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The contribution of eddies to striations in absolute dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractDistinct 4 year averages of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> reveal striations in all ocean basins during 1993-2008. Striations are alternating mesoscale jet-like structures observed in time-averaged zonal geostrophic velocity, u>¯. They are characterized by speeds O(1 cm s-1) and are nominally separated by 200 km in the meridional direction. Similar patterns have been observed in sea level anomaly, mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and Argo float measurements. Use of a tracked-eddy database in concert with a contour identification and eddy removal algorithm demonstrates that eddies are a dominant source of striations in u>¯ in the South Pacific (20°S-50°S, 200°E-280°E). Eddies with lifetimes ? 4 weeks account for 46-57% of the variance in u>¯ and correlation coefficients between total and eddy-only u>¯ are 0.90-0.93. Attention is given to the ability of the algorithm to correctly identify eddies and suggests that a more appropriate bound on the variance due to eddies is ˜ 30-70%. This permits the existence of latent zonal jets and/or ?-plumes. Additional findings of the study include (1) a large number of eddies having a broad range of amplitudes and scales contribute most to the eddy-induced patterns and (2) the standard deviation of u>¯ does not decay inversely with averaging period as proposed by a model of random eddies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckingham, C. E.; Cornillon, P. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">2</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSAES..43..127D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supracrustal tectonics and mantle flow interact to create Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span>. While tectonics is associated with the isostatic components of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the deflections caused by mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, represent the non-isostatic components. South America is an ideal natural laboratory to analyze these two contrasting components from the high Andes to the distal plains. Both regions are active and affected by complex geodynamic processes like the subduction of oceanic ridges, geometry and age of slabs, etc. These subducting anomalies affect not only the convergence <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and stresses along the entire margin, but also the distribution of mass anomalies in the mantle, which are the main cause of sublithospheric flow and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Here we revisited five examples from north to south, which demonstrate that, the Andes and the distal forelands have been uncompensated since the beginning of the Cenozoic and that additional forces, such as mantle downwellings and upwellings, are required to account for the observed <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in basins and elevations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dávila, Federico M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510271N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assimilation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a global ocean model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, i.e. the difference between time dependent multi-mission altimetric sea surface height and one of the most recent GOCE and GRACE based geoids, is assimilated in a global ocean general circulation model. To this end we apply an ensemble based Kalman technique, the "Error Subspace Transform Kalman Filter" (ESTKF). Here we present an update of our work. First of all the geoid is improved over previous versions. The ocean model now includes better <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and full sea-ice ocean interactions and more realistic surface forcing. Finally the assimilation method is augmented by a fixed lag smoother technique. This smoother allows to significantly improve the model performance, most strikingly in the first adjustment phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nerger, Lars; Albertella, Alberta; Bosch, Wolfgang; Janjic, Tijana; Schnur, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman; Scheinert, Mirko; Schröter, Jens; Schwabe, Joachim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21k5101B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interferometric determination of the <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sphere radii using the sphere interferometer of PTB</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> shape of a sphere—i.e. a <span class="hlt">topography</span> of radii—using the sphere interferometer of PTB in combination with a stitching approach. The method allows for the reconstruction of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii instead of the relative shape deviations which result from conventional sphericity measurements. The sphere interferometer was developed for the volume determination of spherical material measures—in particular the spheres of the Avogadro project—by precise diameter measurements with an uncertainty of 1 nm or less. In the scope of the present work a procedure has been implemented that extends the applicability of the interferometer to fields where not the volume or diameter but the direction-dependent radii are of interest. The results of the reconstruction were compared quantitatively to the independent results of sphericity measurements from CSIRO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartl, Guido; Krystek, Michael; Nicolaus, Arnold; Giardini, Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IzAOP..48..973K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Black Sea for altimetry measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study a new approach for reconstructing the Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Black Sea is applied. Constant observations (SVP measurements), drifters, and data of vertical sounding of the temperature and salt content together with measurements of sea level anomalies received from Topex/Poseidon mission satellite data were used. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea level received by altimetry data using the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> received during work was compared to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> level received according to independent marine surveys. The comparison showed that the method represented in the study permits one to define more exactly the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Black Sea when compared with the studies of previous authors. The results of this study will be useful to reconstruct the areas of the geostrophic currents according to satellite altimetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005OptL...30.2757G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tear film <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the human eye</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system to measure the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the tear film can both be measured, and the <span class="hlt">topographies</span> obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..771Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury's Thermal Evolution, <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Geoid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the terrestrial planets Mercury is not only the smallest, but also the densest (after correction for self-compression). To explain Mercury's high density it is considered likely that the planet's mantle was removed during a giant impact event, when proto-Mercury was already differentiated into an iron core and a silicate mantle. Beside the damage to the planet's mantle the vaporization would cause a significant loss of volatile elements, leaving the remaining planet molten and dominated by extremely refractory material.Since the arrival of a spacecraft at the enigmatic planet is not to be expected before 2011 (Messenger) or 2019 (BepiColombo) we might already prepare ourselves for the upcoming results and perform tests that allow some anticipation of the measured data. The hermean mantle is modelled as an internally and bottom heated, isochemical fluid in a spherical shell. The principle of this convection model is widely accepted and is used for various models of thermal evolution of terrestrial planets, e.g., the Earth, Mars or the Moon. We are solving the hydrodynamical equations, derived from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A program originally written by S. Zhang is used to solve the temperature field which employs a combination of a spectral and a finite difference method. Beside the large core as a heat source 'from below' the decay of radioactive isotopes provides internal heating of the hermean mantle. The viscosity of the mantel material depends exponentially on the inverse temperature. The model results show the typical behaviour of a one-plate-planet, meaning the surface is not broken into several tectonic plates but the outside is a single rigid shell. The thermal evolution is generally charaterized by the growth of a massive lithosphere on top of the convecting mantle. The lower mantle and core cool comparatively little and stay at temperatures between 1900K and 2000K until about 2.0Ga after the simulation was started. The stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (<span class="hlt">dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc) numerous models are required to understand the importance and influence of the mentioned variables. </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.tmp..486D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting surface <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of stagnant lid planetary bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although planetary mantles are viscoelastic media, numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging. Here, we examine the validity of simplified mechanical and rheological frameworks classically used to approximate viscoelastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We compare three simplified approaches to a linear Maxwell viscoelastic shell with a pseudo upper free-surface, considered as the reference model. A viscous model with a free-slip boundary condition at the surface correctly reproduces the final relaxed shape of the viscoelastic body but it cannot reproduce the time evolution of the viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Nevertheless, characterizing the <span class="hlt">topography</span> development is important since it can represent a significant fraction of the history for planets having a thick and rigid lithosphere (e.g. Mars). A viscous model with a pseudo free-surface, despite its time-dependency, also systematically fails to describe correctly these transient stages. An elastic filtering of the instantaneous viscous <span class="hlt">topography</span> is required to capture the essence of the time evolution of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We show that a single effective elastic thickness is needed to correctly reproduce the constant transient viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topography</span> obtained when the lithosphere corresponds to a step-like viscosity variation, while a time-dependence of the effective elastic thickness must be considered to take account of realistic temperature-dependent viscosity variations in the lithosphere. In this case, the appropriate thickness of the elastic shell can be evaluated, at a given instant, with a simple procedure based on the local Maxwell time. Furthermore, if the elastic filtering is performed using the thin elastic shell formulation, an unrealistic degree-dependence of the thickness of the elastic shell is needed to correctly approximate the viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We show that a model that fully couples a viscous body to an elastic shell of finite thickness estimated using the local Maxwell time gives the best approximation of the viscoelastic deformation, whatever the degree of the load and the time of loading.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dumoulin, C.; ?adek, O.; Choblet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA283535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tidal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Mixing Over Steep <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal currents and water column stratification frequently are determined by local phenomena that interact to produce complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. A process study was designed to assess the role of tides over a coastal shelf break as a local source of internal wave...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. F. Coelho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5692P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational field and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus: static vs. <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gravitational field and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus are strongly correlated. In distinction to the Earth the correlation is significant not only at intermediate and short wavelengths but also at the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. Several studies have attempted to explain this fact by isostatic compensation of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (with a depth of compensation usually smaller than 50 km) while some others have argued for a <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> origin of surface features. In the present study we examine the both concepts mentioned above using the most recent spherical harmonic models of <span class="hlt">topography</span> (GTDR.3) and gravity (MGNP180U) of the planet. We show that these models are consistent with the concept of Airy isostasy at degrees greater than 40, with the apparent depth of compensation (ADC) around 35 km. At degrees 2-40 the ADC decreases more or less monotonously from 200 km to 40 km. This behavior cannot be explained by a simple model of Airy isostasy. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity signals in this spectral interval can be, however, well predicted <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> by a quasi steady-state model of thermal convection in the mantle of Venus. Assuming that the lateral distribution of the buoyancy force does not vary with depth (which roughly corresponds to a plume-like style of mantle convection) we obtain a very good agreement between the observed and predicted data. The best fit to the data is found for the profile in which the viscosity increases only weakly with depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauer, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H21E1420H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Australian Paleogeography in the Cenozoic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> combined with eustatic sea level variations on Australian paleogeography for the Late Cretaceous to present. Using an analytical flow model (Steinberger et al., 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00229-1 with the surface plate velocity field as boundary condition, we advect density anomalies converted from tomographic velocity anomalies (SMEAN tomographic model; Becker &Boschi, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000168) back through time. For each time step, we compute <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> with a free upper boundary. This approach allows us to evaluate the spatio-temporal effects of large scale mantle convection patterns on surface processes like continental flooding and sediment deposition. The Australian continent, especially the southern Australian margin, provides a unique example for an extensive region that has been stable and fairly isolated from plate boundary processes like flexure or rift shoulder uplift for the time between 70 Ma to the present. This makes it ideal to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary deposits along the southern Australian margin indicate transgressive/regressive phases of limited extent, which can not be explained by eustatic sea level fluctuations alone. By using common estimates for the eustatic sea level in conjunction with our <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> model, we have been able to reconstruct the position of the Australian paleo-shorelines, flooding patterns and water depths. We find a good agreement of our computed paleogeography with published stratigraphic data for Tertiary brown coal deposits along the southern Australian seabord (Gippsland, Murray, Otway and Bremer Basins) and stratigraphic sequences in the Murray Basin region, along the NW Australian margin and in the Eromanga Basin. Despite minor spatial discrepancies between the current model output and geological data which yet remain unresolved, our approach and modular workflow set up provides an important stepping stone to understand the influence of deep Earth processes and their impact on sediment deposition and other geomorphological processes. Due to the usage of non-proprietary data formats and open-source software it is possible to easily change the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> model input and extend the computations to incorporate the effects of sedimentation history and isostasy. We expect a further convergence of predicted paleogeography from <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> models with increasing accuracy and resolution of tomographic models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heine, C.; M{Ü}Ller, R.; Steinberger, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410926A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and Temporal variability in <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in East Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent aerogeophysical exploration has provided novel views of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and the Wilkes and Aurora subglacial basins in East Antarctica. Reconstructing the evolution of East Antarctic <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time is a critical next step for developing new coupled climate and ice sheet models (e.g. http://www.antscape.org/). Insights into tectonic and isostatic components driving the uplift of the Gamburtsevs have emerged from geophysical investigations and modeling (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). However, our knowledge of the larger-scale consequences of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in East Antarctica remains poor compared to other continents. Seismic tomographic models provide a tool to derive large-scale models of convection in the Earth's mantle, which can then be used to reconstruct <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time. By analyzing grids of global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from present-day to 100 Ma based on the tomographic models S40RTS & S20RTS (Ritsema et al. 1999, 2011) we assess for the first time the potential space-time variability in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in East Antarctica. We acknowledge that there are significant limitations when compared to similar studies over other continents, such as the relatively poor seismic resolution of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath East Antarctica and the lack of geological and geophysical data to constrain surface movements through time. However, currently available global datasets do reveal several new insights. Our models reveal that at ca 65 Ma the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land regions were elevated. This was followed by at least 500 m of subsidence throughout the Cenozoic. The increased regional elevation likely facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic, which was followed by ice cap coalescence to form the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ca 34 Ma. In contrast, a major and more rapid increase in elevation (up to 1,000 m) is observed over the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes Subglacial Basin, in particular over the last 15 Ma. Neogene <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the TAM region may be related to the flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System and/or the Balleny plume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B.; Ritsema, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2083..322Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> evaluation of facial palsy by moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> video</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evaluation by recording the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/cgncugklvvjletk5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Gulf Stream area using the Hotine formula and altimetry data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.   Two modifications of the Hotine formula using the truncation theory and marine gravity disturbances with altimetry data are\\u000a developed and used to compute a marine gravimetric geoid in the Gulf Stream area. The purpose of the geoid computation from\\u000a marine gravity information is to derive the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on the best estimate of the mean surface</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Changyou Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715886"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> wetting and spreading and the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spreading of a droplet of a liquid on a smooth solid surface is often described by the Hoffman-de Gennes law, which relates the edge speed, v(e), to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and equilibrium contact angles ? and ?(e) through [Formula: see text]. When the liquid wets the surface completely and the equilibrium contact angle vanishes, the edge speed is proportional to the cube of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle. When the droplets are non-volatile this law gives rise to simple power laws with time for the contact angle and other parameters in both the capillary and gravity dominated regimes. On a textured surface, the equilibrium state of a droplet is strongly modified due to the amplification of the surface chemistry induced tendencies by the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The most common example is the conversion of hydrophobicity into superhydrophobicity. However, when the surface chemistry favors partial wetting, <span class="hlt">topography</span> can result in a droplet spreading completely. A further, frequently overlooked consequence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is that the rate at which an out-of-equilibrium droplet spreads should also be modified. In this report, we review ideas related to the idea of <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced wetting and consider how this may relate to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wetting and the rate of droplet spreading. We consider the effect of the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations on the driving forces and discuss how these may modify power laws for spreading. We relate the ideas to both the hydrodynamic viscous dissipation model and the molecular-kinetic theory of spreading. This suggests roughness and solid surface fraction modified Hoffman-de Gennes laws relating the edge speed to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and equilibrium contact angle. We also consider the spreading of small droplets and stripes of non-volatile liquids in the capillary regime and large droplets in the gravity regime. In the case of small non-volatile droplets spreading completely, a roughness modified Tanner's law giving the dependence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle on time is presented. We review existing data for the spreading of small droplets of polydimethylsiloxane oil on surfaces decorated with micro-posts. On these surfaces, the initial droplet spreads with an approximately constant volume and the edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relationship follows a power law [Formula: see text]. As the surface texture becomes stronger the exponent goes from p = 3 towards p = 1 in agreement with a Wenzel roughness driven spreading and a roughness modified Hoffman-de Gennes power law. Finally, we suggest that when a droplet spreads to a final partial wetting state on a rough surface, it approaches its Wenzel equilibrium contact angle in an exponential manner with a time constant dependent on roughness. PMID:21715886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11D..06D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> during Flat Subduction: Subsidence or Uplift?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the first studies on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and basin evolution, low-dipping subduction has been related to intracontinental, long-wavelength and high-amplitude subsidence, whereas retreating to normal subduction systems to uplift. This was proposed to explain the Cretaceous-early Cenozoic topographic evolution of the western US. However, modern flat-slab and slab-retreating segments of South America do not record such a subsidence and uplift patterns. For example, the flat slab of Peru at ˜10°SL, related to the subduction of the Nazca Ridge, underlies an elevated promontory known as the Fitzcarrald Arch. The Argentine flat-slab at ˜31°SL associated to the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge underlies a high-elevated intermontane system known as the Pampean broken foreland. Both upwarping features are younger than 7 Ma and contemporaneous with the arrival of flat subduction to these segments. In order to shed light into this controversy, we calculate <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> along the Andean flat-slab segments using the Hager and O'Connell (1981) instantaneous flow formulation, an accurate reconstruction of the slab geometry along the central Andes and a density contrast between the flat slabs and the country mantle close to zero (???0) in order to simulate a buoyant oceanic lithosphere. We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence develops only at the leading edge of flat subduction, where the slabs plunge >30°, whereas the flatter slabs reproduce minor or no <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> signals. These results agree with geological and geophysical proxies. Along the Argentine Plains, the <7 Ma maximum sedimentary accumulation coeval with the age of the flat subduction, plus the maximum modern relief account for a accumulated relief of ˜200 m, which might be considered as an "observed <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence" signal (given that no tectonic activity has been recorded in this region since the Cretaceous to explain this surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>). This gives a ˜0.03 mm/yr <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence rate that are curiously similar to the exhumations estimated by low-temperature thermochronology along the Andean foreland (Dávila, 2011).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davila, F. M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6372580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of latent heat release at phase boundaries on flow in the Earth’s mantle, phase boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the Earth’s surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mantle flow models that do not consider the effects of latent heat on phase boundaries typically predict <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> too large to be compatible with observations. Here these effects were implemented in a mantle flow model and resulting changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of phase boundaries were computed. Inclusion of these effects was found to reduce the rms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernhard Steinberger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14..634C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal patterns of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> around Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite its importance, the spatial and temporal pattern of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> generated by mantle convective circulation is poorly known. We present accurate estimates of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from oceanic basins and continental margins surrounding Australia. Our starting point is measurement of residual depth anomalies on the oldest oceanic floor adjacent to the continental shelf. These anomalies were determined from a combined dataset of ~200 seismic reflection and wide-angle images of well-sedimented oceanic crust. They have amplitudes of between -1 km and +0.5 km, and their spatial variation is broadly consistent with long-wavelength free-air gravity and shallow seismic tomographic anomalies. Along the Northwest Shelf, a regional depth anomaly of -300 to -700 m intersects the adjacent continental shelf. The temporal evolution of this anomaly was determined by analyzing the stratigraphic architecture of an extensive carbonate platform, which fringes the shelf and records a dramatic switch from progradation to aggradation during Neogene times. Three-dimensional seismic mapping calibrated by boreholes was used to calculate water-loaded subsidence histories at rollover points of clinoforms along the shelf. At 9 ± 3 Ma, the rate of subsidence increases from 5 to up 75 m Myr-1, generating a subsidence anomaly of -300 to -700 m. The amplitude of this anomaly varies along the shelf and cannot be generated by glacio-eustatic sea-level variation. Instead, we propose that a regional subsidence episode, which affects both the proximal shelf and the distal oceanic basin, was generated by convective drawdown. By combining our results with other published estimates of uplift and subsidence, a map of Australia, which shows the spatial and temporal pattern of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is presented. Most, but not all, of Australia's epeirogeny can be attributed to rapid northward motion of the Australian plate over a pre-existing pattern of convective circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czarnota, K.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N.; Winterbourne, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://supercronopio.es.ucl.ac.uk/~crlb/research/papers/conradetal04b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iceland, the Farallon slab, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the North Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle is thought to elevate or depress Earth's surface on a continental scale. Direct observation of this ''<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>'' on the seafloor, however, has remained elusive because it is obscured by isostatically sup- ported <span class="hlt">topography</span> caused by near-surface density variations. We calculate the nonisostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the North Atlantic by correcting seafloor depths for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clinton P. Conrad; Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni; Keith E. Louden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JChPh.113.7809S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> entropies from molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulation trajectories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A heuristic formula for calculating <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropies from the covariance matrix of atom-positional fluctuations was extensively tested. Because of its heuristic nature, the results obtained are compared to analytical expressions for an ensemble of harmonic oscillators, for the ideal gas, and to numerical results obtained from the equation of state for the Lennard-Jones fluid as a means of validation of the approximate formula for the entropy. The formula yields rather accurate results. The removal of translational and rotational rigid body motion and the effect of the various fitting procedures involved are discussed for the more realistic system of a ?-heptapeptide in solution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schäfer, Heiko; Mark, Alan E.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T21B0599A"> <span id="translatedtitle">French Polynesia Hotspot Swells Explained By <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Situated on the South Pacific Superswell, French Polynesia is a region characterized by numerous geophysical anomalies among which a high volcanism concentration. Seven hotspots are required to explain the observed chains, volcanism ages and geochemical trends. Many open questions still remain on the origin of these hotspot chains: are they created by passive uplift of magma due to discontinuities in the structure of the lithosphere or by the ascent of mantle plumes? In this case, at which depth do these plumes initiate in the mantle? Many geophysical observations (bathymetry, gravity, magnetism, volcanism ages..) are used to understand the unique phenomenon occurring on this region. The most useful information may come from tomography models since they provide a 3D view of the mantle. Until recently, the tomography models over the region were quite inaccurate because of the sparse location of the seismic stations. The deployment of two new seismic stations networks (BBOBS and temporary island stations) has lately remedied this failing. The resulting tomography model obtained through the inversion of Rayleigh waves provides the most accurate view of the shallowest part of the mantle (depths ? 240 km) beneath French Polynesia. Indeed, for the first time the accuracy of a tomography model is good enough to provide information about plume phenomenology in this complex region. In order to quantify the plumes effect on the seafloor, we compute the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through an instantaneous flow model. The general trend of the observed depths anomalies (highs and lows) is well recovered. For example the amplitude, location and extension of the swells associated with the Society, Macdonald and Rarotonga are accurately described by the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model. We also find that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift is associated with the Tuamotu archipelago which means that a part of the observed swell is due to the present day action of plumes. Since no volcanism ages are available over this chain, this new information may be quite important in understanding the archipelago origin. Another interesting result is that Arago, which is supposed to be an active hotspot along the Cook-Austral chain is situated on a bathymetric low which is well recovered by the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model. Since this region is associated with downwelling flows, this makes us question its hotspot origin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adam, C.; Yoshida, M.; Isse, T.; Suetsugu, D.; Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Barruol, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40018000"> <span id="translatedtitle">Annual variation of sea surface height, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and circulation in the South China Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">TOPEX\\/Poseidon satellite altimetry data from 1993 to 1999 were used to study mean annual variation of sea surface height anomaly\\u000a (SSHA) in the South China Sea (SCS) and to reproduce its climatological monthly surface <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in conjunction\\u000a with historical hydrographic data. The characters and rules of seasonal evolution of the SCS <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its upper\\u000a circulation were then</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Li; Jindian Xu; Chunsheng Jing; Risheng Wu; Xiaogang Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118..108S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of optimally filtered recent geodetic mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><title type="main">AbstractRecent geoids from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite mission (GOCE) contain useful short-scale information for the construction of a geodetic ocean mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT). The geodetic MDT is obtained from subtracting the geoid from a mean sea surface (MSS) as measured by satellite altimetry. A gainful use of the MDT and an adequate assessment needs an optimal filtering. This is accomplished here by defining a cutoff length scale dmax for the geoid and applying a Gaussian filter with half-width radius r on the MDT. A series of MDTs (GRACE, GOCE, and combined satellite-only (GOCO) solutions) is tested, using different sets of filter parameters dmax and r. Optimal global and regional dependent filter parameters are estimated. To find optimal parameters and to assess the resulting MDTs, the geostrophic surface currents induced by the filtered geodetic MDT are compared to corrected near-surface currents obtained from the Global Drifter Program (GDP). The global optimal cutoff degree and order (d/o) dmax (half-width radius r of the spatial Gaussian filter) is 160 (1.1°) for GRACE; 180 (1.1-1.2°) for 1st releases of GOCE (time- and space-wise methods) and GOCO models; and 210 (1.0 degree) for 2nd and 3rd releases of GOCE and GOCO models. The cutoff d/o is generally larger (smaller) and the filter length smaller (larger) for regions with strong, small-scale (slow, broad scale) currents. The smallest deviations from the drifter data are obtained with the GOCO03s geoid model, although deviations of other models are only slightly higher.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siegismund, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512898A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns in the evolution of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its influence on the Antarctic continent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our knowledge of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Antarctica by analysing grids of global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Cenozoic (and late Cretaceous) based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS)may have driven these <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Lester; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Eagles, Graeme; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ritsema, Jeroen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.3516P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> modeling of predictive uncertainty by regression on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainty of hydrological forecasts represents valuable information for water managers and hydrologists. This explains the popularity of probabilistic models, which provide the entire distribution of the hydrological forecast. Nevertheless, many existing hydrological models are deterministic and provide point estimates of the variable of interest. Often, the model residual error is assumed to be homoscedastic; however, practical evidence shows that the hypothesis usually does not hold. In this paper we propose a simple and effective method to quantify predictive uncertainty of deterministic hydrological models affected by heteroscedastic residual errors. It considers the error variance as a hydrological process separate from that of the hydrological forecast and therefore predictable by an independent model. The variance model is built up using time series of model residuals, and under some conditions on the same residuals, it is applicable to any deterministic model. Tools for regression analysis applied to the time series of residual errors, or better their <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, combined with physical considerations of the hydrological features of the system can help to identify the most suitable input to the variance model and the most parsimonious model structure, including <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> structure if needed. The approach has been called <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uncertainty modeling by regression on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> errors and is demonstrated by application to two test cases, both affected by heteroscedasticity but with very different <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of uncertainty. Modeling results and comparison with other approaches, i.e., a constant, a cyclostationary, and a static model of the variance, confirm the validity of the proposed method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pianosi, F.; Raso, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004OExpr..12.6278D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of the tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> using a lateral shearing interferometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the pre-corneal tear film <span class="hlt">topography</span> are studied on 21 subjects with a purpose-built lateral shearing interferometer. Interesting tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> features such as post-blink undulation, break-up, eyelid-produced bumps/ridges, bubbles and rough pre-contact lens tear surfaces were recorded. Using the calculated tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps, the effects of the tear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in visual performance, refractive surgery and ophthalmic adaptive optics are discussed in terms of wavefront RMS. The potential of lateral shearing interferometry for clinical applications such as dry eye diagnosis and contact lens performance studies is illustrated by the recorded <span class="hlt">topography</span> features such as post-blink undulation, break-up, eyelid-produced bumps/ridges, bubbles and rough tear surfaces in front of contact lenses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dubra, Alfredo; Paterson, Carl; Dainty, Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geo.mff.cuni.cz/~pauer/papers/2006%20pauer%20et%20al.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component of the geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the Venusian geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> to determine the relative importance of isostatic, elastic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensation mechanisms over different degree ranges. The geoid power spectrum plotted on a log-log scale shows a significant change in its slope at about degree 40, suggesting a transition from a predominantly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensation mechanism at lower degrees to an isostatic and\\/or elastic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Pauer; K. Fleming; O. Cadek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2376T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volumetric subduction and kinematically driven models of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Southeast Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Southeast Asia has been dominated by accretion of continental terranes and subduction around its main margins for much of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic. It is thus expected that the geological record displays some evidence of subduction-driven <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> signal through anomalous long-wavelength subsidence or uplift in the region. The spatio-temporal patterns and total amplitudes of such <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> component remain controversial. Due to the tectonic complexity of the area, untangling the mantle driven component of vertical motions from isostatic and flexural causes requires synthesis of modelled and observed data. Current forward modelling approaches based on subduction history tend to overpredict vertical motions by an order of magnitude. Forward models are sensitive to plate kinematic errors, such as incorrectly calculated plate velocities and directions, leading to potentially large errors in model output. These models are also dependant on access to high performance computing, making repetitive model runs time and resource prohibitive. The time-dependent volume of downwelling material in the mantle is determined by plate convergence rates and lithospheric thickness along subduction zones. We present a novel workflow to calculate the volume, distribution and shape of subducted slabs from global kinematic and oceanic age reconstructions. Since convective flow within the mantle is mainly driven by density heterogeneities approximated by these slabs, a simple model of the lithosphere-mantle interaction controlled by their buoyancy, viscous resistance to deformation, and mantle drag is able to produce estimations of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Implicit in this workflow is a way to detect anomalous velocities and plate motion directions from predictions based on slab pull and suction. We analyse the history of subducted volumes from 200 Ma to present day. Furthermore we generate present day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on kinematic history. We focus our analysis on the major subduction zones of Southeast Asia and examine the time dependence and amplitudes of volumetric subduction. By computing residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> we attempt to quantify present day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We also use this approach to investigate vertical motions from 50-45 Ma in the Sunda shelf, where mantle driven subsidence/uplift has been proposed due to the presence of a large unconformity potentially related to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> low. Our workflow allows quick quality control on plate kinematic models and allows <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> amplitudes and their spatio-temporal distribution to be further investigated without the need of high performance computing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Talsma, A. S.; Quevedo, L. E.; Heine, C.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23862182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects on competitive adsorption on a nanosized anatase crystal: a molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using Molecular Mechanics and Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> methods, we investigated at the atomistic level the <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects both on physisorption on different crystalline planes of TiO2 anatase and on the competitive adsorption when three different crystallographic faces were simultaneously present in an idealized nanosized crystal interacting with a simple heteroaromatic molecule experimentally used in sunlight-induced photosynthetic reaction. PMID:23862182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raffaini, Giuseppina; Melone, Lucio; Punta, Carlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54375189"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Arctic Ocean from ICESat altimetry: Sea ice freeboard, thickness, and ocean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the Arctic Ocean, the range precision (~2-3 cm) of the elevations from the GLAS lidar has allowed the determination of sea surface height in open leads essential for retrieval of sea ice freeboard, thickness, and ocean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the sea ice cover, the winter and fall campaigns have provided an additional dimension to the declining Arctic sea ice</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Kwok; J. H. Morison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioinspired surfaces with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> for active control of biofouling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> change of the surface area and topology of elastomers is used as a general, environmentally friendly approach for effectively detaching micro- and macro-fouling organisms adhered on the elastomer surfaces. Deformation of elastomer surfaces under electrical or pneumatic actuation can debond various biofilms and barnacles. The bio-inspired <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surfaces can be fabricated over large areas through simple and practical processes. This new mechanism is complementary with existing materials and methods for biofouling control. PMID:23292960</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Wang, Qiming; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; López, Gabriel P; Zhao, Xuanhe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14880518"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, plate driving forces and the African superswell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discovering the connection between processes observed to occur at the surface of the Earth and its internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> remains an essential goal in the Earth sciences. Deep mantle structure, as inferred from seismic tomography or subduction history, has been shown to account well for the observed surface gravity fieldand motions of tectonic plates. But the origin of certain large-scale features,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni; Paul G. Silver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g2p7w503q6wj5p69.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal Variations in Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Earth's Inertia Ellipsoid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal variations in the nine elements of the Earth's inertia ellipsoid due to sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were derived from TOPEX\\/POSEIDON altimeter data 1993 - 1996. The variations amount to about 10 mm in the position of the center of the Earth's inertia ellipsoid (Ei), 0.15'' in the polar axis direction of Eiand to about 0.0003 in the denominator of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milan Burša; Jan Kouba; Karel Rad?j; Scott A. True; Viliam Vatrt; Marie Vojtíšková</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49265696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous bathymetry, 3D edge driven convection, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the western Atlantic passive margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of topographic\\/bathymetric anomalies trend along the western passive plate margin of the North Atlantic and are characterized roughly by uplift offshore on the ocean plate and subsidence at the continental margin. The features—determined from two independent data sets—are not constant along the strike of the plate boundary, however. The anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span>\\/bathymetry is considered to be a surface <span class="hlt">dynamic</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Travis Ramsay; Russell Pysklywec</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolED...4..889B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insight into collision zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">topography</span>: numerical modelling results and observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolE....3..387B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insight into collision zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">topography</span>: numerical modelling results and observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50302682"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow of rats using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pinhole SPECT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PET and SPECT have been widely used to investigate the physiological function of animals in vivo. However, little efforts have been done to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> physiological parameters, i.e. blood flow of small animals. The present study was aimed at the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of myocardial blood flow of rats by means of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SPECT fitted with a pinhole collimator with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toshiyuki Aoi; Hiroshi Watabe; Hossain M. Deloar; Mikako Ogawa; Noboru Teramoto; Nobuyuki Kudomi; Toshihiro Oota; Kyeong Min Kim; Tetsuya Matsuda; Hidehiro Iida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2544M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at convergent mountain belts, and gravity anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and associated gravity anomalies above a layer resembling continental lithosphere, whose mantle part is gravitationally unstable, depend strongly on the ratio of viscosities of the lower-density crustal part to that of the mantle part. For linear stability analysis, growth rates of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities depend largely on the wave number, or wavelength, of the perturbation to the base of the lithosphere and weakly on this viscosity ratio, on plausible density differences among crust, mantle lithosphere, and asthenosphere, and on ratios of crustal to total lithospheric thicknesses. For all likely densities, viscosities, and thicknesses, the Moho is drawn down (pushed up) where the base of the lithosphere subsides (rises). For large viscosities of crust compared to mantle lithosphere (ratios > ~30), a sinking and thickening mantle lithosphere also pulls the surface down. For smaller viscosity ratios, crustal thickening overwhelms the descent of the Moho, and the surface rises (subsides) above regions where mantle lithosphere thickens and descends (thins and rises). Ignoring vertical variations of viscosity within the crust and mantle lithosphere, we find that the maximum surface height occurs for approximately equal viscosities of crust and mantle lithosphere. For large crust/mantle lithosphere viscosity ratios, gravity anomalies follow those of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, with negative (positive) free-air anomalies over regions of descent (ascent). In this case, <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies are smaller than those that would occur if the lithosphere were in isostatic equilibrium. Hence, flow-induced stresses—<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pressure and deviatoric stress—create smaller <span class="hlt">topography</span> than that expected for an isostatic state. For small crust/mantle viscosity ratios (< ~10), however, calculated surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at long wavelengths is greater than it would be if the lithospheric column were in isostatic equilibrium, and at short wavelengths local isostasy predicts surface deflections of the wrong sign. For the range of wavelengths appropriate for convergent mountain belts (~150-600 km), calculated gravity anomalies are negative over regions of lithospheric thickening, especially when allowance for flexural rigidity of a surface layer is included. Correspondingly, calculated values of admittance, the ratio of Fourier transforms of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and free-air gravity anomalies, are also negative for wave numbers relevant to mountain belts. For essentially all mountain belts, however, measured free-air anomalies and admittance are positive. Whether gravitational instability of the lithosphere affects the structure of convergent belts or not, its contribution to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain belts seems to be small compared to that predicted for isostatic balance of crustal thickness variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molnar, Peter; Houseman, Gregory A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.143..821P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inversion for mantle viscosity profiles constrained by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid, and their estimated errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a joint inversion of Earth's geoid and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> for radial mantle viscosity structure using a number of models of interior density heterogeneities, including an assessment of the error budget. We identify three classes of errors: those related to the density perturbations used as input, those due to insufficiently constrained observables, and those due to the limitations of our analytical model. We estimate the amplitudes of these errors in the spectral domain. Our minimization function weights the squared deviations of the compared quantities with the corresponding errors, so that the components with more reliability contribute to the solution more strongly than less certain ones. We develop a quasi-analytical solution for mantle flow in a compressible, spherical shell with Newtonian rheology, allowing for continuous radial variations of viscosity, together with a possible reduction of viscosity within the phase change regions due to the effects of transformational superplasticity. The inversion reveals three distinct families of viscosity profiles, all of which have an order of magnitude stiffening within the lower mantle, with a soft D'' layer below. The main distinction among the families is the location of the lowest-viscosity region-directly beneath the lithosphere, just above 400km depth or just above 670km depth. All profiles have a reduction of viscosity within one or more of the major phase transformations, leading to reduced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, so that whole-mantle convection is consistent with small surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panasyuk, Svetlana V.; Hager, Bradford H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA556755"> <span id="translatedtitle">GPU Parallelization of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Nodal Coordinate Formulation for Applications in Flexible Multibody <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has been widely used to carry out the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> analysis of flexible bodies that undergo large rotation and large deformation. This formulation is consistent with the nonlinear theory of continuum mechanics ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Melanz D. Negrut M. Leatherwood N. Khude P. Jayakumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27159580"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative choreographies in rigid body <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions\\u000a that are periodic in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone\\u000a solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution.\\u000a The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. V. Borisov; A. A. Kilin; I. S. Mamaev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51339935"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> rigid body with a fixed point</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred forty nine selected papers (published in the twentieth century) which deal with the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of solids having a fixed point are analyzed. The various forms of the respective <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and kinematic equations of motion are studied, and their solutions are classified. The principal developmental trends in this field of mechanics are identified and their current status is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. N. Fradlin; V. M. Sliusarenko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RCD....13..204B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative choreographies in rigid body <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://thallium.bsd.uchicago.edu/RouxLab/pdf/wang_bj_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Binding Free Energy Calculations Using Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Simulations with Restraining Potentials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (standard) binding free energy of eight FK506-related ligands to FKBP12 is calculated using free energy perturbation molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (FEP\\/MD) simulations with explicit solvent. A number of features are implemented to improve the accuracy and enhance the convergence of the calculations. First, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy is decomposed into sequential steps during which the ligand-surrounding interactions as well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiyao Wang; Yuqing Deng; Benoît Roux</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60491194"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> salt <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from excess maturity and thermal anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Danish North Sea area hydrocarbon occurrences are often related to salt structures. Assessment of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolution of salt structures and possible related hydrocarbon traps is therefore important in order to predict the potential of a given structure. A new method for assessing the time of onset of diapirism and salt flow-speed from inversion of thermal indicators and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. O. Thomsen; J. A. Korstgard; I. Lerche</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.364..157G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> control on Patagonian relief evolution as inferred from low temperature thermochronology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We combine low-temperature thermochronology apatite (U-Th)/He data and semi-analytical modeling of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> to investigate the role of slab window and climate on cooling/heating history and relief evolution of the Patagonian Cordillera. In particular, we discuss a new thermochronological dataset consisting in 22 samples divided into four elevation transects. Sampling sites were chosen at the same distance from the trench (250-300 km), on the leeward eastern side of the orogen, for latitudes ranging between 45°S and 48°S to detect a potential northward migration of the thermal signal associated with the northward migration of the slab window. We show that history of heating and cooling for this region of the southern Andes compares well with the northward migration history of slab window. In particular, a phase of heating is recorded at 15-10 Ma to the south and at ?5 Ma to the north, preceding by ˜5 Ma the opening of the slab window beneath Patagonia, followed by a phase of rapid cooling and denudation to the south, with values as high as 650 m/Myr between 5 and 3 Ma. We also show that present-day latitudinal topographic variations require a support by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with slab window.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillaume, Benjamin; Gautheron, Cécile; Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Martinod, Joseph; Roddaz, Martin; Douville, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6897Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using global paleogeographic datasets towards ground-truthing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Earth's surface is subject to constant change due to tectonic, surface processes and mantle-driven vertical motions. While the effects of mantle convection can be approximated via convection models, there is a lack of temporally and spatially consistent data at global scale to ground-truth these models. We reverse-engineered data from published, independent global and regional paleogeographic map sets using GIS and the open-source plate tectonic modelling software GPlates and constructed a set of time-dependent, global paleo-shorelines spanning the Cretaceous Period. Within this framework, we then verify the paleoshorelines against geological maps and compute the variations between the different paleoshoreline models, creating a hybrid dataset out of the areas of highest confidence. Using this hybrid dataset, we compute the amount of change in the lateral shoreline position between individual timesteps to derive spatio-temporal patterns of relative subsidence and uplift. By taking stable cratonic blocks as our geographic base reference, we derive the tilting of these blocks and compute hypsometric curves through the amount of flooding. For our analysis we utilize a global, self-consistent set of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> plate polygons, sediment thickness data, and a time-dependent collection of rift basins to discriminate between areas undergoing lithospheric deformation and stable continental regions. A geospatial proximity analysis is performed to determine the spatio-temporal relationship to adjacent plate boundary types. We then compare our results with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeo, L. G.; Heine, C.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5537O"> <span id="translatedtitle">The eustatic chimera: isn't the Cenomanian maximum flood a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> puzzle?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">More and more, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is predicted to seriously control sea level, which challenges the concept of eustasy, but field evidence are sparse. In order to evaluate the space and time evolution of relative sea level variations, we made paleogeographic reconstructions for three consecutive stages around the presumed Cenomanian maximum flood. For that purpose, we compiled stratigraphic charts and existing paleogeographic maps to reconstruct shorelines at a global scale and infer transgressive and regressive phases. The Cenomanian transgressive phase is essentially present around the Tethys, whereas regression prevails at higher latitudes. Furthermore, diachronicity accompanies the presumed sea level high, for the trend reverses between the three stages in the northern hemisphere while it further subsides in the southern one. These reconstructions therefore suggest that an evolving degree two structure of uplift and subsidence may be more endemic of this period than uniform sea level change and thus, they better recall internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> than eustasy. Indeed, flooding accompanies the Tethyan subduction zone, while regressions are located above spreading oceans. We interpret relative sea level change during the late Cretaceous as the traces of the negative <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence above the Tehyan slab in the one hand, and in the other hand of the superplumes (African in particular) that lead to the breakup of the Atlantic. We further confront our results to the predictions of Steinberger, who provides estimates of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the latest Albian. We conformably observe, for instance, positive anomalies in North America, in the Baltic area, or in South Africa, but the model mostly fails to predict the observe diachronicity in vertical ground motion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostanciaux, E.; Robin, C.; Guillocheau, F.; Trotin, G.; Husson, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.1503G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age distributions and <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> changing hydrologic systems: Exploring <span class="hlt">topography</span>-driven flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural systems are driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> forcings that change in time as well as space, behavior that is inherited by the system flow field and results in time-varying age distributions (ADs). This work presents a review of the mathematical tools and solution approaches used to model ADs in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> time-varying flow systems. A simple conceptual, numerical model is then used to explore the role of flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in ADs for <span class="hlt">topography</span>-driven flow systems. This model is an analog for regional groundwater systems and hyporheic zones. This model demonstrates that relatively small fluctuations in the forcing, even though importantly affecting the flow in the system, can have minimal effects in ADs. However, as the intensity of fluctuation increases, still within the bounds observed in natural systems, ADs in shallow parts of the system become highly sensitive to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flow conditions, leading to considerable changes in the moments and modality of the distributions with time. In particular, transient flow can lead to emergence of new modes in the AD, which would not be present under steady flow conditions. The discrepancy observed between ADs under steady and transient flow conditions is explained by enhancement of mixing due to temporal variations in the flow field. ADs in deeper parts of the system are characterized by multimodality and tend to be more stable over time even for large forcing fluctuations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8409S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving Surface Geostrophic Current from a GOCE derived Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> using Edge Enhancing Diffusion filtering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increase in the geoid resolution provided by the Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission, the ocean's Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (MDT) can be now estimated with an accuracy that has not been seen before using geodetic methods. Nevertheless, it still needs to be filtered in order to remove the noise in the signal. Here we deal with the capabilities of the Edge Enhancing Diffusion (EED) filters for filtering the MDT in order to improve the computation of the surface geostrophic currents (SGC). It is proved how this method conserves all the advantages that the non-linear isotropic filters have over the standard linear isotropic Gaussian filters. Moreover, the EED is shown to be more stable and almost independent of the local errors. This fact makes this filtering strategy preferred when filtering noisy surfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sánchez Reales, J. M.; Andersen, O. B.; Vigo, M. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PEPI..224...21B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of plumes in a compressible mantle with phase changes: Implications for phase boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While plumes rising from the deep mantle may be responsible for hotspot volcanism, their existence has not yet been unambiguously confirmed by seismological studies. Several seismic studies reported that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the 670-km discontinuity is flat below hotspots, which disagrees with the elevation expected due to its negative Clapeyron slope and plume excess temperature. An improved numerical method that includes compressibility and consistently implemented phase transitions is used to study plume evolution in the Earth's mantle. The influence of latent heat on plume behavior for varying convective vigor and Clapeyron slope of the endothermic phase change at 670 km depth is studied in axisymmetric spherical shell geometry. Minor differences in plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are found for models considering and neglecting latent heat. Three regimes of plume behavior at the endothermic phase boundary are observed: besides complete plume inhibition and penetration along the symmetry axis an intermediate regime in which the plume forms a ring around the symmetry axis is found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bossmann, Andrea B.; van Keken, Peter E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T51F..03R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> driving landscape evolution in central Rocky Mountains? (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high relief of the modern Rocky Mountain landscape formed in the late Cenozoic by downcutting of a fluvial network that links a series of easily eroded sedimentary basins across relatively resistant crystalline cores of adjacent ranges. The connection between late Cenozoic stream incision and epeirogenic uplift has long been hypothesized, but has been difficult to test, in part because a mechanism for regional uplift has been elusive. I propose that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in response to steepening of Farallon slab subduction following the Laramide orogeny, may have been the driver of regional rock uplift. A numerical model of stream incision and its associated flexural isostatic response indicates that a simple, steady rate of regional tilting to the east - an uplift pattern predicted by models of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the central Rockies and consistent with field data showing tilted strata in the Great Plains - coupled to local rock uplift associated with the Yellowstone hot spot is sufficient to produce the regional pattern of stream incision observed in the landscape. A gradient in epeirogenic rock uplift of ~1 km along the north-south axis of the central Rockies, declining to zero 1000 km to the east, generates modeled incision amounts of 200-950 m in sedimentary basins of the region. Regional variability in incision is caused by spatial variability in rock uplift and by the distribution of relatively resistant bedrock within the region. Although climate change may not be the ultimate driver of long-term (106 yr) stream incision in the region, ages of Quaternary landforms suggest that shorter-term (105 yr) fluctuations in incision rates may be controlled by climate fluctuations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riihimaki, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3720906"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a Novel Spine and Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System for <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Spinal Curvature Analysis during Gait</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction The assessment of spinal deformities with rasterstereography can enhance the understanding, as well as can reduce the number of x-rays needed. However, to date this technique only allows measurements under static conditions. Since it would be of great value to be able to also analyze the spine in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions, the present study evaluated a novel rasterstereographic system. Materials and Methods A new rasterstereographic device was evaluated in a comparison with the gold standard in motion analysis, the VICON system. After initial testing using 12 flat infrared markers adhered to a solid plate, the two systems were evaluated with the markers adhered onto the backs of 8 test subjects. Four triangles were defined using the markers, and the sides of each triangle were measured under static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions. Results On the solid plate, the sides of the 4 triangles were measured with a measuring tape and then by the two optical systems. Rasterstereography showed a high accuracy in marker detection on the solid plate. Under <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions, with the subjects walking on a treadmill, the rasterstereographically-measured side lengths were compared with the lengths measured by the VICON system as an assessment of marker detection. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the systems, differing only 0.07–1.1% for all sides of the four triangles with both systems. Discussion A novel rasterstereographic measurement device that allows surface and spine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions was assessed. The accuracy of this system was with one millimeter on a solid plate and during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> measurements, to the gold standard for motion detection. The advantage of rasterstereography is that it can be used to determine a three-dimensional surface map and also allows the analysis of the underlying spine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betsch, Marcel; Wild, Michael; Johnstone, Brian; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Kuhlmann, Britta; Rapp, Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.P12B1062P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus - <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Interior, Gravity Field and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Analyzed by Multiresolution Methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of our effort is to find such an interior structure of Venus which best predicts the geoid data. Our models are based on different kinds of <span class="hlt">topography</span> support. The predicted data are compared with observed ones on the basis of common spectral methods and localization methods. First, we apply the principle of isostasy and we look for an average apparent depth of compensation (ADC). For the whole spectrum, dominated by the low degrees, a 165 km depth is found which might correspond to a bottom of the lithosphere. However, the predicted geoid does not fit well to the observed data in the whole spectral interval. Studying the degree-dependent ADC and the admittance function we obtain a uniform depth of compensation around 35 km for degrees higher than 40. For the geoid at degrees lower than 40 we propose a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> origin. This hypothesis is investigated in the framework of the internal loading theory. Assuming that the buoyancy force does not vary with depth (which roughly corresponds to a plume-like style of mantle convection) we can well explain about 90% of both geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The best fit to the data and the observed admittance function is found for the viscosity profile with a ~100 km thick lithosphere and a viscosity increase by factor 10-100 through the mantle. Second, we analyze our results by means of multiresolution methods. This technique is generally a useful tool for filtering the full-spectra signal. In comparison with the spherical harmonics the wavelet base (or some other suitable function) is well localized (i.e. has non-zero amplitudes only in a vicinity of the point of interest). So using this method we obtain true field anomalies without artificial oscillations. In our study of geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus we can also look at localized "qualitative" fields: correlation and admittance. There are two major approaches - spectral one presented by Simons et al. (1997) and spatial one presented by Kido et al. (2003). We use the later one motivated by a possible improvement of resolution in the selected regions. For an intermediate and short wavelengths the spherical harmonic expansions of the geoid contain too much of global signature which makes the local features unreadable. In contrast, the use of a localization function gives us a clear picture with individual features. This could be a base for intuitive comparison of structures on the given scale - in our case observed and predicted fields. Localization of the qualitative functions as of correlation or admittance could give us information about observed geophysical models as well as about degree of agreement with our results and spatial errors. References: Kido, M., D.A. Yuen, and A.P. Vincent, Continuous wavelet-like filter for a spherical surface and its application to localized admittance function on Mars, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 135, 1-16, 2003. M. Simons, S. C. Solomon, and B. H. Hager, Localization of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Constraints on the tectonics and mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of Venus,, Geophys. J. Int., 131, 24-44, 1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauer, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....90...58M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, crustal tectonics, and surface processes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Romanian Carpathians: A geomorphological approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tectonic processes and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle flow impart a unique imprint on <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geomorphic responses over time scales of 104 to 106 yr. First-order topographic features in a tectonically active landscape represent ways to quantitatively characterise the interaction between crustal tectonics, mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and geomorphology, providing a basis for modelling landscape evolution. We analysed the topographic features of the Romanian Carpathians, a mountain range characterised by two straight segments connected by a narrow curvature zone. The deformation started in the Late Jurassic and includes two collisional phases during the Cretaceous and Miocene. We examined the tectonic geomorphology of the Romanian Carpathians focusing on regional and local topographic setting, drainage pattern, and river long profiles. Our main database is composed of DEM-based topographic analysis, supplemented with field investigations in the Sl?nic River basin, located in the Carpathian curvature zone. The longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the southern Carpathians are close to the equilibrium shape, in agreement with the older emersion of the chain. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers draining the eastern and southeastern Carpathians are in a transient state of disequilibrium as a consequence of a more recent emersion of the chain and of the Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic activity in the Bend Zone. Filtering the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at different wavelengths, we observe a relative depression in correspondence with the Carpathian Bend, where mantle seismicity and a high-velocity zone in tomography data are located and commonly interpreted as related to an almost inactive and dying subduction zone. Contrastingly, the filtered <span class="hlt">topography</span> presents a high in the Transylvanian basin, where tomography data show a low-velocity area, interpreted as upwelling of hot asthenospheric materials. We hypothesise that local mantle convection generates positive and negative <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. In the Sl?nic River basin, the foredeep deposits (Middle Miocene-Upper Pliocene) are folded and tilted, suggesting active compression beginning in the Lower Pleistocene. During the Middle-Late Pleistocene and Holocene, four terrace orders developed by the interaction between regional uplift and climate changes. The Carpathian <span class="hlt">topography</span> results from a diachronous uplift superimposed on crustal tectonics. This diachronous uplift influenced the chain <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the shape of river longitudinal profiles, and the formation of strath terraces. Crustal tectonics dominated the hydrographic net organisation. In correspondence with the Carpathian Bend and the Transylvanian basin, mantle flow driven by slab pull produced negative and positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molin, P.; Fubelli, G.; Nocentini, M.; Sperini, S.; Ignat, P.; Grecu, F.; Dramis, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3908...38A"> <span id="translatedtitle">New clinical instrument for the early detection of cataract using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering and corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered light and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B.; King, James F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9337P"> <span id="translatedtitle">GOCE studies of mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By combining the GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) derived Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (MDT) and altimetric sea level anomalies (SLA) with hydrographic data an estimate of the mean and variables transport of Atlantic Water entering the Nordic seas is obtained for the period 1993 - 2010 at a spatial resolution of 100 km. The mean inflow of Atlantic Water (Salinity >35) through the Faroe-Shetland Channel is estimated to approximately 4.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m^3s^-1). Across the Iceland Faroe Ridge the mean volume transport of Atlantic Water is 3.5 Sv. In comparison, the mean transport of the two branches of Atlantic Water crossing the Svinøy section the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current and the Norwegian Atlantic Front Current is respectively 3.8 Sv and 3.0 Sv. This is in close agreement with previous estimates. Taking benefit of the temporal variability observed in the SLA and hydrography data the seasonal cycle in the transport of the inflowing Atlantic Water reveals a consistent pattern with a maximum of 9.3 Sv during the winter months (Des - Feb), and a minimum of 5.4 Sv during the summer months (Jun - Aug). The winter maximum was almost twice as large as the summer minimum, and a preliminary analysis suggests that the strength of Atlantic flow toward the Arctic reflect the strength of the regional wind forcing (NAO).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pripp, Trond; Johannessen, Johnny; Eldevik, Tor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6438B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and transport in two boundary currents from in situ and satellite observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocean mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) is essential for deriving total surface geostrophic currents and estimating transport from hydrography. A number of MDTs are now available that rely on different combinations of observations and assumptions. The estimates of MDT in boundary currents regions are of particular concern because these currents transport considerable mass but are difficult to sample due to their small size and high variability. We create and evaluate several MDTs and resulting transports in subtropical and subantarctic boundary currents near New Zealand by combining Argo float trajectories and altimeter height anomalies with a series of hydrographic and current meter observations collected under two altimeter tracks. In the subtropical current the mean surface velocities derived from the CNES-CLS09 MDT and those derived from Argo float trajectories and shipboard hydrography are similar within error estimates, suggesting these two independent measures of the barotropic component are similar. The surface velocities estimated from altimetry and shipboard hydrography and the level of no motion typically used in the region are less consistent with those from the other MDTs and result in considerably different transport. The results suggest that the growing archive of Argo float trajectories is already useful in resolving the MDT in boundary currents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowen, Melissa; Sutton, Philip; Roemmich, Dean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.9009C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> response to differential rates of temperature change over sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Lough Corrib, Ireland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enclosed water body, subjected to a uniform surface heat flux, exhibits differential rates of temperature change between shallow peripheral waters and adjacent deeper waters. The result is the formation of horizontal temperature gradients in regions of sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span>, referred to as topographic temperature gradients (TTGs). An integrated observational and numerical study has been undertaken, considering the impact of TTGs on the basin-scale <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of Lough Corrib, Ireland. Temperature time series recorded during the winter of 2001 revealed sustained surface temperature gradients parallel to sloping boundaries. Cold, dense water formed in peripheral regions of the lake cascaded down slope under the influence of gravity, forming density plumes that extended over horizontal scales of kilometers. Plumes were typically 8-12 m thick and traveled down slope at speeds in the range 4-10 cm s-1. Down-slope cascading of cool water was typically initiated when the daily mean surface heat flux fell below -55 W m-2, meaning cascading occurred almost persistently throughout the period of seasonal cooling (from early September until early January). While cascading plumes exhibited a diurnal periodicity, individual cascading events were linked to the passing of weather systems, persisting for between 5 hours and 3.6 days. The cascading of dense water formed an important mechanism for the transport of peripheral waters to depth, greatly increasing rates of lake overturning and preventing stagnation during cool, calm conditions. The offshore transport owing to cascading was balanced by a weaker and more diffuse onshore flow within the upper 5 m of the water column. Quasi-geostrophic alongshore currents, evident in the modeled velocity field, formed a basin-scale anticyclonic gyre during calm conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cannaby, H.; White, M.; Bowyer, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.325...76F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">topography</span>, rates of extension and mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the actively-extending Italian Apennines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the mechanism driving active extension in the central and southern Italian Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard, we compare spatial variations in upper crustal strain-rate measured across exposed fault scarps since 15 ± 3 ka with data on cumulative upper-crustal strain and topographic elevation, and free-air gravity, P-wave tomography and SKS splitting delay times that are a proxy for strain in the mantle. High extensional strain-rates across the Apennines since 15 ± 3 ka (0.4-3.1 mm/yr along 90 km transects) occur in two areas (Lazio-Abruzzo; SE Campania and Basilicata) where values for finite extensional strains that have developed since 2-3 Ma are highest (2-7 km cumulative throw), and where mean elevation in 5 × 90 km NE-SW boxes is > 600 m; the intervening area (NW Campania and Molise) with < 600 m mean elevation in 5 × 90 km boxes has extension-rates < 0.4 mm/yr and lower values for finite extensional strains (< 2 km cumulative throw). These two areas with high upper-crustal strain-rates overlie mantle that has relatively-long spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (1.2-1.8 s) indicating relatively-high mantle strains and free-air gravity values (140-160 mGals); the intervening area of lower extension-rate has shorter spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (0.8-1.2 s) and lower free-air gravity values (120 mGals). The two areas with high upper crustal strain-rates and strain, mean elevation, and mantle strain, coincide with the northern and southern edges of a slab window in the Tyrrhenian-Apennines subducting plate that has been inferred from published P-wave tomography. Together these correlations suggest that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> support of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> by mantle flow through the slab window may control the present day upper crustal strain-rate field in the Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faure Walker, J. P.; Roberts, G. P.; Cowie, P. A.; Papanikolaou, I.; Michetti, A. M.; Sammonds, P.; Wilkinson, M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Phillips, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51238693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mantle Flow, <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Rift-Flank Uplift of Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Red Sea is flanked by highlands. To the east, the Arabian platform is broadly tilted along an axis that runs parallel to the sea, and the long tail of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been described as a classic example of `rift-flank uplift' [Wernicke, 1985]. A suite of thermal and mechanical effects have been invoked to derive generic mechanisms for flank</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. L. Daradich; J. X. Mitrovica; R. N. Pysklywec; S. D. Willett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18679470"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> profile measurement of large moderately flat optical surfaces with high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a novel procedure for <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, highly-accurate profile measurement with high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range for large, moderately flat optical surfaces. The profile is reconstructed from many sub-profiles measured by a small interferometer which is scanned along the specimen under test. Additional angular and lateral distance measurements are used to account for the tilt of the interferometer and its precise lateral location during the measurements. Accurate positioning of the interferometer is not required. The algorithm proposed for the analysis of the data allows systematic errors of the interferometer and height offsets of the scanning stage to be eliminated and it does not reduce the resolution. By utilizing a realistic simulation scenario we show that accuracies in the nanometer range can be reached. PMID:18679470</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiegmann, A; Schulz, M; Elster, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554760"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of the high-frequency magnetic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in high-{Tc} superconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors review recent measurements of the high-frequency <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> magnetic susceptibility in the high-T{sub c} superconducting systems La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. Experiments were performed using the chopper spectrometers HET and MARI at the ISIS spallation source. The authors have placed their measurements on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity scale, this allows systematic trends to be seen and comparisons with theory to be made. They find that the insulating S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic parent compounds show a dramatic renormalization in the spin wave intensity. The effect of doping on the response is to cause broadenings in wave vector and large redistributions of spectral weight in frequency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayden, S.M. [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.; Aeppli, G. [NEC Research Inst., Princeton, NJ (United States); Dai, P.; Mook, H.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perring, T.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Cheong, S.W. [Lucent Technologies, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.; Fisk, Z. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogan, F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering; Mason, T.E. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> modeling to estimate future <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative numbers of physicians. Method We constructed a forecasting model using a system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis. Result & conclusion As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 2008–2030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP41D0736J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Erosion, Weathering and Stepped <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in the Sierra Nevada, California; Quantifying the <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Hybrid (Soil-Bedrock) Landscapes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of granitic landscapes are regulated, in part, by bimodal weathering, which produces granular soils and expanses of bare rock ranging from meter-scale boulders to mountain-scale domes. Conceptual models for the evolution of granitic landscapes date back to Gilbert and Penck. Yet few studies have been able to realistically predict the co-occurrence of bedrock and granular soil and its implications for mountain-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> -- despite marked advances in quantitative landscape evolution modeling over the last few decades. Here we use terrain analysis, together with cosmogenic-nuclide measurements of erosion and weathering, to quantitatively explore Wahrhaftig's decades-old hypothesis for the development of “stepped <span class="hlt">topography</span>” by differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite. According to this hypothesis, soil-mantled granite weathers much faster than bare granite; thus random erosional exposure of bare rock leads to an alternating sequence of steep, slowly weathering bedrock “steps” and gently sloped, but rapidly weathering, soil-mantled “treads”. Such treads and steps are purported to collectively account for ~2000 m of relief in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, implying that the mechanisms behind the formation of stepped <span class="hlt">topography</span> may also account for development of mountain-scale relief in granitic landscapes. Our preliminary analysis of granitic terrain in the Sierra Nevada range suggests that steep steps often grade into gentle treads, consistent with the stepped <span class="hlt">topography</span> hypothesis. Our data and analysis further corroborate the hypothesis with indications that bare granitic rocks erode much more slowly than their soil-mantled counterparts. This suggests that the coupling between soil production and denudation in granitic landscapes harbors a crucial tipping point; if soils are stripped to bedrock, erosion slows and soil formation is restrained to the point that bare rock can persist and rise in relief relative to surrounding soil-mantled terrain. Contrary to one of the main underpinnings of Wahrhaftig’s hypothesis, our observations suggest that the presence or absence of soil cannot be predicted from hillslope gradients alone. Instead, we observe a mix-and-match of soil and bare rock on gently sloped treads and steeply sloped steps. This raises the possibility that exposure of bedrock arises from contrasts in material properties rather than from random erosional exposure, as suggested by the hypothesis. To explore this possibility, we quantified how bedrock strength, mineralogy and bulk chemistry vary among the granitic rock types exposed at our sites. Considered together, our data and analysis contribute to improved understanding of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of hybrid (bedrock/soil) landscapes by shedding light on feedbacks among erosion, rock strength, mineralogy and degree of chemical weathering in granitic terrain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jessup, B. S.; Miller, S. N.; Kirchner, J. W.; Riebe, C. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SJADS...8.1136S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stability of Wavetrains Can Explain Spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Reaction-Diffusion Systems of Lambda-Omega Type</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lambda-omega class of reaction-diffusion equations has received considerable attention because they are more amenable to mathematical investigation than other oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems and include the normal form of any reaction-diffusion system with scalar diffusion close to a standard supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Despite this, detailed studies of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> predicted by numerical simulations have mostly been restricted to regions of parameter space in which stable wavetrains (periodic traveling waves) are selected by the initial or boundary conditions; we use the term "stability" to denote spectral stability on the real line. Here we consider the emergent spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on large bounded domains, with Dirichlet conditions at one boundary and Neumann conditions at the other. Previous studies have established a parameter threshold below which stable wavetrains are generated by the Dirichlet boundary condition. We use numerical continuation techniques to analyze the spectral stability of wavetrain solutions, and we identify a second stability threshold, above which the selected wavetrain is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable. In addition, we prove that the onset of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability always occurs through a complex conjugate pair of branch points in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrum, which greatly simplifies the detection of this threshold. In the parameter region in which the spectra of the selected waves indicate instability but <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability, our numerical simulations predict so-called "source-sink" <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: bands of visibly regular periodic traveling waves that are separated by localized defects. Beyond the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability threshold our simulations predict irregular spatiotemporal behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Matthew J.; Rademacher, Jens D. M.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844742"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> binding free energy calculations using molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations with restraining potentials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (standard) binding free energy of eight FK506-related ligands to FKBP12 is calculated using free energy perturbation molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (FEP/MD) simulations with explicit solvent. A number of features are implemented to improve the accuracy and enhance the convergence of the calculations. First, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy is decomposed into sequential steps during which the ligand-surrounding interactions as well as various biasing potentials restraining the translation, orientation, and conformation of the ligand are turned "on" and "off." Second, sampling of the ligand conformation is enforced by a restraining potential based on the root mean-square deviation relative to the bound state conformation. The effect of all the restraining potentials is rigorously unbiased, and it is shown explicitly that the final results are independent of all artificial restraints. Third, the repulsive and dispersive free energy contribution arising from the Lennard-Jones interactions of the ligand with its surrounding (protein and solvent) is calculated using the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen separation. This separation also improves convergence of the FEP/MD calculations. Fourth, to decrease the computational cost, only a small number of atoms in the vicinity of the binding site are simulated explicitly, while all the influence of the remaining atoms is incorporated implicitly using the generalized solvent boundary potential (GSBP) method. With GSBP, the size of the simulated FKBP12/ligand systems is significantly reduced, from approximately 25,000 to 2500. The computations are very efficient and the statistical error is small ( approximately 1 kcal/mol). The calculated binding free energies are generally in good agreement with available experimental data and previous calculations (within approximately 2 kcal/mol). The present results indicate that a strategy based on FEP/MD simulations of a reduced GSBP atomic model sampled with conformational, translational, and orientational restraining potentials can be computationally inexpensive and accurate. PMID:16844742</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Jiyao; Deng, Yuqing; Roux, Benoît</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1995118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> method for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energy of liquids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hypothetical scanning (HS) method is a general approach for calculating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) or molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) techniques. With HS applied to a fluid, each configuration i of the sample is reconstructed by gradually placing the molecules in their positions at i using transition probabilities (TPs). With our recent version of HS, called HSMC-EV, each TP is calculated from MC simulations, where the simulated particles are excluded from the volume reconstructed in previous steps. In this paper we remove the excluded volume (EV) restriction, replacing it by a “free volume” (FV) approach. For liquid argon, HSMC-FV leads to an improvement in efficiency over HSMC-EV by a factor of 2–3. Importantly, the FV treatment greatly simplifies the HS implementation for liquids, allowing a much more natural application of the method for MD simulations. Given the success and popularity of MD, the present development of the HSMD method for liquids is an important advancement for HS methodology. Results for the HSMD-FV approach presented here agree well with our HSMC and thermodynamic integration results. The efficiency of HSMD-FV is equivalent to HSMC-EV. The potential use of HSMC(MD)-FV in protein systems with explicit water is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, Ronald P.; Meirovitch, Hagai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H42B..07M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large Eddy Simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over multi-scale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface drag model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many flows especially in geophysical land surface-atmosphere coupling processes involve turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces. Often these surfaces have multi-scale height distributions. For large eddy simulation (LES), when the filter scale is such that only the large-scale portion of the roughness elements of the surface can be resolved explicitly on the computational grid, new techniques need to be developed. Here we consider LES of flows over rough surfaces with power-law height spectra, as often encountered in natural terrains. In LES, the surface is decomposed into resolved and subgrid-scale height contributions. The effects of the unresolved small-scale height fluctuations are modeled using a local equilibrium wall model (log-law or Monin-Obukhov similarity), but specification of the required aerodynamic roughness length involves an ad-hoc parameter called the roughness parameter. A novel <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> methodology is proposed based on test-filtering the surface forces and requiring that the total drag force be independent of filter scale or resolution. This <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface roughness model is inspired by the Germano identity traditionally used to determine model parameters for closing subgrid-scale stresses in the bulk of a turbulent flow. A series of LES of fully developed flow over rough surfaces are performed. We firstly consider isotropic stochastic surfaces built using random-phase Fourier modes with prescribed power-law spectra. Results show that the approach yields well-defined, rapidly converging, values of the roughness parameter. Effects of spatial resolution and landscape spectral exponent are investigated. We also consider the case of two fluvial-like anisotropic landscapes. The first is a fluvial-like <span class="hlt">topography</span> built through numerical solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. The second is rescaled <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Texas) from the U.S. National Elevation Dataset. These landscapes are dominated by anisotropic modes that have emerged through geomorphological erosion processes. We find that the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> approach finds stable solutions also for surfaces with such anisotropies: results are most accurate for cases where the LES grid- and test-filter width are within the landscape 'self-similar' range. Weaknesses are reported for cases where spectral exponent changes with wavenumber, i.e. for cases with scale-dependence where the underlying assumption of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> approach (scale-invariance) breaks down. Supported by NSF (AGS-1045189). We also acknowledge Profs. P. Passalacqua and F. Porte-Agel for providing the authors with KPZ solution fields for fluvial landscape applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meneveau, C. V.; Anderson, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5262981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> effects from equation of state on <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and geoid anomalies due to internal loading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of mantle compressibility on geoid and topographic signatures caused by internal loading in the mantle are studied. For a Cartesian compressible model the Green's functions of these geophysical signatures are determined by solving a two-point boundary value problem with depth for each horizontal wave number associated with the density anomaly. Various types of equations of state have been considered, which include both constant and depth-dependent thermodynamic parameters. Surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are not changed too much by the effects of mantle compressibility, even for long wavelengths. The deformation of bottom boundary is not seriously influenced by mantle compressionibility, except for long wavelengths and large viscosity contrasts between the upper and lower mantles. Geoid signals with horizontal wavelengths, exceeding 10,000 km, can be greatly influenced by mantle compressibility. For large viscosity contrasts, differences of up to 100% between incompressible and compressible geoid responses can be found. The admittance function also shows great sensitivity to mantle compressibility at long wavelengths. There are significant differences in the geophysical signatures from the ways in parameterizing the viscosity stratification in the mantle. An exponentially dependent viscosity model produces smaller geoid and surface topographical signals than for a single step function viscosity model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hong, Hanjing; Yuen, D.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22046843"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of plasma formation, relaxation, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied plasma formation and relaxation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> along with the corresponding <span class="hlt">topography</span> modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The evolution of the crater depth as a function of fluence can be described taking into account the individual bandgap of each material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Ehrentraut, L. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und-pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA332299"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Nodal Coordinate Formulation to Multibody System <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The floating frame of reference formulation is currently the most widely used approach in flexible multibody simulations. The use of this approach, however, has been limited to small deformation problems. In this investigation, the use of the new <span class="hlt">absolute</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Escalona H. A. Hussien A. A. Shabana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4104035C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> femtosecond measurements of Auger recombination <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in lead sulfide quantum dots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiphoton excitation of hot carriers generates multiexcitons that are probed as a function of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number of photons absorbed. Standard assumptions of Auger recombination analyses fail for an average of 2 excitations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cho, B.; Peters, W. K.; Tiwari, V.; Spencer, A. P.; Baranov, D.; Hill, R. J.; Jonas, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......108P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of large-amplitude internal waves in stratified flows over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the first problem, the flow of a Boussinesq density- stratified fluid of large depth past the algebraic mountain ('Witch of Agnesi') is studied in the hydrostatic limit using the asymptotic theory of Kantzios & Akylas. The upstream conditions are those of constant velocity and Brunt-Vaisala frequency. On the further assumptions that the flow is steady and there is no permanent alteration of the upstream flow conditions (no upstream influence), Long's model predicts a critical amplitude of the mountain (/epsilon=0.85) above which local density inversions occur, leading to convective overturning. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that Long's steady flow is in fact unstable to infinitesimal modulations at <span class="hlt">topography</span> amplitudes below this critical value, 0.65/ ~</ ?<0.85. This instability grows at the expense of the mean flow. In the absence of instability, Long's steady flow is reached. For topographs' amplitudes in the unstable range 0.65/ ~</ ?<0.85, however, the flow fluctuates about Long's steady state over a long timescale; there is no significant upstream influence and no evidence of transient wave breaking is found for ?le0.75. In the second problem, the phenomenon of shelf generation by nonlinear waves in two-dimensional stratified flows is investigated. It is shown that the use of asymptotically matched (streamwise) regions becomes necessary. The 'inner region' is described by the fully nonlinear theory of Grimshaw & Yi while the 'outer region' consists of linear, downstream-propagating fronts, the cumulative effect of which is to give the appearance of a shelf that carries mass but no energy. The case of weakly nonlinear waves in an arbitrarily stratified fluid is also examined, where it is found that a shelf of fourth order in wave amplitude is generated. Moreover, the shelf extends both upstream and downstream in general and could thus lead to an upstream influence of a type that has not been previously considered. In the third problem, a theory is developed for the resonant generation by submerged <span class="hlt">topography</span> of weakly three-dimensional internal waves in a fluid with a linearly varying density distribution. The flow is shown to be governed by an integro-differential equation, which is capable of describing finite-amplitude waves and is valid until incipient density inversions take place. In addition to the nonlinearity caused by the presence of a topographic forcing, it is found that three-dimensional effects are also manifested as nonlinear terms in this evolution equation. The theory is observed to break down in the far-field, owing to the formation of an infinite downstream shelf. As in the two-dimensional problem, matched asymptotic expansions are used to resolve the difficulties caused by the shelf. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear evolution equation for waves in a channel are presented; the parameter space consists of a resonance detuning and a relative blockage, which measures three-dimensional effects. Wave breaking is found to occur over a finite range of detuning for a given relative blockage. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139- 4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened by UMI.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prasad, Dilip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20000121260"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Light Scattering and Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and espec...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. F. King M. B. Datiles R. R. Ansari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACP.....3..549C"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper concerns an evaluation of ozone (O3) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Grenoble region through a combination of measurements and mesoscale model (METPHOMOD) predictions for three days, during July 1999. The measurements of O3 and PBL structure were obtained with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, situated 20 km south of Grenoble at Vif (310 m ASL). The combined lidar observations and model calculations are in good agreement with atmospheric measurements obtained with an instrumented aircraft (METAIR). Ozone fluxes were calculated using lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles concentrations and the horizontal wind speeds measured with a Radar Doppler wind profiler (DEGREANE. The ozone flux patterns indicate that the diurnal cycle of ozone production is controlled by local thermal winds. The convective PBL maximum height was some 2700 m above the land surface while the nighttime residual ozone layer was generally found between 1200 and 2200 m. Finally we evaluate the magnitude of the ozone processes at different altitudes in order to estimate the photochemical ozone production due to the primary pollutants emissions of Grenoble city and the regional network of automobile traffic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Couach, O.; Balin, I.; Jiménez, R.; Ristori, P.; Perego, S.; Kirchner, F.; Simeonov, V.; Calpini, B.; van den Bergh, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACPD....3..797C"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper concerns an evaluation of ozone (O3) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Grenoble region through a combination of measurements and mesoscale model (METPHOMOD) predictions for three days, during July 1999. The measurements of O3 and PBL structure were obtained with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, situated 20 km south of Grenoble at Vif (310 m a.s.l.). The combined lidar observations and model calculations are in good agreement with atmospheric measurements obtained with an instrumented aircraft (METAIR). Ozone fluxes were calculated using lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles concentrations and the horizontal wind speeds measured with a Radar Doppler wind profiler (DEGREANE). The ozone flux patterns indicate that the diurnal cycle of ozone production is controlled by local thermal winds. The convective PBL maximum height was some 2700 m above the land surface while the nighttime residual ozone layer was generally found between 1200 and 2200 m. Finally we evaluate the magnitude of the ozone processes at different altitudes in order to estimate the photochemical ozone production due to the primary pollutants emissions of Grenoble city and the regional network of automobile traffic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Couach, O.; Balin, I.; Jiménez, R.; Ristori, P.; Perego, S.; Kirchner, F.; Simeonov, V.; Calpini, B.; van den Bergh, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.G13C..08P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Solutions Based on a new Mean sea Surface Model and a GRACE-Based Geoid Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new Mean Sea Surface (MSS) model has been compiled recently at the Danish National Space Center (DNSC). This MSS model incorporates data from several altimeter missions (Geosat GM, ERS-1 and ERS-2, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, GFO, Envisat, and ICESat). In parallel, as part of an activity sponsored by the USA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, a new Preliminary Gravitational Model (PGM) has been developed recently. This model is an intermediate solution leading to a new Earth Gravitational Model complete to degree and order 2160. We have used the new MSS from DNSC and the latest PGM to estimate the mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (DOT), represented both as an ocean-wide grid and in terms of surface spherical harmonics. Of particular interest to these analyses is the treatment of systematic errors in GRACE-based gravitational solutions that manifest themselves as "stripes", predominantly in the North-South direction. We will present our DOT solutions and compare them against DOT estimates obtained from Ocean Circulation Models. We will also present comparisons with hydrographic data that are independent from our solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavlis, N. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Andersen, O. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AdAtS...3...10Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">General forms of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> equations for atmosphere in numerical models with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The atmospheric <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> equations have been transformed from the z-coordinate system into a generalized vertical coordinate system by using a sc-called DDD transformation method. Then the generalized system is assumed being pressure, sigma or incorporated presure-sigma coordinate system, and corre-sponding equations are obtained with the second-order accuracy. It is pointed out that the usual equations are only of the first-order accuracy when their space-differential terms are approximated by central finite differences. Therefore the usual ferms of the equations may result in quite large crrors on steep slopes of mountains included in a model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qian, Yongfu; Zhong, Zhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.vistopo/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topographic maps that display three-dimensional landscapes on two-dimensional surfaces can offer a great deal of spatial information in minimal space. However, it is often difficult for people to interpret the features on a topographic map. This interactive feature adapted from Stephen Reynolds's 'Visualizing <span class="hlt">Topography</span>' website offers color-enhanced and three-dimensional visualizations to help interpret two-dimensional topographic maps. Users can introduce shading, tilt, and rotate the maps to better see the three dimensional feature being represented by the map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Stephen J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.vistopo/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topographic maps that display three-dimensional landscapes on two-dimensional surfaces can offer a great deal of spatial information in minimal space. However, it is often difficult for people to interpret the features on a topographic map. This interactive feature adapted from Stephen Reynolds's 'Visualizing <span class="hlt">Topography</span>' website offers color-enhanced and three-dimensional visualizations to help interpret two-dimensional topographic maps. Users can introduce shading, tilt, and rotate the maps to better see the three dimensional feature being represented by the map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4809S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inherently mass-conservative version of the semi-Lagrangian <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The semi-Lagrangian <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model is the global semi-Lagrangian hydrostatic model used for operational medium-range and seasonal forecasts at Hydrometeorological centre of Russia. The distinct feature of SL-AV <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core is the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence formulation on the unstaggered grid. Semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian approach allows for long time steps while violates the global and local mass-conservation. In particular, the total mass in simulations with semi-Lagrangian models can drift significantly if no aposteriori mass-fixing algorithms are applied. However, the global mass-fixing algorithms degrade the local mass conservation. The inherently mass-conservative version of SL-AV model <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core presented in the article ensures global and local mass conservation without mass-fixing algorithms. The mass conservation is achieved with the introduction of the finite-volume semi-Lagrangian discretization for continuity equation based on the 3-D extension of the conservative cascade semi-Lagrangian transport scheme (CCS). The numerical experiments show that the presented new version of SL-AV <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core combines the accuracy and stability of the standard SL-AV <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core with the mass-conservation properties. The results of the mountain induced Rossby wave test and baroclinic instability test for mass-conservative <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> core are found to be in agreement with the results available in literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shashkin, V. V.; Tolstykh, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53815381"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book ``<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold'' by Tom Shachtman. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell J. Donnelly; D. Sheibley; M. Belloni; D. Stamper-Kurn; W. F. Vinen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T43D..07H"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Relationship of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Forearc Processes in Southern Peru to the Development and Preservation of Andean <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After more than 40 years of study, the timing and nature of Andean uplift remains an area of great scientific debate. The forearc of the Andean margin is of particular neotectonic interest, as previous models of Andean orogenesis attributed little-no Neogene deformation to the western margin of Altiplano. However, using the combination of remote sensing with high-resolution data, in situ cosmogenic isotope concentrations and thermochronology, in recent years the community has made important advances in addressing the rates, timings, styles, and locations of active deformation within the forearc of the Andean margin. To first order, we find that - both in terms of tectonics and climate - since 10Ma, the Andean forearc has been quite a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> region. Neotectonic studies in this region have been facilitated by the high degree of geomorphic surface preservation that the hyperarid (for at least the last 3My) coastal Atacama Desert has provided. Specifically, in southern Peru (14°-18°S), vast pediment surfaces have been abandoned through incision along the major river drainages that carve the deep canyons into the Precordillera and Western Cordillera. While the exact timing of the periods of more intense incision plausibly correspond with climate events, the total amount of incision integrated over many climate cycles is a useful indicator of tectonic activity. In this region, we find a number of geomorphic and structural features that provide strong evidence for distributed crustal deformation along range-sub-parallel contractile and strike-slip structures. Specifically, we see 1) ancient surfaces reflecting erosion rates as low as <0.1m/Ma, 2) the existence of young (30ka-1Ma) low- relief pediment surfaces due to recent landscape modifications, 3) active structures accommodating compressional, extensional, and shearing stresses 4) a consistent rate of river incision of ~0.3mm/yr along exoreic rivers, 5) spatially and temporally variable uplift rates based on marine terrace chronologies, and 6) Pleistocene mass-wasting events accommodating the redistribution of ~109-1010 m3 of material per event. Furthermore, the observation that Pleistocene incision rates are comparable with Late Miocene and Pliocene rates, suggests to us, that the rates and style of surface uplift within the forearc of southern Peru has been occurring somewhat consistently since at least 10Ma. We suggest, that in this region of southern Peru, the steep western wedge of the Andean margin accommodates the high <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Altiplano through a combination of uplift along steeply dipping contractile structures and isostatic responses to the focused removal of large amounts of crustal material in the massive canyons of the Precordillera and Western Cordillera through mass-wasting events and valley incision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, S. R.; Farber, D. L.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M.; Finkel, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGeod..83..161H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A method of error adjustment for marine gravity with application to Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in the northern North Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">International compilations of marine gravity, such as the International Gravity Bureau (BGI) contain tens of millions of point data. Lemoine et al. (The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96, NASA/TP-1998-206861) chose not to include any marine gravity in the construction of the global gravity model EGM96. Instead they used synthetic anomalies derived from altimetry, so that no independent information about Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (MDT) can be deduced. Software has been developed not only to identify and correct those aspects of marine gravity data that are unreliable, but to do so in a way that can be applied to very large, ocean-wide data sets. First, we select only straight-line parts of ship-tracks and fit each one with a high-degree series of Chebyshev polynomials, whose misfit standard deviation is ? line and measures the random error associated with point gravity data. Then, network adjustment determines how the gravity datum is offset for each survey. A free least squares adjustment minimises the gravity anomaly mismatch at line-crossing points, using ? line to weight the estimate for each line. For a long, well crossed survey, the instrumental drift rate is also adjusted. For some 42,000 cross-over points in the northern Atlantic Ocean, network adjustment reduces the unweighted standard deviation of the cross-over errors from 4.03 to 1.58 mGal; when quality weighted, the statistic reduces from 1.32 to 0.39 mGal. The geodetic MDT is calculated combining the adjusted gravity anomalies and satellite altimetry, and a priori global ocean model through a new algorithm called the Iterative Combination Method. This paper reports a first demonstration that geodetic oceanography can characterise the details of basin wide ocean circulation with a resolution better than global ocean circulation models. The result matches regional models of ocean circulation from hydrography measurements (Geophys Res Lett 29:1896, 2002; J Geophys Res 108:3251, 2003).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunegnaw, A.; Hipkin, R. G.; Edwards, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53008682"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a rigid body on an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> rough plane</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt is made to explain certain <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effects associated with the rattleback, with particular emphasis placed on the oscillations of the body near the equilibrium position or near stationary rotation. The small oscillations of the body in the neighborhood of its stationary rotation about the vertical are analyzed; an approximate system of equations describing the nonlinear oscillations of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. P. Markeev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510098B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Counter-intuitive features of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> unveiled by tectonically realistic 3D numerical models of mantle-lithosphere interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been long assumed that the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with mantle-lithosphere interactions should be characterized by long-wavelength features (> 1000 km) correlating with morphology of mantle flow and expanding beyond the scale of tectonic processes. For example, debates on the existence of mantle plumes largely originate from interpretations of expected signatures of plume-induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> that are compared to the predictions of analytical and numerical models of plume- or mantle-lithosphere interactions (MLI). Yet, most of the large-scale models treat the lithosphere as a homogeneous stagnant layer. We show that in continents, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is strongly affected by rheological properties and layered structure of the lithosphere. For that we reconcile mantle- and tectonic-scale models by introducing a tectonically realistic continental plate model in 3D large-scale plume-mantle-lithosphere interaction context. This model accounts for stratified structure of continental lithosphere, ductile and frictional (Mohr-Coulomb) plastic properties and thermodynamically consistent density variations. The experiments reveal a number of important differences from the predictions of the conventional models. In particular, plate bending, mechanical decoupling of crustal and mantle layers and intra-plate tension-compression instabilities result in transient topographic signatures such as alternating small-scale surface features that could be misinterpreted in terms of regional tectonics. Actually thick ductile lower crustal layer absorbs most of the "direct" <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the features produced at surface are mostly controlled by the mechanical instabilities in the upper and intermediate crustal layers produced by MLI-induced shear and bending at Moho and LAB. Moreover, the 3D models predict anisotropic response of the lithosphere even in case of isotropic solicitations by axisymmetric mantle upwellings such as plumes. In particular, in presence of small (i.e. insufficient to produce solely any significant deformation) uniaxial extensional tectonic stress field, the plume-produced surface and LAB features have anisotropic linear shapes perpendicular to the far-field tectonic forces, typical for continental rifts. Compressional field results in singular sub-linear folds above the plume head, perpendicular to the direction of compression. Small bi-axial tectonic stress fields (compression in one direction and extension in the orthogonal direction) result in oblique, almost linear segmented normal or inverse faults with strike-slip components (or visa verse , strike-slip faults with normal or inverse components)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free Energy Perturbation Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (FEP/H-REMD) for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Free Energy Perturbation with Replica Exchange Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (FEP/REMD) offers a powerful strategy to improve the convergence of free energy computations. In particular, it has been shown previously that a FEP/REMD scheme allowing random moves within an extended replica ensemble of thermodynamic coupling parameters "lambda" can improve the statistical convergence in calculations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy of ligands to proteins [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2583]. In the present study, FEP/REMD is extended and combined with an accelerated MD simulations method based on Hamiltonian replica-exchange MD (H-REMD) to overcome the additional problems arising from the existence of kinetically trapped conformations within the protein receptor. In the combined strategy, each system with a given thermodynamic coupling factor lambda in the extended ensemble is further coupled with a set of replicas evolving on a biased energy surface with boosting potentials used to accelerate the inter-conversion among different rotameric states of the side chains in the neighborhood of the binding site. Exchanges are allowed to occur alternatively along the axes corresponding to the thermodynamic coupling parameter lambda and the boosting potential, in an extended dual array of coupled lambda- and H-REMD simulations. The method is implemented on the basis of new extensions to the REPDSTR module of the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM. As an illustrative example, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy of p-xylene to the nonpolar cavity of the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme was calculated. The tests demonstrate that the dual lambda-REMD and H-REMD simulation scheme greatly accelerates the configurational sampling of the rotameric states of the side chains around the binding pocket, thereby improving the convergence of the FEP computations. PMID:21857813</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Wei; Roux, Benoît</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1018895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free Energy Perturbation Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (FEP\\H-REMD) for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ligand binding free energy calculations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Free Energy Perturbation with Replica Exchange Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (FEP/REMD) offers a powerful strategy to improve the convergence of free energy computations. In particular, it has been shown previously that a FEP/REMD scheme allowing random moves within an extended replica ensemble of thermodynamic coupling parameters '{lambda}' can improve the statistical convergence in calculations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy of ligands to proteins [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2583]. In the present study, FEP/REMD is extended and combined with an accelerated MD simulations method based on Hamiltonian replica-exchange MD (H-REMD) to overcome the additional problems arising from the existence of kinetically trapped conformations within the protein receptor. In the combined strategy, each system with a given thermodynamic coupling factor {lambda} in the extended ensemble is further coupled with a set of replicas evolving on a biased energy surface with boosting potentials used to accelerate the interconversion among different rotameric states of the side chains in the neighborhood of the binding site. Exchanges are allowed to occur alternatively along the axes corresponding to the thermodynamic coupling parameter {lambda} and the boosting potential, in an extended dual array of coupled {lambda}- and H-REMD simulations. The method is implemented on the basis of new extensions to the REPDSTR module of the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM. As an illustrative example, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy of p-xylene to the nonpolar cavity of the L99A mutant of the T4 lysozyme was calculated. The tests demonstrate that the dual {lambda}-REMD and H-REMD simulation scheme greatly accelerates the configurational sampling of the rotameric states of the side chains around the binding pocket, thereby improving the convergence of the FEP computations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, W.; Roux, B. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Chicago)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGeoS...2....8T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of the BEM approach for a determination of the regional marine geoid model and the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We apply a novel approach for the gravimetric marine geoid modelling which utilise the boundary element method (BEM). The direct BEM formulation for the Laplace equation is applied to obtain a numerical solution to the linearised fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem in points at the Earth's surface. The numerical scheme uses the collocation method with linear basis functions. It involves a discretisation of the Earth's surface which is considered as a fixed boundary. The surface gravity disturbances represent the oblique derivative boundary condition. The BEM approach is applied to determine the marine geoid model over the study area of the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea using DNSC08 marine gravity data. The comparison of the BEM-derived and EGM2008 geoid models reveals that the geoid height differences vary within -25 and 18 cm with the standard deviation of 6 cm. The DNSC08 sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> data and the new marine geoid are then used for modelling of the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) over the study area. The local vertical datum (LVD) offsets estimated at 15 tide-gauge stations in New Zealand are finally used for testing the coastal MDT. The average value of differences between the MDT and LVD offsets is 1 cm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tenzer, R.; ?underlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Abdalla, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2380N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted <span class="hlt">topography</span>) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle-driven uplift along the Jemez anomaly in the last 3.6 Ma. Apatite fission-track ages indicate a tilted 30 Ma 110C isotherm, however, suggesting that Jemez mantle-driven uplift is superimposed on earlier Rocky Mountain uplift that was initiated in the mid-Tertiary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277945"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thermodynamics of water from computer simulations: a comparison of first-principles molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, reactive and empirical force fields.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy of liquid water at ambient conditions calculated by the two-phase thermodynamic method applied to ab initio, reactive and classical molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations. We find that the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy and heat capacity of liquid water from ab initio molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (AIMD) is underestimated, but falls within the range of the flexible empirical as well as the reactive force fields. The origin of the low <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy of liquid water from AIMD simulations is due to an underestimation of the translational entropy by 20% and the rotational entropy by 40% compared to the TIP3P classical water model, consistent with previous studies that reports low diffusivity and increased ordering of liquid water from AIMD simulations. Classical MD simulations with rigid water models tend to be in better agreement with experiment (in particular TIP3P yielding the best agreement), although the TIP4P-ice water model, the only empirical force field that reproduces the experimental melting temperature, has the lowest entropy, perhaps expectedly. This reiterates the limitations of existing empirical water models in simultaneously capturing the thermodynamics of solid and liquid phases. We find that the quantum corrections to heat capacity of water can be as large as 60%. Although certain water models are computed to yield good <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energies of water compared to experiments, they are often due to the fortuitous enthalpy-entropy cancellation, but not necessarily due to the correct descriptions of enthalpy and entropy separately. PMID:23277945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pascal, Tod A; Schärf, Daniel; Jung, Yousung; Kühne, Thomas D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G54A..02R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Gravimetric Geoid Height Models with Ocean Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Models at Tidal Bench Marks around North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existing geoid height models are examined as a part of larger effort to develop a consistent regional vertical datum. Such a datum will provide a consistent surface from which to estimate the impact of physical phenomena influenced by heights such as storm surge, tsunamis, flood plain mapping, etc. Comparisons at tide gages provide an alternative to existing methods that rely on comparisons at terrestrial bench marks. Furthermore, tide-gage comparisons also enhance the transformations between oceanographic and terrestrial datums desired as a part of NOAA's VDATUM project. The working assumption is that tide-gage observed local mean sea levels (LMSL) can be compared with geoid height models (N) in conjunction with ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> models (MDT); LMSL = N - MDT. Comparisons were made at 86 tide gages along the shorelines of the East Coast, Gulf of Mexico, West Coast, and Alaska, where an approximate 35 cm bias was determined - pointing to the potential need for selecting a new geopotential surface for gravimetric geoid heights. This will likely determine a potential surface for the North American Geoid but may have broader implications. Comparisons will be made to observations in territories scattered farther overseas (Guam, American Samoa, etc.) as these become available as well as any comparisons that can be made with other countries to determine the most optimal value.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roman, D. R.; Saleh, J.; Li, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992mars.book..209E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.420.2064M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> orientation of ? Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model for the broad [Fe III] emission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a three-dimensional (3D) <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in ? Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ? Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA ? that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i? 130° to 145°, ??-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ? 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ?B, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. <title type="main">Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>? is the same as the angle ? defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SRL....16..697P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11839923"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and tree falls on stand <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and stand structure of tropical forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Canopy gaps induced by tree falls have an important ecological role in forest communities since they act on forest sylvigenesis, <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and specific composition, mainly through modifications of the light context they involve. Some factors responsible for tree fall occurrences become more influent on sloping areas, particularly crown asymmetry. We have already shown in previous work (Robert, 2001) that slope</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Audrey Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54142304"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> lacking tidal conversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The consensus is that in a stratified sea a classical model of tidal flow over irregular\\u000abut smooth <span class="hlt">topography</span> necessarily leads to the generation of internal tides, regardless\\u000aof the shape of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This is referred to as tidal conversion. Here it is shown,\\u000ahowever, that there exists a large class of <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for which there is neither tidal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leo R. M. Maas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H51C1144H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implications of Groundwater <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> on Long-Term Changes of River Basin <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Hydrologic Response, With Application to the WE-38 Basin, Pennsylvania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous studies have examined the impacts of geomorphology on the hydrologic processes of river basins, but much less attention has been given to the opposite problem: the effects of hydrologic processes on the evolution of river basin <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Fluvial erosion processes are driven by surface runoff and streamflow, which depend on precipitation rates, soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and groundwater flow. All of these processes help determine spatial and temporal patterns of runoff and streamflow in a basin. Horton runoff occurs where the infiltration capacity is exceeded by the rainfall intensity and might produce relatively uniform incision across a basin. Dunne runoff and groundwater discharge typically occur in areas adjacent to river channels, thus eroding river networks and their neighboring locations. Groundwater is expected to be especially important to patterns of erosion when the infiltration capacity is large enough to absorb significant precipitation. On the Colorado Plateau, for example, groundwater leaves significant geomorphic signatures such as amphitheater-shaped channel heads and near constant valley widths from source to outlet. In this analysis, we investigate the role that groundwater movement plays in long-term landscape evolution using a landscape evolution model that has been modified to include a more detailed representation of basin hydrology. In the model, precipitation is generated by a stochastic process that includes realistic inter-storm variation, and the precipitation is partitioned between surface runoff and groundwater recharge using specified infiltration and recharge rates. Groundwater flow is simulated by a two-dimensional Dupuit equation for a homogeneous, isotropic, unconfined aquifer with an irregular underlying impervious layer. The model is applied to the WE-38 basin, an experimental watershed in Pennsylvania. This site was selected as a study area because substantial hydrologic and geomorphic information is available including rainfall data, streamflow data, groundwater table elevations, and estimated parameters for the geomorphic processes. First, the hydrologic model is calibrated to match observed streamflow data, then the combined hydrologic/geomorphic model is used to investigate several hypothetical scenarios. The scenarios investigate the role of groundwater as the infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity, and impervious layer are modified. The resulting <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are analyzed and their hydrologic behavior is characterized. The results indicate that groundwater plays an important role in shaping fluvial landscapes and thus affects the long-term evolution of hydrologic response, especially in basins with large infiltration capacities and thick aquifers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, X.; Niemann, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....47.2513H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of soil erosion and size-selective sediment transport over nonuniform <span class="hlt">topography</span> in flume-scale experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil erosion and the associated nutrient fluxes can lead to severe degradation of surface waters. Given that both sediment transport and nutrient sorption are size selective, it is important to predict the particle size distribution (PSD) as well as the total amount of sediment being eroded. In this paper, a finite volume implementation of the Hairsine-Rose soil erosion model is used to simulate flume-scale experiments with detailed observations of soil erosion and sediment transport <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The numerical implementation allows us to account for the effects of soil surface microtopography (measured using close range photogrammetry) on soil erosion. An in-depth discussion of the model parameters and the constraints is presented. The model reproduces the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of sediment concentration and PSD well, although some discrepancies can be observed. The calibrated parameters are also consistent with independent data in the literature and physical reason. Spatial variations in the suspended and deposited sediment and an analysis of model sensitivity highlight the value of collecting distributed data for a more robust validation of the model and to enhance parametric determinacy. The related issues of spatial resolution and scale in erosion prediction are briefly discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heng, B. C. P.; Sander, G. C.; Armstrong, A.; Quinton, J. N.; Chandler, J. H.; Scott, C. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14...31V"> <span id="translatedtitle">A first outlook of GOCE contribution to the determination of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ocean circulation in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The exploitation of altimetric data sets from past and current satellite missions is crucial to both oceanographic and geodetic applications, since it allows the determination of sea level anomalies as deviations from a static mean sea level, while it is also fundamental for marine geoid determination. In this work, altimetric data sets from the satellite missions of JASON1 and ENVISAT have been used towards the determination of Mean Sea Surface (MSS) models in the Mediterranean Sea. The raw data used are Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) values and their total inverse barometer corrections from the respective altimetric missions. Along-track records of the SLA have been first used to derive linear trends of the SLA variation in the area under study and then determine empirical covariance functions to estimate single and multi-satellite models of the mean sea surface through least squares collocation. The latter is then employed along with the GOCE/GRACE GOCO02s GGM in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) in the Mediterranean Sea and consequently the steady-state circulation in the area. The resulting initial DOT estimates are treated through various filters in order to remove high-frequency information that results from computing the residuals between the high-resolution MSS and the lower resolution GOCE geoid heights (degree and order 250 corresponding to ~80 km). To this respect three types of filters are used, namely boxcar, Gaussian and Wiener ones employing various spatial wavelengths for the filter width to accommodate their cut-off frequency. The finally derived solutions presented refer to filters with spatial wavelengths set to 150 km and 200 km (75 km and 100 half-wavelength, respectively), which are used to determine the steady-state circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. The results are validated against the RioMed model for the DOT, the DTU2010 DOT and a solution based on the DTU2010 MSS and GOCO02s.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vergos, G. S.; Tziavos, I. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.428.1656B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> masses, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii and 3D orbits of the triply eclipsing star HD 181068 from Kepler photometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HD 181068 is the brighter of the two known triply eclipsing hierarchical triple stars in the Kepler field. It has been continuously observed for more than 2 yr with the Kepler space telescope. Of the nine quarters of the data, three have been obtained in short-cadence mode, that is one point per 58.9 s. Here we analyse this unique data set to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> physical parameters (most importantly the masses and radii) and full orbital configuration using a sophisticated novel approach. We measure eclipse timing variations (ETVs), which are then combined with the single-lined radial velocity measurements to yield masses in a manner equivalent to double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have also developed a new light-curve synthesis code that is used to model the triple, mutual eclipses and the effects of the changing tidal field on the stellar surface and the relativistic Doppler beaming. By combining the stellar masses from the ETV study with the simultaneous light-curve analysis we determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii of the three stars. Our results indicate that the close and the wide subsystems revolve in almost exactly coplanar and prograde orbits. The newly determined parameters draw a consistent picture of the system with such details that have been beyond reach before.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borkovits, T.; Derekas, A.; Kiss, L. L.; Király, A.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Bíró, I. B.; Bedding, T. R.; Bryson, S. T.; Huber, D.; Szabó, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lang&pg=5&id=EJ096841"> <span id="translatedtitle">X Ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Discusses some aspects in X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balchin, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56475047"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral analysis of the gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars place important constraints on the structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the interior. The gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce G. Bills; Herbert V. Frey; Walter S. Kiefer; R. Steven Nerem; Maria T. Zuber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14611580"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> correlation in double excitations of helium studied by high-resolution and angular-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectroscopy in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The momentum transfer dependence of fundamental double excitation processes of helium is studied by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements using an angular resolved fast-electron energy loss spectrometer with high energy resolution. It elucidates the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> correlations, in terms of internal correlation quantum numbers, K, T, and A. The Fano profile parameters q, f(a), rho2, f, and S of doubly excited states (2)(1,0)+2 (1)S(e), (2)(1,0)+2 (1)D(e), and (2)(0,1)+2 (1)P(o) are reported as functions of momentum transfer K2. Qualitative analysis is given for the states of (2)(-1,0)+2 (1)S(e) and (2)(1,0)+2 (1)S(e). PMID:14611580</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Xiao-jing; Zhu, Lin-fan; Yuan, Zhen-sheng; Li, Wen-bin; Cheng, Hua-dong; Huang, Yu-ping; Zhong, Zhi-ping; Xu, Ke-zun; Li, Jia-ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583323"> <span id="translatedtitle">The analysis of space-time structure in QCD vacuum II: <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of polarization and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> X-distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights: > We propose a method to compute the polarization for a multi-dimensional random distribution. > We apply the method to the eigenemodes of the Dirac operator in pure glue QCD. > We compute the chiral polarization for these modes and study its scale dependence. > We find that in a finite volume there is a scale where the polarization tendency changes. > We study the continuum limit of this chiral polarization scale. - Abstract: We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of 'low' and 'high' Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexandru, Andrei, E-mail: aalexan@gwu.edu [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Draper, Terrence; Horvath, Ivan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Streuer, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3023343"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combining Steady-State and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Methods for Determining <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Signs of Hyperfine Interactions: Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The underlying causes of asymmetric intensities in Davies pulsed ENDOR spectra that are associated with the signs of the hyperfine interaction are reinvestigated. The intensity variations in these asymmetric ENDOR patterns are best described as shifts in an apparent baseline intensity that occurs <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> following on-resonance ENDOR transitions. We have developed an extremely straightforward multi-sequence protocol that is capable of giving the sign of the hyperfine interaction by probing a single ENDOR transition, without reference to its partner transition. This technique, Pulsed ENDOR Saturatation and Recovery (PESTRE) monitors <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shifts in the ‘baseline’ following measurements at a single RF frequency (single ENDOR peak), rather than observing anomalous ENDOR intensity differences between the two branches of an ENDOR response. These baseline shifts, referred to as <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> reference levels (DRLs), can be directly tied to the electron spin manifold from which that ENDOR transition arises. The application of this protocol is demonstrated on 57Fe ENDOR of a 2Fe-2S ferredoxin. We use the 14N ENDOR transitions of the S = 3/2 [Fe(II)NO]2+ center of the non-heme iron enzyme, anthranilate dioxygenase (AntDO) to examine the details of the relaxation model using PESTRE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doan, Peter E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMDI24A..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of inner core boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise determination of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a major internal boundary of the Earth is difficult because of the trade-off with the unknown velocity structure above it. However, the discoveries of the inner core (IC) rotation and high-quality teleseismic waveform doublets make the precise mapping of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner core boundary (ICB) possible, as demonstrated in recent studies. Here we examine IC refracted (PKP-DF) and reflected (PKP-CD) waves recorded at the Yellowknife Array and global stations from 13 high-quality doublets, among a large collection of doublets in S. Sandwich Islands that we have assembled. Our results show clear evidence for spatial and temporal variations of IC reflections in travel times and in waveforms. If the time separation (dT) between the two members of the doublet is less than 3 years, the IC arrivals show little temporal change in travel times or waveforms. If dT is greater than about 6 years, some doublets show large variations but some others do not. The ICB regions beneath Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean show little temporal change. The regions show large variations are beneath Africa and the Central America, which coincide with large seismic anomalies at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Inside these two ICB regions, there are fine-scale (km scale) variations. The largest temporal changes of IC reflections are about 0.10 to 0.15 s, corresponding to a topographic variation of up to 3.7 to 5.6 km. The results suggest ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a few kms on fine to regional scales. <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> models include a bumpy ICB rotating with the IC itself or a transient slurry boundary sloshing about in the turbulence at the base of the convecting outer core. The geographical coincidence of the ICB and CMB anomalies may suggest strong thermal coupling of the mantle and the core.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, X.; Dai, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA519626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear and Nonlinear Stratified Spindown over Sloping <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocean bottom boundary layers are regions adjacent to <span class="hlt">topography</span> where turbulence mixes heat, momentum and biogeochemical tracers. These regions serve as a <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> control on the circulation by dissipating energy and shape the local characteristics of th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Benthuysen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.meted.ucar.edu/mesoprim/flowtopo"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow Interaction with <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This module explores the fundamental concepts used to determine how air flow interacts with <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Using the simple analogy of a marble rolling over a hill, this module examines the relationship between wind speed and static stability of the atmosphere. These results are further extended to include three-dimensional terrain barriers as well as the evolution through time of the interaction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spangler, Tim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=robert&pg=3&id=EJ1000865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wade, Angela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMDI51B2141C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Earth's Inner Core Boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lateral variations in the structure and crystallization of the inner core will likely be associated with lateral variations in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of its boundary. Depending on liquid fraction and the ratio of solid over liquid viscosity, the process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at the solidifying boundary can be <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> unstable, resulting in small-scale corrugations of the boundary of 0.1 to 5 km height with a horizontal scale on the order of 1 to 10 km. Evidence of such ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been inferred from waveforms of PKiKP doublets (1). An additional observation consistent ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> includes the seismic wave diffracted around the top of the inner core (PKP-Cdiff), whose travel time agrees with that predicted by the AK135 Earth model, but whose amplitude decays more rapidly into the inner core shadow than is predicted by AK135 (2). These observations are modeled by synthesizing seismic body waves with a pseudospectral method (3) having a densified grid in the vicinity of a rough ICB. Validation of the forward modeling includes a comparison of results obtained with a boundary element method. Modeled spectra of ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> are used to constrain the parameters and processes that produce the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These include compaction length (assuming freezing upward from below), the structure of precipitated piles (assuming metallic snow falling from above), the sedimentary processes due to flow in the overlying F-layer of the outer core, and the relaxation of <span class="hlt">topography</span> from viscous deformation of the inner core. 1. Cao, A., Y. Masson, and B. Romanowicz, PNAS, 104, 31-35, 2007. 2. Zou, Z., K. Koper, and V.F. Cormier, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005316. 3. Furumura T., B.L.N. Kennett, and M. Furumura, Geophys. J. Int., 135, 845--860, 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSRv..163..487R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dawn <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the Dawn <span class="hlt">topography</span> investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids’ landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn’s framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta’s geologic history. At Ceres, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://reynolds.asu.edu/topo_gallery/topo_home.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gallery of Virtual <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gallery of Virtual <span class="hlt">Topography</span> features virtual depictions of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of <span class="hlt">topography</span> (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H13A1349T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the <span class="hlt">topography</span> signature of LIDAR-derived vegetation types and geomorphic processes as preliminary steps in integrating landscape evolution with vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Italian Alps, dominated by a high altitude climate and characterized by extreme slope movement processes, <span class="hlt">topography</span> plays a key role in the redistribution of vegetation over the landscape. There is significant evidence that vegetation distribution on the Alpine basins influences the frequency and magnitude of sediment yields. In this study we investigate the links between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation species in a small Alpine catchment with an elevation range of 1500 to 2000 m a.s.l., with cold snowy winters, and wet summers, in order to decipher the influence of biota on geomorphic processes in atypical high-latitude Alpine headwater setting. In the study area vegetation is mostly represented by grass species (high altitude grassland), but also shrubs (Alnus viridis), and high tree forest (Picea abies) are common. We evaluate the distribution of vegetation canopies using LIDAR-derived vegetation data. We analyzed the vertical elevation of different vegetation canopy surface layers, and we derived the spatial variation of vegetation species following their heights as surveyed in the field. Then we use a high resolution DTM (Digital Terrain Model), evaluated from filtered bare ground LIDAR points, to derive some mathematical attributes of landscape morphology including slope gradient, drainage area, aspect, convergence and topographic wetness index, slope area diagrams and power-law distribution of areas. We discussed the relationships between vegetation species distribution and landform properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarolli, P.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Dalla Fontana, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT.......300L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excited State Structure and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Resonance Raman Intensities: the Photochemistry and Photophysics of 1,3,5-CYCLOOCTATRIENE, Cyclobutene and Nile Blue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resonance Raman spectra of 1,3,5-cyclooctatriene and cyclobutene are obtained and analyzed using fully-thermalized time-correlator theory to detail the initial nuclear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of disrotatory photochemical ring-opening reactions. For 1,3,5-cyclooctatriene, intense resonance Raman scattering is detected in the normal modes corresponding to ethylenic stretching (1610 and 1640 cm^{-1} ) and carbon-ring twist-boat planarization (140 and 404 cm^{-1}) coordinates. No intensity is observed in modes which project onto the disrotatory ring-opening motion, such as the non-totally symmetric CH_2 twist fundamental or its overtone. Also, no intensity is observed in the symmetric CH_2 twist, which corresponds to conrotatory ring-opening motion. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> resonance Raman intensities and the absorption spectrum of cyclooctatriene are modeled to quantitate the excited-state equilibrium geometry displacements along the Franck-Condon active modes as well as the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths. Analysis of the fluorescence quantum yield gives an excited-state lifetime of ~30 fs presumably caused by fast internal conversion to a low-lying A_1 state. These results indicate that the femtosecond nuclear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the initial steps of this photochemical reaction are along the twist-boat planarization coordinates and not the disrotatory reaction coordinate. The ring-opening presumably occurs after the planarization step and is directed by the doubly-excited character in the 2A_1 electronic state. The 200-nm resonance Raman spectrum of cyclobutene shows resonance enhancement of single (984 and 1110 cm^{-1}) and double bond stretching fundamentals, the 2150 cm ^{-1} overtone of the b _2 CH_2 twisting mode, the 656 cm^{-1} overtone of the b_2 out-of-plane ring pucker, and the 902 cm^{-1} fundamental of the b_1 in-plane ring bending mode. These intensities indicate that the initial evolution of the optically-excited molecule is along the Woodward -Hoffmann-predicted disrotatory ring-opening reaction coordinate. Comparison of these results with the excited-state <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of other pericyclic systems suggests that pericyclic rearrangements occur only once a planar skeletal structure is established and that the bond rearrangement occurs predominantly on the low-lying, optically-forbidden 2A_1 excited state. Although not considered in the Woodward-Hoffmann analysis, this state correlates directly to the sound electronic states of the photoproducts in these systems. Resonance Raman spectra of Nile Blue have also been obtained and analyzed to quantitate the excited-state equilibrium geometry displacements of 40 resonance Raman active modes. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Raman cross sections permit the absorption lineshape to be separated into its homogeneous (350 cm^{-1} HWHM) and inhomogeneous (313 cm^{-1} HWHM) components. This analysis yields a 25-fs electronic dephasing time which compares well to results obtained through direct femtosecond photon echo measurements; it is proposed that the origin of this dephasing is the low -frequency solvent bath modes which are coupled to the electronic transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawless, Mary Katherine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...85..593K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> and tidal hydro-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110757"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of cerebral circulation in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease--analysis with multi-channel near infra-red spectroscopic <span class="hlt">topography</span> plus hand grasp as the exercise task].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used multi-channel near infra-red spectroscopic <span class="hlt">topography</span> to evaluate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of cerebral circulation of patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The subjects included 17 patients with chronic CVD, while 11 physically unimpaired persons served as controls. We used a spectroscopic <span class="hlt">topography</span> device (Hitachi, ETG -100) to determine the topographic values of oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, and total-Hb in the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Hand grasp for 30 or 60 second duration was used as the exercise task, and each task was tried twice. In the control group, the oxy-Hb values of the left cerebral hemisphere were elevated by bilateral hand grasp, while those of the right cerebral hemisphere were elevated by left hand grasp. In patients with a lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere, oxy-Hb values of the left hemisphere were elevated by the bilateral hand grasp, while those of the right hemisphere were elevated only by the healthy left hand grasp. When the 30- and 60-second-duration grasp exercises were compared, it was found that the oxy-Hb values in the control group corresponded to the loading time. In patients with either right or left cerebral lesion, the oxy-Hb peak values were lower than those of the control group, while the peak values did not show any difference between the 30-and 60-seconds hand grip durations themselves. The latency from the start of the grasp to the maximum peak of the oxy-Hb value was significantly prolonged in CVD patients as compared with that in the control group. As for the relation between the degree of hemiparesis and the oxy-Hb values, the value of the oxy-Hb in the left cerebral hemisphere during right hand grasp decreases depending on the severity of paralysis induced by the left cerebral lesion. The determination of cerebral oxy-Hb values by near infra-red spectroscopic <span class="hlt">topography</span> using exercise test appeared to be useful for the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> of cerebral circulation in stroke patients. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing recovery by the rehabilitation of stroke patients, who were in the chronic stage, should be studied. PMID:19110757</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harada, Kunyu; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Harada, Toshihide; Yamada, Tohru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactive Flash Module about Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Module includes sea surface observations and measurements as well as visuals explanations of the alimetry instruments used to detect surface changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46788132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is pointed out that there are a few physical systems whose temperature when measured on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale can assume negative values. Such temperatures are not colder than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero; a system with a negative temperature can give heat to one at an infinite temperature and is therefore hotter. The mechanism for such negative temperatures is described, the main</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warren G. Proctor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12911478"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Lipschitz extendability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A metric space X is said to be <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> Lipschitz extendable if every Lipschitz function f from X into any Banach space Z can be extended to any containing space Y?X, where the loss in the Lipschitz constant in the extension is independent of Y,Z, and f. We show that various classes of natural metric spaces are <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> Lipschitz extendable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James R. Lee; Assar Naor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6908678"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial blood flow with H/sub 2//sup 15/O and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> positron-emission tomography. Strategy for quantification in relation to the partial-volume effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An in vivo technique was developed for measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial blood flow with H/sub 2//sup 15/O and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> positron-emission tomography. This technique was based on a new model involving the concept of the tissue fraction, which was defined as the fraction of the tissue mass in the volume of the region of interest. The myocardium was imaged <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> by positron-emission tomography, starting at the time of intravenous bolus injection of H/sub 2//sup 15/O. The arterial input function was measured continuously with a beta-ray detector. A separate image after C/sup 15/O inhalation was also obtained for correction of the H/sub 2//sup 15/O radioactivity in the blood. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial blood flow and the tissue fraction were calculated for 15 subjects with a kinetic technique under region-of-interest analysis. These results seem consistent with their coronary angiographic findings. The mean value of the measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial blood flows in normal subjects was 0.95 +/- 0.09 ml/min/g. This technique detected a diffuse decrease of myocardial blood flow in patients with triple-vessel disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iida, H.; Kanno, I.; Takahashi, A.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ono, Y.; Shishido, F.; Inugami, A.; Tomura, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2958..412J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shuttle radar <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapper (SRTM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of interferometric SAR (IFSAR) to measure elevation is one of the most powerful and promising capabilities of radar. A properly equipped spaceborne IFSAR system can produce a highly accurate global digital elevation map, including cloud-covered areas, in significantly less time and at significantly lower cost than with other systems. For accurate <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the interferometric measurements must be performed simultaneously in physically sperate receive system, since measurements made at different times with the same system suffer significant decorrelation. The US/German/Italian spaceborne imaging radar C/X-band SAR (SIR-C/X-SAR), successfully flown twice in 1994 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, offers a unique opportunity for global multifrequency elevation mapping by the year 2000. With appropriate augmentation, SIR-C/X-SAR is capable of producing an accurate elevation map covering 80 percent of the Earth's land surface in a single 10-day Shuttle flight. The existing US SIR-C SCANSAR mode provides a 225-km swath at C-band, which makes this coverage possible. Addition of a C-band receive antenna, extended from the Shuttle bay on a mast and operating in concert with the existing SIR-C antenna, produces an interferometric pair. Accuracy is enhanced by utilizing the SIR-C dual polarizations simultaneously to form separate SCANSAR beams. Due to the practical limitation of approximately 60 meters for the mast length, the longer SIR-C L-band wavelength does not produce useful elevation measurement accuracy. IFSAR measurements can also be obtained by the German/Italian X-SAR, simultaneously with SIR-C, by utilizing an added outboard antenna at X-band to produce a swath coverage of about 50 km. Accuracy can be enhanced at both frequencies by processing both ascending and descending data takes. It is estimated that the 90 percent linear <span class="hlt">absolute</span> elevation error achievable is less that 16 meters for elevation postings of 30 meters. This will be the first use of spaceborne IFSAR to acquire accurate topographic data on a global scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordan, Rolando L.; Caro, Edward R.; Kim, Yunjin; Kobrick, Michael; Shen, Yuhsyen; Stuhr, Frederick V.; Werner, Marian U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/activities/29358.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density, Isostasy, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Show caption HideA critical component of this activity involves sharing team data with the entire class, done the old-fashioned way on the chalkboard. Details This activity begins with an exploration of a topographic map of the earth, ending with the question: Why is the distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the earth bimodal? The students then collect two forms of data. They measure the density of the most common rocks that make up oceanic crust (basalt), continental crust (granite), and the mantle (peridotite). They also measure the density of several different kinds of wood, and how high each kind floats in a tub of water. In each case, they work in teams of two or three and then the entire class shares their data. Based on the data from the wood, they derive an equation that relates the density of the wood to the height at which the block floats in the water - the isostasy equation. They then substitute density values for real rocks into their equation to derive thicknesses for average continental and oceanic crust, and apply their knowledge in order to draw a cross-section of the crust across South America. This activity gives students a real, hands-on and mathematical understanding of the principle of isostasy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Egger, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD776593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rhythmic Patterns of Beach <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rhythmic patterns of <span class="hlt">topography</span> may be apparent simultaneously in a longshore alternation of cuspate projections and arcuate embayments along the beach face, in a rhythmic longshore bar composed of an alternate series of arcs and cusps, and in longshore u...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. van Beek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3187490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hillslope <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Unconstrained Photographs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantifications of Earth surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> are essential for modeling the connections between physical and chemical processes of erosion and the shape of the landscape. Enormous investments are made in developing and testing process-based landscape evolution models. These models may never be applied to real <span class="hlt">topography</span> because of the difficulties in obtaining high-resolution (1–2 m) topographic data in the form of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arjun M. Heimsath; Hany Farid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56834898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excited-state structure and photochemical ring-opening <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of 1,3,5-cyclo-octatriene from <span class="hlt">absolute</span> resonance Raman intensities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> resonance Raman cross sections are measured for 1,3,5-cyclo-octatriene (COT) in cyclohexane with excitation from 325 to 200 nm. These intensities and the absorption spectrum are modeled using a fully thermalized time-correlator theory to quantitate the excited-state equilibrium geometry displacements along 19 Raman-active normal modes. The resonance Raman spectra show significant intensity in low-frequency modes corresponding to planarization of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary K. Lawless; Richard A. Mathies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556414"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution sup 13 C NMR study of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of methionine residues in detergent-solubilized bacteriorhodopsin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proton transport membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin has been biosynthetically labeled with (methyl-{sup 13}C)methionine and studied by high-resolution {sup 13}C NMR after solubilization in the detergent Triton X-100. The nine methionine residues of bacteriorhodopsin give rise to four well-resolved {sup 13}C resonances, two of which are shifted upfield or downfield due to nearby aromatic residues. Methionine residues located on the hydrophilic surfaces, on the hydrophobic surface, and in the interior of the protein could be discriminated by studying the effects of papain proteolysis, glycerol-induced viscosity increase, and paramagnetic broadening by spin-labels on NMR spectra. Such data were used to evaluate current models of the bacteriorhodopsin transmembrane folding and tertiary structure. T{sub 2} and NOE measurements were performed to study the local <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of methionine residues in bacteriorhodopsin. For the detergent-solubilized protein, hydrophilic and hydrophobic external residues undergo a relatively large extent of side chain wobbling motion while most internal residues are less mobile. In the native purple membrane and in reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin liposomes, almost all methionine residues have their wobbling motion severely restricted, indicating a large effect of the membrane environment on the protein internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seigneuret, M.; Neumann, J.M.; Levy, D.; Rigaud, J.L. (URA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-04-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..93c6102M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> Driven Spreading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Roughening a hydrophobic surface enhances its nonwetting properties into superhydrophobicity. For liquids other than water, roughness can induce a complete rollup of a droplet. However, topographic effects can also enhance partial wetting by a given liquid into complete wetting to create superwetting. In this work, a model system of spreading droplets of a nonvolatile liquid on surfaces having lithographically produced pillars is used to show that superwetting also modifies the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of spreading. The edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relation is shown to obey a simple power law, and such power laws are shown to apply to naturally occurring surfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, G.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; Aqil, S.; Perry, C. C.; Newton, M. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323838"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> driven spreading.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Roughening a hydrophobic surface enhances its nonwetting properties into superhydrophobicity. For liquids other than water, roughness can induce a complete rollup of a droplet. However, topographic effects can also enhance partial wetting by a given liquid into complete wetting to create superwetting. In this work, a model system of spreading droplets of a nonvolatile liquid on surfaces having lithographically produced pillars is used to show that superwetting also modifies the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of spreading. The edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relation is shown to obey a simple power law, and such power laws are shown to apply to naturally occurring surfaces. PMID:15323838</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Aqil, S; Perry, C C; Newton, M I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.237..347C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2815...11M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiation detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiation detector (a cryogenic radiometer) is being developed to replace the existing UK primary national standard cryogenic radiometer with an improved uncertainty. The cryogenic radiometer will be capable of measuring black body radiation and laser radiation with an uncertainty approaching 10 ppm. From these measurements it will be possible to determine the fundamental constant, the Stefan Boltzmann constant, confirming the radiometer as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> detector, and link this determination to the SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela. Thus detector and source based scales/standards will be tied to an invariant physical quantity ensuring their long-term stability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, John E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eap.ee/public/oilshale/oil-2006-4-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">INFLUENCE OF THE BEDROCK <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> ON OIL SHALE MINING IN NORTH-EAST ESTONIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the zonation of the Estonian bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>, presented on the basis of relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> heights and taking into consideration the lithological composition of the bedrock, Estonian oil shale deposit is located in the Viru-Harju Plateau including the Pandivere Elevation and Ahtme Eminence. The plateau has a thin Quaternary cover, mainly a few metres in thickness. The oil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. MIIDEL; A. RAUKAS; E. TAVAST; R. VAHERa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/mar_topo.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measured and Estimated Seafloor <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Land <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from GTOPO30</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This web site displays two "clickable" maps - one topographic, and the other a Ship Track Each of 16 regions on the maps displays measured and estimated seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A poster of the images can be ordered for a fee. Links to related sites are also provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/zero/"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOVA: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This NOVA website contains information about the scientific quest to utilize cold and to achieve the lowest temperature possible. Several interactive simulations present topics such as the states of matter, the anatomy of a refrigerator, and a virtual lab to achieve low temperatures. The site also includes articles on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> hot, ultra-cold atoms, and milestones in cold research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.globe.gov/tctg/gps_la_part2.pdf?sectionId=50"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Directions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this resource is to learn about latitude and longitude while developing math skills. Students begin by asking the simple question: 'Where Am I?' Then they learn about the magnetic Earth and the use of compasses and angles. Students also learn about the difference between relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> locations. Throughout this activity, students practice using a variety of math skills.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22680778"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of franganine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of franganine (1), a cyclopeptide alkaloid isolated from the methanol root bark extract of Discaria americana, was established on the basis of detailed NMR spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis of its salt (2). PMID:22680778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caro, Miguel S B; de Oliveira, Leonardo H; Ilha, Vinicius; Burrow, Robert A; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3037Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations in a global river model: a case study in the Amazon River</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers is an important factor for surface water studies and flood hazard management. However, most continental-scale river models have not focused on the reproduction of water level because the storage and movement of surface waters are regulated by smaller scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> than their grid resolutions. Here we analyzed the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a state- of-the-art global river model, CaMa-Flood, with sub-grid representation of floodplain <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a case study, hydrodynamics simulation in the Amazon River was accomplished, and the simulated water surface elevations along the mainstem were compared against Envisat altimetry. The seasonal cycle of the simulated water surface elevations are in agreement with the altimetry (correlation coefficient >0.69, annual amplitude error <1.6 m). The accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations was also good (averaged RMSE of 1.83 m), and the associated errors were within the range of the model uncertainty due to channel cross-section parameters. Then, the ocean tide variation at river mouth was incorporated for simulating the tidal effect in the inland Amazon basin, which requires realistic representation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations. By applying power-spectra analysis to the simulated water level variations, the 15-day cycle due to spring and neap tides was detected at Obidos located 800 km upstream from the river mouth. The reproduction of the ocean tide propagation to the inland region suggests that CaMa-Flood includes the main physical processes needed to accurately simulate the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamazaki, Dai; Lee, Hyongki; Alsdorf, Doug; Dutra, Emanuel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan; Bates, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12420887"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tom G. Farr; Paul A. Rosen; Edward Caro; Robert Crippen; Riley Duren; Scott Hensley; Michael Kobrick; Mimi Paller; Ernesto Rodriguez; Ladislav Roth; David Seal; Scott Shaffer; Joanne Shimada; Jeffrey Umland; Marian Werner; Michael Oskin; Douglas Burbank; Douglas Alsdorf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4718T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vacillating jets: baroclinic turbulence and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations from satellite altimetry and output from high-resolution ocean models indicate that the Southern Ocean is characterised by an intricate web of narrow, meandering, filamentary jets. These jets undergo spontaneous formation, merger and splitting events, and rapid latitude shifts over periods of weeks to months. The role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in controlling jet variability is explored using a doubly-periodic, forced-dissipative, two-layer quasi-geostrophic model. The system is forced by a baroclinically-unstable, vertically-sheared mean flow in a domain that is large enough to accommodate multiple jets. The dependence of (i) meridional jet spacing, (ii) time scales of jet variability and (iii) large-scale, domain-averaged transport properties on changes in the length scale and steepness of simple sinusoidal topographical features is analysed. The Rhines scale ?? measures the meridional extent of eddy mixing by a single jet, and the ratio ??/?T, where ?T is the topographic length scale, determines jet behaviour. Multiple, steady jets with fixed meridional spacing are observed when ?? ? ?T or when ?? ? ?T. However when ?? < ?T, a pattern of perpetual jet formation and jet merger dominates the time evolution of the system. This unsteady structure significantly alters the large-scale energetics and transport properties, leading to a reduction in transport by a factor of two if the <span class="hlt">topography</span> consists of zonally-invariant ridges, and an increase in transport by an order of magnitude or more if the <span class="hlt">topography</span> consists of two-dimensional sinusoidal bumps. For certain parameters, bumpy <span class="hlt">topography</span> gives rise to periodic oscillations in jet structure between purely-zonal and topographically-steered states. In these cases, transport is dominated by bursts of mixing associated with the shifts between the two regimes. Unsteady jet behaviour depends crucially on the feedback between changes in mean flow orientation, caused by topographic steering, and the conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy through baroclinic instability, as well as on asymmetric Reynolds stresses created by topographical modifications to the large-scale potential vorticity gradient. It is likely that these processes play a role in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nature of Southern Ocean jets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, A. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22063875"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> beam brightness detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16231743"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> E-rings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A ring R with 1 is called an E-ring if EndZR is ring-isomorphic to R under the canonical homomorphism taking the value 1? for any ??EndZR. Moreover R is an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> E-ring if it remains an E-ring in every generic extension of the universe. E-rings are an important tool for algebraic topology as explained in the introduction. The existence of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rüdiger Göbel; Daniel Herden; Saharon Shelah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NKG....54...29K"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Protein Crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>, especially synchrotron X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>, provides a useful tool for the characterization of protein crystals in order to characterize the defects. We observed clear images of dislocations in hen-egg white lysozyme crystals. In this article we overviewed the research on crystal defects, especially dislocations of protein crystals by synchrotron X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kojima, Kenichi; Tachibana, Masaru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41338172"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Iapetus' leading side</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have used Cassini stereo images to study the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Iapetus' leading side. A terrain model derived at resolutions of 4–8 km reveals that Iapetus has substantial <span class="hlt">topography</span> with heights in the range of ?10 km to +13 km, much more than observed on the other middle-sized satellites of Saturn so far. Most of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is older than</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernd Giese; Tilmann Denk; Gerhard Neukum; Thomas Roatsch; Paul Helfenstein; Peter C. Thomas; Elizabeth P. Turtle; Alfred McEwen; Carolyn C. Porco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GGG....10.3014R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seafloor bathymetric data acquired with modern swath echo sounders provide coverage for only a small fraction of the global seabed yet are of high value for studies of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes of seafloor volcanism, tectonics, mass wasting, and sediment transport that create and shape the undersea landscape. A new method for compilation of global seafloor bathymetry that preserves the native resolution of swath sonars is presented. The Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> synthesis consists of a hierarchy of tiles with digital elevations and shaded relief imagery spanning nine magnification doublings from pole to pole (http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt). The compilation is updated and accessible as surveys are contributed, edited, and added to the tiles. Access to the bathymetry tiles is via Web services and with WMS-enabled client applications such as GeoMapApp®, Virtual Ocean, NASA World Wind®, and Google Earth®.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, William B. F.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Coplan, Justin O.; O'Hara, Suzanne; Melkonian, Andrew; Arko, Robert; Weissel, Rose Anne; Ferrini, Vicki; Goodwillie, Andrew; Nitsche, Frank; Bonczkowski, Juliet; Zemsky, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579786"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Sum <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> QRST Integral, and Temporal Variability in Depolarization and Repolarization, Measured by <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Vectorcardiography Approach, in Healthy Men and Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Recently we showed the predictive value of sum <span class="hlt">absolute</span> QRST integral (SAI QRST) and repolarization lability for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to compare SAI QRST and metrics of depolarization and repolarization variability in healthy men and women. Methods Orthogonal ECGs were recorded at rest for 10 minutes in 160 healthy men and women (mean age 39.6±14.6, 80 men). Mean spatial TT? angle, and normalized variances of T loop area, of spatial T vector amplitude, of QT interval and Tpeak-Tend area were measured for assessment of repolarization lability. Normalized variances of spatial QRS vector and QRS loop area characterized variability of depolarization. In addition, variability indices (VI) were calculated to adjust for normalized heart rate variance. SAI QRST was measured as the averaged arithmetic sum of areas under the QRST curve. Results Men were characterized by shorter QTc (430.3±21.7 vs. 444.7±22.2 ms; P<0.0001) and larger SAI QRST (282.1±66.7 vs.204.9±58.5 mV*ms; P<0.0001). Repolarization lability negatively correlated with spatial T vector amplitude. Adjusted by normalized heart rate variance, QT variability index was significantly higher in women than in men (?1.54±0.38 vs. ?1.70±0.33; P?=?0.017). However, in multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for body surface area, QTc, and spatial T vector amplitude, healthy men had 1.5–3 fold higher probability of having larger repolarization lability, as compared to healthy women (T vector amplitude variability index odds ratio 3.88(95%CI 1.4–11.1; P?=?0.012). Conclusions Healthy men more likely than women have larger repolarization lability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tereshchenko, Larisa G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016849"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Cell Response, and Nerve Regeneration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed <span class="hlt">topography</span> can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to <span class="hlt">topography</span> is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret <span class="hlt">topography</span> remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP31C1373V"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Glacial Inception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We test the influence of model <span class="hlt">topography</span> on glacial inception using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean version of NCAR’s Community Climate System Model (CCSM3). Simulations employ a modern orbital configuration and greenhouse gas concentrations representing both recent (year 1990) and hypothetically lower present-day values in accordance with Ruddiman’s Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis (240 ppm CO2 and 450 ppb CH4). The model is run at two different resolutions: a relatively coarse horizontal configuration (T42, approximately 2.8 degrees) and comparatively fine resolution (T85, approximately 1.4 degrees). Although under contemporary greenhouse forcing the extent of permanent boreal snow cover in the two model configurations is similar, imposing lower concentrations of CO2 and CH4 generates much more extensive glacial inception in the T85 experiment (150% increase) than in the T42 version (80% increase). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of glacial inception differ considerably. Only the T85 resolution produces widespread permanent snow cover over the Rocky Mountains and on Baffin Island, consistent with geologic evidence for ice sheet nucleation in northeastern Canada. Although much of the enhanced sensitivity in the higher-resolution simulations is directly attributable to the colder and wetter conditions around elevated <span class="hlt">topography</span>, some of the response also appears to be driven <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> and remotely as a function of the simulated elevation of Greenland. The colder conditions over and downstream of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the modern T85 simulation promote a smaller cooling locally under lowered greenhouse forcing that seems to activate a wave-1 <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> response in the atmospheric pressure field. The resulting circulation anomalies favor stronger upslope wind flow from the Pacific Ocean over the northern Rocky Mountains, enhancing the regional development of a permanent snow pack. Although these experiments are driven by greenhouse forcing rather than historical orbital variations, we believe that our findings apply to the general mechanisms of glacial inception.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vavrus, S. J.; Philippon-Berthier, G.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Ruddiman, W. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n125365810xh4775.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem Cell Interaction with <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate <span class="hlt">topography</span>, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41974033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus <span class="hlt">topography</span> - A harmonic analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of Venusian global <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been obtained by fitting an eighteenth-degree harmonic series to Pioneer Venus orbiter radar altimeter data. The mean radius is (6051.45 + or - 0.04) km. The corresponding mean density is (5244.8 + or 0.5) kg\\/cu m. The center of figure is displaced from the center of mass by (0.339 + or - 0.088)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. G. Bills; Michael Kobrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57504991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whitebeam X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">After radiography, white-beam X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> (XRT) is the simplest X-ray imaging technique for crystals. An X-ray topograph is formed by a Bragg reflexion and is in effect a high-spatial-resolution Laue ‘spot’. Synchrotron radiation has given XRT additional powers, with its broad continuous spectrum, small beam divergence, high intensity, strong polarization and regular pulsed time structure. Each Laue image, however, may</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreton Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> airborne gravimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimetry is feasible and has a spatial resolution comparable to the one of the relative airborne gravimetry. For a wavelength on the order of 11 km the mean value of the resolution of the estimated gravity is 9.7 mGal. Finally some suggestions are formulated for the improvement of the system which should simplify its use, increase the accuracy and reduce its price.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baumann, Henri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3007931"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of odorine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title compound, known as odorine or roxburghiline {systematic name: (S)-N-[(R)-1-cinnamoylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-2-methyl­butanamide}, C18H24N2O2, is a nitro­genous compound isolated from the leaves of Aglaia odorata. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu K? radiation showing positions 2 and 2? to be S and R, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains along [010] by inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bonds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21588760"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of odorine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title compound, known as odorine or roxburghiline {systematic name: (S)-N-[(R)-1-cinnamoylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-2-methyl-butanamide}, C(18)H(24)N(2)O(2), is a nitro-genous compound isolated from the leaves of Aglaia odorata. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu K? radiation showing positions 2 and 2' to be S and R, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains along [010] by inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21588760</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5025104"> <span id="translatedtitle">sup 13 N ammonia myocardial imaging at rest and with exercise in normal volunteers. Quantification of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial perfusion with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> positron emission tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography (PET) was applied to the measurement of myocardial perfusion using the perfusion tracer 13N-labeled ammonia. 13N ammonia was delivered intravenously to 13 healthy volunteers both at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> PET imaging was obtained in three cross-sectional planes for 10 minutes commencing with each injection. The left ventricle was divided into eight sectors, and a small region of interest was assigned to the left ventricular blood pool to obtain the arterial input function. The net extraction of 13N ammonia was obtained for each sector by dividing the tissue 13N concentration at 10 minutes by the integral of the input function from the time of injection to 10 minutes. With this approach for calculating net extractions, rest and exercise net extractions were not significantly different from each other. To obviate possible overestimation of the true 13N ammonia input function by contamination by 13N-labeled compounds other than 13N ammonia or by spillover from myocardium into blood pool, the net extractions were calculated using only the first 90 seconds of the blood and tissue time-activity curves. This approach for calculating net extractions yielded significant differences between rest and exercise, with an average ratio of exercise to rest of 1.38 +/- 0.34. Nonetheless, the increase was less than predicted from the average 2.7-2.8-fold increase in double product at peak exercise or the 1.7-fold increase in double product at 1 minute after exercise. However, when the first 90 seconds of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data were fit with a two compartment tracer kinetic model, average perfusion rates of 0.75 +/- 0.43 ml/min/g at rest and 1.50 +/- 0.74 ml/min/g with exercise were obtained. This average increase in perfusion of 2.2-fold corresponded to similar average increases in double product.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krivokapich, J.; Smith, G.T.; Huang, S.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Ratib, O.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7173691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on ground movement due to longwall mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an analysis of the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ground movements and severity of damage inflicted on surface structures. A typical site containing varying topographical features (i.e., mountains, hillsides, valleys, and flat bottom land) representing the northern Appalachian region was chosen for the study. Typical subsidence monitoring techniques were employed. Frequent measurements were made as the face advanced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khair, A.W.; Quinn, M.K.; Chaffins, R.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tecto..22.1051T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic shortening and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the central High Atlas (Morocco)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three cross sections of the Moroccan High Atlas illustrate the structural geometry and relationship between tectonic shortening and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in this Cenozoic intracontinental mountain range. The structure is dominated by thick-skinned thrusting and folding, essentially by inversion of Mesozoic extensional faults and by buckling of both pre-Mesozoic basement and its sedimentary cover. Detached, thin-skinned thrusting is limited and apparently related to basement underthrusting, which did not always create structural relief. Despite the high <span class="hlt">topography</span>, tectonic shortening is moderate, with faults and folds being spaced and separated by broad tabular areas. Section restoration indicates that shortening decreases along strike from east to west in the High Atlas, while topographic elevation generally increases. This inverse correlation suggests that crustal thickening does not fully explain the observed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and suggests a mantle contribution to uplift. This is supported by geophysical indications of a thin lithosphere and by alkaline volcanism in the vicinity. Mantle-related uplift, which occurs in a broad region, may also explain the scarce foreland basin record adjacent to the High Atlas. The relief of the Atlas Mountains is interpreted as a combination of isostatic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria-Luisa; Julivert, Manuel; Charroud, Mohammed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......156L"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-Ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Semiconductor Silicon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes the examination and characterisation of semiconductor silicon by the various methods of X-Ray Diffraction <span class="hlt">Topography</span>. A brief introduction is given to the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> theory of X-ray diffraction and its relevance to the formation of contrast in X-ray topographs. The experimental methods used and contrast formation mechanisms are introduced. The design and construction of an inexpensive Automated Bragg Angle Controller (ABAC) is described, based around a microcomputer and using many of the existing features of the Lang camera. This enables Lang topographs of the whole of distorted crystals to be taken. Using the ABAC, the contrast of defects in Lang topographs of cylindrically bent silicon wafers is explored. A comparison is made between this data and images in Hirst topographs and contrast differences between the techniques are attributed to the presence of an inhomogeneous bending moment. The change in contrast in section and Lang topographs upon homogeneous bending for asymmetric reflections is also investigated and mechanisms for the contrast changes are suggested. A bipolar device wafer is examined with double crystal <span class="hlt">topography</span> using synchrotron radiation and a highly asymmetric reflection with a glancing angle of incidence. By exploiting the wavelength tuneability of the synchrotron radiation, the depth penetration of the X-rays is varied and the optimum experimental conditions for observing both defects and devices determined. Using this technique it is possible to image both devices and process related defects to a high resolution and contrast. The Lang, section and glancing angle double crystal <span class="hlt">topography</span> techniques are compared for the examination of a CMOS device wafer. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each technique are highlighted and many defects are imaged and characterised. Finally, results showing the appearance of fringes in the double crystal topographs for low angles of incidence are presented. These are attributed to the presence of a long range strain, and the dependence of the fringes upon curvature is explored for moderate bending conditions (R ~ 35m).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loxley, Neil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54216738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topographic Relaxation in a Spherical, Viscoelastic Planet: Implications for Long-Wavelength <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Compensation of Lunar Basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and gravity anomalies on planets including the Earth and Moon have significant power at long wavelengths. The long wavelength anomalies can be supported statically by the elastic strength of the lithosphere or maintained <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> through planetary mantle convection. The capacity of the elastic lithosphere to support <span class="hlt">topography</span> increases sharply with decreasing planetary radius due to membrane stresses, according to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. T. Zuber; S. Zhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........41O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamic Interpretations of Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Gravity on Venus and Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity measurements from missions to Venus and Mars are among a few data available to constrain models of the interior structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of these planets. These measurements reveal various intriguing features whose origins have generated debates in the planetary science community. On Venus, these include a high correlation between the long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid. A common explanation is that the Venusian <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a result of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift caused by mantle convection (<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>). Our analysis of convection models shows that in strongly temperature-dependent viscosity fluids, such as planetary mantles, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is actually small. The lithosphere is close to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium (thermal isostasy) and the largest contributions to <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid anomalies come from the lithospheric thickness variations caused by sublithospheric convection. The Venusian <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid can be fully explained by the thermal isostasy associated with lithospheric thickness variations and the compositional isostasy associated with crustal thickness variations. A prominent feature on Mars is the hemispherical dichotomy where the southern highlands stand several kilometers elevated above the northern lowlands. One of the most common explanations for its formation is that the dichotomy formed as a result of a giant impact in the northern lowlands. We show that the impact could have been on the opposite side of the planet. A sufficiently large impact can melt the mantle to such extent that upon isostatic adjustment and crystallization of the melted part of the mantle it forms a region of high standing <span class="hlt">topography</span> (a megadome) instead of a crater. A topographic low forms antipodal to the impact (a megabasin).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orth, Christopher P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........45R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma processing for nanostructured <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riedel, Nicholas Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1518C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tectonics, Climate, and Mountain <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By regressing simple, independent variables that describe climate and tectonic processes against measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and relief of 69 mountain ranges worldwide, we quantify the relative importance of these processes in shaping observed landscapes. Climate variables include latitude (as a surrogate for mean annual temperature and insolation, but most importantly for the likelihood of glaciation) and mean annual precipitation. To quantify tectonics we use shortening rates across each range. As a measure of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we use mean and maximum elevations and relief calculated over different length scales. We show that the combination of climate (negative correlation) and tectonics (positive correlation) explain substantial fractions (> 25%, but < 50%) of mean and maximum elevations of mountain ranges, but that shortening rates account for smaller portions, <25%, of the variance in most measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and relief (i.e. with low correlations and large scatter). Relief is insensitive to mean annual precipitation, but does depend on latitude, especially for relief calculated over small (~1 km) length scales, which we infer to reflect the importance of glacial erosion. Larger-scale (averaged over length scales of ~10 km) relief, however, correlates positively with tectonic shortening rate. Moreover, the ratio between small-scale and large-scale relief, as well as the relative relief (the relief normalized by the mean elevation of the region) varies most strongly with latitude (strong positive correlation). Therefore, the location of a mountain range on Earth and corresponding climatic conditions, not just tectonic forcing, appears to be a key factor in determining its shape and size. In any case, the combination of tectonics and climate, as quantified here, can account for approximately half of the variance in these measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The failure of present-day shortening rates to account for more than 25% of most measures of relief raises the question: Is active tectonics overrated in attempts to account for present-day relief and exhumation rates of high terrain? The following points are of particular importance: 1) Elevations of ranges directly reflect the interaction between tectonics, which thickens the crust, and therefore increases elevations, and climate (through erosion), which thins the crust, and hence decreases the elevation. The importance of tectonics appears to be modest in most cases, and suggests that although tectonics is obviously essential for mountain building, but the shapes of mature ranges appear to be controlled mostly by climate factors, that cause a large scatter. 2) Relief is not sensitive to mean annual precipitation amounts, but increases with shortening rates and latitude (hence glacial erosion). Relief averaged over large areas is not affected much by climatic factors, and more by tectonics, but relief measured on short distance scales correlates best with a combination of tectonics and latitude. Relief in high-latitude mountain ranges result largely from glacial excavation at valley scale of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> created by tectonics. 3) The location of a mountain range on Earth appears to be an important factor in determining its elevation. Latitude also correlates with relief measured on short distance scales and the relative relief (the amount of relief scaled to the mean elevation of the range). Presumably, the climatic differences that vary with latitude, glaciers in particular, play a crucial role in shaping that relief.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Champagnac, J.-D.; Molnar, P.; Sue, C.; Herman, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6470599"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and other tolerances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a production process it is necessary to specify tolerances for characteristics such as dimensions, within which the measured characteristic must fall in order for the part to be acceptable. This tolerance can be based on both functional requirements and an allowance for measurement error. Sandia National Laboratories has provided general guidance for setting tolerances for its parts in Sandia General Requirements Specification 9900000, Sec. 3.3.2, titled <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Tolerance Concept. Implementing this guidance, particularly for parts other than Sandia's, has been a source of controversy, so in 1986 a Working Group of DOE statisticians undertook a study of statistical aspects of tolerance specification. This report presents the Group's analysis and findings. Several measures of consumer's risk were defined and then evaluated with respect to computational convenience, information requirement, rationale, and economic considerations. As an aid in setting tolerances, several cost models were considered and the optimum tolerances derived and compared. Because cost considerations have a major effect on the choice of tolerances, it is recommended that design and production personnel attempt to realistically model the cost of nonconformance in jointly arriving at appropriate measurement tolerances. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Easterling, R.G.; Johnson, M.E.; Bement, T.R.; Nachtsheim, C.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21580698"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of isoeichlerialactone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title seco-dammarane triterpenoid, C(27)H(42)O(4) (systematic name: 3-{(3S,3aR,5aR,6S,7S,9aR,9bR)-6,9a,9b-trimethyl-3-[(R)-2-methyl-5-oxotetra-hydro-furan-2-yl]-7-(prop-1-en-2-yl)dodeca-hydro-1H-cyclo-penta-[a]naphthalen-6-yl}propanoic acid), has been isolated for the first time from the seeds of Aglaia forbesii. The mol-ecule has three fused rings and all rings are in trans-fused. The two cyclo-hexane rings are in standard chair conformations and the cyclo-pentane ring adopts an envelope conformation. Its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by the refinement of the Flack parameter to 0.26?(17). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains along [010] by O-H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Joycharat, Nantiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984085"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of isoeichlerialactone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title seco-dammarane triterpenoid, C27H42O4 (systematic name: 3-{(3S,3aR,5aR,6S,7S,9aR,9bR)-6,9a,9b-trimethyl-3-[(R)-2-methyl-5-oxotetra­hydro­furan-2-yl]-7-(prop-1-en-2-yl)dodeca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta­[a]naphthalen-6-yl}propanoic acid), has been isolated for the first time from the seeds of Aglaia forbesii. The mol­ecule has three fused rings and all rings are in trans-fused. The two cyclo­hexane rings are in standard chair conformations and the cyclo­pentane ring adopts an envelope conformation. Its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by the refinement of the Flack parameter to 0.26?(17). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains along [010] by O—H?O hydrogen bonds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Joycharat, Nantiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolf, Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IEKP, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=8054&DocID=719"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero: Science Educator's Guide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This guide provides recommendations for curricular modules on low temperature physics. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide complements the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero Community Education Outreach Guide. Suggestions on leading discussions, increasing student participation, and the use of inquiry are included. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18569934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring scaling laws in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects many soil properties and processes, particularly surface water storage and runoff. Application of fractal analysis helps understand the scaling laws inherent in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at a wide range of spatial scales and climatic regimes. In this research, a high resolution digital elevation model with a 3mm resolution on one side of the spectrum and large scale DEMs,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. J. Abedini; M. R. Shaghaghian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.9113M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus - Global gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984IzMat..22..291P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Realizability of Predicate Formulas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> realizable predicate formula is introduced. It can be regarded as a certain refinement of the concept of a constructively generally valid formula in predicate logic. It is proved that the class of all <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> realizable formulas is a \\Pi^1_1-complete set.Bibliography: 16 titles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plisko, V. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22serial+position+effect%22&id=EJ735377"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvA..85d3612R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum simulators at negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose that negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures in ultracold atomic clouds in optical lattices can be used to simulate quantum systems in new regions of phase diagrams. First we discuss how the attractive SU(3) Hubbard model in three dimensions can be realized using repulsively interacting 173Yb atoms, then we consider how an antiferromagnetic S=1 spin chain could be simulated using spinor 87Rb or 23Na atoms. The general idea to achieve negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures is to reverse the sign of the external harmonic potential. Energy conservation in a deep optical lattice imposes a constraint on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the cloud, which can relax toward a T<0 state. As the process is strongly nonadiabatic, we estimate the change of the entropy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rapp, Ákos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..908B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convection-driven compaction as a possible origin of Enceladus's long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The long wavelength surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Enceladus shows depressions about 1 km in depth and ˜102 km wide. One possible cause of this <span class="hlt">topography</span> is spatially variable amounts of compaction of an initially porous ice shell, driven by spatial variations in heat flux. Here, we show that the heat flux variations associated with convection in the shell can quantitatively match the observed features. We develop a simple model of viscous compaction that includes the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity, and find that an initial shell porosity of at least 20-25% is required to develop the observed <span class="hlt">topography</span> over ˜1 Ga. This mechanism produces topographic depressions, not rises, above convective upwellings, and does not generate detectable gravity anomalies. Unlike transient <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, it can potentially leave a permanent record of ancient convective processes in the shallow lithospheres of icy satellites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Besserer, J.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Pappalardo, R. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243778"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Cortical <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Local Sleep</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent series of experiments, we demonstrated that a visuomotor adaptation task, 12 hours of left arm immobilization, and rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during waking can each induce local changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the poor spatial resolution of EEG and the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex limited the interpretation of these results. In order to better understand local cortical regulation of sleep, we used source modeling to show that plastic changes in specific cortical areas during waking produce correlated changes in SWA during sleep in those same areas. We found that implicit learning of a visuomotor adaptation task induced an increase in SWA in right premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to a motor control. These same areas have previously been shown to be selectively involved in the performance of this task. We also found that arm immobilization resulted in a decrease in SWA in sensorimotor cortex. Inducing cortical potentiation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an increase in SWA in the targeted area and a decrease in SWA in the contralateral cortex. Finally, we report the first evidence that these modulations in SWA may be related to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of individual slow waves. We conclude that there is a local, plasticity dependent component to sleep regulation and confirm previous inferences made from the scalp data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murphy, Michael; Huber, Reto; Esser, Steve; Riedner, Brady A.; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Tononi, Giulio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3184154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/ds_136.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Landforms of Ecuador</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.G53A0105C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> local sea surface in the Vanuatu Archipelago from GPS, satellite altimetry and pressure gauge data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water height measurements provided by seafloor tide gauges are a combination of sea level variation and local ground motion. Both signals are of scientific interest, but they must be separated in order to be useful. A reliable estimation of the vertical ground motion is important in very seismically areas such as the Pacific Ocean rim. One promising method to separate the two contributions is to use satellite altimetry which gives <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water height that is independent of the local ground motion. However, the altimeter data must be calibrated using ground truth measurements. Once different components of the signal are separated, bottom pressure gauges can be used to detect vertical movements of the seafloor. The Vanuatu Archipelago is part of the Pacific "ring of fire", where plates are quickly converging. In this area, movements are very rapid and the seismic activity is intense, which gives a good opportunity to study deformation and seismic cycle. To get an integrate picture of vertical deformation over one plate and between the two plates, one needs to be able to monitor vertical movements on both underwater and emerged areas. We conducted an experiment in this area to compare measurements from bottom pressure gauges located beneath altimetry satellite tracks with sea surface altitude measurements from GPS. Two bottom pressure gauge are immerged since Nov. 1999 in this region. In order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration for multiple satellite altimeters that overfly the region, we conducted 2 campaigns of GPS measurements of instantaneous sea surface height onboard the R/V Alis and using a GPS buoy. We present results of GPS computations for the March 2003 and March 2004 campaigns. These sea level GPS measurements are compared with multiple altimeter-measured sea surface heights, and sampling differences and high frequency variations were removed using continuous pressure gauge data. The observed discrepancies are likely to be explained by local geoid variations or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and we conducted GPS surveys to map these differences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, K. K.; Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3201A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory studies of pyroclastic flows that interact with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed a set of scaled laboratory experiments to simulate pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) using dilute mixtures of warm talc powder in air. The experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on current runout, buoyancy reversal and liftoff, and mass partitioning into buoyant plumes. The densimetric and thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers for our experiments match those of PDCs and the laboratory currents are fully turbulent, although the experiments have lower Reynolds numbers than PDCs, thus our experiments are <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> similar to natural currents. Comparisons of currents traversing flat <span class="hlt">topography</span> or encountering barriers shows that runout distance is not significantly reduced for currents that traverse barriers with height less than 1.5 times the current thickness, but currents do not pass taller barriers. Buoyancy reversals occur in most currents, resulting in liftoff and generation of a buoyant plume. Liftoff occurs near the maximum runout distance for currents traveling over flat <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but is focused near or above barriers for currents that encounter barriers. Notably, plume formation above barriers can result in reversal of flow direction downstream of the obstruction as portions of the current flow back and feed the rising plume. Greater than half of the initial particle mass composing the density currents usually partitions into the buoyant plumes; that fraction is greater for currents that liftoff closer to the source, thus topographic barriers increase mass partitioning from currents into buoyant plumes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, B.; Manga, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD742078"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion Parallax and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Distance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance estimation based on monocular motion parallax was determined both before and after specific training. With the usual distance information eliminated, subjects either held their heads stationary or rhythmically rotated the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Ferris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...102.1591S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Moon from the Clementine LIDAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 101 - 102 km correlates with elevation and surface age.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8717146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scanning Radar Altimeter for Mapping Continental <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topographic information constitutes a fundamental data set for the Earth sciences. In the geological and geophysical sciences, <span class="hlt">topography</span> combined with gravitational information provides an important constraint on the structure and rheologic properties of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. H. Dixon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/announcements/announce_predict.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global Seafloor <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Satellite Altimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site offers links to maps, posters, globes, and CD-ROMS showing seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity anomalies, and bathymetry. The images were derived from GEOSAT and ERS satellite data and bathymetric surveys performed by the U.S. Navy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPB.269.1625S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by swift heavy ion impacts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations have been carried out to investigate the development of surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> following irradiation by swift heavy ions. Two models were used: a thermal spike model in which atoms within a cylinder surrounding the path of the ion are given kinetic energy due to the electronic energy loss of the particle; and an electron stripping with recombination model. Both models give qualitatively similar results and show the formation of hillocks on the surface above the ion track and a less dense track core near to the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott, Chris; Smith, Roger; Sickafus, K. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24082094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic <span class="hlt">topography</span> of brain morphology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animal data show that cortical development is initially patterned by genetic gradients largely along three orthogonal axes. We previously reported differences in genetic influences on cortical surface area along an anterior-posterior axis using neuroimaging data of adult human twins. Here, we demonstrate differences in genetic influences on cortical thickness along a dorsal-ventral axis in the same cohort. The phenomenon of orthogonal gradations in cortical organization evident in different structural and functional properties may originate from genetic gradients. Another emerging theme of cortical patterning is that patterns of genetic influences recapitulate the spatial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the cortex within hemispheres. The genetic patterning of both cortical thickness and surface area corresponds to cortical functional specializations. Intriguingly, in contrast to broad similarities in genetic patterning, two sets of analyses distinguish cortical thickness and surface area genetically. First, genetic contributions to cortical thickness and surface area are largely distinct; there is very little genetic correlation (i.e., shared genetic influences) between them. Second, organizing principles among genetically defined regions differ between thickness and surface area. Examining the structure of the genetic similarity matrix among clusters revealed that, whereas surface area clusters showed great genetic proximity with clusters from the same lobe, thickness clusters appear to have close genetic relatedness with clusters that have similar maturational timing. The discrepancies are in line with evidence that the two traits follow different mechanisms in neurodevelopment. Our findings highlight the complexity of genetic influences on cortical morphology and provide a glimpse into emerging principles of genetic organization of the cortex. PMID:24082094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Gutiérrez, E D; Panizzon, Matthew S; Eyler, Lisa T; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Thompson, Wesley K; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Jernigan, Terry L; Neale, Michael C; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Fischl, Bruce; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DPS....37.5706A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved Lunar Control and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are completing the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) 2005, an update and combination of the ULCN (Davies and Colvin 1994) and the Clementine LCN (CLCN) (unpublished) on which USGS Clementine mosaics are based. The new network should correct for large ( 7 km average to > 15 km) errors in the CLCN by constraining ULCN positions and camera angles, and by solving for radii at all points rather than assuming a sphere. The result will be a 3-D network, including a globally complete and consistent topographic model for the Moon tied directly to horizontal control. The estimated horizontal accuracy of our current solution ranges from 1 km in the areas of ULCN points to 3 km outside these areas. The current ULCN has a vertical accuracy of a few hundred meters when compared to Clementine lidar. The true accuracy may be higher, due to interpolation and lidar positional errors involved in the comparison. The final version should be available at the time of the DPS. Our current solution includes 546,142 image measures of 272,949 points and 43,866 Clementine (mostly 750-nm) images. We will report the results in a peer-reviewed article and distribute the network data from our website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ControlNetworks/). This solution will be useful for scientific study of lunar morphology and basins; and for operational uses in selecting and targeting landing sites and evaluating landing hazards due to <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A future solution will include Lunar Orbiter, Mariner 10, and Galileo data. Additionally, it will serve as the basis for solutions with data from upcoming missions, thus placing all data in one consistent coordinate system. We acknowledge the initiation of this work by T. Colvin and (the late) M. Davies at RAND, and funding from the NASA PG&G program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Archinal, B. A.; Rosiek, M. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Redding, B. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......154L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements for biometric applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measured. Human subject <span class="hlt">topography</span> data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing <span class="hlt">topography</span> data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewis, Nathan D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3112H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shortwave radiation parameterization scheme for subgrid <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> is well known to alter the shortwave radiation balance at the surface. A detailed radiation balance is therefore required in mountainous terrain. In order to maintain the computational performance of large-scale models while at the same time increasing grid resolutions, subgrid parameterizations are gaining more importance. A complete radiation parameterization scheme for subgrid <span class="hlt">topography</span> accounting for shading, limited sky view, and terrain reflections is presented. Each radiative flux is parameterized individually as a function of sky view factor, slope and sun elevation angle, and albedo. We validated the parameterization with domain-averaged values computed from a distributed radiation model which includes a detailed shortwave radiation balance. Furthermore, we quantify the individual topographic impacts on the shortwave radiation balance. Rather than using a limited set of real <span class="hlt">topographies</span> we used a large ensemble of simulated <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with a wide range of typical terrain characteristics to study all topographic influences on the radiation balance. To this end slopes and partial derivatives of seven real <span class="hlt">topographies</span> from Switzerland and the United States were analyzed and Gaussian statistics were found to best approximate real <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. Parameterized direct beam radiation presented previously compared well with modeled values over the entire range of slope angles. The approximation of multiple, anisotropic terrain reflections with single, isotropic terrain reflections was confirmed as long as domain-averaged values are considered. The validation of all parameterized radiative fluxes showed that it is indeed not necessary to compute subgrid fluxes in order to account for all topographic influences in large grid sizes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helbig, N.; LöWe, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.4402L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on 3-D stress in the crust from support of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direction of crustal stresses acting at mid-ocean ridges is well characterized, but the magnitude of these stresses is poorly constrained. We present a method by which the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude of these stresses may be constrained using seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> is divided into a short-wavelength portion, created by rifting, magmatism, and transform faulting, and a long-wavelength portion associated with the cooling and subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere. The short-wavelength surface and Moho <span class="hlt">topography</span> are used to calculate the spatially varying 3-D stress tensor in the crust by assuming that in creating this <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the deviatoric stress reached the elastic-plastic limiting stress; the Moho <span class="hlt">topography</span> is constrained by short-wavelength gravity variations. Under these assumptions, an incompressible elastic material gives the smallest plastic failure stress associated with this <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This short-wavelength topographic stress generally predicts the wrong style of earthquake focal mechanisms at ridges and transform faults. However, the addition of an in-plane regional stress field is able to reconcile the combined crustal stress with both the ridge and transform focal mechanisms. By adjusting the magnitude of the regional stress, we determine a lower bound for in situ ridge-perpendicular extension of 25-40 MPa along the slow spreading mid-Atlantic ridge, 40-50 MPa along the ultra-slow spreading ridges in the western Indian Ocean, and 10-30 MPa along the fast spreading ridges of the southeastern Indian and Pacific Oceans. Furthermore, we constrain the magnitude of ridge-parallel extension to be between 4 and 8 MPa in the Atlantic Ocean, between -1 and 7 MPa in the western Indian Ocean, and between -1 and 3 MPa in the southeastern Indian and Pacific Oceans. These observations suggest that a deep transform valley is an essential feature of the ridge-transform spreading center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luttrell, Karen; Sandwell, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53855831"> <span id="translatedtitle">The many surface expressions of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plate tectonic theory suggests that present-day <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be explained by the repeated interactions between the tectonic plates moving along Earth's surface. However, mounting evidence indicates that a significant proportion of Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> results from the viscous stresses created by flow within the underlying mantle, rather than by the moving plates. This <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is transient, varying as mantle flow</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jean Braun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22142702G"> <span id="translatedtitle">JWST <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Flux Calibration Plan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The plan for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux calibration of all JWST instruments will be described. The science goal is to be able to predict the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux of stars for all JWST instruments to sub-1% accuracy. A set of A0V, solar, and hot stars have been picked as a preliminary calibration sample. This calibration sample has been chosen specifically to provide at least 5 stars of each type in all the observing modes of each JWST instrument. In addition to existing Hubble and Spitzer observations, ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy will be obtained to provide strong, independent constraints on the best fitting model stellar atmospheres for each star.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30059333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of corneal thickness and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIMSTo map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system.METHODS94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuguo Liu; Andrew J Huang; Stephen C Pflugfelder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44470877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shallow-Water Flow past Isolated <span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Part II: Transition to Vortex Shedding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formation of Kármán vortex streets is studied within the framework of single-layer shallow-water <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and in absence of surface friction and background rotation. In the first part of this study, steady numerical solutions for flow past circular <span class="hlt">topography</span> were obtained by imposing a symmetry condition that essentially suppressed vortex shedding. In the second part, this symmetry condition is relaxed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christoph Schär; Ronald B. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55199005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing Ice Sheet Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Structure Using High-Altitude Waveform Airborne Laser Altimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface topographic information of ice surfaces is important for a wide range of applications including mass balance investigations and <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> modeling. Airborne LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) uses laser ranging to map surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with high precision and accuracy. In October-November 2010, NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) system imaged areas of Antarctica as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Hofton; B. Blair; S. B. Luthcke; D. Rabine; C. McIntosh; M. Beckley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37015208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion parallax and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determined the accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance estimation based on monocular motion parallax both before and after specific training. With the usual distance information eliminated, 70 Navy enlisted men either held their heads stationary or rhythmically rotated their heads about a vertical axis while judging the distance of stimuli placed 1.22-4.57 m. away. Although distance perception was poor before training, head</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven H. Ferris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51245688"> <span id="translatedtitle">JWST <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Flux Calibration Planning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The planning for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux calibration of all four JWST science instruments will be described. The main goal is to provide a uniform calibration (photometric and spectrophotometric) across all instruments using a common set of calibration stars. These stars will include white dwarfs, A0V, and solar type stars. The combination of these different types of stars will serve to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl D. Gordon; R. Bohlin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.1404M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development and analysis of a software tool for stitching three-dimensional surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> data sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents development and application of a new software solution for stitching surface three-dimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> data where best matching positions are detected through maximization of a cross-correlation function. Differently from other stitching software tools developed in the past, the one here presented is based not on colour gradients but on matching of physical coordinates. The developed routine fully compensates positioning errors occurring when the measuring instrument is displaced relative to the surface. Qualitative as well as quantitative analyses were carried out in order to verify the applicability of the stitching process. Both synthetic and real scanned surfaces were used for testing. It was demonstrated that misalignments after software compensation are negligible: sub-pixel level inaccuracies, with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviations <0.2%, were in fact verified when stitching two images. The method was developed specifically for atomic force microscopy, but can be effectively applied to any 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> measuring instrument.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marinello, F.; Bariani, P.; DeChiffre, L.; Hansen, H. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Icar...72..128C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a comet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have developed a simple model of an infinite cylindrical trench on a comet. The energy balance equation has been modified to include physical processes which are relevant with <span class="hlt">topography</span> present, and includes shadowing, radiative heating from the opposing walls, and the condensation energy of sublimed gas molecules striking the walls instead of escaping to space. The model is designed to indicate the general course of the evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a comet, and is not intended as a complete model of a cometary nucleus. By running the model for trenches of different depths and at different solar distances, the authors draw conclusions about the evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> through an orbit and the consequences this evolution has on the evolution of the nucleus as a whole over the course of several perihelion passages.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colwell, J. E.; Jakosky, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12710325"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Time and Temperature in Quantum and Classical Relativistic Mechanics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a relativistic quantum mechanics of a point mass with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thermodynamic time and temperature, combined to a single complex parameter of evolution. In this theory, the geometric time is introduced as one of space-time coordinates; it does not coincide with the thermodynamic time on the kinematical level. It is established, that the theory allows a consistent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadim V. Asadov; Oleg V. Kechkin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27736999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Double Porosity Models for <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Rigid Body via Reiterated Homogenization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Double porosity models for the liquid filtration in an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> rigid body is derived from homogenization theory. The governing equations of the fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the microscopic level consist of the Stokes system for a slightly compressible viscous fluid, occupying a crack -- pore space. In turn, this domain is a union of two independent systems of cracks (fissures) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anvarbek Meirmanov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56191937"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical fibre based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extrinsic Fabry - Pérot interferometric sensing system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design and principle of operation of a novel fibre optic sensing system is presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extrinsic Fabry - Pérot interferometric (AEFPI) system is shown to possess high sensitivity, wide <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range and a real-time output signal. Applications of the AEFPI system to high-performance civil structures are suggested. Multiplexing of many such sensors is achieved by employing the path</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vikram Bhatia; Kent A. Murphy; Richard O. Claus; Mark E. Jones; Jennifer L. Grace; Tuan A. Tran; Jonathan A. Greene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21811317"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noninterferometric <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements of fast moving surfaces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of moving surfaces is recovered by noninterferometric measurements. The phase reconstruction is derived by measuring the intensities of a backscattered pulsed laser light and solving the transport intensity equation (TIE). The TIE is solved by expanding the phase into a series of Zernike polynomials, leading to a set of appropriate algebraic equations. This technique, which enables us to make a direct connection between experiments and the TIE, has been successfully tested in gas gun experiments. In particular, the <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of a moving projectile and the free surface of a shocked target were recovered. PMID:21811317</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinhasi, Shirly Vinikman; Eliezer, Shalom; Glam, Benny; Appelbaum, Gabi; Bakshi, Lior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........79V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> on biofilm formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell <span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, <span class="hlt">topographies</span> tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic <span class="hlt">topography</span> shapes. In this study patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria <span class="hlt">topography</span> characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasudevan, Ravikumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang <span class="hlt">topography</span> revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q2ggjp7r318w2t02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Entropy equation and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we consider the equivalence between the heat and the entropy balance laws. These two equations are related by\\u000a an integrating factor, which defines the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature. This result is obtained applying the thermodynamic laws to\\u000a a perfect fluid. So that, by means of the entropy equation we introduce the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Two particular cases\\u000a of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giovambattista Amendola; Carlo Banfi; Mauro Fabrizio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QuEle..23..535V"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Optical visualization of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a crater formed on a solid sample by a laser pulse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fringe projection method has been used to determine the shape of a crater formed by applying laser light to a metal plate. The crater <span class="hlt">topography</span> should be taken into account in thermal, acoustic, and plasma-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasil'ev, Sergei V.; Ivanov, A. Yu; Lyalikov, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3762514"> <span id="translatedtitle">Least <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Relative Error Estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiplicative regression model or accelerated failure time model, which becomes linear regression model after logarithmic transformation, is useful in analyzing data with positive responses, such as stock prices or life times, that are particularly common in economic/financial or biomedical studies. Least squares or least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation are among the most widely used criterions in statistical estimation for linear regression model. However, in many practical applications, especially in treating, for example, stock price data, the size of relative error, rather than that of error itself, is the central concern of the practitioners. This paper offers an alternative to the traditional estimation methods by considering minimizing the least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> relative errors for multiplicative regression models. We prove consistency and asymptotic normality and provide an inference approach via random weighting. We also specify the error distribution, with which the proposed least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> relative errors estimation is efficient. Supportive evidence is shown in simulation studies. Application is illustrated in an analysis of stock returns in Hong Kong Stock Exchange.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CHEN, Kani; GUO, Shaojun; YING, Zhiliang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JFM...613....1H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inviscid axisymmetric <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of swirling jets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation characteristics of inviscid axisymmetric linearized disturbances to swirling jets are investigated for two families of model velocity profiles. Briggs' method is applied to dispersion relations to determine when the basic swirling jets are <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> or convectively unstable. The method is also applied to the neutral inertial waves used by Benjamin to characterize the subcritical or supercritical nature of the flow. Although these waves are neutral, Briggs' method nonetheless indicates a qualitative change in behaviour at Benjamin's criticality condition. The first model jet has uniform axial velocity, rigid-body rotation and issues into still fluid. A known difficulty in the application of Briggs' method to the analytical dispersion relation for inviscid waves in this flow is resolved. The difficulty is that the pinch point can cross into the left half of the complex-wavenumber plane, where waves grow exponentially with radius and fail to satisfy homogeneous boundary conditions. In this paper the physical consequences of this behaviour are explained. It is shown that if the still fluid is of infinite extent in the radial direction, then the jet is convectively unstable to axisymmetric waves, but if the jet is confined by an outer cylinder concentric with the jet axis, then it becomes <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable to axisymmetric waves provided that the swirl (ratio of azimuthal to axial velocity) is large enough. This destabilizing effect of confinement occurs however large the radius of the outer cylinder. A second family of model swirling jets with smooth profiles and a finite thickness shear layer at the jet edge is also studied. The inviscid stability equations are solved numerically in this case. The results from the analytical dispersion relations are reproduced as the shear layer thickness tends to zero. However, increasing this thickness acts to destabilize the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of axisymmetric waves, apparently due to the centrifugal instability present in the shear layer. It is suggested that the transition from convective to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability could be associated with the onset of an unsteady vortex breakdown. The swirl required to produce this transition can be either greater, or less, than the swirl required to produce the transition from supercritical to subcritical flow, depending on the details of the basic velocity profiles. A codimension-two point in parameter space can exist where the unsteady bifurcation associated with the convectivesubcritical transition. Such codimension-two points can control a rich variety of nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> behaviour.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Healey, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16478023"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of multivariate normal mixtures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multivariate normal mixtures provide a flexible method of fitting high-dimensional data. It is shown that their <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in the sense of their key features as a density, can be analyzed rigorously in lower dimensions by use of a ridgeline manifold that contains all critical points, as well as the ridges of the density. A plot of the elevations on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Surajit Ray; Bruce G. Lindsay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://math.bu.edu/people/sray/preprints/topography.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF MULTIVARIATE NORMAL MIXTURES1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multivariate normal mixtures provide a flexible method of fitting high- dimensional data. It is shown that their <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in the sense of their key features as a density, can be analyzed rigorously in lower dimensions by use of a ridgeline manifold that contains all critical points, as well as the ridges of the density. A plot of the elevations on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SURAJIT RAY; BRUCE G. LINDSAY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56288242"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of multivariate normal mixtures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multivariate normal mixtures provide a flexible method of fitting high-dimensional data. It is shown that their <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in the sense of their key features as a density, can be analyzed rigorously in lower dimensions by use of a ridgeline manifold that contains all critical points, as well as the ridges of the density. A plot of the elevations on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Surajit Ray; Bruce G. Lindsay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD748008"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Effects on Ocean Currents.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> on ocean currents are considered. it is shown that a laminar laboratory model with height to width ratio differing from that of large scale geophysical motions can be used to model topographic effects on ocean currents. Th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Guala</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/science/science.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Space - Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, describes the scientific applications of ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1. Other topics include uses of the collected data, such as evaluations of ocean circulation, tides, weather and climate patterns, and other trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laboratory, Jet P.; Nasa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5051966"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between Martian gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of various regions of Mars is used to estimate their effective elastic thicknesses Te using direct measurements of line of sight velocity, rather than spherical harmonic coefficients. Estimates of Te vary from 70 km for Tharsis, 29 km for Elysium, to 14.5 km for the southern hemisphere, and show that the thickness of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dan McKenzie; David N. Barnett; Dah-Ning Yuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://math.univ-lyon1.fr/homes-www/chupin/FICHIERS-RECHERCHE/Chupin-Noble-Vila.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shallow waters viscous flows for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we obtain new models for gravity driven shallow water laminar flows in several space dimensions over a general <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These models are derived from the incompressible Navier Stokes equations with no-slip condition at the bottom and include capillary effects. No partic- ular assumption is made on the size of the viscosity and on the variations of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc Boutounet; Laurent Chupin; Pascal Noble; Jean Paul Vila</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41155850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing ancient <span class="hlt">topography</span> through erosion modelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the main aims of geomorphology is to understand how geomorphic processes change <span class="hlt">topography</span> over long time scales. Over the last decades several landscape evolution models have been developed in order to study this question. However, evaluation of such models has often been very limited due to the lack of necessary field data. In this study we present a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iris Peeters; Tom Rommens; Gert Verstraeten; Gerard Govers; Anton Van Rompaey; Jean Poesen; Kristof Van Oost</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA077179"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Edge Waves on Curved <span class="hlt">Topographies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exact solutions are found to the linearized three dimensional equations for free surface gravity waves trapped against a straight coastline with a variable (perpendicular to the coastline) <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Three families of <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are found, one concave ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. P. Shaw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1440297"> <span id="translatedtitle">3-D <span class="hlt">topography</span> simulator (3-D MULSS) based on a physical description of material <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">topography</span> simulator (3-D MULSS), and its applications. We focus on the description of the material surface and the algorithm of the surface advancement. Then we propose a 3-D <span class="hlt">topography</span> simulation algorithm, with consideration of the probe size of observation, and based on the integration formula of the balance equation. Next, we show the simulation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masato Fujinaga; Norihiko Kotani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H52A..05M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuum Statistics of the Bed <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in a Sandy River</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal and spatial variabilities in the bed geometry of sandy rivers contain information about processes of sediment transport that has not been fully appreciated. This is primarily due to a disparity between the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nature of the sediment-fluid interface and the relatively static methods of surveying bed elevation, e.g. single profiles or point measurements. High resolution topographic data is paramount to understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of sandy beds. We present and analyze a data set collected on a 2cm x 2cm grid at 1 minute intervals and with a vertical precision of ~1mm. This was accomplished by using Lambert-Beer's Law for attenuation of light to transform low-altitude aerial photographs into digital elevation models. Forty successive models were generated for a 20 m by 30 m section of channel bottom of the N. Loup River, Nebraska. To calculate the average, whole bed translation rate, or celerity, cross-correlations between a reference bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its proceeding configurations were determined. Time differences between models were related to the shift lengths that produced correlation maxima for each model pair. The result is a celerity of ~3.8cm/s with a correlation coefficient of 0.992. Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> also deforms while it translates, and this can be seen as a secular decrease of correlation maxima. The form of this decrease in correlation is exponential, and from it an interface half-life is defined. In this case, the bed had become extensively reorganized within ~40 minutes, the time necessary to translate the bed one wavelength of the dominant roughness element. Although the bed is continuously deforming, its roughness is statistically stationary. Essentially, a mean roughness is maintained as the bed creates new realizations of itself. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nature of the whole bed and similarly transient behavior of individual elements suggests the utility of a holistic approach to studying the feedback between bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>, fluid flow, and sediment transport. Furthermore, it raises questions about the usefulness of detailed analysis of flow and transport over individual forms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McElroy, B.; Jerolmack, D.; Mohrig, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S54A..02K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slip Trajectories and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Traction from Analysis of Slickenlines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How much can the orientation of slip vary during a single earthquake? Establishing the physical limits on the degree of rake variation is an important component to improving our ability to image slip of large earthquakes. Here we take the approach of examining the geological record of slip orientation on a single, exceptionally preserved fault plane. We measure slickenlines on the exposed fault surface of the Corona Heights fault, San Francisco, and relate the slickenline geometry to the tectonic stress resolved on the fault. Both the fault surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the shape of slickenlines are measured using ground based light detection and ranging (LiDAR), which allows a large area of fault to be examined. The fault surface is non-planar, with meso-scale corrugations, or bumps, having aligned long axes that rake approximately 30° down to the northeast. Slickenlines also rake approximately 30°, however, in the field they appear to be deflected around the bumps. Extracting the slickenlines from the LiDAR data cloud allows their orientations to be measured; the rakes measured in the plane of the fault range by 20 degrees but are normally distributed about the mean with a standard deviation of 4° indicating relatively coherent motion over 10's of meters scale. This observation also suggests that the local traction on the surface is a combination of the resolved tectonic stress and an extra stress due to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> that causes the slickenline deflection. We use this insight to analyze the shape of slickenlines in combination with the known <span class="hlt">topography</span> to infer the constraints on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stress. The slickenlines that show the greatest deviation from the mean cluster around the edges of bumps in the fault surface. However, the correlation with simple parameters like topographic height is not straightforward. Interpretation requires calculating the stress pattern from the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a preliminary analysis, we model the deflecting stresses as due to an elastic compression of the bumps. Using a Hertzian contact solution, we calculate the deflecting stress and show that this derived quantity correlates with the angle of deflection of the slickenlines. Measuring the deflection and calculating the deflecting stress therefore will allow the tectonic stress to be constrained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1464524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ice sheet motion and <span class="hlt">topography</span> from radar interferometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and motion information are present in repeat pass ERS-1 interferograms over ice sheets. The authors demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is separable from the surface displacement field when a sequence of radar images are available. If the velocity field is constant over the time span of observation, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be derived from differential interferograms formed from sequential observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronald Kwok; Mark A. Fahnestock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59743555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface wettability and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces is influenced by surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and polymer type. Biomimetic superhydrophobic rough surfaces of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. N. Lourenco; G. Marchioli; W Song; R. L. Reis; Blitterswijk van C. A; H. B. J. Karperien; Apeldoorn van A. A; J. F. Mano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56416970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic error in <span class="hlt">topography</span>-controlled groundwater models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> is often used as a boundary condition in groundwater flow models. This boundary condition is only valid if the groundwater table is a subdued exact replica of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Since the water table never follows the <span class="hlt">topography</span> exactly, applying this boundary condition induces a systematic error that overestimates the velocities of the top part of the saturated subsurface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Marklund; A. Worman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12731997"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of Intraoperative Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Monitoring During Photorefractive Keratectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: We propose a feasibility study of new corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> technology with the aim of monitoring intraoperative corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> dur- ing excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. The PAR system measures corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> with sin- gle grid projection and triangulation but requires fluorescent fluid to be deposited on the corneal sur- face for shape extraction. We propose and demon- strate a novel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christophe Moser; Juergen Kampmeier; Peter McDonnell; D. Psaltis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20779136"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a step toward <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N. [LPO-COPEA and Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-590 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias ExatasUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30123-970 (Brazil)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">topography</span> and recognition imaging on endothelial cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determining the landscape of specific binding sites on biological samples with high spatial accuracy (in the order of several nanometres) is an important task in many fields of biological science. During the past five years, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> recognition imaging (e.g. simultaneous <span class="hlt">topography</span> and recognition (TREC) imaging) has proven to be a powerful technique in biophysical research. This technique becomes an indispensable tool for high-resolution receptor mapping as it has been successfully demonstrated on different biomolecular model systems. In these studies, the topographical imaging of receptor molecules is combined with molecular recognition by their cognate ligands bound to the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip via a flexible and distensible tether. In this review, we describe the principles of TREC imaging and provide a flavour of its recent application on endothelial cells. PMID:21812052</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chtcheglova, L A; Hinterdorfer, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21136780"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Emission Measurement in Burning Plasma Experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of neutron emission rate from the whole plasma is a very important diagnostics as a fusion power monitor in fusion experimental devices with D-T or D-T operations. Here measurement techniques of time-resolved and time-integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission on the present tokamaks and ITER are reviewed. In the present tokamaks, fission chamber installed outside the vacuum vessel are very popular in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurement. As well as conventional neutron monitors installed outside the vacuum vessel, in-vessel neutron monitors using micro fission chamber are proposed for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurement in ITER. The neutron activation system provides time-integrated measurements of the total neutron yield with high accuracy by using well known neutron reaction cross sections, which is useful to maintain a robust measure of fusion energy production with stability and wide <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range. The calibration of the relation between the neutron emission rate in the whole plasma and the output of neutron monitor is the most important issue in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurements. The calibration of the neutron detectors has been performed by moving a neutron source such as a {sup 252}Cf neutron or a small accelerator-based neutron generator. For the calibration in ITER, the neutron generator with neutron emission rate of 10{sup 11} s{sup -1} or stronger is required to obtain high accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishitani, Takeo; Ishikawa, Masao; Kondoh, Takashi; Kusama, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, 311-0193 (Japan); Asai, Keisuke [Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Sasao, Mmamiko [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G21A..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity Changes In Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visco-elastic deformation models such as that of Soldati et al. [1999] predict time varying gravity signals associated with post-seismic deformation following the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake (Mw=9.2). The rates of change are a function of the upper mantle viscosity. Aseismic creep is also a candidate mechanism for the deformation. The models differ in the spatial distribution of gravity changes; visco-elastic signals span a much larger region. Previous <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements have been made in Fairbanks, Alaska and Palmer, Alaska, during 1990-1991. Estimated uncertainties are in the 3-5 uGal range Visco-elastic gravity changes for Palmer are predicted to range from zero to tens of uGal, depending on the model viscosity and thickness parameters. New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements at these sites are scheduled for September 2001, with 2 uGal estimated uncertainty. We hope to present initial results of the new measurements, with discussion of their implications for model testing. Different time series and instruments will be merged, and necessary corrections will be discussed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sasagawa, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CoTPh..57..473Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Generation of Solitary Rossby Waves by Unstable <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on generation of the solitary Rossby waves is researched. Here, the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, as a forcing for waves generation, is taken as a function of longitude variable x and time variable t, which is called unstable <span class="hlt">topography</span>. With the help of a perturbation expansion method, a forced mKdv equation governing the evolution of amplitude of the solitary Rossby waves is derived from quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation and is solved by the pseudo-spectral method. Basing on the waterfall plots, the generational features of the solitary Rossby waves under the influence of unstable <span class="hlt">topography</span> and stable <span class="hlt">topography</span> are compared and some conclusions are obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Hong-Wei; Yin, Bao-Shu; Dong, Huan-He; Ma, Zhen-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5341538"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on SAR calibration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During normal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, a flat earth is assumed when performing radiometric corrections such as antenna pattern and scattering area removal. Here the authors examine the effects of topographic variations on these corrections. Local slopes will cause the actual scattering area to be different from that calculated using the flat earth assumption. It is shown that this effect, which is present for both airborne and spaceborne SAR data, may easily cause calibration errors larger than a decibel. Ignoring the <span class="hlt">topography</span> during antenna pattern removal is expected to be negligible for spaceborne SAR's. In this paper they show how these effects can be taken into account if a digital elevation model is available for the imaged area. It is also shown that not taking the <span class="hlt">topography</span> into account during antenna pattern removal introduces polarimetric calibration errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zyl, J.J. van; Chapman, B.D.; Dubois, P. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.); Shi, Jiancheng (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/cave/karst.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Karst <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Teacher's Guide and Paper Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson uses paper models to help students understand karst processes, why caves develop in limestone, and how karst <span class="hlt">topography</span> develops. Introductory materials explain how ground- or surface waters can dissolve limestone, some features of karst landscapes (sinkholes, disappearing streams), and some features of caves (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstone). A teacher's guide provides patterns and instructions for building the models, and a glossary and references are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachingboxes.org/seaLevel/lessons/lesson5.jsp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Sea Level Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is comprised of three activities (three class periods). Students use web-based animations to explore the impacts of ice melt and changes to sea level. Students are introduced to topographic maps by doing a hands-on activity to model the contours of an island. Students examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and sea level change by mapping changing shorelines using a topographic map.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitfield, Lise; Mcmillon, Bill; Scotchmoor, Judy; Stoffer, Phil; DLESE (Digital Library for Earth System Education)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6669407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner, B.; Kuriyama, M.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Laor, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41A1576G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury and Vesta - Preliminary shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This year two spacecraft, MESSENGER and Dawn, were placed into orbit around Mercury and the asteroid Vesta, respectively. We have been using stereophotoclinometry (SPC) to analyze MESSENGER and Dawn images both for navigation and to determine the precise shapes and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of these bodies. Because SPC requires images at different local Sun elevations and azimuths to distinguish between albedo and topographic variations, Mercury presents the challenges of a slow spin rate and a long solar day. Vesta, on the other hand, rotates more than four times per Earth day, allowing a given area of surface to be viewed under rapidly changing illumination and topographic information to be built up rapidly. The essence of SPC is that small pieces of surface called maplets and modeled with digital elevation and albedo are illuminated and correlated with images. Hundreds of these maplets are found in each image, providing a valuable data type for spacecraft navigation. Hundreds of images go into the construction of each maplet, and the resulting multi-image stereo over a wide range of viewing conditions provides a precise determination of the maplet's body-fixed position. The construction of <span class="hlt">topography</span> with SPC uses each pixel, allowing resolutions comparable to the images themselves. Mercury's <span class="hlt">topography</span> varies by about 5 km above and below that of a sphere of radius 2440 km. We compare the SPC-derived shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> with data from MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). Vesta, although a tenth of Mercury's size, exhibits variations in elevation between 17 km below and 12 km above the equipotential that best matches its surface. The lowest areas lie on the floor of the south polar impact crater, and the highest points lie on the crater's rim.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaskell, R. W.; Palmer, E. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Barnouin, O. S.; Jorda, L.; Taylor, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18337569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long wave interaction over varying <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of long waves on the surface of a three-dimensional fluid domain bounded below by slowly varying <span class="hlt">topography</span> is considered. There are two important limits: If the initial data can be written in terms of a discrete set of one-dimensional wavefronts, the resulting wave field is described by a set of variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations for each</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Milewski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4855S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir properties inversion in a karst aquifer using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct estimate of water storage and transfer in karst aquifers are difficult to obtain due to the extreme permeability variation of the medium. In this study, we aim to quantify water transfer properties in a karst aquifer of the Larzac plateau (South Massif Central, France) using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity monitoring. Our measurements are cutting edge as they directly measure the integrated water content below the gravimeter. We analyze monthly repeated FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements (1-2 microGal precision) over a three-year period at three sites on the karst aquifer. Important precipitation events lead to significant gravity increases which peak up to several weeks after the events depending on the site. Also, gravity decreases in a different manner at each site during drier periods. We consider the different gravity responses at each site to relate to water transfer properties between the surface and the unsaturated zone beneath. Within this scope, the gravity signal is used to invert for those water transfer properties. A simple two-tank reservoir model including a ‘soil' reservoir that feeds into a ‘subsurface' reservoir is used as the forward model in a Monte Carlo simulation. Reservoir discharge proceeds according to Maillet's law. Water levels within the reservoirs are converted into a gravity signal considering an infinite slab scaled by a factor that accounts for both the surrounding topographic effects and the water interception by the building where the measurements are made. Inverted parameters are the discharge constants and the scaling factors. Model input is rainfall measured with rain gauges at each site minus estimated evapotranspiration. The inversion leads to scaling factors much smaller than 1 for the attraction of the surface reservoir. The effects of the surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span> and those of the building on gravity are compared to the inversion result of the ‘surface reservoir' scaling factors. We discuss if the forward model and underlying assumptions may be well-suited to account for the observed signal. We finally attempt to link the gravity-based discharge properties of the ‘subsurface' reservoir with the local karstification at each site and with the whole aquifer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabrina, Deville; Thomas, Jacob; Jean, Chery; Roger, Bayer; Cedric, Champollion; Moigne Nicolas, Le</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071431"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Padre Island National Seashore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Geomo..78..250P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing ancient <span class="hlt">topography</span> through erosion modelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the main aims of geomorphology is to understand how geomorphic processes change <span class="hlt">topography</span> over long time scales. Over the last decades several landscape evolution models have been developed in order to study this question. However, evaluation of such models has often been very limited due to the lack of necessary field data. In this study we present a <span class="hlt">topography</span> based hillslope erosion and deposition model that is based on the WATEM/SEDEM model structure and works on a millennial time scale. Soil erosion, transport and deposition are calculated using slope and unit contributing area. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> is iteratively rejuvenated by taking into account modelled erosion and deposition rates, thereby simulating topographic development backwards in time. A first attempt has been made to spatially evaluate the model, using detailed estimates for historical soil erosion and sediment deposition volumes, obtained from an augering campaign in a small catchment in the Belgian Loess Belt. The results show that the model can simulate realistic soil redistribution patterns. However, further research is necessary in order to deal with artificial flaws that cause routing problems and significantly influence results. Common problems and issues related to this type of backward modelling are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peeters, Iris; Rommens, Tom; Verstraeten, Gert; Govers, Gerard; van Rompaey, Anton; Poesen, Jean; van Oost, Kristof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/733217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bounded variation, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> integrability for fuzzy-number-valued functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the concepts of bounded variation and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity for the fuzzy-number-valued functions are presented and discussed by means of the representation of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value for fuzzy numbers. The relations among bounded variation, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity, Kaleva's integral and fuzzy Henstock integral are characterized. Especially, the representation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuous fuzzy valued functions is given by Henstock (Kaleva)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zengtai Gong; Wu Congxin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22590330"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of xerophenone A.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title compound, C(33)H(42)O(5), known as xerophenone A {systematic name: (1R,3R,4R,6S,8E,10R)-10-hy-droxy-8-[hy-droxy(phen-yl)methyl-ene]-4-methyl-1,6-bis-(3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-but-3-en-1-yl)-11-oxatricyclo-[4.3.1.1(4,10)]undecane-7,9-dione} is a naturally occurring rearranged benzophenone compound which was isolated from the twigs of Garcinia propinqua. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by refining the Flack parameter to 0.18?(16). The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations at positions 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10 of the xerophenone A are R, R, R, S and R. In the mol-ecule, the cyclo-hexane-1,3-dione, tetra-hydro-2H-pyran and tetra-hydro-furan rings adopt twisted boat, standard chair and envelope conformations, respectively. The 3-methyl-but-3-en-1-yl substituent is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.771?(11):0.229?(11) ratio. An intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H?O and weak C-H?O inter-actions into a chain along the a axis. A very weak C-H?? inter-action and C?O short contact [2.989?(2)?Å] are also present. PMID:22590330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Laphookhieo, Surat; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3344568"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of xerophenone A</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title compound, C33H42O5, known as xerophenone A {systematic name: (1R,3R,4R,6S,8E,10R)-10-hy­droxy-8-[hy­droxy(phen­yl)methyl­ene]-4-methyl-1,6-bis­(3-methyl­but-2-en-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl­but-3-en-1-yl)-11-oxatricyclo­[4.3.1.14,10]undecane-7,9-dione} is a naturally occurring rearranged benzophenone compound which was isolated from the twigs of Garcinia propinqua. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by refining the Flack parameter to 0.18?(16). The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations at positions 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10 of the xerophenone A are R, R, R, S and R. In the mol­ecule, the cyclo­hexane-1,3-dione, tetra­hydro-2H-pyran and tetra­hydro­furan rings adopt twisted boat, standard chair and envelope conformations, respectively. The 3-methyl­but-3-en-1-yl substituent is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.771?(11):0.229?(11) ratio. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H?O and weak C—H?O inter­actions into a chain along the a axis. A very weak C—H?? inter­action and C?O short contact [2.989?(2)?Å] are also present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Laphookhieo, Surat; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.192...82D"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and building mask on time varying gravity due to local hydrology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use 3 yr of surface <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements at three sites on the Larzac plateau (France) to quantify the changes induced by <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the building on gravity time-series, with respect to an idealized infinite slab approximation. Indeed, local <span class="hlt">topography</span> and buildings housing ground-based gravity measurement have an effect on the distribution of water storage changes, therefore affecting the associated gravity signal. We first calculate the effects of surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span> and building dimensions on the gravity attraction for a uniform layer of water. We show that a gravimetric interpretation of water storage change using an infinite slab, the so-called Bouguer approximation, is generally not suitable. We propose to split the time varying gravity signal in two parts (1) a surface component including topographic and building effects (2) a deep component associated to underground water transfer. A reservoir modelling scheme is herein presented to remove the local site effects and to invert for the effective hydrological properties of the unsaturated zone. We show that effective time constants associated to water transfer vary greatly from site to site. We propose that our modelling scheme can be used to correct for the local site effects on gravity at any site presenting a departure from a flat <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Depending on sites, the corrected signal can exceed measured values by 5-15 ?Gal, corresponding to 120-380 mm of water using the Bouguer slab formula. Our approach only requires the knowledge of daily precipitation corrected for evapotranspiration. Therefore, it can be a useful tool to correct any kind of gravimetric time-series data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deville, S.; Jacob, T.; Chéry, J.; Champollion, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.189...55G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and geoid induced by a convecting mantle beneath an elastic lithosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the absence of seismological measurements, observations of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity fields of solid planets are the primary constraints on their internal structure. To compute the synthetic geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of planetary interiors, we introduce a 3-D numerical tool describing mantle convection beneath an elastic lithosphere. Although the energy conservation is treated in the whole spherical domain, the deformation aspect is solved using a hybrid technique (finite volume method for the viscous flow, spectral method for elastic deformation). The mechanical coupling is achieved via the imposition of the traction at the surface of the viscous flow as a basal boundary condition for the elastic deformation. We present both response functions and full thermal convection cases computed with our new method for planetary bodies of varying dimensions: the filtering effect of the lithosphere on the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid is specific for each planetary body, justifying the importance of such a tool. Furthermore, since our approach specifically focuses on the mechanical coupling at the base of the lithosphere, it will permit future, more elaborate, rheological treatments. It also enables to discriminate between the radial and tangential components of the viscous traction. The latter is found to have a significant influence on the elastic deformation. The effect on geoid is prominent. More specifically, while a thin elastic lithosphere is usually considered to play little role on the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid of Venus, a ˜35 per cent reduction is obtained for geoid height in the numerical example we propose. On a planet with thicker elastic lithosphere such as Mars, the consequence of this filtering effect is to rule out the possibility of a <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> support for the Tharsis Rise, even for the lowest admissible values of elastic thickness in this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golle, O.; Dumoulin, C.; Choblet, G.; ?adek, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9714259A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency variability of the tropical Atlantic surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Altimetry and model comparison</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Altimetric data, climatological hydrological data, and numerical model results are compared over the tropical Atlantic Ocean between November 1986 and November 1988. All reproduce the seasonal cycle of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> rather well, and the agreement is particularly good between altimetry and the primitive equation model. The study of the 1986-1988 period reveals interannual events evidenced by both the altimetry and the models, especially during spring 1988 in the Gulf of Guinea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnault, S.; MorliéRe, A.; Merle, J.; MéNard, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23157837"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> of microgravity-grown ribonuclease S crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crystals of the enzyme RNase S were grown at micro and unit gravity using a dialysis-based <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> controlled device. Crystals were grown at 24°C on space shuttle flights STS 93 and STS 95. Control crystals were grown simultaneously in ground laboratories using identical equipment. Sizes, shapes, populations, and diffraction resolution have been compared and the crystals analyzed by X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Travis Gallagher; Carrie Stover; David Charlton; Leonard Arnowitz; David R. Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C41A0513M"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-precision Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mapping Using Radar Interferometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year activities. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Interferometer (GLISTIN-A): a 35.6 GHz single-pass interferometer. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. However, for this application the electromagnetic wave will penetrate an unknown amount into the snow cover thus producing an effective bias that must be calibrated. To evaluate this, GLISTIN-A flew a coordinated collection with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) on a transect from Greenland’s Summit to its West coast. Two field calibration sites were established at Colorado Institute for Research in Environmental Science’s Swiss Camp and the National Science Foundation’s Summit station. Additional collections entailed flying a mosaic over Jakobshavn glacier which was repeated after 6 days to reveal surface <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Through detailed calibration and inter-sensor comparisons we were able to observe penetration biases and compare them with theoretical expectations. We also demonstrated GLISTIN-A’s capability to measure the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of large glacier systems in a seamless fashion and accurately measuring volume changes with a high level of spatial detail. In particular, repeating the airborne campaigns to observe elevation changes over time will allow very accurate volume change measurements. Not only is this very important for mass balance studies to have a precise mass-loss estimate, but the spatial pattern can reveal ice <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> effects and surface mass balance effects. In this manner a high resolution, high-precision topographic mapping capability is an ideal complement to the ICESat, ICESat II and Cryosat altimeters. Interpolating between the high-accuracy elevation profiles from altimeters such as the ATM or ICESat II with the high-resolution GLISTIN-A swath will enable detailed ice-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and extended spatial coverage. The result is the potential for higher fidelity mass-balance estimates and improved observational coverage. Upgrades are currently underway to improve the performance and portability of GLISTIN-A such that, onboard a long-range aircraft this radar can map Greenland’s significant glaciers in a few days. The upgraded GLISTIN-A will be compatible with GlobalHawk installation making, Antarctica basin and coastal mapping feasible. GLISTIN will make more topographic products available to glaciologists, initially through dedicated airborne campaigns or ultimately, perhaps, as a satellite mission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Michel, T.; Rignot, E. J.; Simard, M.; Krabill, W. B.; Sonntag, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24007078"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed. PMID:24007078</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mst.edu/~wjcharat/publications/ARHU.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hereditarily Unicoherent Continua and Their <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Retracts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> retracts for classes of hereditarily unicoherent continua, tree-like continua, ?- dendroids, dendroids and some other related ones. The main results are: (1) the inverse limits of trees with confluent bond- ing mappings are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> retracts of hereditarily unicoherent continua; (2) each tree-like continuum is embeddable in a spe- cial way in a tree-like <span class="hlt">absolute</span> retract for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janusz J. Charatonik; W? odzimierz J. Charatonik; Janusz R. Prajs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..MAR.K1601S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Magnetic Moment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the past NIST has issued a number of magnetic moment and magnetic susceptibility standards. One of the most popular has been the Ni magnetic moment standard in the form a 2.38 mm diameter sphere of annealed, high-purity nickel, issued in 1978. However, the supply of all the magnetic standards has been exhausted for several years now and the equipment used for their certification no longer exists. Currently, NIST is assembling a precision <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnetometer closely resembling the force-based system used earlier by Candela and Mundy (G.A. Candela and R.E. Mundy, Rev. Sci. Instr. 32, 1056 (1959).), but which will have improved accuracy. This magnetometer will be used to certify a new series of magnetic standards, the first of which will be a replacement nickel sphere. A sphere has the advantage that it has uniform magnetization and a known demagnetizing factor, and approximates a point dipole. Nickel has the advantage of saturation at low field, a small temperature dependence at room temperature, and a relatively small field dependence. Other standards with smaller moments and other geometries are also being considered. These, and the current state of the equipment development will be described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shull, R. D.; Swartzendruber, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22476143"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of strictosidinic acid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of strictosidinic acid, (2S,3R,4S)-3-ethenyl-2-(?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-{[(1S)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-5-carboxylate, was determined from its sodium chloride trihydrate, poly[[diaqua((2S,3R,4S)-3-ethenyl-2-(?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-{[(1S)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-2-ium-1-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-5-carboxylate)sodium] chloride monohydrate], {[Na(C(26)H(32)N(2)O(9))(H(2)O)(2)]Cl·H(2)O}(n). The strictosidinic acid molecule participates in intermolecular hydrogen bonds of the O-H...O and O-H...Cl types. The solid-state conformation was observed as a zwitterion, based on a charged pyridine N atom and a carboxylate group, the latter mediating the packing through coordination with the sodium cation. PMID:22476143</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castro, Rosane de P; Matos, Carolina da S; do Nascimento, Cláudia A; Oliveira, Cecília M A; Kato, Lucília; Lião, Luciano M; Sabino, José R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27377533"> <span id="translatedtitle">FFT and Wavelet-Based Analysis of the Influence of Machine Vibrations on Hard Turned Surface <span class="hlt">Topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With hard turning, which is an attractive alternative to existing grinding processes, surface quality is of great importance. Signal processing techniques were used to relate workpiece surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> behavior of the machine tool. Spatial domain frequency analyses based on fast Fourier transform were used to analyze the tool behavior. Wavelet reconstruction was used for profile filtering. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haosheng Li; Su Wu; Hubert Kratz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41981102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Verification of Geosat sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Gulf Stream extension with surface drifting buoys and hydrographic measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Altimeter data from Geosat have been analyzed in the Gulf Stream extension area. Horizontal maps of the sea surface height anomaly relative to an annual mean for various 17-day intervals were constructed using an objective mapping procedure. The mean sea level was approximated by the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from climatological hydrographic data. Geostrophic surface velocities derived from the composite maps (mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Willebrand; R. H. Käse; D. Stammer; H.-H. Hinrichsen; W. Krauss</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4245..113F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1429...39I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of facial palsy by moire <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate facial nerve function, the visual assessment method proposed by the Japan Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT........71R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear Baroclinic Instability in the Presence of Large-Scale <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span> on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the forced wave influence the growth rates and spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The time-dependent solutions are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations. Agreement is good between these two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments by Li, Kung, and Pfeffer, with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span>, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time -dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003OptL...28..890L"> <span id="translatedtitle">MSTAR: a submicrometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> metrology system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor permits <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement with subnanometer accuracy, an improvement of 4 orders of magnitude over current techniques. The system uses fast phase modulators to resolve the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers. The concept is described and demonstrated over target distances up to 1 m. The design can be extended to kilometer-scale separations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lay, O. P.; Dubovitsky, S.; Peters, R. D.; Burger, J. P.; Ahn, S.-W.; Steier, W. H.; Fetterman, H. R.; Chang, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5309284"> <span id="translatedtitle">What is wrong with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> individual fitness?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most basic facts about evolution is that fitness is a relative concept. It does not matter how well an organism survives and reproduces, only that it does so better than other organisms bearing alternative traits. Nevertheless, many evolutionary arguments are framed in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> individual fitness. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fitness criterion (AFC) can be justified in terms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Sloan Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3236230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indistinguishability of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous and singular distributions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that there are no consistent decision rules for the hypothesis testing problem of distinguishing between <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous and purely singular probability distributions on the real line. In fact, there are no consistent decision rules for distinguishing between <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous distributions and distributions supported by Borel sets of Hausdorff dimension 0. It follows that there is no consistent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven P. Lalley; Andrew Nobel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61296780"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> fission rates in the FFTF</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The part of the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program reported in this paper is a measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fission rates of eight major fuel isotopes at two different positions within the reactor. The instruments employed in these tests were fission ionization chambers for which the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency and fissionable deposit mass assay have been rigorously established.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. M. Gilliam; J. L. Fuller; J. A. Grundl; J. A. Rawlins; J. W. Daughtry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happiness&pg=4&id=EJ804151"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Income, Relative Income, and Happiness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative income are positively and significantly…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42033383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small-wavelength geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies in the South Atlantic Ocean: A clue to new hot-spot tracks and lithospheric deformation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous small-wavelength elongated features are visible both on filtered geoid maps and on <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps of the South Atlantic Ocean. A number of them are oriented along the directions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motion between 80 Ma B.P. and 30 Ma B.P.: N50°E for the African plate and N63°W for the South American plate. Magmatic traces left over fixed convective plumes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luce Fleitout; Christine Dalloubeix; Christophe Moriceau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510118D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ice <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent on the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e., the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> for ice stream <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Rydt, Jan; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Corr, Hugh F. G.; Christoffersen, Poul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55644272"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and microplate motions in the Mediterranean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mediterranean hosts a diffuse tectonic boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates composed of a mosaic of microplates (Adria, Anatolia and Aegea) that move independently from the overall plate convergence. There are pronounced topographic features, such as deep backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts, whose origin is still debated. We compute global mantle flow based on recent,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudio Faccenna; Thorsten W. Becker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81c3301B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration to different experimental setups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22053941"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm{sup 2}. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm{sup 2} was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration to different experimental setups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buck, A.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zeil, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U. [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T. [Institut fuer Laser und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pawelke, J. [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Oncoray, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Fetscher Strasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998LPICo.957...57Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topographic Relaxation in a Spherical, Viscoelastic Planet: Implications for Long-Wavelength <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Compensation of Lunar Basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and gravity anomalies on planets including the Earth and Moon have significant power at long wavelengths. The long wavelength anomalies can be supported statically by the elastic strength of the lithosphere or maintained <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> through planetary mantle convection. The capacity of the elastic lithosphere to support <span class="hlt">topography</span> increases sharply with decreasing planetary radius due to membrane stresses, according to models of a thin elastic shell. Although these simple models reveal important insights into the origin of long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the assumption that the elastic shell overlies an invisid fluid interior in thin elastic shell models has two drawbacks. First, the models are static with no time scales. Second, since the rheology of major constituents of terrestrial planets, silicates, is thermally activated, it is unlikely that a sharp rheological boundary can exist within the lithosphere. Particularly, the different compensation states of lunar basins suggest that thermal history is important for the topographic relaxation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuber, M. T.; Zhong, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210628T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the shallow gravity-driven flows as saturated binary mixtures over temporally varying <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the "shallow water models over arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span>" by Bouchut and Westdickenberg [2004], and the "Coulomb-mixture theory" by Iversion and Denlinger [2001], we propose a saturated binary mixture model over temporally varying <span class="hlt">topography</span>, where the effects of the entrainment and deposition are considered. Due to the deposition or erosion processes, the interface between the moving material and the stagnant base is a non-material singular surface that moves with its own velocity. Its motion is thus determined by the mass exchange between the flowing layer and the ground. Through the introduction of the unified coordinate method (e.g. Hui [2004, 2007]) and dimension analysis, the leading-order depth-integrated mass and momentum equations are presented in the time-dependent and <span class="hlt">topography</span>-fitted curvilinear coordinate system, where the evolving curvature effect is neatly included in the total derivative operator of the variable <span class="hlt">topography</span>-fitted coordinates. The motion of the basal interface is postulated by function of basal friction coefficient, sliding velocity, local thickness of the flowing layer and a threshold kinetic energy. A shock-capturing numerical scheme is implemented to solve the derived equation system (e.g. Tai and Kuo [2008] or Tai and Lin [2008]). And the key features are investigated and illustrated by the numerical results. References: [1] F. Bouchut and M. Westdickenberg, "Gravity driven shallow water models for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span>." Commun. Math. Sci. 2, 359-389 (2004). [2] R.M. Iverson and R.P. Denlinger, "Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain. Part 1 Coulomb mixture theory." J. Geophysical Research, 106, 537-552 (2001). [3] W.H. Hui, "A unified coordinates approach to computational Fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>." J. Comput. and Applied Math., 163, 15-28 (2004). [4] W.H. Hui. "The unified coordinate system in computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>." Commun. Comput. Phys., 2(4), 577-610 (2007). [5] Y.C. Tai and C.Y. Kuo, "A new model of granular flows over general <span class="hlt">topography</span> with erosion and deposition." Acta Mechanica, 199, 71-96 (2008). [6] Y.C. Tai and Y.C. Lin, "A focused view of the behavior of granular flows down a confined inclined chute into horizontal run-out zone." Phys. Fluids, 20, 123302 (2008).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tai, Yih-Chin; Kuo, Chih-Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43G1337D"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar for micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> of river systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar (TMFL) instrument built by Ball Aerospace is a pushbroom lidar operating at 1064nm that provides the ability to map the topographic structure of river beds and surrounding terrain. The receiver is a pixilated array, allowing small-scale resolution of micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> that is critical to understanding river <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the biodiversity of the area. The instrument uses no mechanical scanning, which is a key feature allowing the design to be applicable to space flight like the NASA Decadal Survey mission LIST. The TMFL instrument has been flown on a Twin Otter aircraft. This poster will exhibit examples of river <span class="hlt">topography</span> over dry and wet riverbeds. Examples are given of imaging a river even when partially obscured under trees in an area of high canopy density.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donley, B.; Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Ruppert, L.; Delker, T.; Applegate, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/publish/pdf/jgr94.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase transition Clapeyron slopes and transition zone seismic discontinuity <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The depths, widths, and magnitudes of the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities are largely consistent with an isochemical phase change origin, as is the observation that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on these discontinuities is negatively correlated and significantly smaller than predicted for chemical changes. While most thermodynamic studies of the relevant phase changes predict greater <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the 410 than the 660,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craig R. Bina; George Helffrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19246481"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percolation, statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and transport in random media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of classical percolation theory is presented, with an emphasis on novel applications to statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span>, turbulent diffusion, and heterogeneous media. Statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span> involves the geometrical properties of the isosets (contour lines or surfaces) of a random potential Ï({bold x}). For rapidly decaying correlations of Ï, the isopotentials fall into the same universality class as the perimeters of percolation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Isichenko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52685158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data combination in <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement of revolving objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several photos of projected gratings patterns should be taken from different angles, when 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> of revolving objects is measured by grating projected method. How to combine the measured data of grating projected patterns is a key factor of measuring 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> of revolving objects. A new data combination method, which is based on cylinder coordinate transform, is proposed in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun Han; Li Ma; Shiping He; Lang Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19826602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Symmetric and Asymmetric Polyolefin Block Copolymer Films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Finite film thickness constraints result in the formation of islands and holes on the surface of block copolymer films when the film thickness deviates from a conformal number of layers. This paper describes a comprehensive study of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in model polyolefin diblock copolymers. We present results on the evolution of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from the spun cast state, changes in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Navjot Singh; Andrew Kudrle; Mohan Sikka; Frank S. Bates</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31008355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> and trajectory of asthmatic adolescents requesting cessation treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Teenage smokers cite health concerns as their primary motivators for tobacco smoking cessation. Smoke exposure aggravates the clinical course of asthma, yet few reports have examined the association between asthma and smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> and trajectory.Methods. Before their enrollment in a smoking cessation trial, we assessed the smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> (i.e., puff volume, maximum puff velocity, puff duration, and interpuff interval)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darin M. Zimmerman; Shelley S. Sehnert; David H. Epstein; Wallace B. Pickworth; Miqun L. Robinson; Eric T. Moolchan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> without collecting additional seismic data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Davis, R.K. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Hopkins, R.A. (Marrich, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10186369"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> without collecting additional seismic data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, R.K. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopkins, R.A. [Marrich, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53206818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large Eddy Simulation over three-dimensional mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new generation Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to study wind fields and the influence of local <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In this study we focus on the implementation of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> in our LES algorithm using an immersed boundary method. To validate the model, the LES results are compared with measurements from wind tunnel studies taken from the literature. The code is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Diebold; C. Higgins; M. Lehning; E. Bou-Zeid; M. B. Parlange</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91...65P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting Hurricane Impact on Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extreme storms can have a profound impact on coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and thus on ecosystems and human-built structures within coastal regions. For instance, landfalls of several recent major hurricanes have caused significant changes to the U.S. coastline, particularly along the Gulf of Mexico. Some of these hurricanes (e.g., Ivan in 2004, Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008) led to shoreline position changes of about 100 meters. Sand dunes, which protect the coast from waves and surge, eroded, losing several meters of elevation in the course of a single storm. Observations during these events raise the question of how storm-related changes affect the future vulnerability of a coast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Turco, Michael J.; East, Jeffery W.; Taylor, Arthur A.; Shaffer, Wilson A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8533E..0GN"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface Water and Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2393...10J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the PAR corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3447K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Episodic growth of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in eastern Tibet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with the eastern portions of the Tibetan Plateau is thought to have developed as eastward flow of deep crust from beneath central Tibet drove crustal thickening and attendant surface uplift along the periphery of the plateau. The onset of rapid Late Miocene exhumation (ca. 10-15 Ma) in deep canyons of eastern Tibet is inferred to herald surface uplift which enabled rapid fluvial incision and the development of high topographic relief. Although consistent with geophysical data, this model struggles to explain the timing and amount of Cenozoic shortening adjacent to the Sichuan Basin. Here we report cooling histories of rocks currently exposed along a ~3 km vertical section adjacent to the Sichuan Basin derived from multiple low-temperature thermochronologic systems including apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He. Our results reveal that this margin of the plateau was subject to slow, steady exhumation during early Cenozoic time, requiring that limited topographic relief (<1000m) was present prior to initial collision of India and Asia. Moreover, thermal models of exhumation-driven cooling demonstrate that subsequent exhumation of >10 km occurred in two temporally-distinct episodes, during Oligocene (~30-25 Ma) and Late Miocene (~10-15 Ma) time, separated by a hiatus of at least 10 Ma. These results challenge the notion that the plateau in eastern Tibet developed as a singular consequence of lower crustal flow. Rather, our findings require a punctuated history of mountain building that potentially reconciles conflicting models for relative roles of upper crustal shortening and lower crustal flow in the development of <span class="hlt">topography</span> adjacent to the Sichuan Basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirby, E.; Furlong, K.; Wang, E.; Shi, X.; van Soest, M.; Xu, G.; Kamp, P.; Hodges, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5808031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> beneath the Red Lake peatlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed hydrologic investigations of peat landforms in the Red Lake Peatlands have revealed that groundwater flow is significantly related to the type of landform and vegetation community present at a given site. Hydrogeologic modeling of shallow groundwater systems suggests that bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> is an important, perhaps the vital, boundary condition controlling groundwater flow. Determination of depth to bedrock beneath different peat landforms is necessary to test the hydrogeologic models and obtain a better understanding of the processes which produce them. Direct determination of bedrock depth in peatlands is hampered by the difficult conditions and high costs of boring. In addition, environmental impacts from boring activities would probably be substantial in these sensitive ecosystems. Shallow seismic methods appear to be the most promising approach to obtain the necessary data. Unfortunately the 2+ meters of peat covering Lake Agassiz sediments overlying the bedrock is not only a poor substrate for geophone emplacement, but is a strong attenuator of seismic waves. These difficulties have been overcome by constructing a tool which allows the geophones to be emplaced beneath the peat and into the top of the sediments. The shotgun cartridge source is also located beneath the peat. This combination results in very good seismic records, far better than those possible with surface sources and geophones. The results from a preliminary survey along a 600m line show that there are significant variations in bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> below the peat. In a distance of less than 500m, depth to bedrock changes by about 30%, from about 55m to about 40m. This is similar to variations indicated by the models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, P.; Shaw, G.H. (Union Coll., Schenectady, NY (United States). Geology Dept.); Glaser, P. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center); Siegel, D. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DPS....38.3009G"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Assessment of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Measurements on Europa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many small patches of chaotic terrain on Europa appear to be bulged upward, giving qualitative impressions that chaos might represent "cryovolcanic" and/or convective upwelling. The same bulged appearance is explained by the oceanic melt-through model, as simply the <span class="hlt">topography</span> expected after refreezing and buoyant equilibrium. Greenberg et al. suggested an observational test to discriminate between these models, based on whether the up-bulged chaos is higher than the typical tectonic terrain in the region (for up-welling) or only higher than its immediate moat-like surroundings (melt-through and refreezing). Several authors have taken up this challenge, presenting topographic maps to refute the melt-through model by showing high elevations for chaos. However, details on the methods (based on combinations of stereo images and photoclinometry) have been sketchy, and without quantitative analyses of precision. For example, near Tyre, topographic maps and profiles reportedly show elevated chaos areas. Yet the elevations differ between published results by much more than the purported 10m precision. Moreover, high-elevation portions of profiles that were labeled as chaos are actually tectonic terrain. Stereo actually shows that major chaos areas are lower than the tectonic terrain in the area. Also, variations in elevation within the tectonic terrain are so great that differences from chaotic terrain are in the noise. Moreover, our error-analyses for both stereo and photoclinometry indicate that uncertainties are greater than reported differences between elevations of chaotic and tectonic terrain. For example, stereo-based models may exaggerate the height of chaos by favoring rafts as tie features, and photoclinometry is sensitive to an uncertain photometric function and to sub-pixel slope variations. To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of the melt-through model have been greatly exaggerated. Any results based on <span class="hlt">topography</span> should not be accepted until the methods involved have been subjected to rigorous and transparent quantitative evaluation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenberg, Richard; Hurford, T.; Foley, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of ¹?N-incorporation into plant proteins and their <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation: a new tool to study nitrogen flux <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and protein pool sizes elicited by plant-herbivore interactions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Herbivory leads to changes in the allocation of nitrogen among different pools and tissues; however, a detailed quantitative analysis of these changes has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that a mass spectrometric data-independent acquisition approach known as LC-MS(E), combined with a novel algorithm to quantify heavy atom enrichment in peptides, is able to quantify elicited changes in protein amounts and (15)N flux in a high throughput manner. The reliable identification/quantitation of rabbit phosphorylase b protein spiked into leaf protein extract was achieved. The linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range, reproducibility of technical and biological replicates, and differences between measured and expected (15)N-incorporation into the small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and RuBisCO activase 2 (RCA2) of Nicotiana attenuata plants grown in hydroponic culture at different known concentrations of (15)N-labeled nitrate were used to further evaluate the procedure. The utility of the method for whole-plant studies in ecologically realistic contexts was demonstrated by using (15)N-pulse protocols on plants growing in soil under unknown (15)N-incorporation levels. Additionally, we quantified the amounts of lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2) protein, an enzyme important in antiherbivore defense responses, demonstrating that the approach allows for in-depth quantitative proteomics and (15)N flux analyses of the metabolic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> elicited during plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:22905865</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ullmann-Zeunert, Lynn; Muck, Alexander; Wielsch, Natalie; Hufsky, Franziska; Stanton, Mariana A; Bartram, Stefan; Böcker, Sebastian; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin; Svatoš, Aleš</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l937348vj121w737.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of Cholesky Coordinates and the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Nodal Coordinate Formulation in the Computer Simulation of Flexible Multibody Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a previous publication, procedures that can be used with the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nodal coordinate formulation to solve the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> problems of flexible multibody systems were proposed. One of these procedures is based on the Cholesky decomposition. By utilizing the fact that the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nodal coordinate formulation leads to a constant mass matrix, a Cholesky decomposition is used to obtain a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Y. Yakoub; A. A. Shabana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP33A0728L"> <span id="translatedtitle">TEM simulation with <span class="hlt">topography</span> using boundary-fitted grid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method has been successfully used in transient electromagnetic (TEM) simulation. Until recently, however, <span class="hlt">topography</span> seems to be commonly neglected. To assess the topographic effect in TEM, some authors used a staircase approximation to the earth-air interface. But this approach might have two problems: first, its error might be very large; second, since air layer is explicitly included in FDTD computation, a very small time step is necessary to maintain the stability condition, which makes it inefficient. Another method to account for the tomography is using a non-Cartesian grid which is conformed to the boundary. In fact such boundary-fitted grids have been widely used in computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to approximate the irregular boundary. In this study, we use a FDTD method combining boundary-fitted grids with the classical staggered grid, unconditional stable DuFort-Frankel scheme to discrete the quasi-static Maxwell equation. Since TEM simulation needs to step to a very late time, air layer had better not be included in FDTD computation. Instead, the boundary condition at the earth-air interface is handled via upward continuation. As the interface is generally not flat, the traditional FFT approach in upward continuation needs some modification. We use a method similar to the equivalent source method in gravity upward continuation, which required several FFT iterations to refine the results. We will report the preliminary results of our method and test its accuracy and efficiency with other methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, D.; Huang, Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U11C..04Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Equatorial Mercury from MESSENGER Flybys 1 and 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the first flyby of Mercury by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14, 2008, the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) obtained a 3200-kilometer-long profile that spanned approximately 20% of the near- equatorial region of the planet. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> along that profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range and approximately 1-kilometer root-mean-square roughness. Sampled craters are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part because of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, which suggests complex modification over a range of length scales. However, the various contributions to crater geometry and the general nature of crater modification have been poorly constrained because no spacecraft images are yet available in the profiled hemisphere. On October 6, 2008, MESSENGER will make its second flyby of Mercury, with closest approach also near the equator but about 170° east of the earlier flyby. Closest approach distances are about 200 km in both cases, and a profile of comparable length to profile 1 is expected from flyby 2. The collective altimetry data, combined with high-resolution and color imaging of both profile regions, will contribute toward understanding Mercury's long- wavelength shape and the geological and geophysical processes that have operated at the planet's surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Peale, S. J.; Head, J. W.; Hauck, S. A.; McNutt, R. L.; Oberst, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sun, X.; Barmouin-Jha, O.; Johnson, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23098732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of (?)-chettaphanin II</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient synthesis of chettaphanin II has been achieved from ent-halimic acid. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of the natural product was established and corroborated by X-ray analysis of chettaphanin II.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. S. Marcos; F. A. Hernández; M. J. Sexmero; D. D??ez; P. Basabe; A. B. Pedrero; N. Garc??a; F. Sanz; J. G. Urones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=emerson&pg=6&id=EJ118696"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Simplicity Argument and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Morality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system of morality. (Author/RK)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mijuskovic, Ben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instruments for optically homogeneous regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a class of magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6839132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%222-butanol%22&id=EJ288694"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=butanol&id=EJ288694"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD659665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensor of Ratios of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gas Pressures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article describes a sensor of ratios of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gas pressures containing elastic sensitive elements picking up pressures and acting on a compensation spring system transmitting the force onto a tensometric converter which for the purpose of improving...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. I. Tyukel L. A. Pletnev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12816236"> <span id="translatedtitle">MSTAR: a submicrometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> metrology system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor permits <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement with subnanometer accuracy, an improvement of 4 orders of magnitude over current techniques. The system uses fast phase modulators to resolve the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers. The concept is described and demonstrated over target distances up to 1 m. The design can be extended to kilometer-scale separations. PMID:12816236</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lay, O P; Dubovitsky, S; Peters, R D; Burger, J P; Ahn, S W; Steier, W H; Fetterman, H R; Chang, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/27148476p174l575.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear constraints in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coordinate formulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  The modeling of deformation in flexible multibody systems is still under intensive investigation. While the floating frame\\u000a of reference formulation has become a standard for the modeling of deformable moving bodies, formulations based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span>\\u000a coordinates are comparatively new. The recently developed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nodal coordinate formulation uses solely nodal position\\u000a and slopes as degrees of freedom for structural elements. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Gerstmayr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EJPh...22..325E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kelvin and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erlichson, Herman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6265G"> <span id="translatedtitle">TOPOAFRICA project: reconstruction and quantification of the past <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Africa over the last 250 My.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this project is to quantify the growth of long wavelength (x1000 km) <span class="hlt">topography</span> over the last 250 My at the scale of a continent - Africa - and to understand (1) their relationship with the underlying mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over such a time period and (2) their consequence over some Earth surface processes. Most studies of past <span class="hlt">topography</span> reconstruction have focused on orogenic areas. Few efforts have been devoted to characterizing the more subtle long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>, such as the doming or plateau uplift of continental areas at the 1000 km wavelength, with a paleoelevation of few hundreds of meters to a maximum of 1000-2000m. A direct inversion of the geological data into estimates of paleotopography is difficult. Quantification of past <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of a continent requires coupling of geological data with a sediment production (erosion) and transport numerical model. The quantification of the Meso-Cenozoic <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of the African continent is based on uplift (mean time interval 10 my) and paleoprecipitation maps (input of the model) and siliciclastic sedimentary fluxes and thermochronological data. One of the advance of this project is to draw new-style paleogeographic reconstructions focussed on the continental environments yielding the geometry of paleocatchments, the lacustrine baselevel, the type and the flow direction of the fluvial systems… All those data are registered in database and GIS (ArcGis). Uncertainties are quantified. The uplift maps, in a first step semi-quantitative, are based on the paleogeographical changes and on synthesis of the tectonically induced-unconformities both onland and offhore (seismic) and their consequences (incised valleys, forced-regression wedges, changes of weathering types….). The paleoprecipitation maps are product by coupling climatic numerical models with a geological database (GIS) including all the climate recorders (lithology, type of clays, paleosoils; woods, pollens…). The measure of the siliciclastic sediment flux is based on a geometrical, chronostratigraphical and lithological synthesis of the peri-African (margins) and intra-African (SAG) basins. The thermochronological database is a compilation of all the data available in Africa, plus some new field collections. The new numerical model of sediment production and transport at the continental scale, TOPOSED, will form the basis of the quantitative inversion of the geological data to yield estimates of past <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Its original aspect consists in investigating separately erosion and transport processes, and in assuming that both are controlled by slope and discharge. Studied time interval: Triassic (Induan, Ladinian, Norian), Jurassic (Sinemurian, Bajocian, Late Kimmeridgian), Cretaceous (Valanginian, Barremian, Middle Aptian, Lower to Middle Albian, Late Cenomanian, Late Coniacian-Early Santonian, Maastrichtian), Paleogene (Thanetian, Lutetian, Chattian), Neogene (Early Miocene, Early Pliocene).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillocheau, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCD.....7..873V"> <span id="translatedtitle">An iterative inverse method to estimate basal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and initialize ice flow models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present and evaluate an inverse approach to reconstruct two-dimensional fields of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> and simultaneously initialize an ice flow model. The inverse method involves an iterative procedure in which an ice <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model (PISM) is run multiple times over a prescribed period, while being forced with space and time-dependent climate input. After every iteration bed heights are adjusted using information of the remaining misfit between observed and modeled surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The inverse method is first applied in synthetic experiments with a constant climate forcing to verify convergence and robustness of the approach. In a next step, the inverse approach is applied to Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, forced with height- and time-dependent climate input since 1300 AD. An L-curve stopping criterion is used to prevent overfitting. Validation against radar data reveals a high correlation (up to R = 0.89) between modeled and observed thicknesses. Remaining uncertainties can mainly be ascribed to inaccurate model physics, in particular uncertainty in the description of sliding. Results demonstrate the applicability of this inverse method to reconstruct the ice thickness distribution of glaciers and ice caps. In addition to reconstructing bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the method provides a direct tool to initialize ice flow models for forecasting experiments. Application of the method is not constrained to a single model or glacier, indicating the potential to use the approach to compute the detailed thickness distribution of a single glacier, as well as the volume contained in a set of glaciers and ice caps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Pelt, W. J. J.; Oerlemans, J.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pettersson, R.; Pohjola, V. A.; Isaksson, E.; Divine, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCry....7..407D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Stokes flow-line models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent of the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e. the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> for ice stream <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Corr, H. F. J.; Christoffersen, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TCD.....6.4485D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Stokes models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent on the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e. the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> for ice stream <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Corr, H. F. J.; Christoffersen, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....9713103F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus <span class="hlt">topography</span> and kilometer-scale slopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the first 8 months of the Magellan mission, the radar altimeter has made some three million measurements of the surface of Venus covering the latitude range from 85 deg N to 80 deg S. Methods involving range correlation, Doppler filtering, multiburst summation, and range migration are used to focus the observations and to achieve high surface resolution. Results are presented as maps of the global distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, meter-scale roughness, and power reflection coefficient. The results are similar to those reported in previous experiments (surface heights exhibit a unimodal distribution with more than 80 percent of the surface lying within 1 km of the 6051.84-km mean radius) but the higher resolution of the Magellan altimeter has disclosed several surprisingly steep features, e.g., the southwest face of the Maxwell Montes, the southern face of the Danu Montes, and the chasmata to the east of Thetis Regio, where average kilometer-scale slopes of greater than 30 deg are not uncommon. This conclusion is corroborated by close inspection of synthetic aperture radar imagery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ford, Peter G.; Pettengill, Gordon H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21240580"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of cerebellar deficits in humans.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cerebellum is a key-piece for information processing and is involved in numerous motor and nonmotor activities, thanks to the anatomical characteristics of the circuitry, the enormous computational capabilities and the high connectivity to other brain areas. Despite its uniform cytoarchitecture, cerebellar circuitry is segregated into functional zones. This functional parcellation is driven by the connectivity and the anatomo-functional heterogeneity of the numerous extra-cerebellar structures linked to the cerebellum, principally brain cortices, precerebellar nuclei and spinal cord. Major insights into cerebellar functions have been gained with a detailed analysis of the cerebellar outputs, with the evidence that fundamental aspects of cerebrocerebellar operations are the closed-loop circuit and the predictions of future states. Cerebellar diseases result in disturbances of accuracy of movements and lack of coordination. The cerebellar syndrome includes combinations of oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria and other speech deficits, ataxia of limbs, ataxia of stance and gait, as well as often more subtle cognitive/behavioral impairments. Our understanding of the corresponding anatomo-functional maps for the human cerebellum is continuously improving. We summarize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the clinical deficits observed in cerebellar patients and the growing evidence of a regional subdivision into motor, sensory, sensorimotor, cognitive and affective domains. The recently described topographic dichotomy motor versus nonmotor cerebellum based upon anatomical, functional and neuropsychological studies is also discussed. PMID:21240580</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grimaldi, Giuliana; Manto, Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and rotational symmetry breaking.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface electroclinic effect, which is a rotation of the molecular director in the substrate plane proportional to an electric field E applied normal to the substrate, requires both a chiral environment and C(2) (or lower) rotational symmetry about E. The two symmetries typically are created in tandem by manipulating the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, a process that conflates their effects. Here we use a pair of rubbed polymer-coated substrates in a twist geometry to obtain our main result, viz., that the strengths of two symmetries, in this case the rub-induced breaking of C(?) rotational symmetry and chiral symmetry, can be separated and quantified. Experimentally we observe that the strength of the reduced rotational symmetry arising from the rub-induced scratches, which is proportional to the electroclinic response, scales linearly with the induced topographical rms roughness and increases with increasing rubbing strength of the polymer. Our results also suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength coefficient is relatively insensitive to the strength of the rubbing. PMID:23005441</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basu, Rajratan; Nemitz, Ian R; Song, Qingxiang; Lemieux, Robert P; Rosenblatt, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86a1711B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and rotational symmetry breaking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface electroclinic effect, which is a rotation of the molecular director in the substrate plane proportional to an electric field E? applied normal to the substrate, requires both a chiral environment and C2 (or lower) rotational symmetry about E?. The two symmetries typically are created in tandem by manipulating the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, a process that conflates their effects. Here we use a pair of rubbed polymer-coated substrates in a twist geometry to obtain our main result, viz., that the strengths of two symmetries, in this case the rub-induced breaking of C? rotational symmetry and chiral symmetry, can be separated and quantified. Experimentally we observe that the strength of the reduced rotational symmetry arising from the rub-induced scratches, which is proportional to the electroclinic response, scales linearly with the induced topographical rms roughness and increases with increasing rubbing strength of the polymer. Our results also suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength coefficient is relatively insensitive to the strength of the rubbing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basu, Rajratan; Nemitz, Ian R.; Song, Qingxiang; Lemieux, Robert P.; Rosenblatt, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARM28010B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and rotational symmetry breaking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface electroclinic effect, which is a rotation of the molecular director in the substrate plane proportional to an electric field applied normal to the substrate, requires both a chiral environment and C2 (or lower) rotational symmetry about the field. The two symmetries typically are created in tandem by manipulating the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, a process that conflates their effects. Here we use a pair of rubbed polymer-coated substrates in a twist geometry to obtain our main result, viz., that the strengths of two symmetries, in this case the rub-induced breaking of C? rotational symmetry and chiral symmetry, can be separated and quantified. Experimentally we observe that the strength of the reduced rotational symmetry arising from the rub-induced scratches, which is proportional to the electroclinic response, scales linearly with the induced topographical rms roughness and increases with increasing rubbing strength of the polymer. Our results also suggest that the azimuthal anchoring strength coefficient is relatively insensitive to the strength of the rubbing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basu, Rajratan; Nemitz, Ian; Song, Qingxiang; Lemieux, Robert; Rosenblatt, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20643549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span>: characteristics and clinical application.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1970, the Moiré phenomenon has been employed as a method of clinical diagnosis in topographical analyses of the human body. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the main characteristics of the Moiré phenomenon and its use as a topographical method for clinical applications, particularly those related to postural deviations. A systematic search for papers written in English between 1966 and 2010 was performed according to pre-established selection criteria and the selected studies underwent a content analysis. The results showed an evolution in the method of Moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MT), which reflect an increasing effort to improve the accuracy and precision of the method, as well as to facilitate the interpretation of topograms using specific software. The Shadow and Projection Moiré techniques have more frequently been used in comparison with other techniques. On the other hand, the methodological procedures of MT are apparently not well defined in the literature. Although MT was shown to be useful in the detection of spinal deformities, there is still a lack of research in clinical settings, especially in the elderly. For the most part, the studies involve the tracking of scoliosis in school age children. Japan appears to be the most advanced country in terms of the application of MT. PMID:20643549</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porto, Flávia; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Russomano, Thais; Farinatti, Paulo De Tarso Veras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> for high hydrophobicity, while suitable I(D)/I(G) and sp²/sp³ ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF? implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF? implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF? implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity. PMID:21343636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanot..22m5302L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40205363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basins of attraction on random <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the consequences of fluid flowing on a continuous surface upon the geometric and statistical distribution of the flow. We find that the ability of a surface to collect water by its mere geometrical shape is proportional to the curvature of the contour line divided by the local slope. Consequently, rivers tend to lie in locations of high curvature and flat slopes. Gaussian surfaces are introduced as a model of random <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For Gaussian surfaces the relation between convergence and slope is obtained analytically. The convergence of flow lines correlates positively with drainage area, so that lower slopes are associated with larger basins. As a consequence, we explain the observed relation between the local slope of a landscape and the area of the drainage basin geometrically. To some extent, the slope-area relation comes about not because of fluvial erosion of the landscape, but because of the way rivers choose their path. Our results are supported by numerically generated surfaces as well as by real landscapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schorghofer, Norbert; Rothman, Daniel H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2858020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nano-<span class="hlt">topography</span> sensing by osteoclasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bone resorption by osteoclasts depends on the assembly of a specialized, actin-rich adhesive ‘sealing zone’ that delimits the area designed for degradation. In this study, we show that the level of roughness of the underlying adhesive surface has a profound effect on the formation and stability of the sealing zone and the associated F-actin. As our primary model substrate, we use ‘smooth’ and ‘rough’ calcite crystals with average <span class="hlt">topography</span> values of 12 nm and 530 nm, respectively. We show that the smooth surfaces induce the formation of small and unstable actin rings with a typical lifespan of ~8 minutes, whereas the sealing zones formed on the rough calcite surfaces are considerably larger, and remain stable for more than 6 hours. It was further observed that steps or sub-micrometer cracks on the smooth surface stimulate local ring formation, raising the possibility that similar imperfections on bone surfaces may stimulate local osteoclast resorptive activity. The mechanisms whereby the physical properties of the substrate influence osteoclast behavior and their involvement in osteoclast function are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geblinger, Dafna; Addadi, Lia; Geiger, Benjamin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0222C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shape, <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Roughness of 25143 Itokawa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent visit of the Hayabusa spacecraft to the small near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 25143 Itokawa yielded the surprising discovery that Itokawa was not an intact object but a low density, gravitationally accumulated, rubble pile. This contrasts with the finding, from the only other NEA visited by an asteroid lander, that 433 Eros was an intact object and not a rubble pile. Eros was visited by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft which landed in 2001. Accurately co-registered, high resolution imager and lidar data from NEAR Shoemaker have demonstrated the fractal properties of small scale surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Eros, where boulders tend to be found on the tops of long ridges, consistent with the presence of an underlying globally coherent structure. However, Itokawa is a rubble pile with a fundamentally different collisional history. Here we analyze co-registered, high resolution lidar and imager data from Itokawa, obtained by Hayabusa, to explore fractal properties and surface roughness distributions on Itokawa for comparison with the results from Eros.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6873599"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Martian highland terrains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ring furrows are flat-floored trenches, circulate in plan view, forming rings 7 to 50 km in diameter. Typically, ring furrows, which are 0.5 km deep and 2 to 10 km wide, surround a central, flat-topped, circular mesa or plateau. The central plateau is about the same elevation or lower than the plain outside the ring. Ring furrows are unique features of the dissected martian uplands. Related landforms range from ring furrows with fractured central plateaus to circular mesas without encircling moats. Ring furrows are superposed on many types of materials, but they are most common cratered plateau-type materials that are interpreted as volcanic flow material overlying ancient cratered terrain. The ring shape and size suggest that they are related to craters partially buried by lava flows. Ring furrows were formed by preferential removal of exposed rims of partially buried craters. Evidence of overland flow of water is lacking except within the channels. Ground ice decay and sapping followed by fluvial erosion are responsible for removal of the less resistant rim materials. Thus, differential erosion has caused a reversal of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in which the originally elevated rim is reduced to negative relief.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Hon, R.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T12D1356Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Sublithospheric Small-Scale Convection on the Seafloor <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sublithospheric small-scale convection (SSC) was originally proposed by Richter and Parsons in 1970's to explain the reduced subsidence at old seafloors. An alternative view is that the reduced subsidence reveals the large-scale structure and circulation in the lower mantle. A resolution on this issue is important for understanding not only the evolution of oceanic lithosphere but also the large-scale mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The onset of SSC as oceanic plate ages depends strongly on mantle rheology (i.e., activation energy and asthenospheric viscosity). The occurrence of SSC is quite possible given the uncertainties in our understanding of mantle rheology. Its influence on surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is, however, a subject of debate. Davaille and Jaupart [1994] showed that SSC produces the reduced subsidence if only the mantle structure above an arbitrarily set depth (i.e., compensation depth, often set to be shallow) is compensated at the surface. However, O'Connell and Hager [1980] and Davies [1988] argued that the enhanced cooling of the mantle due to SSC would increase rather than decrease the subsidence at old seafloors. We have formulated numerical models with realistic Ra and mantle rheology to examine the role of SSC under a mobile plate on the seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Our models include flow-through boundary conditions to isolate the effects of SSC. We found over a large parameter space for mantle rheology and plate motion that SSC has little influence on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> which undulates around (due to SSC) but closely follows the prediction from a half-space cooling model, although thermal structure above some depth of compensation (or for the entire model box) alone would predict reduced (or increased) subsidence at old seafloors. We will also report the roles of weak asthenosphere and return flow on the seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhong, S.; Huang, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AN....329..835B"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for detached binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lutz-Kelker bias corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% (??/??0.15). The calibration equations which provide the corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes: -0.18<(B-V)0<0.91, -1.6<MV<5.5 and -0.15<(J-H)0<0.50, -0.02<(H-K_s)0<0.13, 0<MJ<4, respectively. The distances computed using the luminosity-colours (LCs) relation with optical (BV) and near-infrared (JHK_s) observations were compared to the distances found from various other methods. The results show that new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bilir, S.; Ak, T.; Soydugan, E.; Soydugan, F.; Yaz, E.; Filiz Ak, N.; Eker, Z.; Demircan, O.; Helvaci, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0270.photos.168461p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 - LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. February 1934. Reference BS-150. - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0105.photos.141202p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9020534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Geodetic Gravity Field Modelling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Masses associated with the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Forsberg M. G. Sideris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JGR....94.7403S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid height versus <span class="hlt">topography</span> for oceanic plateaus and swells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and <span class="hlt">topography</span> is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to <span class="hlt">topography</span> between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandwell, David T.; MacKenzie, Kevin R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2731455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence theory: Foundations and extensions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93001369"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Nyquist W. E. Doll R. K. Davis R. A. Hopkins</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intlpress.com/CMS/issue2-3/CMS_2_359_389.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity driven shallow water models for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive new models for gravity driven shallow water flows\\u000ain several space dimensions over a general <span class="hlt">topography</span>.\\u000aA first model is valid for small slope variation, i.e. small curvature,\\u000aand a second model is valid for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span>.\\u000aIn both cases no particular assumption is made on the velocity profile in the material layer.\\u000aThe models are written for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francois Bouchut; Michael Westdickenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19523768"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase contrast in Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Recognition imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The operation of a force microscope in Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Recognition (TREC) imaging mode is analyzed by means of numerical simulations. Both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and recognition signals are analyzed by using a worm-like chain force as the specific interaction between the functionalized tip probe and the sample. The special feedback mechanism in this mode is shown to couple the phase signal to the presence of molecular recognition interactions even in absence of dissipation. PMID:19523768</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuss, M C; Sahagún, E; Köber, M; Briones, F; Luna, M; Sáenz, J J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://lib.semi.ac.cn:8080/tsh/dzzy/wsqk/selected%20papers/microscopy%20research%20and%20technique/69-343.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defect analysis in crystals using X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief review of X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>—a nondestructive method for direct observation and characterization of defects in single crystals—is presented here. The origin and development of this characterization method and the different techniques derived from it are described. Emphasis is placed on synchrotron X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its application in studying various crystal imperfec- tions. Mechanisms of contrast formation on X-ray topographs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balaji Raghothamachar; Govindhan Dhanaraj; Jie Bai; Michael Dudley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41314150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolvement of galvanized steels in sheet metal forming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">U-channel forming tests were performed to investigate the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolvement of hot-dip galvanized(GI) and galvannealed(GA) steels and the effects of die hardness on sheet metal forming(SMF). Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness values of the two galvanized steels increase with the number of forming, i.e., the surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of galvanized steels are roughened in SMF. Moreover, GI steel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ying-ke HOU; Zhong-qi YU; Wei-gang ZHANG; Hao-min JIANG; Zhong-qin LIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vehicular.isy.liu.se/Publications/Lic/07_LIC_1319_EH.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Look-ahead Control of Heavy Trucks utilizing Road <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract The power,to mass,ratio of a heavy,truck causes even moderate,slopes to have a significant influence on the motion. The velocity will inevitable vary within an interval that is primarily determined,by the ratio and the road <span class="hlt">topography</span>. If further variations are actuated by a controller, there is a potential to lower the fuel consumption,by taking the upcoming,<span class="hlt">topography</span>,into account. This possibility is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik Hellström</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412431N"> <span id="translatedtitle">The combined effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation on the temporal evolution of catchment connectivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The deconvolution of whole catchment runoff response into its constituent small-scale runoff generation processes remains a grand challenge in catchment hydrology. The extent to which the intersection of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation influences the hydrologic connectivity of catchment uplands to the riparian and stream system is largely unknown. Often studied topographic variables can be considered static over timescales of interest for most hydrologic questions. However, less attention has been paid to more <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> catchment variables, particularly vegetation. Plants can act as spatial and temporal sinks for water through transpiration, adding a biological layer to otherwise topographically/hydrologically controlled runoff generation. The runoff observed at the catchment outlet therefore contains imprints from interactions between both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> catchment structure. Here we present a modeling framework that explicitly incorporates static (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (vegetation) catchment structure. We employ sub-daily evapotranspiration data from an eddy flux tower co-located within a highly instrumented (>150 recording groundwater wells) and gaged catchment to parse the effect of current and synthetic vegetation pattern scenarios on the temporal evolution of hydrologic connectivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132787"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> free energies of biomolecules from unperturbed ensembles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computing the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energy of a macromolecule's structural state, F, is a challenging problem of high relevance. This study presents a method that computes F using only information from an unperturbed simulation of the macromolecule in the relevant conformational state, ensemble, and environment. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> free energies produced by this method, dubbed Valuation of Local Configuration Integral with <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> (VALOCIDY), enable comparison of alternative states. For example, comparing explicitly solvated and vaporous states of amino acid side-chain analogs produces solvation free energies in good agreement with experiments. Also, comparisons between alternative conformational states of model heptapeptides (including the unfolded state) produce free energy differences in agreement with data from ?s molecular-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations and experimental propensities. The potential of using VALOCIDY in computational protein design is explored via a small design problem of stabilizing a ?-turn structure. When VALOCIDY-based estimation of folding free energy is used as the design metric, the resulting sequence folds into the desired structure within the atomistic force field used in design. The VALOCIDY-based approach also recognizes the distinct status of the native sequence regardless of minor details of the starting template structure, in stark contrast with a traditional fixed-backbone approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24132787</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigoryan, Gevorg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1674..423B"> <span id="translatedtitle">New method of <span class="hlt">topography</span> simulation in photolithography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, photolithography simulation above topographical substrates has become a more and more interesting topic in submicrotechnology. Besides originating standing waves in the resist during exposure, substrate slopes cause specular reflections. Moreover, one can state diffraction effects if geometrical dimensions are in the same order of magnitude like exposure wavelength. The worst case that might occur is the so-called concave mirror effect. Different methods for field calculation are known from optical theory. Closed analytical treatments can be done merely for simple geometries. Direct solutions of Maxwells equations or Helmholtz equation as a boundary value problem by means of numerical methods (FDM or FEM/BEM) are difficult and computation is time consuming. Highly sophisticated computers (especially massively parallel machines) are required to realize acceptable operation times. We propose an alternative method, which is mainly based upon using the basic principles of Keller's Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) and their uniform extension (UTD), namely the locality principle, the boundary diffraction wave representation, and Keller's ray conception which includes diffracted rays. The first step now consists in the separation of a given diffracting surface in such a way that analytical solutions for the separated regions are known (canonical problem). Particularly in the two-dimensional (2-D) case, a <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be approached by putting inclined (plane) faces together. This leads to the canonical problem of wedge diffraction, the exact solution of which was given at first by Sommerfeld. An asymptotic evaluation of his diffraction integral yields a partition of the total field in the geometrical-optical field and a diffracted field. In the 2-D case the latter is represented by a direction and polarization-dependent cylindrical wave, the inclination factor of which is denoted as diffraction coefficient in GTD. This GTD-coefficient fails both in the vicinity of and directly on the geometrical-optical boundaries and the edge of the wedge. (We have to distinguish between the two shadow- and the two reflexion-boundaries.) In such transition regions UTD-coefficients guarantee sufficient accuracy of field calculation, as can be shown by a comparison with exact solution (convergent expansion of the diffraction integral). These extended UTD-coefficients consist of four terms, each of them is related to one shadow- or reflexion-boundary. Remaining problems (especially in the 3-D case) like curved wedges and corner- or vertex-diffraction are discussed briefly. Wedges with impedance faces (e.g., reflectivity < 1) are involved by the application of a heuristical method from microwave theory. Furthermore, geometrical-optical field calculation within the bounds of GTD is described in brief. Based on our model explained above, a complete two-dimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> simulator was created. Running on a simple IBM-AT-386 the algorithm employs as much as or less time than the procedures basing on direct numerical solutions and requiring highly sophisticated machines. Resist bleaching is taken into consideration by several bleaching steps, according to Dill's differential equation in their difference approach. Numerical results for typical simulation situations (notching, grain, trapezium, concave mirror) are presented and compared with the literature. Additionally, special polarization effects could be predetermined by means of simulation and proved experimentally. Under certain conditions an essential improvement would be achieved by the application of polarized light.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bischoff, Joerg; Glaubitz, Ulrich; Haase, Norbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=8053&DocID=718"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero: Community Education Outreach Guide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This guide provides curricular resources for study of the history and science of the quest for ever colder temperature. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide offers hands-on demonstrations, questions to encourage student participation, suggestions for class activities, and ways to encourage students to continue studying the science. Topics include low-temperature physics and the impact of technologies such as air conditioning, refrigeration and liquefied gases. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular iodine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequencies. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sansonetti, C.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/411851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal spectral <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its effect on model climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gibbs oscillations in the truncated spectral representation of the earth`s <span class="hlt">topography</span> are strongly reduced by determining its spectral coefficients as a minimum of a nonuniformly weighted, nonquadratic cost function. The cost function penalizes the difference between spectral and true <span class="hlt">topography</span> with weights that are explicit functions of the topographic height and its gradient. The sensitivity of the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model`s climate to the presence of Gibbs oscillations is determined for T32 and T48 resolutions by comparing the climates with optimal spectral <span class="hlt">topography</span> to those with standard spectral <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The main effect of Gibbs oscillations in the standard spectral <span class="hlt">topography</span> is to induce spurious grid-scale ripples in the surface fluxes, which, for the surface energy balance, can be on the order of several tens of watts per square meter. Ripples in the surface energy balance, can be on the order of several tens of watts per square meter. Ripples in the surface fluxes are nearly absent in the model climate with the optimal spectral <span class="hlt">topography</span>. 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holzer, M. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation on Effect of Optical Stimulation to Human Using Optical <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have observed the time course features of cerebral response while a subject is performing the visual tracking task or visual tracking plus finger tapping task using Optiocal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (OT). The distribution maps of both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins are demonstrated in contrast with the time course diagram. The response of the cerebrum differs, depending on whether the optical stimulation is static or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, even when the overall nature of the pattern and intensity of the stimulation is the same. The cerebral response to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulation is very rapid and clear, and greater in magnitude than that to static optical stimulation, but it is suppressed when an auxiliary finger tapping task is also performed. From these results, it was confirmed that OT is sensitive to both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yanai, Hiro-Fumi; Yorimoto, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Toshio; Fujii, Kan-ichi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ichikawa, Noriyoshi; Koshino, Yoshihumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5190..361L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> distance measurement with the MSTAR sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging) is a new system for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard intrferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjugation with fast phase modulators and low-frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beam-launching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distance up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert D.; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harold R.; Chang, Yian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precise Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluorescence Yield</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present preliminary results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.9502H"> <span id="translatedtitle">New boundary conditions for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Thwaites and Smith glacier catchments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Airborne radar sounding over the Thwaites Glacier (TG) catchment and its surroundings provides the first comprehensive view of subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in this <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and reveals that TG is underlain by a single, broad basin fed by a dendritic pattern of valleys, while Smith Glacier lies within an extremely deep, narrow trench. Subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the TG catchment slopes inland from a broad, low-relief coastal sill to the thickest ice of the WAIS and makes deep connections to both Pine Island Glacier and the Ross Sea Embayment enabling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> interactions across the WAIS during deglaciation. Simple isostatic rebound modeling shows that most of this landscape would be submarine after deglaciation, aside from an island chain near the present-day Ross-Amundsen ice divide. The lack of topographic confinement along TG's eastern margin implies that it may continue to widen in response to grounding line retreat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holt, John W.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Morse, David L.; Young, Duncan A.; Peters, Matthew E.; Kempf, Scott D.; Richter, Thomas G.; Vaughan, David G.; Corr, Hugh F. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16473539"> <span id="translatedtitle">On Stationary Strategies for <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Continuous Houses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whether stationary families of strategies are uniformly adequate for a leavable, analytically measurable, nonnegative gambling problem whose optimal return function is everywhere finite is a question which remains open. It is, however, given an affirmative answer if, for example, the fortune space is Euclidean and all nontrivial, available gambles are <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lester E. Dubins; William D. Sudderth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precision <span class="hlt">absolute</span> positional measurement of laser beams.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 ?m in position and ±20 ?rad in angle. PMID:23669658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/articles/4-5/vel.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Measurement of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Velocities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inertial observers can not only measure their <span class="hlt">absolute</span> velocities but that of light as well, thereby being able to shed insight into the principle of the constancy of light velocity. The light speeds c±v, though considered to conflict with this principle, are shown herein to not be true physical entities. Keywords: special relativity theory, time, coordinate systems, relative velocity. Consider</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. V. Ceapa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19939396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for Equilibrium at Negative <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the classical phenomenological thermodynamic theory of Gibbs, equilibrium is defined as the state of maximum entropy at constant energy, and a theorem is proved (the energy theorem) which asserts that the equilibrium state is the state of minimum energy at fixed entropy. This theorem is not true for systems at negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures. By examining a familiar statistical model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernard D. Coleman; Walter Noll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18795779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures and rotating temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures, and rotating temperatures, only arise in certain special situations it is of interest to consider what, if any, changes have to be made in traditional thermodynamics in order to accommodate them. It is found that about the only change required is a slight modification of the Kelvin-Planck formulation of the second law. The terms, hotter, colder,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. Powles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11345709"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of matricin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The assignment of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of matricin rests on indirect evidence. On the basis of synthetic, NMR and CD studies with its decomposition product, chamazulene carboxylic acid, we were able to firmly establish the accepted 3S,3aR,4S,9R,9aS,9bS configuration of matricin. PMID:11345709</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goeters, S; Imming, P; Pawlitzki, G; Hempel, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781933531304.5"> <span id="translatedtitle">It's Not All Relative: Relative Versus <span class="hlt">Absolute</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Learning about the sizes of things and scale engages students in thinking about conceptual benchmarks for sizes. In this investigation, students learn to order objects on a relative scale, as well as to accurately label actual or <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sizes. In additi</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE82702731"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Measurement of exp 152 Eu.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement for exp 152 Eu was established based on the 4 pi beta - gamma spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4 pi beta -counter and a Ge(Li) gamma -ray detector, in which...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Baba S. Baba S. Ichikawa T. Sekine I. Ishikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19272617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Light Output Measurement Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recently published works on new measurement techniques of the scintillators' <span class="hlt">absolute</span> light yield triggered our response in the attempt to find out a way to resolve the disagreements between the old, established technique and the emerging, new one. Authors of the new approach argue that the conditions in which the photomultipliers photocathodes quantum efficiencies' characteristics are being determined differ</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marek Moszynski; Antoni Nassalski; Agnieszka Syntfeld-Kazuch; Tomasz Szczesniak; L. Swiderski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50535510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Light Output Measurement Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recently published works on new measurement techniques of the scintillators' <span class="hlt">absolute</span> light yield triggered our response in the attempt to find out a way to resolve the disagreements between the old, established technique and the emerging, new one. Authors of the new approach argue that the conditions in which the photomultipliers photocathodes quantum efficiencies' characteristics are being determined differ</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Gierlik; M. Moszynski; A. Nassalski; A. Syntfeld-Kazuch; T. Szczesniak; L. Swiderski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42542553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea level: The Hawaiian network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">NOAA has begun work on a pilot <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sea level network in Hawaii. Tide gauge stations on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai have been upgraded by installing Next Generation Water Level Measurements Systems (NGWLMS). A regular program of monitoring the stability of each tide gauge in the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) conventional terrestrial reference frame has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William E. Carter; Miranda Chin; J. Ross Mackay; George Peter; Wolfgang Scherer; John Diamante</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4032H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isidis Basin, Mars: Geology and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Building on Bridges et al. [2003, JGR 108], we are currently studying the general geologic history and evolution of the Isidis basin based on topographic and imaging data obtained by orbiting spacecraft such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey. This study complements our recently completed analyses on Syrtis Major to the west [Hiesinger and Head, 2002, LPSC 1063] and the transition between Syrtis Major and Isidis [Ivanov and Head, 2002, LPSC 1341]. We are interested in a number of scientific questions, for example, what are the characteristics of the Isidis rim and what caused its present morphology? What is the role and fate of volatiles in the Isidis basin and what are the characteristics of the uppermost surface layer? Does the floor of the Isidis basin primarily consist of volcanic plains as indicated by wrinkle ridges and cone-like features, material deposited by a catastrophic collapse of the rim as proposed by Tanaka et al. [2000, GRL 29], or of sediments deposited in an ocean as suggested by Parker et al. [1989, Icarus 82]? What is the stratigraphy of the deposits within the Isidis basin and what processes were responsible for its present appearance? For our study we used MOLA <span class="hlt">topography</span> data with a spatial resolution of 128 pixel/deg. The data allowed us to obtain a detailed view of the Isidis basin, its structure, stratigraphy, geologic history and its evolution. Our preliminary investigation let us conclude that (1) the basin floor is tilted towards the southwest with about 0.015 degree, (2) there are 2 types of ridges within the Isidis basin, (3) ridges of the thumbprint terrain are ~10-50 m high, less than ~5-7 km wide, and occur at narrowly constrained elevations of ~-3600 to -3700 m, (4) these ridges occur only within the innermost ring structure and most of them are not exposed at the lowest elevations, (5) wrinkle ridges are ~75-100 m high, less than ~70 km wide, hundreds of kilometers long and occur over a wide range of elevations, (6) the rim of Isidis exhibits a wide range of elevations of ~7500-8000 m. The floor of the Isidis basin has been chosen by the European Space Agency (ESA) as the landing site for the first European lander on Mars, named Beagle, and is under consideration as a potential landing site for one of the NASA MER rovers. While Beagle will investigate the characteristics of the uppermost surface layers, the Mars Express spacecraft will orbit the planet to acquire global high-resolution remote sensing data and to ensure data downlink from the lander to Earth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gc/gc0903/2008GC002332/2008GC002332.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seafloor bathymetric data acquired with modern swath echo sounders provide coverage for only a small fraction of the global seabed yet are of high value for studies of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes of seafloor volcanism, tectonics, mass wasting, and sediment transport that create and shape the undersea landscape. A new method for compilation of global seafloor bathymetry that preserves the native</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William B. F. Ryan; Suzanne M. Carbotte; Justin O. Coplan; Suzanne O'Hara; Andrew Melkonian; Robert Arko; Rose Anne Weissel; Vicki Ferrini; Andrew Goodwillie; Frank Nitsche; Juliet Bonczkowski; Richard Zemsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=233512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aizenman, Michael [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Warzel, Simone [Zentrum Mathematik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49985850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automatic system for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration measuring channels of ocean bottom seismic stations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> amplitude frequency response and phase response are necessary each time when in addition to travel time information it is neccessary to have data about <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> properties of seismic waves. Unique seismic observations such as sea bottom ones attract special attention. Practically it is impossible to know and control all parameters of all chains in circuit of up-to-date seismic channel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. V. Gorbatikov; H. Shimamura; H. Shiobara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcMod..69...50M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A downscaling method for simulating deep current interactions with <span class="hlt">topography</span> – Application to the Sigsbee Escarpment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nesting approach is applied to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> downscale the deep circulation from a basin-scale model in regions of complicated <span class="hlt">topography</span> where deep <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> may be poorly resolved. The method is applied to nest a high vertical and horizontal resolution Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) domain covering the north-central Gulf of Mexico within a HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Gulf of Mexico domain. The northwestern Gulf of Mexico has a very steep topographic feature, the Sigsbee Escarpment, over which localized bottom-intensified currents with short cross-isobath length scales have been observed in water depths between 1500 m and 3000 m. It has been hypothesized that these intense currents are related to the presence of the Loop Current or Loop Current Eddies, strong upper ocean mesoscale circulation features in the Gulf. A modeling system is required that can resolve the short length scales of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the currents, resolve the vertical trapping of the currents, and realistically simulate the mesoscale upper and deep ocean circulation features. The multi-model nesting approach described here simulates these intense currents with characteristics very similar to observations, and demonstrates the connectivity to the larger scale ocean circulation features.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morey, Steven L.; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48777577"> <span id="translatedtitle">First order sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nodal coordinate formulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems is important in optimizing the performance of mechanical systems.\\u000a The choice of coordinates to describe the motion of multibody systems has a great influence on the efficiency and accuracy\\u000a of both the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and sensitivity analysis. In the flexible multibody system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, both the floating frame of reference\\u000a formulation (FFRF) and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nodal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ting Pi; Yunqing Zhang; Liping Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a method to obtain accurate corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT <span class="hlt">topographies</span> without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19522316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> of dental enamel and root cementum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The focus for the present study was to characterise dental enamel and cementum at the cervical region of healthy teeth by use of interferometry. The effect of a protein-dissolving enzyme, used for cleaning (Neutrase) on the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, was also evaluated. Knowledge about the normal variation of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of natural teeth is limited. In the design of artificial surfaces, intended to replace the function of lost biological surfaces, detailed knowledge of the latter is therefore of great importance. Nine health caries free premolars were used. The root cementum of three teeth was used for evaluation of Neutrase on the surface. On the six remaining teeth, the differences between the surface textures of enamel and root cementum were evaluated using 3D Interferometry. No statistical significant effect of Neutrase was identified. A significant difference between enamel and root cementum concerning surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> using the different 3D parameters was recorded. When comparing values from the literature, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of artificial materials used in dentistry show similarities with the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the enamel and root cementum surfaces evaluated. PMID:19522316</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edblad, Thorsten; Hoffman, Maria; Hakeberg, Magnus; Ortengren, Ulf; Milledning, Percy; Wennerberg, Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018226"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> and abstinence in adult female smokers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span>) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown <span class="hlt">topography</span> to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span> were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak <span class="hlt">topography</span>-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PMB....50.3375P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 × 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 × 1013 ± 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy ± 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Popescu, I. A.; Shaw, C. P.; Zavgorodni, S. F.; Beckham, W. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18239886"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and functional information of plasma membrane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using atomic force microscope (AFM), the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and function of the plasmalemma surface of the isolated protoplasts from winter wheat mesophyll cells were observed, and compared with dead protoplasts induced by dehydrating stress. The observational results revealed that the plasma membrane of living protoplasts was in a state of polarization. Lipid layers of different cells and membrane areas exhibited distinct active states. The surfaces of plasma membranes were unequal, and were characterized of regionalisation. In addition, lattice structures were visualized in some regions of the membrane surface. These typical structures were assumed to be lipid molecular complexes, which were measured to be 15.8+/-0.09 nm in diameter and 1.9+/-0.3 nm in height. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging showed that the plasmalemma surfaces of winter wheat protoplasts were covered with numerous protruding particles. In order to determine the chemical nature of the protruding particles, living protoplasts were treated by proteolytic enzyme. Under the effect of enzyme, large particles became relatively looser, resulting that their width was increased and their height decreased. The results demonstrated that these particles were likely to be of protein nature. These protein particles at plasmalemma surface were different in size and unequal in distribution. The diameter of large protein particles ranged from 200 to 440 nm, with a central micropore, and the apparent height of them was found to vary from 12 to 40 nm. The diameter of mid-sized protein particles was between 40-60 nm, and a range of 1.8-5 nm was given for the apparent height of them. As for small protein particles, obtained values were 12-40 nm for their diameter and 0.7-2.2 nm for height. Some invaginated pits were also observed at the plasma membrane. They were formed by the endocytosis of protoplast. Distribution density of them at plasmalemma was about 16 pits per 15 microm(2). According to their size, we classified the invaginated pits into two types--larger pits measuring 139 nm in diameter and 7.2 nm in depth, and smaller pits measuring 96 nm in diameter and 2.3 nm in depth. On dehydration-induced dead protoplasts, the degree of polarization of plasma membranes decreased. Lipid molecular layers appeared relatively smooth, and the quantity of integral proteins reduced a lot. Invaginated pits were still detectable at the membrane surface, but due to dehydration-induced protoplast contraction, the orifice diameter of pits reduced, and their depth increased. Larger pits averagely measuring 47.4 nm in diameter and 31.9 nm in depth, and smaller pits measuring 26.5 nm in diameter and 43 nm in depth at average. The measured thickness of plasma membranes of mesophyll cells from winter wheat examined by AFM was 6.6-9.8 nm, thicker in regions covered with proteins. PMID:18239886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, DeLan; Chen, JianMin; Song, YanMei; Zhu, ChuanFeng; Pan, GeBo; Wan, LiJun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52299301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey W. Hollister; W. Bryan Milstead; M. Andrea Urrutia; Guy J.-P. Schumann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1431..583U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> prediction on laser processed tool steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser surface treatment the laser beam is used as energy source for surface modification improving aspects such as mechanical properties, tribology or surface texture. Modeling tools have special interest in processes with many variables, like laser surface processing, in order to minimize the tryout testing to find the optimal process parameters. The work presented here focuses on the prediction of the final <span class="hlt">topography</span> in laser polishing process. By FFT analysis of the surface profile it is possible to get the different frequency components of the initial <span class="hlt">topography</span>. On the other hand, thermal field simulation was carried out to evaluate the melt duration. Matching this with the spatial frequency damping during process, the reconstruction of the processed <span class="hlt">topography</span> was obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ukar, E.; Lamikiz, A.; Martínez, S.; López de Lacalle, L. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21476603"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct <span class="hlt">topographies</span>: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each <span class="hlt">topography</span> is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free <span class="hlt">topography</span> is obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goerrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd [Department of Electrical Engineering and Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..MAR.F2008S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging defects in macromolecular crystals with x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a well established technique to characterize growth or process induced defects. As a characterization tool for crystal growers X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> is probably the simplest non destructive imaging technique available. However, only recently it has been applied to image growth induced defects in protein crystals.We will discuss the use of white and monochromatic x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> methods in understanding macromolecular growth techniques and diffraction properties. White and monochromatic synchrotron radiation from beamline X26C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) were employed in x-ray topographic studies of different macromolecular systems grown by different techniques. Results show that growth conditions and handling affected the quality of the crystals. A high correlation between crystal quality and diffraction characteristics was observed. Above all x-ray topographic methods proved to be non destructive, at least for the proteins studied, lysozyme, concanavalin and myoglobin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stojanoff, V.; Siddons, D. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=sharklet&OS=sharklet&RS=sharklet"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for non-toxic bioadhesion control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An article has a surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> for resisting bioadhesion of organisms and includes a base article having a surface. A composition of the surface includes a polymer. The surface has a <span class="hlt">topography</span> comprising a pattern defined by a plurality of spaced apart features attached to or projected into the base article. The plurality of features each have at least one microscale dimension and at least one neighboring feature having a substantially different geometry. An average feature spacing between adjacent ones of the features is between 10 .mu.m and 100 .mu.m in at least a portion of the surface. The surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be numerically represented using at least one sinusoidal function. In one embodiment, the surface can comprise a coating layer disposed on the base article.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2636588"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of nanophase titania <span class="hlt">topography</span> on bacterial attachment and metabolism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional (or nanometer smooth) <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are known to have different properties of area, charge, and reactivity. Previously published research indicates that the attachment of certain bacteria (such as Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL) is higher on surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, however, their effect on bacterial metabolism is unclear. Results presented here show that the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL and Pseudomonas putida TVA8 was higher on nanophase than conventional titania. Importantly, in terms of metabolism, bacteria attached to the nanophase surfaces had higher bioluminescence rates than on the conventional surfaces under all nutrient conditions. Thus, the results from this study show greater select bacterial metabolism on nanometer than conventional <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, critical results with strong consequences for the design of improved biosensors for bacteria detection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Margaret R; Banks, Michelle K; Applegate, Bruce; Webster, Thomas J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...108i3522G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct <span class="hlt">topographies</span>: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each <span class="hlt">topography</span> is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free <span class="hlt">topography</span> is obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Görrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhNan...9..159S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser-based nanoengineering of surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for biomedical applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study femtosecond laser systems were used for nanoengineering of special surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in silicon and titanium. Besides the control of feature sizes, we demonstrated that laser structuring caused changes in material wettability due to a reduced surface contact area. These laser-engineered <span class="hlt">topographies</span> were tested for their capability to control cellular behavior of human fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and MG-63 osteoblasts. We found that fibroblasts reduced cell growth on the structures, while the other cell types proliferated at the same rate. These findings make laser-surface structuring very attractive for biomedical applications. Finally, to explain the results the correlation between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the biophysics of cellular adhesion, which is the key step of selective cell control, is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koroleva, Anastasia; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9912135M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to Special Section on Tectonics and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This special section on tectonics and <span class="hlt">topography</span> developed from an American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference convened in the late summer of 1992 in Snowbird, Utah. The intent of the gathering was to assemble a diverse group of Earth scientists working on ultimately the same problem: the interaction between crustal and surficial processes or, euphemistically, tectonics and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Through numerous and enthusiastic conversations, it became clear to us prior to the Chapman Conference that many people were working on the interaction between tectonics and <span class="hlt">topography</span> but about half of these were either unaware of the others or were aghast at the way in which the others simplified their subject (and vice versa for the other half!). To our delight, the conference brought forth a wonderful array of scientists from virtually all subdisciplines of geology, and the desire for mutual help and a sympathetic ear was palpable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merritts, Dorothy; Ellis, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6850088"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 and 50 ms depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strachan, J.D.; Barnes, C.W.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; Loughlin, M.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/73021"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.294..340V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> carbon isotope ratios by AMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our AMS produced a ratio of instrument transmissions for 14C and 13C equal to 13/14 to 0.22 ± 0.06% accuracy at a specific charge-changing energy of 235 keV and giving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotope ratios with that mass correction. The ratio for 13C and 12C transmissions was 12/13 at 215 keV. A differential equation model of energetic ion and atom transport through the gas collision cell was constructed with functions representing experimental cross-sections for all collision effects. This model showed cation yield dependencies that were linear with energy for the monoenergetic isotopic ions at the energies that we measured, explaining the inverse mass dependence. The model predicted multiple lower energies that have this dependence and, more importantly, two low energies at which cation yields were equal for pairs of isotopes, presaging potential <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotope ratio measurements at low MS energies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogel, John S.; Giacomo, Jason A.; Dueker, Stephen R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993hst..prop.4243P"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOC <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Sensitivity (F/48 Relay)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DQE for the f/48 camera has not yet been directly measured in orbit. This has been in part due to the absence of faint enough standards. This proposal will attempt to correct this deficiency by observations of UV standard stars with combinations of filters and small formats to achieve count rates that are not seriously nonlinear. Because of the use of small formats, interactive acquisitions will be required as well as special commanding for nonstandard formats. Internal LED exposures will also be necessary to geometrically calibrate the nonstandard format and to tie its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response to those of other formats (there is a significant format- dependent response variation for f/48).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paresce, Francesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31982525"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch in autism: A case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case study of QC, a low-functioning adolescent with autism, who possesses the special ability of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch. QC participated in an in-depth assessment of pitch perception and processing systems relevant for current cognitive models of autism. Her performance was compared to that of mental age-and chronological age-matched groups of persons with average intelligence, or to that of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Mottron; I. Peretz; S. Belleville; N. Rouleau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56360316"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ultraviolet Stellar Irradiances from SORCE SOLSTICE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft is a grating spectrometer that has been measuring both solar and stellar fluxes in the 115-300 nm range since 2003. Preflight instrument calibration using the SURF III synchrotron source yields an uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stellar irradiances of just a few percent.The SOLSTICE program stars</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Snow; W. E. McClintock; T. N. Woods; G. Rottman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994IJMSI.139...95C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotopic composition of europium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calibrated mass spectrometric measurements on highly enriched isotopes of europium in the form of 99.96% pure sesquioxide were carried out with a thermal ionization mass spectrometer, yielding an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotopic composition of 47.810(42) at.% 151Eu and 52.190(42) at.% 153Eu, and the atomic weight of europium as 151.9644(9) with error given as 2[sigma]. No isotopic fractionation was found in terrestrial normal europium materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Tsing Lien; Qian, Qiu-Yu; Zhao, Mo-Tian; Wang, Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g4204112562h13k6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of caffeine in man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of orally administered caffeine was investigated in 10 healthy adult male volunteers, aged 18.8 to 30.0 years. The subjects were administered a 5 mg\\/kg dose of caffeine as either an aqueous oral solution or an intravenous infusion, on separate occasions about 1 week apart, in a randomized crossover fashion. Plasma samples were collected over the 24-h period</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Blanchard; S. J. A. Sawers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/jv2434v24623h069.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clock retardation, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space, and special relativity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a sequence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-space kinematical theories which differ more or less from the special theory of relativity (STR) in the amount of clock retardation which they predict, but which agree with STR with respect to roundtrip light experiments, such as Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike. This sequence of theories is imbedded in the synchrony-free formulation of STR developed by Winnie</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlo Giannoni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/b3428g50712mh77w.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Training the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification of pitch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two methods for training the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> judgment of pitch, reference training and series training, were studied. Reference training\\u000a concentrated during training on the identification of three reference tones in a set of nine pure tones, while series training\\u000a gave equal weight during training to the identification of all nine tones. Results of pre- and posttraining tests, scored\\u000a for the number</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lola L. Cuddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2946303"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration and enantiomeric purity of celiprolol].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of (+)-celiprolol ([alpha]D = +6.3 degrees in CHCl3) was established by a 9-step synthesis via the (+) (R)-acetonide of (R)-glyceraldehyde. This result was confirmed by the Cupra-A CD-spectra of the isopropyl and hydroxy analogs. The enantiomeric purity was determined by NMR analysis of the diastereomeric amide esters obtained by reaction of celiprolol with 2 mol of alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethyl-phenylacetic acid chloride (Mosher's reagent). PMID:2946303</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofer, O; Schlögl, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6793894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> absorption of ozone in the midinfrared</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> absorption of ozone in the midinfrared has been measured relative to 253.7-nm ultraviolet absorption to an accuracy of 1% using a Bruker Fourier transform spectrometer. These new results agree with previous measurements by diode laser measurements after the latter are corrected for more recent infrared calculations and ultraviolet cross sections. They also agree with a determination based on refractive index measurements in the infrared. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pickett, H.M.; Peterson, D.B.; Margolis, J.S. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......322S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like <span class="hlt">topography</span> to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. The role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to <span class="hlt">topographies</span> was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheats, Julian Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAG....84...52Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical investigation of MASW applications in presence of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the applications of multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), dispersion curves are usually picked in an energy tracing manner on dispersion images. They are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves based on a horizontally layered earth model during the subsequent inversion for shear-wave velocities. Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> can strongly influence energy distribution on a dispersion image. In theory, static correction should be applied to seismic records before generating dispersion images if there are any elevation variations along a two-dimensional (2D) survey line. The out-of-plane noise from side areas of a survey line in three dimensions (3D) can also contaminate the recorded wavefield. We synthesize the seismograms through finite-difference modeling for 12 types of 2D earth models that represent the basic elements of <span class="hlt">topography</span> along a survey line. The dispersion images are compared with the corresponding theoretical dispersion curves that are calculated by ignoring the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the models. The comparison shows that errors of the picked Rayleigh-wave phase velocities can be constrained within 4% if a slope angle of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is less than about 10°. For steeper <span class="hlt">topography</span>, errors of the picked phase velocities are greater than 4% and static correction are recommended before the dispersion analysis. In the 3D case, we investigate a set of 3D levee-shaped earth models to evaluate the errors caused by the out-of-plane noise from the edge of an embankment. The analysis suggests that the distance between the edge of an embankment and a MASW survey line should be at least 1/10 of the dominant Rayleigh-wave wavelength so that energy distortion on dispersion images due to <span class="hlt">topography</span> are less significant than that caused by other noises.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeng, Chong; Xia, Jianghai; Miller, Richard D.; Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Wang, Zhejiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Metro..21..147M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Cryogenic Radiometer for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adoption in 1979 of a new definition of the candela, which permitted a detector-based approach to the realization of the unit, has emphasized the importance of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiation detectors. This paper describes a new electrical-substitution <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer operating at 5 K, based on a standard commercial helium cryostat, which has been developed at NPL for optical radiant-power measurements. The principal advantages of operating the radiometer at liquid helium temperatures are that the detector can be a large, highly absorbing cavity (absorptivity 99.998%) and that exact equivalence of electrical and radiant heating can be clearly demonstrated. It will be the primary <span class="hlt">absolute</span> detector for a new realization of the candela at NPL and will provide the basis for the development of a wider range of radiometric and spectroradiometric standards. The use of the radiometer to measure the radiant power of an intensity-stabilized laser source at the milliwatt level with an uncertainty of 4 parts in 105 is also described, together with its application in the determination of the responsivity of transfer-standard detectors, such as silicon photodiodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, J. E.; Fox, N. P.; Key, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9508Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a global river model: A case study in the Amazon River</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers is an important factor for surface water studies and flood hazard management. However, most continental-scale river models have not focused on the reproduction of water level because the storage and movement of surface waters are regulated by smaller-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> than their grid resolutions. Here we analyzed the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a state-of-the-art global river model, CaMa-Flood, with subgrid representation of floodplain <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a case study, hydrodynamics simulation in the Amazon River was accomplished, and the simulated water surface elevations along the main stem were compared against Envisat altimetry. The seasonal cycles of the simulated water surface elevations are in agreement with the altimetry (correlation coefficient >0.69, annual amplitude error <1.6 m). The accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations was also good (averaged RMSE of 1.83 m), and the associated errors were within the range of the model uncertainty due to channel cross-section parameters. Then the ocean tide variation at river mouth was incorporated for simulating the tidal effect in the inland Amazon basin, which requires realistic representation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations. By applying power spectra analysis to the simulated water level variations, the 15 day cycle due to spring and neap tides was detected at Obidos, located 800 km upstream from the river mouth. The reproduction of the ocean tide propagation to the inland region suggests that CaMa-Flood includes the main physical processes needed to accurately simulate the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamazaki, Dai; Lee, Hyongki; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Dutra, Emanuel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.7103W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of deformation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of high elevated plateaus. 1: Model, numerical analysis, and general results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A temperature dependent viscoplastic flow model of continental lithosphere is used to investigate the evolution of deformation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of high elevated plateaus. Such plateaus are products of both continent-continent collision (Tibetan Plateau) and ocean-continent collision (the Altiplano) and develop in the overriding continental plate. We emphasize the mechanically simpler case of oceanic collision, because it does not involve mass transfer between the two plates. The lithosphere is deformed in response to tectonic and buoyancy forces. The tectonic forces arise from subduction of an oceanic plate that horizontally indents and vertically shears the overriding lithosphere. The buoyancy forces arise in response to horizontal density variations and tend to relax existing <span class="hlt">topography</span> or thick crust. The time evolution of the deformation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> is investigated using a finite element technique that solves for the flow field in the overriding lithosphere. The model produces <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> supported near-trench <span class="hlt">topography</span> and inland mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is isostatically supported by a thick crust. A finite region of localized deformation, thick crust, and high <span class="hlt">topography</span> develops only if the model includes a horizontal thermal perturbation or an initially thick crust; however, only thermally perturbed lithosphere generates a plateau <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The shape and size of the calculated plateau depend on the wavelength of the thermal perturbation. Grashof number, and density contrast between the crust and mantle. The time evolution of the deformation shows a significant change in the deformation pattern as the high elevated plateau evolves. During early stages, compressional deformation of the crust and mantle are localized in the thermally perturbed weak zone. At later stages, as the crust thickness, buoyancy forces of larger magnitude resist further thickening of the crust and the locus of compressional crustal deformation migrates inland. This migration does not affect the location of the mantle deformation, which remains in the thermally weak region, but it is accompanied by a significant shear deformation in the weak lower crust. The separation of the crustal locus from the mantle locus of deformation emphasizes the importance of vertically dependent deformation in the formation of high elevated plateaus. This demonstrates the limitations of models that ignore changes of deformation with depth, such as plane stress or thin sheet models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wdowinski, Shimon; Bock, Yehuda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5058..603H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data combination in <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement of revolving objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several photos of projected gratings patterns should be taken from different angles, when 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> of revolving objects is measured by grating projected method. How to combine the measured data of grating projected patterns is a key factor of measuring 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> of revolving objects. A new data combination method, which is based on cylinder coordinate transform, is proposed in this paper. The equations and operating steps are introduced and the experiments are given in this paper. All the projected gratings patterns are processed by FFT phase technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Yun; Ma, Li; He, Shiping; Liu, Lang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..712.1384L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation of an Asperity Ploughing Model to Measured Roll <span class="hlt">Topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previously published asperity ploughing model has been adapted in order to approximate the measured as-ground roll surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The model is then integrated with classical cold rolling plastic deformation equations including coupling to the lubricant film evolution through the roll bite. The friction distribution through the roll bite is thus a function of the specific details of the roll surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as the process parameters. predictions of roll force, torque and forward slip as well as sliding distance and volume of metal swept out by the asperities are then made and compared to experimental measurements for an aluminum alloy rolled on a laboratory rolling mill.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lalli, L. A.; Malkani, H. G.; Sheu, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207706"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wide angle X-ray diffraction <span class="hlt">topography</span> of polycrystalline materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized by the spatially resolved detection of scattering of a material. The advantages of radiographic imaging can be combined with the analytical information revealed by Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction. Beyond the limitations of the well-known Single Crystal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> new approaches by single beam scanning techniques under pre-selected scattering conditions permit the topographic characterization of polycrystalline or amorphous solids or liquids. The principles of different topographic methods and their application to polymer and ceramic composites are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hentschel, Manfred P.; Lange, Axel; Schors, Joerg; Wald, Oliver; Harbich, Karl-Wolfram [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, BAM-VIII.32, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992LPICo.789..110S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and convection-driven crustal deformation on Venus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution Magellan images and altimetry of Venus reveal a wide range of styles and scales of surface deformation that cannot readily be explained within the classical terrestrial plate tectonic paradigm. The high correlation of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity and the large apparent depths of compensation suggest that Venus lacks an upper-mantle low-viscosity zone. A key difference between Earth and Venus may be the degree of coupling between the convecting mantle and the overlying lithosphere. Mantle flow should then have recognizable signatures in the relationships between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, crustal deformation, and the observed gravity field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simons, Mark; Hager, Bradford H.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ciese.org/pathways/rwlo/rwlos/2867/The%20impact%20of%20topography%20and%20weather%20on%20landslide%20development/overview.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Weather & <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Landslide Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Real World Learning Objects Resource Library has provided this activity to demonstrate the role of weather and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in environmental disasters. Students will use real GIS data to analyze the relationship between weather, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and landslides. Background materials and worksheets are provided in the âÂÂContent Materialsâ section, and the procedure for students to follow is clearly outlined. Additional materials that students may find helpful are located in the âÂÂSupplementary Resourcesâ section. This is an excellent resource for environmental science and earth science teachers that can be used in the classroom or as a homework assignment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimbler, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AAS...187.7702K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Calibration of AXAF Effective Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> x-ray flux from objects observed by AXAF, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> effective area of the telescope must be known. Because there are no standard candles in the x-ray sky, a prelaunch calibration must be done. The overall effective area of the combined optic and focal plane detectors requires a knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux in the incident x-ray beam that illuminates them in the X-ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. In order to calibrate the beam, a standard detector is needed. We report on the approach being developed to calibrate standard detectors to 1% in effective area. Basic data on physical properties of materials, such as the Henke tables, are not adequate. This is true both because of imprecision in the data, and difficulties with designing detectors whose overall efficiency can be synthesized from a knowledge of constituent properties. Therefore, we resort to calibrating the detector against a standard source, the PTB beam lines at the BESSY synchrotron. The PTB white beam line is calibrated to 0.3%, and the monochromatic line to 1% over the lower portion of the AXAF energy range, and to a few percent over the higher energy range. Special precautions are taken to assure that the detectors are stable following calibration at BESSY. These include dealing with condensation of frozen water vapor on a germanium detector, and providing a built-in radioactive source to check stability. The AXAF effective area is sensitive to small changes in particulate and molecular contamination on its x-ray optics. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> standard established on the ground must be transferred to orbit. To accomplish this, AXAF employs radioactive sources mounted forward of the optic. X-rays from these sources reflected from the optic are detected by a flight focal plane detector. The counting rates from before and after launch can be used to measure any change in the effective area, establishing the on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> effective area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kellogg, E.; Tsiang, E.; Schwartz, D.; Hughes, J.; Gaetz, T.; Wargelin, B.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Scholze, F.; Ulm, G.; O'dell, S.; Elsner, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410442"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Saturation Levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Letter reports new experimental results that evidence the transition between the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Significant reflectivities were observed only when the instability grows in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> regime. In this case, saturation processes efficiently limit the SRS reflectivity that is shown to scale linearly with the laser intensity, and the electron density and temperature. Such a scaling agrees with the one established by T. Kolber et al.[Phys. Fluids B 5, 138 (1993)] and B Bezzerides et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2569 (1993)], from numerical simulations where the Raman saturation is due to the coupling of electron plasma waves with ion waves <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel, D. T. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-CEA-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); CEA DAM DIF, F- 91297 Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S.; Tassin, V. [CEA DAM DIF, F- 91297 Arpajon (France); Stenz, C. [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Labaune, C. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-CEA-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..86..392G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of surface orientation on dissolution rates and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of CaF2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports how during dissolution differences in surface chemistry affect the evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> of CaF2 pellets with a microstructure similar to UO2 spent nuclear fuel. 3D confocal profilometry and atomic force microscopy were used to quantify retreat rates and analyze <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes on surfaces with different orientations as dissolution proceeds up to 468 h. A NaClO4 (0.05 M) solution with pH 3.6 which was far from equilibrium relative to CaF2 was used.Measured dissolution rates depend directly on the orientation of the exposed planes. The {1 1 1} is the most stable plane with a dissolution rate of (1.2 ± 0.8) × 10-9 mol m-2 s-1, and {1 1 2} the least stable plane with a dissolution rate 33 times faster that {1 1 1}. Surfaces that expose both Ca and F atoms in the same plane dissolve faster. Dissolution rates were found to be correlated to surface orientation which is characterized by a specific surface chemistry and therefore related to surface energy. It is proposed that every surface is characterized by the relative proportions of the three reference planes {1 1 1}, {1 0 0} and {1 1 0}, and by the high energy sites at their interceptions.Based on the different dissolution rates observed we propose a dissolution model to explain changes of <span class="hlt">topography</span> during dissolution. Surfaces with slower dissolution rate, and inferred lower surface energy, tend to form while dissolution proceeds leading to an increase of roughness and surface area. This adjustment of the surface suggests that dissolution rates during early stages of dissolution are different from the later stages. The time-dependency of this <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> system needs to be taken into consideration when predicting long-term dissolution rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Godinho, J. R. A.; Piazolo, S.; Evins, L. Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T51C2341F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the margins of South America since the Cretaceous from geodynamic models of lithospheric deformation and mantle convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has been considerable interest in the effect of mantle flow on the Earth's surface over the past few years. A frequently used approach to investigate the problem consists of imposing the kinematics predicted by global plate reconstructions in convection models. Such models do not capture the changes in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> due to lithospheric deformation because plates are rigid in traditional tectonic reconstructions. Indeed, in coupled plate tectonic/mantle convection models the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is usually calculated for the mantle flow beneath the thermal lithosphere (i.e. after removing the effect of the upper ~ 200 km). In this contribution, we simultaneously model the effect of both lithospheric deformation and mantle flow on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the margins of South America over the last 150 Myr. We developed a workflow to investigate the effect of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on deforming continents. We first define global plate reconstructions that account for continental deformation deduced from published geological and geophysical data. For a given area, this method requires the relative motions between major rigid continental blocks, and a definition of the topological boundaries of regions in which continental lithosphere deformed between these blocks. The kinematics of these reconstructions are then imposed as a time-dependent velocity boundary condition in global mantle convection models in which compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere are embedded within the thermal lithosphere. Finally, we introduce a new slab assimilation method in which the thermal structure of the slab, derived analytically, is progressively assimilated in the upper mantle into the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models. This method not only improves the continuity of slabs in our models, but it also allows us to model flat slab segments that are particularly relevant for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Focusing on South America, we compare the subsidence predicted on the passive margin of the continent by two different tectonic reconstructions of the South Atlantic. We also model the tectonic shortening along the Andean margin, which affects the location of the trench through time. Finally, we investigate the effect of flat slab segments on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Andes. We compare our results to geological and geophysical data, including stratigraphy, paleo-altimetry, paleo-environment and mantle tomography. This allows us to refine the key input parameters of our models and to investigate the surface expression of mantle processes at deforming continental margins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flament, N.; Gurnis, M.; Williams, S.; Heine, C.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP31A0794Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of desert dune <span class="hlt">topography</span> by multi angle sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays, the sandy desert is rapidly expanding world widely and results in a lot of risks in the socio-econimical aspects as well as the anthropogenic activities. For example, the increasing occurrences of mineral dust storm which presumably originated from the sandy deserts in northwest China become a serious threat in human activities as well as public health over Far East Asian area as the interpretation by the MODIS analysis (Zhang et al., 2007) and the particle trajectory simulation with HYSPLYT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) (Kim et al., 2011) identified. Since the sand dune activity has been recognized as an essential indicator of the progressive desertification, it is important to establish the monitoring method for the variations of topographic properties by the dune activities such as local roughness. Thus it will provide the crucial data about the extent and the transition of sandy desert. For example, it is well known the aerodynamic roughness lengths Zo which can be driven from the specialized sensor such as POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) is essential to understand desert dune characteristics. However, for the multi temporal observation of dune fields, the availability of data set to extract Zo is limited. Therefore, we employed MISR (Multi angle imaging Spectro Radiometer) image sequence to extract multi angle topographic parameters such as NDAI (Normalized Difference Angular Index) or the variation of radiance with the viewing geometry which are representing the characteristics of target desert <span class="hlt">topography</span> instead of Zo. In our approach, NDAI were expanded to the all viewing angles and then compared over the target sandy desert and the surrounding land covers. It showed very strong consistencies according to the land cover type and especially over the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> dune fields. On the other hands, the variation of NDAIs of sandy desert combining with the metrological observations were examined and showed a correlation between the intensities sand dune activities and the surface wind conditions. In conclusion, we proved that the trace of the sandy desert boundaries for long observation period is feasible with the multi angle orbital sensor observation by investigating the expanded NDAIs from various sample sand dune fields. However, it is quite uncertain whether the consistency of MISR NDAIs over sandy deserts originated from the aeolian micro structures, the reflectance of sand or the aspect angle of dune morphology. Therefore, in the next stage, the local roughness properties extracted from MISR data analysis will be compared with the topographic information from high resolution stereo satellite imagery such as ALOS PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping). Consequently it will correctly evaluate the suitability of multi angle observation parameters as a dune activity indicator.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun, J.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y.; Yun, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v078/i002/JB078i002p00478/JB078i002p00478.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Spherical Harmonic Analysis of the Earth's <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This letter is a correction to the letter of the same title by Lee and Kaula [1967]. In 1971 two independent harmonic analyses of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at Meudon and Los Angeles found the results of Lee and Kaula [1967] to be incorrect. The error of the 1967 analysis has since been found to be an insufficient dimension (W. H. K.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georges Balmino; Kurt Lambeck; William M. Kaula</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA203347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the Spectral Density of Residual Ocean Floor <span class="hlt">Topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocean floor <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be characterized as a signal related to lithospheric cooling and a residual; the residual can be further modeled by comparing the shape of its power spectrum with that of a fractal process. Power spectra of Seabeam profiles alon...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. E. Gilbert A. Malinverno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52076582"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in geodetic gravity field modelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Masses associated with the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic\\/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Forsberg; M. G. Sideris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40368246"> <span id="translatedtitle">The changing <span class="hlt">topography</span> of corroding mild steel surfaces in seawater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The corrosion of mild steel exposed to marine immersion conditions typically is not uniform although it is often idealized as such. Anodic regions and micro-pits develop very quickly after first exposure and eventually there is the development of shallow broad pits. This transition of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the processes involved are still not completely understood. The present paper presents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Jeffrey; Robert E. Melchers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53454521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some Bristol Prague explorations in x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper briefly chronicles a long-standing and productive collaboration between the Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Science and the H H Wills Physics Laboratory. It began in early 1962 with a brief visit to Bristol by Milena Polcarová. The initial aim, successfully achieved, was the mapping by transmission <span class="hlt">topography</span> of dislocations in melt-grown single crystals of a Fe Si</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. R. Lang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985gpep.symp..134T"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the long-wavelength correlation between gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spherical harmonic expansions of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the topographic isostatic reduction potential and the gravity potential of the Earth now exist complete to degree (N) and order 180. A correlation analysis of the various fields by degree was made. While the general correlation between gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> for the sets is around 50% for N 15, the correlation with GEM10C is considerably lower for N 36. This indicates that this set is unreliable above this degree. The topographic isostatic reduction potential may be computed either rigorously by integrating the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and is compensation or by condensing the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its compensating masses. In the last case the spherical harmonic coefficients of the isostatic reduction potential are related in a simple linear manner to the spherical harmonic coefficients of the expansion of the topographic heights. An optimal depth of compensation for each degree was determined by requiring the reduced field to be as smooth as possible. Despite between 35 and 15 km were found for N 20, which are much lower than the values found earlier using another optimal depth principle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tscherning, C. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=COM7100850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geopotential <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Deep Levels in the Pacific Ocean.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After examination of the baroclinic structure below 3000 db, recent data were used to map the geopotential <span class="hlt">topography</span> at 1000, 1500, and 2000 db (referred to 3000 db) in the Pacific Ocean. In the high-latitude regions and in the western boundary currents,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Reed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://poplab.ece.uiuc.edu/pdfs/wang-grapheneslim-ol10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a novel method developed in our laboratory that provides quantitative phase images of transparent structures with a 0.3 nm spatial and 0.03 nm temporal accuracy owing to the white light illumination and its common path interferometric geometry. We exploit these fea- tures and demonstrate SLIM's ability to perform <span class="hlt">topography</span> at a single atomic layer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhuo Wang; Ik Su Chun; Xiuling Li; Zhun-Yong Ong; Eric Pop; Larry Millet; Martha Gillette; Gabriel Popescu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22966964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous energetic <span class="hlt">topographies</span> generated by a diffusional mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present paper, we study the main characteristic features of surface energetic <span class="hlt">topographies</span> generated via the evolution of a single adsorbed particle whose mobility strongly affects the adsorption energy of each visited site. This tracer changes its coordinates by means of activated jumps to nearest-neighbor sites modifying the adsorption energy of each visited site according to a very simple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Ramirez-Pastor; F. Bulnes; F. Nieto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1765456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the inner-core boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constraining the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner-core boundary is important for studies of core–mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high-quality earthquake doublet, observed postcritically at the short-period Yellowknife seismic array (YK), which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a 10-year interval (1993/2003). This observation, complemented by data from several other doublets, indicates the presence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the inner-core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength on the order of 10 km. Such <span class="hlt">topography</span> could be sustained by small-scale convection at the top of the inner core and is compatible with a rate of super rotation of the inner core of ?0.1–0.15° per year. In the absence of inner-core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the inner-core boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Aimin; Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44256735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plate detachment, asthenosphere upwelling, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> across subduction zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study analyzes the <span class="hlt">topography</span> across subduction zones, considering the separate contributions of the crust and the mantle lithosphere to the observed surface elevation. We have found a transition from a region where the overriding plate is coupled to the descending slab and pulled down along with it to a region where the overriding plate floats freely on the asthenosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zohar Gvirtzman; Amos Nur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57766059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in the fiction of Uzma Aslam Khan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the novels Trespassing (2003) and The Geometry of God (2008) by Pakistani author Uzma Aslam Khan, and specifically her deployment of a complex symbolic apparatus constructed from prehistory, geography and history. Drawing on the fossil?rich soil of northern Pakistan and the Arabian Sea coastline in the south, Khan delineates a deep <span class="hlt">topography</span> for Pakistan as a source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ananya Jahanara Kabir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17190798"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the inner-core boundary.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constraining the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner-core boundary is important for studies of core-mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high-quality earthquake doublet, observed postcritically at the short-period Yellowknife seismic array (YK), which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a 10-year interval (1993/2003). This observation, complemented by data from several other doublets, indicates the presence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the inner-core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength on the order of 10 km. Such <span class="hlt">topography</span> could be sustained by small-scale convection at the top of the inner core and is compatible with a rate of super rotation of the inner core of approximately 0.1-0.15 degrees per year. In the absence of inner-core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the inner-core boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core. PMID:17190798</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Aimin; Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41D..04R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short Wavelength <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on the Inner Core Boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constraining the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner core boundary (ICB) is important for studies of core-mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high quality earthquake doublet, which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a ten year interval (1993/2003). This doublet was observed post-critically at the short period Yellowknife seismic array (YK). The analysis of PKIKP/PKiKP amplitude ratios indicates that the PKiKP phases for the 1993 event - but not the 2003 event - are significantly defocused by structure near the inner core boundary (ICB). This observation cannot be explained by small differences in the eearthquake source, interference with another local, regional or teleseismic event, or different scattering from local heterogeneities near the stations or the sources. Combined with data from several other doublets, we infer the presence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the inner- core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength of about 10 km. Such <span class="hlt">topography</span> could be sustained by small scale convection at the top of the inner core, and is compatible with a rate of super-rotation of the inner core of ~0.1-0.15 deg/year. In the absence of inner core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romanowicz, B.; Cao, A.; Masson, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48942582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of Mars from gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity models from 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft tracking provide a window into the structure of the Martian crust and upper mantle. We apply a finite-amplitude terrain correction assuming uniform crustal density and additional corrections for the anomalous densities of the polar caps, the major volcanos, and the hydrostatic flattening</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Neumann; M. T. Zuber; M. A. Wieczorek; P. J. McGovern; F. G. Lemoine; D. E. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22833364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface wettability and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces is influenced by surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and polymer type. Biomimetic superhydrophobic rough surfaces of polystyrene and poly(L-lactic acid) with different micro/nanotopographies were obtained from smooth surfaces using a simple phase-separation based method. Total protein was quantified and showed a less adsorption of bovine serum albumin onto rough surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces of the same material. The mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line and primary bovine articular chondrocytes were used to study cell attachment and proliferation. Cells attached and proliferate better in the smooth surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces allowed cells to adhere but inhibited their proliferation. This study indicates that surface wettability, rather than polymer type or the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the superhydrophobic surfaces, is a critical factor in determining cell behavior. PMID:22833364</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lourenço, Bianca N; Marchioli, Giulia; Song, Welong; Reis, Rui L; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart; Mano, João F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1625918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of seabed <span class="hlt">topography</span> by multibeam sonar using CFFT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A precise ocean bottom map for ocean surveying and dredging is desired. Especially in dredging, it is essential to know the seabed <span class="hlt">topography</span> in real time without being affected by scatterers (for example floating sand and mud) in the seawater during work. To meet these requirements, the multi-narrow-beam sonar system (MBSS) has been developed. The MBSS forms beams with the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MUTSUO OKINO; YOJI HIGASHI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.corista.unina.it/Docs/bistatic_altimetry.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A BISTATIC ALTIMETRY MISSION FOR OCEAN <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> MAPPING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Through a feasibility study funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), the authors analysed the possibility of using the innovative concepts of bistatic altimetry to enhance the spatial sampling of <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements over the oceans. Purpose of this paper is thus to review the major results of the mission design, focusing on the spacecraft configuration, mission analysis and the descripition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Zelli; M. Martin-Neira; G. Alberti; F. Impagnatiello; M. Matteoni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50081521"> <span id="translatedtitle">High spatial resolution radar altimetry for global Earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper summarises the work performed by Alenia Aerospazio in the design of new radar altimeter systems suitable for high spatial resolution Earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> observation. The instrument concept proposed is based on the application of synthetic aperture processing and interferometric techniques to a conventional Ku band pulse limited system. The major design features and expected performance are briefly presented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Angino; F. Impagnatiello; C. Zelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21932861"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of scalar fields: molecular clusters and ?-conjugated systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pioneering works due to Bader and co-workers have generated widespread interest in the study of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of molecular scalar fields, the first step of which is the identification and characterization of the corresponding critical points (CPs). The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a molecular system becomes successively richer in going from the bare nuclear potential (BNP) to the molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) through the molecular electron density (MED). The present work clearly demonstrates, through the study of some ?-conjugated test molecules as well as molecular clusters, that the CPs could be economically located by following this path within ab initio level theory. Further, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of large molecules, especially at a higher level of theory, is known to be a demanding task. However, it is rendered possible by following the above sequential mapping assisted by a divide-and-conquer-type method termed as the molecular tailoring approach (MTA). This is demonstrated with the <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of ?-carotene and benzene nonamer at MP2 and a (H(2)O)(32) cluster at the HF level of theory, which are rather challenging problems with contemporary off-the-shelf computer hardware. PMID:21932861</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeole, Sachin D; Gadre, Shridhar R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22920112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of scalar fields: large molecular clusters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient and rapid algorithm for <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of scalar fields, molecular electron density (MED) and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) is presented. The highlight of the work is the use of fast function evaluation by Deformed-atoms-in-molecules (DAM) method. The DAM method provides very rapid as well as sufficiently accurate function and gradient evaluation. For mapping the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of large systems, the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) is invoked. This new code is tested out for mapping the MED and MESP critical points (CP's) of small systems. It is further applied to large molecular clusters viz. (H(2)O)(25), (C(6)H(6))(8) and also to a unit cell of valine crystal at MP2/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The completeness of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is checked by extensive search as well as applying the Poincaré-Hopf relation. The results obtained show that the DAM method in combination with MTA provides a rapid and efficient route for mapping the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of large molecular systems. PMID:22920112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeole, Sachin D; López, Rafael; Gadre, Shridhar R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26349337"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, friction and lubricants in metalforming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper are presented the results of investigations concerning the relation between friction behaviour and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> using various lubricants and initial workpiece surface conditions in ring upsetting and rod extrusion processes. The tests were carried out using either a liquid lubricant or under clean dry conditions. Two types of workpiece surfaces, random and directional, were prepared by either</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. M Hu; T. A Dean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3371306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Cigarette Sensory Cues in Modifying Puffing <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Human puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> promotes tobacco dependence by ensuring nicotine delivery, but the factors that determine puffing behavior are not well explained by existing models. Chemosensory cues generated by variations in cigarette product design features may serve as conditioned cues to allow the smoker to optimize nicotine delivery by adjusting puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Internal tobacco industry research documents were reviewed to understand the influence of sensory cues on puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and to examine how the tobacco industry has designed cigarettes, including modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), to enhance puffing behavior to optimize nicotine delivery and product acceptability. Methods Relevant internal tobacco industry documents were identified using systematic searching with key search terms and phrases, and then snowball sampling method was applied to establish further search terms. Results Modern cigarettes are designed by cigarette manufacturers to provide sensory characteristics that not only maintain appeal, but provide cues which inform puffing intensity. Alterations in the chemosensory cues provided in tobacco smoke play an important role in modifying smoking behavior independently of the central effects of nicotine. Conclusions An associative learning model is proposed to explain the influence of chemosensory cues on variation in puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These cues are delivered via tobacco smoke and are moderated by design features and additives used in cigarettes. The implications for regulation of design features of modified risk tobacco products, which may act to promote intensive puffing while lowering risk perceptions, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; O Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FCT&pg=2&id=EJ844890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Multiple Manding <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> during Functional Communication Training</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding <span class="hlt">topographies</span> during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" oncli