air-tolerant operational protocol. These umpolung reactions provide a conceptually new and practical approach to chiral amino compounds. PMID:26201597

  20. Asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructure with enhanced photothermal performance and SERS activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Zeke; Kang, Xiaolin; Guo, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Cheng, Si

    2016-01-21

    Most as-reported nanostructures through galvanic replacement reactions are still symmetric hollow structures, until now. Asymmetric structures fabricated through a galvanic replacement reaction have been rarely reported. However, asymmetric heterostructures can generally lead to new intriguing properties through asymmetric synergistic coupling. Here, we report a simple synthesis of an asymmetric one-ended AgPd bimetal on Au nanorods (AuNR) by combining a galvanic replacement reaction with an Ostwald ripening process. The morphological evolution from a nanodumbbell to a dandelion structure is thoroughly investigated. The unique asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructures possess the required plasmonic performance and avoid strong damping caused by the poor plasmonic metal Pd, resulting in a superior photothermal heating performance and enhanced SERS sensitivity for in situ monitoring of a catalytic reaction compared with the symmetric counterparts. PMID:26744075

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chumanov, George

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Synthesis of 3,8-Dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl–BODIPY from an Asymmetric Dipyrroketone and Reactivity Studies at the 3,5,8-Positions**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric BODIPY 1a (BODIPY=4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene), containing two chloro substituents at the 3,8-positions and a reactive 5-methyl group, was synthesized from the asymmetric dipyrroketone 3, which was readily obtained from available pyrrole 2a. The reactivity of 3,8-dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl-BODIPY 1a was investigated by using four types of reactions. This versatile BODIPY undergoes regioselective Pd0-catalyzed Stille coupling reactions and/or regioselective nucleophilic addition/elimination reactions, first at the 8-chloro and then at the 3-chloro group, using a variety of organostannanes and N-, O-, and S-centered nucleophiles. On the other hand, the more reactive 5-methyl group undergoes regioselective Knoevenagel condensation with an aryl aldehyde to produce a monostyryl-BODIPY, and oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) gives the corresponding 5-formyl-BODIPY. Investigation of the reactivity of asymmetric BODIPY 1a led to the preparation of a variety of functionalized BODIPYs with λmax of absorption and emission in the ranges 487–587 and 521–617 nm, respectively. The longest absorbing/emitting compound was the monostyryl-BODIPY 16, and the largest Stokes shift (49 nm) and fluorescence quantum yield (0.94) were measured for 5-thienyl-8-phenoxy-BODIPY 15. The structural properties (including 16 X-ray structures) of the new series of BODIPYs were investigated. PMID:25761150

  3. Cinchona Alkaloid Squaramide-Catalyzed Asymmetric Michael Addition of α-Aryl Isocyanoacetates to β-Trifluoromethylated Enones and Its Applications in the Synthesis of Chiral β-Trifluoromethylated Pyrrolines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xin; Zhu, Hui-Kai; Dai, Tong-Lei; Shi, Min

    2015-11-20

    Cinchona alkaloid squaramide can effectively catalyze the asymmetric Michael addition of α-aryl isocyanoacetates to β-trifluoromethylated enones, affording the corresponding adducts with an adjacent chiral tertiary carbon center bearing a CF3 group and a quaternary carbon center in moderate to good yields along with excellent stereoselectivities. The adduct can be easily transformed into biologically attractive chiral β-trifluoromethylated pyrroline carboxylate in high yield via an isocyano group hydrolysis/cyclization/dehydration cascade reaction by treating with acid. The one-pot enantioselective Michael addition/isocyano group hydrolysis/cyclization/dehydration sequential protocol has also been investigated. PMID:26523421

  4. Asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructure with enhanced photothermal performance and SERS activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Zeke; Kang, Xiaolin; Guo, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Cheng, Si

    2016-01-01

    Most as-reported nanostructures through galvanic replacement reactions are still symmetric hollow structures, until now. Asymmetric structures fabricated through a galvanic replacement reaction have been rarely reported. However, asymmetric heterostructures can generally lead to new intriguing properties through asymmetric synergistic coupling. Here, we report a simple synthesis of an asymmetric one-ended AgPd bimetal on Au nanorods (AuNR) by combining a galvanic replacement reaction with an Ostwald ripening process. The morphological evolution from a nanodumbbell to a dandelion structure is thoroughly investigated. The unique asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructures possess the required plasmonic performance and avoid strong damping caused by the poor plasmonic metal Pd, resulting in a superior photothermal heating performance and enhanced SERS sensitivity for in situ monitoring of a catalytic reaction compared with the symmetric counterparts.Most as-reported nanostructures through galvanic replacement reactions are still symmetric hollow structures, until now. Asymmetric structures fabricated through a galvanic replacement reaction have been rarely reported. However, asymmetric heterostructures can generally lead to new intriguing properties through asymmetric synergistic coupling. Here, we report a simple synthesis of an asymmetric one-ended AgPd bimetal on Au nanorods (AuNR) by combining a galvanic replacement reaction with an Ostwald ripening process. The morphological evolution from a nanodumbbell to a dandelion structure is thoroughly investigated. The unique asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructures possess the required plasmonic performance and avoid strong damping caused by the poor plasmonic metal Pd, resulting in a superior photothermal heating performance and enhanced SERS sensitivity for in situ monitoring of a catalytic reaction compared with the symmetric counterparts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07333b

  5. Expansion of the Concept of Nonlinear Effects in Catalytic Reactions Beyond Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pollice, Robert; Schnürch, Michael

    2016-04-11

    The observation and investigation of nonlinear effects in catalytic reactions provides valuable mechanistic insight. However, the applicability of this method was, until now, limited to molecules possessing chirality and therefore to asymmetric synthesis. The concept of nonlinear effects is expanded to catalytic reactions beyond asymmetric catalysis by using derivatives instead of enantiomers and by considering rates instead of enantiomeric excess. Additionally, its systematic application to investigate the mechanism of catalytic reactions is presented. By exceeding the limitation to asymmetric reactions, the study of nonlinear effects can become a general tool to elucidate reaction mechanisms. PMID:26934666

  6. Absolute pitch: music and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; Gore, John C; Marks, Lawrence E

    2005-12-01

    "Perfect pitch," known in the scientific literature as "absolute pitch" (AP), is a rare phenomenon that has fascinated musicians and scientists alike for over a century. There has been a great deal of conflict in the literature between advocates of the two main theories on the etiology of AP: some believe that AP is learned early in life through intensive musical training, whereas others believe AP to be largely innate. Both theories are alike, however, in considering AP to be exclusively a musical phenomenon. We propose a paradigm shift by presenting here a new model of AP, one that is predicated on two principles: (1) that AP may be relatively independent of musical experience; and (2) that there are different types of AP, each of which can be ascribed to discrete neurobiological mechanisms. We also review data from a diverse series of experiments that were designed to test explicitly both the predictions of our model and a series of historical myths about AP. In each case, the data strongly support our model. We conclude with a general discussion on the nature of AP, the relevance of these findings for other areas of research, and future directions of study. PMID:16103017

  7. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  8. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement. PMID:26172647

  9. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement.

  10. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  11. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  12. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  13. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  14. Absolute line strengths for carbon and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Work has been conducted to reduce substantially uncertainties concerning the line strengths for carbon and sulfur. Two or more independent methods were used to measure thermodynamic variables and to calibrate detectors for absolute sensitivity and spectral response. The absolute transition probabilities of 124 visible and infrared lines of C I, S I, and S II were measured in a consistent way.

  15. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  16. Modeling of asymmetric compensator geometries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D M; Scrimger, J W

    1991-01-01

    Dose distributions arising from the use of near unit density retracted missing tissue compensators in symmetric geometries have been successfully modeled on the basis of primary and first-order scattered radiation. This method of analysis has been extended to both low- and high-density materials in asymmetric geometries. Good agreement is achieved between theory and experiment. PMID:1921883

  17. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  18. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about

  19. Asymmetric Allylboration of Acyl Imines Catalyzed by Chiral Diols

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sha; Moquist, Philip N.; Schaus, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral BINOL-derived diols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric allylboration of acyl imines. The reaction requires 15 mol% of (S)-3,3′-Ph2-BINOL as the catalyst and allyldiisopropoxyborane as the nucleophile. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (75 – 94%) and high enantiomeric ratios (95:5 – 99.5:0.5) for aromatic and aliphatic imines. High diastereoselectivities (dr > 98:2) and enantioselectivities (er > 98:2) are obtained in the reactions of acyl imines with crotyldiisopropoxyboranes. This asymmetric transformation is directly applied to the synthesis of maraviroc, the selective CCR5 antagonist with potent activity against HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic investigations of the allylboration reaction including IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry study indicate that acyclic boronates are activated by chiral diols via exchange of one of the boronate alkoxy groups with activation of the acyl imine via hydrogen bonding. PMID:18020334

  20. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  1. Asymmetric sequential Au(i)/chiral tertiary amine catalysis: an enone-formation/cyanosilylation sequence to synthesize optically active 3-alkenyloxindoles from diazooxindoles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Lei; Cao, Zhong-Yan; Zeng, Xing-Ping; Shi, Jia-Meng; Yu, Yi-Hua; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-11

    An unprecedented sequential gold-catalyzed enone-formation and bifunctional tertiary amine mediated asymmetric cyanosilylation reaction is developed, allowing the highly enantioselective synthesis of 3-alkenyloxindoles from diazooxindoles, furans and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN). PMID:26878106

  2. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02272j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B. PMID:26606903

  3. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM-site-independent peptides in the total cellular protein and their peptide yields. The PTM occupancy determination is achieved by measuring the absolute amounts of both PTM and non-PTM peptides from the highly purified protein sample expressed in transgenic organisms or directly isolated from an organism using affinity purification. The absolute amount of each PTM isoform in the total cellular protein extract is finally calculated from these two variables. Following this approach, the ion intensities given by mass spectrometers are used to calculated the peptide amounts, from which the amounts of protein isoforms are then deduced. In this chapter, we describe the principles underlying the experimental design and procedures used in AQUIP method. This quantitation method basically employs stable isotope-labeled peptide standards and affinity purification from a tagged recombinant protein of interest. Other quantitation strategies and purification techniques related to this method are also discussed. PMID:25930697

  4. Asymmetric N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed annulation of modified enals with enolizable aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Yetra, Santhivardhana Reddy; Kaicharla, Trinadh; Kunte, Sunita S; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2013-10-18

    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed highly enantioselective lactonization of modified enals with enolizable aldehydes, proceeding via the α,β-unsaturated acylazolium intermediates, is reported. The reaction results in the asymmetric synthesis of synthetically important 4,5-disubstituted dihydropyranones. PMID:24093887

  5. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy. PMID:26664606

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of new dicopper(II) complexes having asymmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamides with DNA/protein binding ability: In vitro anticancer activity and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kang; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Two new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by asymmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamide ligands: N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]oxamide (H3chdoxd) and N-hydroxypropyl-N'-(2-carboxylatophenyl)oxamide (H3oxbpa), and end-capped with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(ClO4)(chdoxd)(CH3OH)(bpy)]·H2O (1) and [Cu2(pic)(oxbpa)(CH3OH)(bpy)]·0.5CH3OH (2) (pic denotes picrate anion), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurement, IR and electronic spectral studies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-oxamido ligands in dicopper(II) complexes 1 and 2 are all in square-pyramidal environments with the corresponding Cu⋯Cu separations of 5.194(3) and 5.1714(8)Å, respectively. In the crystals of the two complexes, there are abundant hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions contributing to the supramolecular structure. The reactivities toward herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) of the two complexes are studied both theoretically and experimentally, indicating that both the two complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and effectively bind to BSA via the favored binding sites Trp134 for the complex 1 and Trp213 for the complex 2. Interestingly, the in vitro anticancer activities of the two complexes against the selected tumor cell lines are consistent with their DNA/BSA-binding affinities following the order of 1>2. The effects of coordinated counterions in the two complexes on DNA/BSA-binding ability and in vitro anticancer activity are preliminarily discussed. PMID:26057022

  7. Synthesis, characterization and X-ray crystal structures of Vanadium(IV), Cobalt(III), Copper(II) and Zinc(II) complexes derived from an asymmetric bidentate Schiff-base ligand at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidifard, Mahsa; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Kazemi-Delikani, Zahra; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Azadbakht, Reza

    2015-02-01

    An asymmetric bidentate Schiff-base ligand (HL: 2-((allylimino)methyl)phenol) was prepared from reaction of salicylaldehyde and Allylamine. Vanadium(IV), Cobalt(III), Copper(II) and Zinc(II) complexes, VOL2, CoL3, CuL2 and ZnL2 were synthesized from the reaction of VO(acac)2, CoCl2·6H2O, CuCl2·2H2O and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with the bidentate Schiff base ligand (HL: 2-allyliminomethyl-phenol) in methanol at ambient temperature. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), FT-IR spectroscopy. In addition, 1H and 13C NMR techniques were employed for characterization of the ligand (HL) and diamagnetic complex ZnL2. The molecular structures of all complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. In the ZnL2 and CuL2 complexes, the metal ion is coordinated by two nitrogen and two oxygen atoms from two Schiff base ligands in an approximately square planar trans-[MN2O2] coordination geometry. In the Vanadium(IV) complex, VOL2, the vanadium center in this structure has a distorted tetragonal pyramidal N2O3 coordination sphere and for Cobalt(III) complex, CoL3, the CoIII ion is six coordinated by three bidentate Schiff base ligands in a distorted octahedral environment.

  8. Secondary standard stars for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oke, J. B.; Gunn, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an adopted absolute spectral energy distribution for the primary standard star Alpha Lyrae, absolute fluxes are given for the four very metal-deficient F type subdwarfs HD 19445, HD 84937, BD + 26.2606 deg, and BD + 17.4703 deg. Somewhat inferior data are also given for HD 140283. The data are given for 40-A bands and cover the wavelength range from 3080 A to 12,000 A. The four stars, all near magnitude 9 and distributed around the sky, are intended as secondary standards for absolute spectrophotometry.

  9. Asymmetric Organocatalysis at the Service of Medicinal Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The application of the most representative and up-to-date examples of homogeneous asymmetric organocatalysis to the synthesis of molecules of interest in medicinal chemistry is reported. The use of different types of organocatalysts operative via noncovalent and covalent interactions is critically reviewed and the possibility of running some of these reactions on large or industrial scale is described. A comparison between the organo- and metal-catalysed methodologies is offered in several cases, thus highlighting the merits and drawbacks of these two complementary approaches to the obtainment of very popular on market drugs or of related key scaffolds. PMID:24971178

  10. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  11. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Agapov, Rebecca L; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Briggs, Dayrl P; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, Pat; Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2014-01-01

    Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

  12. Miniature high-throughput chemosensing of yield, ee, and absolute configuration from crude reaction mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Keith W.; Zhang, Peng; Wolf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimentation (HTE) has emerged as a widely used technology that accelerates discovery and optimization processes with parallel small-scale reaction setups. A high-throughput screening (HTS) method capable of comprehensive analysis of crude asymmetric reaction mixtures (eliminating product derivatization or isolation) would provide transformative impact by matching the pace of HTE. We report how spontaneous in situ construction of stereodynamic metal probes from readily available, inexpensive starting materials can be applied to chiroptical chemosensing of the total amount, enantiomeric excess (ee), and absolute configuration of a wide variety of amines, diamines, amino alcohols, amino acids, carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy acids, and diols. This advance and HTS potential are highlighted with the analysis of 1 mg of crude reaction mixtures of a catalytic asymmetric reaction. This operationally simple assay uses a robust mix-and-measure protocol, is amenable to microscale platforms and automation, and provides critical time efficiency and sustainability advantages over traditional serial methods. PMID:26933684

  13. Organocatalytic and enantioselective Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes. Syn/anti-selectivity control using catalysts with the same absolute backbone chirality

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jose I; Uria, Uxue; Muñiz, Maria; Reyes, Efraím

    2015-01-01

    Summary The asymmetric and catalytic Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes has been studied in the presence of two bifunctional catalysts both containing the same absolute chirality at the carbon backbone. The reaction performed in similar conditions allows us to control the syn or anti selectivity of the Michael adduct obtaining good yields and high enantiocontrol in all cases. PMID:26734103

  14. Organocatalytic and enantioselective Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes. Syn/anti-selectivity control using catalysts with the same absolute backbone chirality.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jose I; Uria, Uxue; Muñiz, Maria; Reyes, Efraím; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric and catalytic Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes has been studied in the presence of two bifunctional catalysts both containing the same absolute chirality at the carbon backbone. The reaction performed in similar conditions allows us to control the syn or anti selectivity of the Michael adduct obtaining good yields and high enantiocontrol in all cases. PMID:26734103

  15. A note on exponential absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Sun, C. K.

    1972-01-01

    A new sufficient condition is formulated for the Lur'e type nonlinear continuous system to be exponentially absolutely stable. The condition relaxes the assumptions on the nonlinear characteristic by modifying the requirements on the linear part of the system.

  16. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  17. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  18. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Endothelial Dysfunction and Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Andrade, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine (Arg) is oxidized to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by the action of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In contrast, protein-incorporated Arg residues can be methylated with subsequent proteolysis giving rise to methylarginine compounds, such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that competes with Arg for binding to NOS. Most ADMA is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethyaminohydrolase (DDAH), distributed widely throughout the body and regulates ADMA levels and, therefore, NO synthesis. In recent years, several studies have suggested that increased ADMA levels are a marker of atherosclerotic change, and can be used to assess cardiovascular risk, consistent with ADMA being predominantly absorbed by endothelial cells. NO is an important messenger molecule involved in numerous biological processes, and its activity is essential to understand both pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms in kidney disease and renal transplantation. NO production is reduced in renal patients because of their elevated ADMA levels with associated reduced DDAH activity. These factors contribute to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and the progression of renal damage, but there are treatments that may effectively reduce ADMA levels in patients with kidney disease. Available data on ADMA levels in controls and renal patients, both in adults and children, also are summarized in this review. PMID:23109853

  19. Development of Non-C2-symmetric ProPhenol Ligands. The Asymmetric Vinylation of N-Boc Imines.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Hung, Chao-I Joey; Koester, Dennis C; Miller, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The development and application of a new generation of non-C2-symmetric ProPhenol ligands is reported herein. Rational design of the ProPhenol ligand paved the way to the first catalytic and asymmetric vinylation of N-Boc imines via hydrozirconation giving rise to valuable allylic amines in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The utility of this method was demonstrated by developing the shortest reported asymmetric synthesis of the selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (-)-dapoxetine. PMID:26200769

  20. Challenging the absence of observable hydrogens in the assignment of absolute configurations by NMR: application to chiral primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Freire, Félix; Seco, José Manuel; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo

    2007-04-14

    The absolute configuration of beta-chiral primary alcohols devoid of observable hydrogens on one of the beta-substituents at the asymmetric carbon (L(1)/L(2)) can be determined by comparison of the (1)H NMR of their (R)- and (S)-9-AMA ester derivatives and analysis of the Deltadelta(RS) for the L substituent and the Cbeta-H. PMID:17389991

  1. Paradoxical behavior of asymmetric IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Margni, R A; Malan Borel, I

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of antibodies occur in the course of an immune response. This review describes the physicochemical and biological properties of asymmetric antibodies as well as their functions, beneficial or harmful to the host, according to the nature of the antigen and the particular situation in which they act. Asymmetric antibodies have two paratopes, one of high affinity, with K0 similar to that of symmetric antibodies, and the other one with an affinity for the antigen 100 times lower. Functional univalence is due to steric hindrance present in one of the paratopes by the carbohydrate moiety attached to the Fd fragment of the Fab region, so these antibodies are unable to form large antibody-antigen complexes and cannot trigger reactions, such as complement fixation, phagocytic activity and antigen clearance. When asymmetric IgG antibodies are specific for self-antigens, they prove beneficial for the host by exerting regulatory functions. In allergic manifestations, in autoimmune diseases and especially during pregnancy, despite the fact that the antigens responsible for the process are foreign to the host, they also perform beneficial activity. During pregnancy, the placenta secretes molecules or factors that regulate the synthesis of these antibodies, thus favoring fetal protection. PMID:9700503

  2. Synthesis of PdII Complexes Bearing an Enantiomerically-Resolved Seven-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands and Initial Studies of their Use in Asymmetric Wacker-Type Oxidative Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Christopher C.; Bergant, Ana; Sazama, Graham T.; Guzei, Ilia A.; Spencer, Lara C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of enantiomerically-resolved, axially-chiral seven-membered N-heterocyclic carbene (7NHC) ligands for palladium is described. These 7NHC ligands are derived from enatiomerically pure 2,2′-diamino-6,6′-dimethylbiphenyl, which is transformed via a synthetic sequence consisting of ortho-arylation, N-alkylation, and cyclization to afford seven-membered-ring amidinium salts. Synthesis of the 7-membered amidinium salts benefits from microwave irradiation, and in-situ metalation of the amidinium salts yields 7NHC-PdII complexes. The chiral 7NHC-Pd complexes were examined as chiral catalysts under aerobic conditions in two intramolecular oxidative amination reactions of alkenes. In one case, enantioselectivities up to 63% e.e. were obtained, while the other substrate underwent cyclization to afford essentially racemic products. The catalytic data compare favorably to results obtained with a PdII catalyst bearing a chiral five-membered-ring NHC ligand and, thereby, highlight the potential significance of this new class of chiral NHC ligands. PMID:20161255

  3. New necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianguang; Zhang, Cishen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of asymmetric neural networks. The main result is based on a solvable Lie algebra condition, which generalizes existing results for symmetric and normal neural networks. An exponential convergence estimate of the neural networks is also obtained. Further, it is demonstrated how to generate larger sets of weight matrices for absolute stability of the neural networks from known normal weight matrices through simple procedures. The approach is nontrivial in the sense that non-normal matrices can possibly be contained in the resulting weight matrix set. And the results also provide finite checking for robust stability of neural networks in the presence of parameter uncertainties. PMID:16890404

  4. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V - IQ Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, C. H.; Frueh, M. L.

    1985-08-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution.

  5. Absolute and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thüring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC–MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding 13C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For absolute in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to absolute amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear dynamic range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236

  6. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir

    2002-07-01

    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in the conflict with their specific individual style.

  7. Theory and Modeling of Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Yu-Hong; Grayson, Matthew N; Holland, Mareike C; Simon, Adam; Houk, K N

    2016-04-19

    Modern density functional theory and powerful contemporary computers have made it possible to explore complex reactions of value in organic synthesis. We describe recent explorations of mechanisms and origins of stereoselectivities with density functional theory calculations. The specific functionals and basis sets that are routinely used in computational studies of stereoselectivities of organic and organometallic reactions in our group are described, followed by our recent studies that uncovered the origins of stereocontrol in reactions catalyzed by (1) vicinal diamines, including cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines, (2) vicinal amidophosphines, and (3) organo-transition-metal complexes. Two common cyclic models account for the stereoselectivity of aldol reactions of metal enolates (Zimmerman-Traxler) or those catalyzed by the organocatalyst proline (Houk-List). Three other models were derived from computational studies described in this Account. Cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines and other vicinal diamines are venerable asymmetric organocatalysts. For α-fluorinations and a variety of aldol reactions, vicinal diamines form enamines at one terminal amine and activate electrophilically with NH(+) or NF(+) at the other. We found that the stereocontrolling transition states are cyclic and that their conformational preferences are responsible for the observed stereoselectivity. In fluorinations, the chair seven-membered cyclic transition states is highly favored, just as the Zimmerman-Traxler chair six-membered aldol transition state controls stereoselectivity. In aldol reactions with vicinal diamine catalysts, the crown transition states are favored, both in the prototype and in an experimental example, shown in the graphic. We found that low-energy conformations of cyclic transition states occur and control stereoselectivities in these reactions. Another class of bifunctional organocatalysts, the vicinal amidophosphines, catalyzes the (3 + 2) annulation reaction of allenes with activated olefins. Stereocontrol here is due to an intermolecular hydrogen bond that activates the electrophilic partner in this reaction. We have also studied complex organometallic catalysts. Krische's ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrohydroxyalkylation of butadiene involves two chiral ligands at Ru, a chiral diphosphine and a chiral phosphate. The size of this combination strains the limits of modern computations with over 160 atoms, multiple significant steps, and a variety of ligand coordinations and conformations possible. We found that carbon-carbon bond formation occurs via a chair Zimmerman-Traxler-type transition structure and that a formyl CH···O hydrogen bond from aldehyde CH to phosphate oxygen, as well as steric interactions of the two chiral ligands, control the stereoselectivity. PMID:26967569

  8. Asymmetric gold nanoparticle reduction into polydimethylsiloxane thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Berry, Keith R.; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Polymer thin films embedded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of significant interest in biomedicine, optics, photovoltaic, and nanoelectromechanical systems. Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing 3-7 micron layers of AuNPs that were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique attenuated up to 85% of incoming laser light at the plasmon resonance. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior optothermal capabilities relative to thicker films in which AuNPs were reduced throughout. A photonto- heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt was demonstrated, which represents a 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNPfunctionalized systems. Optical attenuation and thermal response increased in proportion to order of magnitude increases in tetrachloroaurate (TCA) solution concentration. Optical and thermoplasmonic responses were observed with and without an adjacent mesh support, which increased attenuation but decreased thermal response. Morphological, optical, and thermoplasmonic properties of asymmetric AuNP-PDMS films varied significantly with diffusive TCA concentration. Gold nanoparticles, networks, and conglomerates were formed via reduction as the amount of dissolved TCA increased across a log10-scale. Increasing TCA concentrations caused polymer surface cratering, leading to a larger effective surface area. This method, utilizing the diffusion of TCA into a single exposed partially cured PDMS interface, could be used to replace expensive lithographic or solution synthesis of plasmon-functionalized systems.

  9. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yamada, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B - L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B - L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of 12-amino alkylidenecyclopentenone prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Roulland, Emmanuel; Monneret, Claude; Florent, Jean-Claude; Bennejean, Caroline; Renard, Pierre; Léonce, Stéphane

    2002-06-28

    An enantioselective synthesis of new 12-amino alkylidenecyclopentenone prostaglandins is reported. The key step of the synthesis involved a [3.3] sigmatropic rearrangement of an asymmetric allylic cyanate to elaborate an asymmetric 5-amino-1,6-diene which was further transformed into cyclopentenone by successive ring-closing metathesis reaction catalyzed by the Grubbs reagent and one-pot oxidation. A palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction on a 5-iodo-1,5-diene allowed the synthesis of prostanoids with variable Rw side chains. These new compounds exhibit high cytotoxic activities. PMID:12076134

  12. Mechanistic Insights into Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Asymmetric Iron Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenberg, Jessica

    Our group has been focused on replacing toxic and expensive precious metal catalysts with iron for the synthesis of enantiopure compounds for industrial applications. During an investigation into the mechanism of asymmetric transfer hydrogenation with our first generation iron-(P-N-N-P) catalysts we found substantial evidence for zero-valent iron nanoparticles coated in chiral ligand acting as the active site. Extensive experimental and computational experiments were undertaken which included NMR, DFT, reaction profile analysis, substoichiometric poisoning, electron microscope imaging, XPS and multiphasic analysis, all of which supported the fact that NPs were the active species in catalysis. Reversibility of this asymmetric reaction on the nanoparticle surface was then probed using oxidative kinetic resolution of racemic alcohols, yielding modest enantiopurity and high turnover frequencies (TOF) for a range of aromatic alcohols. Efficient dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane for hydrogen evolution and the formation of B-N oligomers was also shown using the NP system, yielding highly active systems, with a maximum TOF of 3.66 H2/s-1 . We have also begun to focus on the development of iron catalysts for asymmetric direct hydrogenation of ketones using hydrogen gas. New chiral iron-(P-N-P) catalysts were developed and shown to be quite active and selective for a wide range of substrates. Mechanistic investigations primarily using NMR and DFT indicated that a highly active trans-dihydride species was being formed during catalyst activation. Lastly, a new library of chiral P-N-P and P-NH-P ligands were developed, as well as their corresponding iron complexes, some of which show promise for the development of future generations of active asymmetric direct hydrogenation catalysts.

  13. Theory of reflectivity of an asymmetric mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, S. S.; Campbell, J. C.; Parent, M. A.; Bean, J. C.

    1996-04-01

    By using the concept of transfer matrices and Bloch waves, we have derived a set of equations that provide insight into the operation of asymmetric Bragg reflectors that have been demonstrated to be useful in achieving high reflectivities in strained-material systems. These equations will be useful in the design of asymmetric mirrors and can be used to compare the trade-offs between the conventional, symmetric (quarter-wavelength), and asymmetric mirrors.

  14. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  15. Asymmetrical membranes and surface tension.

    PubMed Central

    Traïkia, Mounir; Warschawski, Dror E; Lambert, Olivier; Rigaud, Jean-Louis; Devaux, Philippe F

    2002-01-01

    The (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of phosphatidic acid in a membrane is sensitive to the lipid head group packing and can report qualitatively on membrane lateral compression near the aqueous interface. We have used high-resolution (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance to evaluate the lateral compression on each side of asymmetrical lipid vesicles. When monooleoylphosphatidylcholine was added to the external monolayer of sonicated vesicles containing dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidic acid, the variation of (31)P chemical shift of phosphatidic acid indicated a lateral compression in the external monolayer. Simultaneously, a slight dilation was observed in the inner monolayer. In large unilamellar vesicles on the other hand the lateral pressure increased in both monolayers after asymmetrical insertion of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine. This can be explained by assuming that when monooleoylphosphatidylcholine is added to large unilamellar vesicles, the membrane bends until the strain is the same in both monolayers. In the case of sonicated vesicles, a change of curvature is not possible, and therefore differential packing in the two layers remains. We infer that a variation of lipid asymmetry by generating a lateral strain in the membrane can be a physiological way of modulating the conformation of membrane proteins. PMID:12202370

  16. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  17. Active matter on asymmetric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-10-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile colloidal particles undergoing catalysis, swimming bacteria, artificial swimmers, crawling cells, and motor proteins. We show that a ratchet effect can arise in this type of system even in the absence of ac forcing. The directed motion occurs for certain particle-substrate interaction rules and its magnitude depends on the amount of time the particles spend swimming in one direction before turning and swimming in a new direction. For strictly Brownian particles there is no ratchet effect. If the particles reflect off the barriers or scatter from the barriers according to Snell's law there is no ratchet effect; however, if the particles can align with the barriers or move along the barriers, directed motion arises. We also find that under certain motion rules, particles accumulate along the walls of the container in agreement with experiment. We also examine pattern formation for synchronized particle motion. We discuss possible applications of this system for self-assembly, extracting work, and sorting as well as future directions such as considering collective interactions and flocking models.

  18. Instability of asymmetric shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, R.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, parametric instability of asymmetric shaft mounted on bearings is studied. Towards this end, four different models of increasing complexity are studied. The equations corresponding to these models are formulated in the inertial reference frame. These equations involve a periodically varying coefficient. This is similar to classical Mathieu equation but in a multi-degree of freedom context. As such, under suitable parameter combination these systems result in growing oscillation amplitudes or instability. For wider generalization, the equations and results are presented in a non-dimensional form. The unstable parameter regimes are found using the Floquet theory and perturbation methods. These results are also corroborated with existing results in the literature. The nature of the stability boundary and its dependence on various system parameters is discussed in elaborate detail. The stability boundary can be used to determine unstable operating speed ranges for different asymmetric shaft cross-sections. Further, material, geometry and bearing selection guidelines for ensuring stable operations can be inferred from these results.

  19. Migration in asymmetric, random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Wang, Dong

    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. As a population migrates, it experiences a changing environment. In heterogeneous environments, rapid adaption is key to the evolutionary success of the population. In the case of human migration, environmental heterogeneity is naturally asymmetric in the North-South and East-West directions. We here consider migration in random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environment determines the fitness of each individual. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse of environmental change, and in particular we find that North-South migration rates are lower than East-West migration rates. Fast communication within the population of pieces of knowledge between individuals, similar to horizontal gene transfer in genetic systems, can help to spread beneficial knowledge among individuals. We show that increased modularity of the relation between knowledge and fitness enhances the rate of evolution. We investigate the relation between optimal information exchange rate and modularity of the dependence of fitness on knowledge. These results for the dependence of migration rate on heterogeneity, asymmetry, and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological facts.

  20. Geometry-induced asymmetric diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Robert S.; Packard, Norman; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-01-01

    Past work has shown that ions can pass through a membrane more readily in one direction than the other. We demonstrate here in a model and an experiment that for a mixture of small and large particles such asymmetric diffusion can arise solely from an asymmetry in the geometry of the pores of the membrane. Our deterministic simulation considers a two-dimensional gas of elastic disks of two sizes diffusing through a membrane, and our laboratory experiment examines the diffusion of glass beads of two sizes through a metal membrane. In both experiment and simulation, the membrane is permeable only to the smaller particles, and the asymmetric pores lead to an asymmetry in the diffusion rates of these particles. The presence of even a small percentage of large particles can clog a membrane, preventing passage of the small particles in one direction while permitting free flow of the small particles in the other direction. The purely geometric kinetic constraints may play a role in common biological contexts such as membrane ion channels. PMID:17522257

  1. Scatterometry measurement of asymmetric gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Hwu, Justin J.; Liu, Yongdong; Rabello, Silvio; Liu, Zhuan; Hu, Jiangtao

    2009-12-01

    Scatterometry has been used extensively for the characterization of critical dimensions (CD) and detailed sidewall profiles of periodic structures in microelectronics fabrication processes. So far the majority of applications are for symmetric gratings. In most cases devices are designed to be symmetric although errors could occur during fabrication process and result in undesired asymmetry. The problem with conventional optical scatterometry techniques lies in the lack of capability to distinguish between left and right asymmetries. In this work we investigate the possibility of measuring grating asymmetry using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MM-SE). A patterned hard disk prepared by nano-imprint technique is used for the study. The relief image on the disk sometimes has asymmetrical sidewall profile, presumably due to the uneven separation of the template from the disk. The undesired tilting resist profile causes difficulties to the downstream processes or even makes them fail. Cross-section SEM reveals that the asymmetrical resist lines are typically tilted towards the outer diameter direction. The simulation and experimental data show that certain Mueller matrix elements are proportional to the direction and amplitude of profile asymmetry, providing a direct indication to the sidewall tilting. The tilting parameter can be extracted using rigorous optical critical dimension (OCD) modeling or calibration method. We demonstrate that this technique has good sensitivity for measuring and distinguishing left and right asymmetry caused by sidewall tilting, and can therefore be used for monitoring processes, such as lithography and etch processing, for which symmetric structures are desired.

  2. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR POLAR FIELD REVERSALS

    SciTech Connect

    Svalgaard, Leif; Kamide, Yohsuke

    2013-01-20

    The solar polar fields reverse because magnetic flux from decaying sunspots moves toward the poles, with a preponderance of flux from the trailing spots. If there is a strong asymmetry, in the sense that most activity is in the northern hemisphere, then that excess flux will move toward the north pole and reverse that pole first. If there is more activity in the south later on, then that flux will help to reverse the south pole. In this way, two humps in the solar activity and a corresponding difference in the time of reversals develop (in the ideal case). Such a difference was originally noted in the very first observation of polar field reversal just after the maximum of the strongly asymmetric solar cycle 19, when the southern hemisphere was most active before sunspot maximum and the south pole duly reversed first, followed by the northern hemisphere more than a year later, when that hemisphere became most active. Solar cycles since then have had the opposite asymmetry, with the northern hemisphere being most active before solar maximum. We show that polar field reversals for these cycles have all happened in the north first, as expected. This is especially noteworthy for the present solar cycle 24. We suggest that the association of two or more peaks of solar activity when separated by hemispheres with correspondingly different times of polar field reversals is a general feature of the cycle, and that asymmetric polar field reversals are simply a consequence of the asymmetry of solar activity.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of natural benzofuranoids.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-05-22

    The synthesis of ustusoranes A, B, and E, pergillin, dihydropergillin, (±)-penicisochroman A, and (-)-brassicadiol, starting from optically active (R)-benzolactone, is described. The synthesis of ustusoranes A and E established the absolute configurations of these natural products. The synthesis of pergillin and (±)-penicisochroman A led to the structural revision of aspergiones E and F. This study clearly indicates that (R)-benzolactone is a potential intermediate in the synthesis of natural benzofuranoids. PMID:25906402

  4. Analytical study of the origin and behavior of asymmetric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Degani, David; Zilliac, Gregory G.

    1990-01-01

    An hypothesis advanced originally to explain computational observations is supported by theoretical considerations: The asymmetric mean flow observed on bodies of revolution at moderate to high angles of attack is the result of a convective instability of an originally symmetric flow to a time-invariant space-fixed disturbance. Additionally, the time-dependent fluctuations characteristic of the flow at higher angles of attack (up to 90 deg) are the result of an absolute instability of an originally steady flow to a small temporal disturbance of finite duration. Within a common domain, the instability mechanisms may coexist. The experimentally confirmed existence of bistable states, wherein the side-force variation with nose roll angle approaches a square-wave distribution, is attributed to the dominant influence of a pair of trailing vortices from the ogival forebody. Their existence is made possible by the appearance of foci of separation in the skin-friction line pattern beyond a critical angle of attack. The extreme sensitivity of the asymmetric flow orientation to nose geometry, demonstrated experimentally, is attributed to the presence of an indeterminate phase in the family of possible solutions for the three-dimensional wave system.

  5. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Depudecin.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Cristina; Cheng-Sánchez, Iván; Sarabia, Francisco

    2015-11-20

    The total synthesis of the natural product depudecin, an antiangiogenic microbial polyketide with inhibitory activity against histone deacetylases, is reported. Characterized by a highly oxidized 11-carbon chain containing two epoxides conjugated through a trans-disubstituted olefin, its total synthesis was efficiently accomplished by a novel asymmetric methodology of epoxide formation based on a new class of chiral sulfonium salts, allowing for the construction of the oxirane rings in an efficient and stereoselective fashion. PMID:26517569

  6. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  7. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  8. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  9. Absolute interferometric testing of spherical surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, B. E.

    In typical interferometric testing the part under test is measured against a reference standard. The measured result is the difference between the errors in the test and reference surfaces plus any additional errors introduced by the interferometer. For accurate qualification of the reference surface it is necessary to employ a technique that can measure the part absolutely. This paper examines an existing technique for absolute testing of spherical surfaces which produces a map of the entire surface. The capabilities of this technique, error sources, and experimental data will be examined.

  10. Absolute interferometric testing of spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, Bruce E.

    1991-03-01

    In typical interferometric testing the part under test is measured against a reference standard. The measured result is the difference between the errors in the test and reference surfaces plus any addition errors introduced by the interferometer. For accurate qualification of the reference surface it is necessary to employ a technique that can measure the part absolutely. This paper examines an existing technique for absolute testing of spherical surfaces which produces a map of the entire surface. The capabilities of this technique, error sources, and experimental data will be examined.

  11. Absolute Interferometric Testing Of Spherical Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, Bruce E.

    1989-01-01

    In typical interferometric testing the part under test is measured against a reference standard. The measured result is the difference between the errors in the test and reference surfaces plus any additional errors introduced by the interferometer. For accurate qualification of the reference surface it is necessary to employ a technique that can measure the part absolutely. This paper examines an existing technique) for absolute testing of spherical surfaces which produces a map of the entire surface. The capabilities of this technique, error sources, and experimental data will be examined.

  12. A surprising switch in absolute configuration of anti-inflammatory macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Johannes; Rohr, Markus; Walter, Thorsten; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Rahn-Hotze, Karin; Erkel, Gerhard; Opatz, Till

    2016-04-12

    Oxacyclododecindione-type macrolactones exhibit highly potent anti-inflammatory activities even at nanomolar concentration. After the determination of the relative configuration of the stereocenters at C14 and C15 by total synthesis of 4-dechloro-14-deoxyoxacyclododecindione and 14-deoxyoxacyclododecindione, the absolute configuration has now been assigned by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the absolute configuration is (14S,15R) which differs for C15 from that of the well-known derivatives of (S)-curvularin. The biological activities of both enantiomers of 14-deoxyoxacyclododecindione, obtained by racemic synthesis and optical resolution, were investigated and the ring conformation of the natural product was compared to that of (S)-curvularin and (R)-dehydrocurvularin. PMID:27035902

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric Construction of α-Quaternary Cyclopentanones and Its Application to the Syntheses of (-)-1,14-Herbertenediol and (-)-Aphanorphine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Yong; Xu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Min; Wang, Shao-Hua

    2015-10-26

    A novel and efficient strategy to build α-benzylic quaternary cyclopentanones with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 96 % ee) and high yields (up to 99 % yield) has been developed, and its application demonstrated by the first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-1,14-herbertenediol and the formal synthesis of (-)-aphanorphine. PMID:26387785

  14. A Facile Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (R)-Rugulactone

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, B. Narasimha; Singh, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and novel synthesis of (R)-rugulactone has been achieved employing Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohols followed by selective hydride reduction of epoxy alcohols and olefin cross metathesis reactions. PMID:24971179

  15. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    PubMed Central

    Ndoile, Monica M

    2013-01-01

    Summary The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established. PMID:23946830

  16. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

  17. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  18. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  19. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  20. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  1. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pinnau, Ingo; Koros, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  2. Engineered Asymmetric Composite Membranes with Rectifying Properties.

    PubMed

    Wen, Liping; Xiao, Kai; Sainath, Annadanam V Sesha; Komura, Motonori; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Ye; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric composite membranes with rectifying properties are developed by grafting pH-stimulus-responsive materials onto the top layer of the composite structure, which is prepared by two novel block copolymers using a phase-separation technique. This engineered asymmetric composite membrane shows potential applications in sensors, filtration, and nanofluidic devices. PMID:26630640

  3. Asymmetric diffusion of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Medvedev, Viktor V.

    2015-09-01

    Cosmic ray propagation is diffusive because of pitch angle scattering by waves. We demonstrate that if the high-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with B ˜/˜1 is present on top of the mean field gradient, the diffusion becomes asymmetric. As an example, we consider the vertical transport of cosmic rays in our Galaxy propagating away from a point-like source. We solve this diffusion problem analytically using a one-dimensional Markov chain analysis. We obtained that the cosmic ray density markedly differs from the standard diffusion prediction and has a sizable effect on their distribution throughout the galaxy. The equation for the continuous limit is also derived, which shows limitations of the convection-diffusion equation.

  4. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the "asymmetric multiferroic." In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  5. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  6. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-04-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq , where q≥ 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1 . These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q} , then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1 , where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  7. Reynolds number effects on supersonic asymmetrical flows over a cone at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The supersonic viscous flow over a 5-degree half-angle cone at an angle of attack of four times the cone half-angle is studied computationally using both the conical and the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solutions were obtained with an implicit, upwind-biased algorithm. Asymmetrical flowfields of the absolute-instability type are found using the conical-flow equations which agree with published results. However, the absolute instabilities of the originally symmetric flow found with the conical equations do not occur in the three-dimensional simulations, although spurious asymmetric three-dimensional flows for symmetric bodies arise if the grid resolution is insufficient in the nose region. The asymmetric flows computed with the three-dimensional equations are convective instabilities and are possible if the local Reynolds number exceeds a critical value and a fixed geometric asymmetry is imposed. A continuous range of asymmetries can be developed, depending on the size of the disturbance and the Reynolds number. As the Reynolds number is increased, the asymmetries demonstrate a bistable behavior at levels of side force consistent with those predicted using the conical equations. Below a certain critical Reynolds number, any flow asymmetries arising from a geometrical asymmetry are damped with increasing distance downstream from the geometrical asymmetry.

  8. Unified synthesis of tirandamycins and streptolydigins.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hikaru; Takahashi, Keisuke; Ishihara, Jun; Hatakeyama, Susumi

    2015-12-11

    The asymmetric total syntheses of tirandamycins A-D and tirandalydigin as well as the synthesis of the left-hand fragment of streptolydiginone and streptolydigin from a common intermediate are described. The comprehensive approach features the highly enantio- and diastereoselective assembly of the anti,anti,syn-stereotetrad unit which relies on a cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed asymmetric Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction. PMID:26448062

  9. FOC Absolute Sensitivity (F/48 Relay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paresce, Francesco

    1992-06-01

    The absolute DQE for the f/48 camera has not yet been directly measured in orbit. This has been in part due to the absence of faint enough standards. This proposal will attempt to correct this deficiency by observations of UV standard stars with combinations of filters and small formats to achieve count rates that are not seriously nonlinear. Because of the use of small formats, interactive acquisitions will be required as well as special commanding for nonstandard formats. Internal LED exposures will also be necessary to geometrically calibrate the nonstandard format and to tie its absolute response to those of other formats (there is a significant format- dependent response variation for f/48).

  10. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  11. Dynamo action by turbulence in absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan Ganga Prasath, Srinivasa; Fauve, Stéphan; Brachet, Marc

    2014-04-01

    We consider the generation of a large-scale magnetic field by a turbulent flow driven by a small-scale helical forcing in a low magnetic Prandtl number fluid. We provide an estimate of the dynamo threshold that takes into account the presence of large-scale turbulent fluctuations by considering that the scales of the flow that mostly contribute to the dynamo process are roughly in absolute equilibrium. We show that turbulent flows in absolute equilibrium do generate dynamos and we compare their growth rates to their laminar counterparts. Finally, we show that the back reaction of the growing magnetic field modifies the statistical properties of turbulent flow by suppressing its kinetic helicity at large magnetic Reynolds number.

  12. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional countersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; Loughlin, M.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A. L.

    1995-02-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 and 50 ms depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  13. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  14. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  15. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  16. Redetermination and absolute configuration of (+)-7-epiclusianone

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Omar E.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Ky, Khoa; Pradhan, Shreedu; Manandhar, Anjela; Richmond, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The absolute configuration of 3-benzoyl-4-hy­droxy-6,6-dimethyl-1,5,7-tris­(3-methyl­but-2-en­yl)bicyclo­[3.3.1]non-3-ene-2,9-dione, C33H42O4, isolated from Hypericum hypericoides, has been determined. The previous study [Xiao et al. (2007 ▶). J. Nat. Prod. 70, 1779–1782] gave only the established relative configuration. The three stereogenic centers are now established as 1R, 5R and 7S on the basis of the refinement of the Flack absolute structure parameter against Cu Kα data and correspond to a specific rotation of [α]D 20 = +66°. The enol–hy­droxy group forms an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond to close an S(6) ring. PMID:23284527

  17. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  18. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  19. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  20. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  1. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  2. The mechanism by which an asymmetric distribution of plant growth hormone is attained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Epel, Bernard; Kowalczyk, Stanley

    Zea mays (sweet corn) seedlings attain an asymmetric distribution of the growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) within 3 minutes following a gravity stimulus. Both free and esterified IAA (that is total IAA) accumulate to a greater extent in the lower half of the mesocotyl cortex of a horizontally placed seedling than in the upper half. Thus, changes in the ratio of free IAA to ester IAA cannot account for the asymmetric distribution. Our studies demonstrate there is no de novo synthesis of IAA in young seedlings. We conclude that asymmetric IAA distribution is attained by a gravity-induced, potential-regulated gating of the movement of IAA from kernel to shoot and from stele to cortex. As a working theory, which we call the Potential Gating Theory, we propose that perturbation of the plant's bioelectric field, induced by gravity, causes opening and closing of transport channels in the plasmodesmata connecting the vascular stele to the surrounding cortical tissues. This results in asymmetric growth hormone distribution which results in the asymmetric growth characteristic of the gravitropic response.

  3. Asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol and its application to the study on the origin of homochirality.

    PubMed

    Soai, Kenso; Kawasaki, Tsuneomi; Matsumoto, Arimasa

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Amplification of enantiomeric excess (ee) is a key feature for the chemical evolution of biological homochirality from the origin of chirality. We describe the amplification of ee in the asymmetric autocatalysis of 5-pyrimidyl alkanols in the reaction between diisopropylzinc (i-Pr2Zn) and pyrimidine-5-carbaldehydes. During the reaction, an extremely low ee (ca. 0.00005% ee) can be amplified to >99.5% ee, and therefore, the initial slightly major enantiomer is automultiplied by a factor of ca. 630000, while the initial slightly minor enantiomer is automultiplied by a factor of less than 1000. In addition, pyrimidyl alkanols with various substituents at the 2-position of the pyrimidine ring, 3-quinolyl alkanol, 5-carbamoyl-3-pyridyl alkanol, and large multifunctionalized pyrimidyl alkanols also act as highly efficient asymmetric autocatalysts in the addition of i-Pr2Zn to the corresponding aldehydes. The asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol can discriminate the chirality of various compounds. Chiral substances such as alcohols, amino acids, hydrocarbons, metal complexes, and heterogeneous chiral materials can act as chiral triggers for asymmetric autocatalysis to afford pyrimidyl alkanols with the corresponding absolute configuration of the initiator. This recognition ability of chiral compounds is extremely high, and chiral discrimination of a cryptochiral quaternary saturated hydrocarbon was established by applying asymmetric autocatalysis. By using the large amplification effect of the asymmetric autocatalysis, we can link various proposed origins of chirality with highly enantioenriched organic compounds in conjunction with asymmetric autocatalysis. Thus, a statistical fluctuation in ee of racemic compounds can be amplified to high ee by using asymmetric autocatalysis. Enantiomeric imbalance induced by irradiation of circularly polarized light can affect the enantioselectivity of asymmetric autocatalysis. The asymmetric autocatalysis was also triggered by the morphology of inorganic chiral crystals such as quartz, sodium chlorate, and cinnabar. Chiral organic crystals of achiral compounds also act as chiral initiators, and during the study of a crystal of cytosine, enantioselective chiral crystal phase transformation of the cytosine crystal was achieved by removal of the water of crystallization in an achiral monohydrate crystal. Enantioselective C-C bond formation was realized on the surfaces of achiral single crystals based on the oriented prochirality of achiral aldehydes. Furthermore, asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanols is a highly sensitive reaction that can recognize and amplify the significantly small effect of a chiral compound arising solely from isotope substitution of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen (D/H, (13)C/(12)C, and (18)O/(16)O). These examples show that asymmetric autocatalysis with an amplification of chirality is a powerful tool for correlating the origin of chirality with highly enantioenriched organic compounds. Asymmetric autocatalysis using two β-amino alcohols reveals a reversal of enantioselectivity in the addition of i-Pr2Zn to aldehyde and is one approach toward understanding the mechanism of asymmetric dialkylzinc addition, where heteroaggregates act as the catalytic species. PMID:25511374

  4. Formal Asymmetric (4+1) Annulation Reaction between Sulfur Ylides and 1,3-Dienes.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Olivier; Delaunay, Thierry; Dequirez, Geoffroy; Trieu-Van, Tran; Robeyns, Koen; Robiette, Raphal

    2015-09-01

    A highly enantioselective synthesis of functionalized cyclopentanoids by a formal asymmetric (4+1) annulation strategy was developed. The methodology consists of a stereoselective cyclopropanation reaction between chiral sulfur ylides and 1,3-dienes followed by a, in situ, stereospecific MgI2 -catalyzed rearrangement of vinylcyclopropanes. This method is distinguished by a remarkable compatibility with functional groups and a high stereocontrol. PMID:26235566

  5. Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B. E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.

  6. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe. PMID:22304253

  7. Probing proton fluctuations with asymmetric rapidity correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdak, Adam; Dusling, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum generate asymmetric rapidity distributions on an event-by-event basis. We argue that the asymmetric component, , of the orthogonal polynomial decomposition of the two-particle rapidity correlation function is a sensitive probe to this distribution of fluctuations. We present a simple model connecting the experimentally measured to the variance, σ , of the distribution of the logarithm of the proton saturation scale. We find that σ ≈0.5 -1 describes the asymmetric component of the rapidity correlations recently measured by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  8. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985

  9. Hourglass effects for asymmetric colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We give the expressions for the geometrical reduction factor of the luminosity and the geometrical beam-beam aggravating factor'' for the general asymmetric case, for tri-gaussian bunches colliding head on. With these formulas we attempt a (limited) analytic understanding of the multiparticle tracking simulations carried out for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory when parasitic crossings are ignored. We conclude the following: (a) the geometrical reduction in luminosity is {approximately}6% relative to the zero-bunch-length (nominal) value; (b) only the vertical beam-beam parameter of the LER is significantly altered by the hourglass effect: the geometrical enhancement of the central positron's vertical beam-beam parameter is {approximately}10% relative to the nominal value, and (c) the positrons at the head or tail of the bunch have vertical beam-beam parameters much larger than nominal. We discuss the electromagnetic disruption effect only qualitatively. This effect probably compensates (or overcompensates) the geometrical reduction of the luminosity, and it is possibly detrimental for the beam-beam parameters. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  11. Kinetic simulation of capacitively coupled plasmas driven by trapezoidal asymmetric voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Diomede, Paola Economou, Demetre J.

    2014-06-21

    A kinetic Particle-In-Cell simulation with Monte Carlo Collisions was performed of a geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled, parallel-plate discharge in argon, driven by trapezoidal asymmetric voltage pulses with a period of 200 ns. The discharge was electrically asymmetric, making the ion energy distributions at the two electrodes different from one another. The fraction of the period (α), during which the voltage was kept at a constant (top-flat) positive value, was a critical control parameter. For the parameter range investigated, as α increased, the mean ion energy on the grounded electrode increased and the ions became more directional, whereas the opposite was found for the ions striking the powered electrode. The absolute value of the DC self-bias voltage decreased as α increased. Plasma instabilities, promoted by local double layers and electric field reversals during the time of the positive voltage excursion, were characterized by electron plasma waves launched from the sheath edge.

  12. Absolute refractory period of human nerve fibres during postnatal myelination.

    PubMed

    Duron, B; Khater-Boidin, J

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the absolute refractory period of a given group of nerve fibres during development we measured absolute refractory periods and conduction velocities of motor fibres and the most excitable fibres in the human ulnar nerve of newborns, children and adults. In each group of nerve fibres absolute refractory period was not correlated to conduction velocity (i.e. fibre diameters) and was rather constant during development. However, absolute refractory period of the most excitable fibres was smaller than absolute refractory period of motor fibres independently of the subject's age. Thus, it appears that already at birth, absolute refractory period is characteristic for a given group of nerve fibres. PMID:2014765

  13. Lithium Titanate Confined in Carbon Nanopores for Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Enbo; Qin, Chuanli; Jung, Hong-Ryun; Berdichevsky, Gene; Nese, Alper; Marder, Seth; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-04-26

    Porous carbons suffer from low specific capacitance, while intercalation-type active materials suffer from limited rate when used in asymmetric supercapacitors. We demonstrate that nanoconfinement of intercalation-type lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) nanoparticles in carbon nanopores yielded nanocomposite materials that offer both high ion storage density and rapid ion transport through open and interconnected pore channels. The use of titanate increased both the gravimetric and volumetric capacity of porous carbons by more than an order of magnitude. High electrical conductivity of carbon and the small size of titanate crystals allowed the composite electrodes to achieve characteristic charge and discharge times comparable to that of the electric double-layer capacitors. The proposed composite synthesis methodology is simple, scalable, and applicable for a broad range of active intercalation materials, while the produced composite powders are compatible with commercial electrode fabrication processes. PMID:26950509

  14. Asymmetric Methods for the Synthesis of Flavanones, Chromanones, and Azaflavanones

    PubMed Central

    Nibbs, Antoinette E.

    2012-01-01

    Flavanones, chromanones, and related structures are privileged natural products that display a wide variety of biological activities. Although flavanoids are abundant in nature, there are a limited number of available general and efficient synthetic methods for accessing molecules of this class in a stereoselective manner. Their structurally simple architectures belie the difficulties involved in installation and maintenance of the stereogenic configuration at the C2 position, which can be sensitive and can undergo epimerization under mildly acidic, basic, and thermal reaction conditions. This review presents the methods currently used to access these related structures. The synthetic methods include manipulation of the flavone/flavanone core, carbon-carbon bond formation, and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. PMID:22876166

  15. Silyl Ketene Imines: Highly Versatile Nucleophiles for Catalytic, Asymmetric Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Wilson, Tyler W.

    2012-01-01

    This Minireview provides an overview on the development of silyl ketene imines and their recent applications in catalytic, enantioselective reactions. The unique structure of the ketene imine allows a diverse range of reactivity patterns and provides solutions to existing challenges in the enantioselective construction of quaternary stereogenic carbon centers and cross-benzoin adducts. A variety of reactions for which silyl ketene imines have been applied are presented with an overall goal of inspiring new uses for these underutilized nucleophiles. PMID:22968901

  16. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Dihydrobenzoxazinones Bearing Trifluoromethylated Quaternary Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hengqiao; Wang, Yongtao; Jin, Enze; Lin, Xufeng

    2016-03-01

    Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction of trifluoromethyl benzoxazinones with pyrroles is reported. Under mild conditions, a range of enantioenriched dihydrobenzoxazinones bearing trifluoromethylated quaternary stereocenters could be obtained in good to excellent yield and ee. A remarkable fluorine effect is observed, and preliminary mechanistic studies combined with theory calculations suggest that triple-hydrogen-bonding interactions hold the transition structure rigidly and allow the bulky substituents of the catalyst to influence the enantioselectivity. PMID:26882280

  17. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-01

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  18. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments. PMID:17130909

  19. Guided modes in asymmetric graphene waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Xu, Yi; Yang, Yanfang; Huang, Weide

    2014-06-01

    An asymmetric quantum well in graphene can act as a slab waveguide for electron waves in a manner analogous to the electromagnetic waves in dielectrics. Guided modes and the probability current density are analyzed in the graphene electron waveguide induced by asymmetric electrostatic potential. The modes in an asymmetric graphene waveguide include guided modes, "cover modes", "substrate modes" and "radiation modes". The conditions for a guided mode are quantified. It is found that the fundamental mode is absent when both the Klein tunneling and classical motion are present. The confinement of electrons for lower order mode is stronger than for higher order mode. We hope that these characteristics in asymmetric graphene waveguide can provide potential applications in graphene-based waveguide devices.

  20. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Tandem Nazarov Cyclization/Semipinacol Rearrangement: Rapid Construction of Chiral Spiro[4.4]nonane-1,6-diones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Miao; Cai, Pei-Jun; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Chen, Zhi-Min; Wang, Shuang-Hu; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Min

    2015-07-01

    A novel organocatalytic asymmetric tandem Nazarov cyclization/semipinacol rearrangement reaction using "unactivated" substrates has been developed, generating a series of chiral spiro[4.4]nonane-1,6-diones in up to 96% yield and 97% enantiomeric excess. Significantly, it is the first direct example for asymmetric synthesis of cyclopentanones with four stereocenters using Nazarov cyclization. DFT calculations have been applied to understand the reaction mechanism, stereochemistry, and substituent effects. PMID:26076169