Science.gov

Sample records for absolute dynamic topography

  1. Evaluation of Absolute Dynamic Ocean Topography Profiles along the Brazilian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, R. T.; Bosch, W.; Freitas, S. R. C.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    Based on a new approach, which consistently filters GRACE-based geoid undulations and altimetry-derived sea surface heights along the tracks of altimeter satellites, absolute dynamic ocean topography (DOT) profiles are estimated along the Brazilian coast. Such DOT profiles can be used to perform levelling over the sea. Connecting these profiles with Brazilian Geodetic Tide Gauge Network (RMPG) stations it would be possible to validate the current studies on the modernization of the Brazilian height system, extended over many thousand kilometers on land. The link with coastal reference sites would also allow to connect isolated height systems, e.g. north of the Amazonas River mouth. We perform long-term mean DOT-profiles of cross-calibrated altimeter satellites which operated for many years over repeated ground tracks (TOPEX, Jason-1, ERS-2). Moreover, we analyze the consistency among crossing profiles (single- and dual-satellite) in particular in areas with strong mesoscale currents. The extrapolation of DOT profiles towards selected RMPG stations is investigated. For this connection strategies are considered to overcome the degradation of coastal altimetry due to errors in ocean tide models and the land contamination of the radiometer observations.

  2. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The relationship between surface topography, gravity anomalies, and temperature structure of convection, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 88(B2), 1129-1144, doi:10.1029/JB088iB02p01129. [3] Robinson, E. M., B. Parsons, and S. F. Daly (1987), The effect of a shallow low viscosity zone on the apparent compensation of mid-plate swells, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 82(3-4), 335-348, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(87)90207-X.

  3. Inferring Cetacean Population Densities from the Absolute Dynamic Topography of the Ocean in a Hierarchical Bayesian Framework

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Mario A.; Gerrodette, Tim; Beier, Emilio; Gendron, Diane; Forney, Karin A.; Chivers, Susan J.; Barlow, Jay; Palacios, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column’s physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Niño anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of the Humboldt Current System. We posit that such reductions in available foraging habitats during climatic disturbances could incur high energetic costs on these populations, ultimately affecting individual fitness and survival. PMID:25785692

  4. Inferring cetacean population densities from the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean in a hierarchical Bayesian framework.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mario A; Gerrodette, Tim; Beier, Emilio; Gendron, Diane; Forney, Karin A; Chivers, Susan J; Barlow, Jay; Palacios, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column's physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Niño anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of the Humboldt Current System. We posit that such reductions in available foraging habitats during climatic disturbances could incur high energetic costs on these populations, ultimately affecting individual fitness and survival. PMID:25785692

  5. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita depression in Argentina. We explain the uplift of the paleosols of the los Llanos formation and the Fitzcarrald Arch. We show the effects of strong viscosity variations and slab dip on the extent of continental flooding.

  6. Retrodicting the late Cenozoic dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro; Glisovic, Petar; Rowley, David; Mitrovica, Jerry; Simmons, Nathan; Grand, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    We reconstruct the global late Cenozoic dynamic topography by carrying out backward-in-time mantle flow simulations starting with present-day heterogeneity derived from a high-resolution joint seismic-geodynamic tomography model (Simmons et al., 2009). Herein, we will explore the associated uncertainties and geological implications of our topography retrodictions. Heuristic estimates of uncertainties are obtained using two different approaches to backward mantle convection -- the backward advection method and the quasi-reversible convection method. Comparison of these two methods exposes the relative importance of diffusion in our retrodictions. Additional contributions to our uncertainties that originate from the starting models of mantle heterogeneity and rheology are also investigated. We further assess the validity of our models of topography evolution with the geological record. In particular, we focus on dynamic surface features such as the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern US, the Angolan margin and Congo-Zaire basins in Africa.

  7. Absolute 3D reconstruction of thin films topography in microfluidic channels by interference reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huerre, A; Jullien, M-C; Theodoly, O; Valignat, M-P

    2016-02-23

    The travel of droplets, bubbles, vesicles, capsules, living cells or small organisms in microchannels is a hallmark in microfluidics applications. A full description of the dynamics of such objects requires a quantitative understanding of the complex hydrodynamic and interfacial interactions between objects and channel walls. In this paper, we present an interferometric method that allows absolute topographic reconstruction of the interspace between an object and channel walls for objects confined in microfluidic channels. Wide field microscopic imaging in reflection interference contrast mode (RICM) is directly performed at the bottom wall of microfluidic chips. Importantly, we show that the reflections at both the lower and upper surface of the microchannel have to be considered in the quantitative analysis of the optical signal. More precisely, the contribution of the reflection at the upper surface is weighted depending on the light coherence length and channel height. Using several wavelengths and illumination apertures, our method allows reconstructing the topography of thin films on channel walls in a range of 0-500 nm, with a precision as accurate as 2 nm for the thinnest films. A complete description of the protocol is exemplified for oil in water droplets travelling in channels of height 10-400 ?m at a speed up to 5 mm s(-1). PMID:26830018

  8. Renormalisation of Global Mantle Dynamic Topography Predictions using Residual Topography Measurements for "Normal" Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Fergus; Kusznir, Nick; Cowie, Leanne

    2015-04-01

    The best constraint on model predictions of present day mantle dynamic topography are measurements of residual topography. Residual topography is calculated by removing the isostatic effects of bathymetry, sediments, ice, crustal thickness variation and lithosphere thermal anomalies from the observed topography. Comparison of global model predictions of mantle dynamic topography with global compilations of residual topography, while showing a broadly similar pattern at long wavelengths, differ substantially in amplitude. A strong contribution to the present day surface topographic signal arises from crustal thickness variation. As a consequence it is difficult to accurately determine residual topography for continental crust and for oceanic regions with substantially thicker than average oceanic crust (e.g. oceanic crust adjacent to volcanic rifted margins, oceanic plume tracks, volcanic plateaux, micro-continents). Residual topography is best measured on ocean crust of "normal" oceanic thickness. We use global mapping of crustal thickness using gravity inversion to identify crust with thicknesses greater than that of "normal" oceanic crust in order than we can eliminate the less accurate measurements of residual topography for these thicker crustal regions. Comparison of model predicted mantle dynamic topography with residual topography measurements for the remaining regions of thinner "normal" oceanic crust shows an improved correlation but with a dynamic topography showing a positive bias with respect to residual topography and a greater amplitude. We use residual topography measurements for "normal" oceanic crust to downward shift (by approximately 600 m) and rescale (by 0.6) predicted global mantle dynamic topography. We present maps of the renormalised model predictions of global mantle topography from Steinberger (2007) and Flament et al. (2013). One consequence of renormalization is to reduce the amplitude of predicted mantle dynamic topographic uplift in the Pacific. The gravity inversion methodology includes a correction for the elevated geothermal gradient of oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere and sediment thickness. Caveats on this methodology are (i) that the gravity inversion methodology used to determine crustal thickness for screening out thick crust is itself dependent on mantle dynamic topography (but fortunately only weakly so) and (ii) that the renormalization procedure is biased towards oceanic regions.

  9. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  10. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including foreseen societal benefits.

  11. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  12. Setting the absolute tempo of biodiversity dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew P; Savage, Van M

    2007-07-01

    Neutral biodiversity theory has the potential to contribute to our understanding of how macroevolutionary dynamics influence contemporary biodiversity, but there are issues regarding its dynamical predictions that must first be resolved. Here we address these issues by extending the theory in two ways using a novel analytical approach: (1) we set the absolute tempo of biodiversity dynamics by explicitly incorporating population-level stochasticity in abundance; (2) we allow new species to arise with more than one individual. Setting the absolute tempo yields quantitative predictions on biodiversity dynamics that can be tested using contemporary and fossil data. Allowing incipient-species abundances greater than one individual yields predictions on how these dynamics, and the form of the species-abundance distribution, are affected by multiple speciation modes. We apply this new model to contemporary and fossil data that encompass 30 Myr of macroevolution for planktonic foraminifera. By synthesizing the model with these empirical data, we present evidence that dynamical issues with neutral biodiversity theory may be resolved by incorporating the effects of environmental stochasticity and incipient-species abundance on biodiversity dynamics. PMID:17542942

  13. Quantifying landscape evolution response to changes in dynamic topography (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, R.; Ruetenik, G. A.; Braun, J.; Guillocheau, F.; Hoke, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's topography is a convolution of complex interactions of the mantle, the crust and surface processes, where the latter are controlled by the dynamics of the atmosphere and sea level change. An outstanding problem in landscape evolution and continental dynamics is the delineation of mantle convective flow induced topography (termed dynamic topography) from the geological record. Therefore, to unravel this record, we need to first understand the complex landscape evolution response to long-term dynamic forcing from the mantle in a controlled study. Recent advances in landscape evolution modeling have overcome a previous limitation in spatial and temporal scales making modeling the effects of large-scale long-term features such as dynamic topography, possible. In this study, we utilize FastScape (Braun and Willett, 2013) to quantify the effect of changes in dynamic topography of Africa on landscape evolution and sediment supply to its margins. We utilize a novel iterative approach that uses backward in time advected models of dynamic topography as the initial drivers of uplift/subsidence in the landscape evolution model. Subsequently, with the margins' sedimentary record acting as constraints we refine the changes in topography as a function of time. Our goal is to obtain a geodynamically and geologically consistent model of African topography throughout the late Cenozoic.

  14. Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, Franois; Puget, Pascal

    2005-10-15

    A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses. PMID:16252765

  15. Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Richards, M. A.; Comer, R. P.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    Density contrasts in the lower mantle, recently imaged using seismic tomography, drive convective flow which results in kilometers of dynamically maintained topography at the core-mantle boundary and at the Earth's surface. The total gravity field due to interior density contrasts and boundary topography predicts the largest wavelength components of the geoid remarkably well. Neglecting dynamic surface deformation leads to geoid anomalies of opposite sign than are observed.

  16. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

    2013-04-01

    The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  17. Mercury's Thermal Evolution, Dynamical Topography and Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes

    Among the terrestrial planets Mercury is not only the smallest, but also the densest (after correction for self-compression). To explain Mercury's high density it is considered likely that the planet's mantle was removed during a giant impact event, when proto-Mercury was already differentiated into an iron core and a silicate mantle. Beside the damage to the planet's mantle the vaporization would cause a significant loss of volatile elements, leaving the remaining planet molten and dominated by extremely refractory material.Since the arrival of a spacecraft at the enigmatic planet is not to be expected before 2011 (Messenger) or 2019 (BepiColombo) we might already prepare ourselves for the upcoming results and perform tests that allow some anticipation of the measured data. The hermean mantle is modelled as an internally and bottom heated, isochemical fluid in a spherical shell. The principle of this convection model is widely accepted and is used for various models of thermal evolution of terrestrial planets, e.g., the Earth, Mars or the Moon. We are solving the hydrodynamical equations, derived from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A program originally written by S. Zhang is used to solve the temperature field which employs a combination of a spectral and a finite difference method. Beside the large core as a heat source 'from below' the decay of radioactive isotopes provides internal heating of the hermean mantle. The viscosity of the mantel material depends exponentially on the inverse temperature. The model results show the typical behaviour of a one-plate-planet, meaning the surface is not broken into several tectonic plates but the outside is a single rigid shell. The thermal evolution is generally charaterized by the growth of a massive lithosphere on top of the convecting mantle. The lower mantle and core cool comparatively little and stay at temperatures between 1900K and 2000K until about 2.0Ga after the simulation was started. The stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (dynamical topography) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc) numerous models are required to understand the importance and influence of the mentioned variables.

  18. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Jennifer D.; Wen, Jessica H.; del lamo, Juan C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Microscale and nanoscale surface topography changes can influence cell functions, including morphology. Although in vitro responses to static topography are novel, cells in vivo constantly remodel topography. To better understand how cells respond to changes in topography over time, we developed a soft polyacrylamide hydrogel with magnetic nickel microwires randomly oriented in the surface of the material. Varying the magnetic field around the microwires reversibly induced their alignment with the direction of the field, causing the smooth hydrogel surface to develop small wrinkles; changes in surface roughness, ?RRMS, ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 m and could be oscillated without hydrogel creep. Vascular smooth muscle cell morphology was assessed when exposed to acute and dynamic topography changes. Area and shape changes occurred when an acute topographical change was imposed for substrates exceeding roughness of 0.2 m, but longer-term oscillating topography did not produce significant changes in morphology irrespective of wire stiffness. These data imply that cells may be able to use topography changes to transmit signals as they respond immediately to changes in roughness. PMID:23355509

  19. Static and dynamic support of western United States topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Faccenna, Claudio; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Lowry, Anthony R.; Miller, Meghan S.

    2014-09-01

    Isostatic and dynamic models of Earth's surface topography can provide important insights into the driving processes of tectonic deformation. We analyze these two estimates for the tectonically-active western United States using refined structural models derived from EarthScope USArray. For the crust, use of recent Moho depth measurements and crustal density anomalies inferred from passive source seismology improve isostatic models. However, seismically determined lithospheric thickness variations from lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) maps, and lithospheric and mantle density anomalies derived from heat flow or uppermost mantle tomography, do not improve isostatic models substantially. Perhaps this is a consequence of compositional heterogeneity, a mismatch between thermal and seismological LAB, and structural complexity caused by smaller-scale dynamics. The remaining, non-isostatic (dynamic) component of topography is large. Topography anomalies include negative residuals likely due to active subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, and perhaps remnants of formerly active convergence further south along the margin. Our finding of broad-scale, positive residual topography in the Basin and Range substantiates previous results, implying the presence of anomalous buoyancy there which we cannot fully explain. The Colorado Plateau does not appear dynamically anomalous at present, except at its edges. Many of the residual topography features are consistent with predictions from mantle flow computations. This suggests a convective origin, and important interactions between vigorous upper mantle convection and intraplate deformation.

  20. Tectonic velocities, dynamic topography, and relative sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, L.; Conrad, C. P.

    2006-12-01

    The competition between ocean volume and dynamic topography in response to variable tectonic velocities can be captured by a simple, yet dynamically consistent, analysis based on the boundary layer theory. Our model reveals that short-lived changes in plate velocity (""tectonic pulses") have a negligible impact on dynamic topography. Tectonic velocities essentially mirror variations in mantle viscosity, but are not indicative of substantial modification of dynamic topography, which primarily reflects mass anomalies in the mantle. This implies that relative sea level is unlikely to be affected by "tectonic pulses" and also that observed tilting of cratonic margins couldn't result from a pulse of increased tectonic velocities. Thus, relative sea level is primarily controlled by the seafloor age distribution, although long-term (>100 myrs) changes in tectonic velocity will produce dynamic topography that reinforces sea level changes associated with changing ridge volume. These results can be related to present day plate motion and trench migration and mantle flow inferred from mantle tomography, in order to characterize the current variation -either dynamic or isostatic- of the volume of the oceans.

  1. The effects of abrupt topography on plankton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zavala Sansón, L; Provenzale, A

    2009-12-01

    Plankton population dynamics in the upper layer of the ocean depends on upwelling processes that bring nutrients from deeper waters. In turn, these depend on the structure of the vertical velocity field. In coastal areas and in oceanic regions characterized by the presence of strong submarine topographic features, the variable bottom topography induces significant effects on vertical velocities and upwelling/downwelling patterns. As a consequence, large plankton and fish abundances are frequently observed above seamounts, canyons and steep continental shelves. In this work, the dynamics of an NPZ (nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton) system is numerically studied by coupling the ecosystem model with a quasi two-dimensional (2D) fluid model with topography. At variance with classical 2D approaches, this formulation allows for an explicit expression of the vertical motions produced when fluid columns are squeezed and stretched as they experience changes of depth. Thus, input or output of nutrients at the surface are associated with fluid motion over the bottom topography. We examine the dynamics of a cyclonic vortex over two basic topographies: a steep escarpment and a submarine mountain. We show that plankton abundance over the escarpment is modulated by the passing of topographic Rossby waves, generated by the vortex-topography interaction. In such configuration, advection effects driven by the flow over the escarpment are of limited relevance for the dynamics of biological fields. By contrast, we find that the flow resulting from the interaction of a vortex with a seamount is sufficiently strong and persistent to allow for a remarkable increase of nutrients, and a corresponding enhancement of phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations. Over the seamount, advection effects associated with trapped flow perturbations around the summit play an essential role. PMID:19737575

  2. The Relationship between Dynamic Topography and Sequence Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    An evolving pattern of convective circulation within the mantle generates and maintains dynamic topography which is some fraction of observed topography. Spatial variations of dynamic topography are easy to measure within the oceanic realm and it is possible to exploit inventories of seismic reflection and wide-angle data to determine the dynamic topography of the oldest oceanic lithosphere that abuts passive continental margins. Results show that oceanic lithosphere has dynamic topographic anomalies of +/- 1 km with wavelengths of 500-1000 km. These substantial anomalies intersect coastal shelves and so it is expected that the development of these anomalies has affected sequence stratigraphic architecture in important ways. A series of examples will be used to illustrate how sequence stratigraphy can be profoundly influenced by changing patterns of dynamic topography. First, along the West African margin a set of dynamic topographic domes intersect the shelf edge. Onshore, the Neogene growth of these domes is recorded by emergent terraces and by drainage patterns. Offshore, an Oligo-Miocene switch from aggradation to progradation together with a series of younger disconformities have modified stratigraphic architecture along the shelf. Secondly, along the Northwest Shelf of Australia there is evidence for 700 m of dynamic drawdown of the oldest oceanic floor. Regional mapping and backstripping of clinoformal geometries within a Miocene carbonate reef complex shows that there is a dramatic switch from progradation to aggradation which cannot be attributed to glacio-eustatic variations. Instead, this switch appears to reflect growth of dynamic drawdown within the mantle. Finally, the Icelandic plume has controlled vertical motions along fringing North Atlantic margins over the last 60 Ma. Thanks to the intersecting mid-oceanic ridge, there is independent evidence that the temperature structure of this plume has fluctuated through time. These fluctuations are recorded within the detailed sequence stratigraphy of the margins where a series of ephemeral terrestrial landscapes have been mapped. Stratigraphic architecture appears to be an important repository of details about transient convective circulation which are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  3. Dynamic evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu

    1994-02-01

    Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire topography, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the dynamic evaluation by recording the dynamic changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.

  4. Dynamic wetting and spreading and the role of topography.

    PubMed

    McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J

    2009-11-18

    The spreading of a droplet of a liquid on a smooth solid surface is often described by the Hoffman-de Gennes law, which relates the edge speed, v(e), to the dynamic and equilibrium contact angles ? and ?(e) through [Formula: see text]. When the liquid wets the surface completely and the equilibrium contact angle vanishes, the edge speed is proportional to the cube of the dynamic contact angle. When the droplets are non-volatile this law gives rise to simple power laws with time for the contact angle and other parameters in both the capillary and gravity dominated regimes. On a textured surface, the equilibrium state of a droplet is strongly modified due to the amplification of the surface chemistry induced tendencies by the topography. The most common example is the conversion of hydrophobicity into superhydrophobicity. However, when the surface chemistry favors partial wetting, topography can result in a droplet spreading completely. A further, frequently overlooked consequence of topography is that the rate at which an out-of-equilibrium droplet spreads should also be modified. In this report, we review ideas related to the idea of topography induced wetting and consider how this may relate to dynamic wetting and the rate of droplet spreading. We consider the effect of the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations on the driving forces and discuss how these may modify power laws for spreading. We relate the ideas to both the hydrodynamic viscous dissipation model and the molecular-kinetic theory of spreading. This suggests roughness and solid surface fraction modified Hoffman-de Gennes laws relating the edge speed to the dynamic and equilibrium contact angle. We also consider the spreading of small droplets and stripes of non-volatile liquids in the capillary regime and large droplets in the gravity regime. In the case of small non-volatile droplets spreading completely, a roughness modified Tanner's law giving the dependence of dynamic contact angle on time is presented. We review existing data for the spreading of small droplets of polydimethylsiloxane oil on surfaces decorated with micro-posts. On these surfaces, the initial droplet spreads with an approximately constant volume and the edge speed-dynamic contact angle relationship follows a power law [Formula: see text]. As the surface texture becomes stronger the exponent goes from p = 3 towards p = 1 in agreement with a Wenzel roughness driven spreading and a roughness modified Hoffman-de Gennes power law. Finally, we suggest that when a droplet spreads to a final partial wetting state on a rough surface, it approaches its Wenzel equilibrium contact angle in an exponential manner with a time constant dependent on roughness. PMID:21715886

  5. Solitary wave dynamics in shallow water over periodic topography.

    PubMed

    Nakoulima, Ousseynou; Zahibo, Narcisse; Pelinovsky, Efim; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkin, Andrey

    2005-09-01

    The problem of long-wave scattering by piecewise-constant periodic topography is studied both for a linear solitary-like wave pulse, and for a weakly nonlinear solitary wave [Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton]. If the characteristic length of the topographic irregularities is larger than the pulse length, the solution of the scattering problem is obtained analytically for a leading wave in the framework of linear shallow-water theory. The wave decrement in the case of the small height of the topographic irregularities is proportional to delta2, where delta is the relative height of the topographic obstacles. An analytical approximate solution is also obtained for the weakly nonlinear problem when the length of the irregularities is larger than the characteristic nonlinear length scale. In this case, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is solved for each piece of constant depth by using the inverse scattering technique; the solutions are matched at each step by using linear shallow-water theory. The weakly nonlinear solitary wave decays more significantly than the linear solitary pulse. Solitary wave dynamics above a random seabed is also discussed, and the results obtained for random topography (including experimental data) are in reasonable agreement with the calculations for piecewise topography. PMID:16253002

  6. Dynamic Topography in the Oceanic Realm of West Africa, India, and the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, M. J.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally agreed that convection in the mantle can generate vertical motions at the Earth's surface. Consequently, the recorded history of subsidence and uplift holds important clues about mantle convection. We use the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age to map present-day residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. This map yields estimates of the spatial variation of dynamic topography, providing care is taken to rule out other potential causes of subsidence or uplift such as flexure adjacent to seamounts and subduction zones. Global analysis indicates that anomalies typically vary between 1 km, over wavelengths of ~1000 km. This analysis of residual topography is concentrated on the oldest oceanic crust that abuts continental margins in order to provide a leg up onto the continents, where measuring absolute values of dynamic topography is considerably more complicated. Here we begin by looking at three areas in more detail - the west coast of Africa, India and the Gulf of Mexico. Residual depths along the west coast of Africa capture two full wavelengths of dynamic topography, which correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. To constrain the temporal evolution of dynamic topography, we focus on regions such as the Gulf of Mexico which is currently drawn-down by ~2 km at its centre. Backstripping stratigraphic data from wells implies the majority of the anomalous subsidence has occurred in the last ~15 Ma. The east coast of India shows a drawdown of 2 km beneath the Bengal fan and the development of this anomaly is clearly recorded in the transition from progradational to aggradational behaviour within the margin's clinoform architecture. Analysis of adjacent river profiles indicates recent onshore uplift has provided high quantities of clastic detritus that have been deposited on the margin. Oceanic residual depths along the west African margin overlain by the long wavelength filtered free air gravity anomaly in contours of 10 mGal. The filigree corresponds to estimates calculated from published global grid datasets of water and sediment thickness. The points are based on primary data such as reflection seismic profiles. Circles are our most accurate residual depth measurements where crustal thickness is known. Downwards pointing triangles are maximum estimates and upwards pointing triangles are minimum.

  7. Impacts of mean dynamic topography on a regional ocean assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, C.; Zhu, J.; Tanajura, C. A. S.

    2015-10-01

    An ocean data assimilation system was developed for the Pacific-Indian oceans with the aim of assimilating altimetry data, sea surface temperature, and in situ measurements from Argo (Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography), XBT (expendable bathythermographs), CTD (conductivity temperature depth), and TAO (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean). The altimetry data assimilation requires the addition of the mean dynamic topography to the altimetric sea level anomaly to match the model sea surface height. The mean dynamic topography is usually computed from the model long-term mean sea surface height, and is also available from gravimetric satellite data. In this study, the impact of different mean dynamic topographies on the sea level anomaly assimilation is examined. Results show that impacts of the mean dynamic topography cannot be neglected. The mean dynamic topography from the model long-term mean sea surface height without assimilating in situ observations results in worsened subsurface temperature and salinity estimates. Even if all available observations including in situ measurements, sea surface temperature measurements, and altimetry data are assimilated, the estimates are still not improved. This proves the significant impact of the MDT (mean dynamic topography) on the analysis system, as the other types of observations do not compensate for the shortcoming due to the altimetry data assimilation. The gravimeter-based mean dynamic topography results in a good estimate compared with that of the experiment without assimilation. The mean dynamic topography computed from the model long-term mean sea surface height after assimilating in situ observations presents better results.

  8. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential temperature.

  9. Freeboard, sea level and dynamic topography during aggregation of a supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, B.; Husson, L.; Choblet, G.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term evolution of sea level is a combination of eustatic mechanisms (tectono-eustatism, distribution of continental masses through orogenesis and sedimentation) and non-uniform processes (dynamic topography, geoid, wander of the Earth rotation pole). Given the potentially similar amplitude of both factors, there is a bias in the observation of absolute sea level. Moreover, over large time-scales, and more specifically over the Wilson cycle time-scale, plate aggregation and separation are associated both with (i) variations of the flow pattern and (ii) thermal state in the mantle, which in turn may induce specific vertical motions of the surface. By changing the size of the oceanic and continental water reservoirs, large-scale dynamic topography associated with subduction or the presence of mantle plumes controls rises or drops of sea level, which in turn controls part of the stratigraphic record. The Earth has known periods of continental aggregation and fragmentation that redistribute the location of plate boundaries, especially the location and the length of subduction zones, that could potentially affect sea level. The distribution of mass anomalies in the mantle with respect to continents may therefore have a significant impact. To test the possible correlation between sea level changes and the Wilson cycle, we decide to first focus on the Pangea, which is known to be a period during which most subductions took place beneath continents. We run a set of Earth-like instantaneous flow model using the OEDIPUS (Origin, Evolution and Dynamics of the Interiors of Planets Using Simulation) tool, which allows spherical geometries with lateral viscosity variations. In these models, Pangea is modeled by a spherical continental cap, covering 29% of the planet surface, and floating above a two-layered viscous mantle. We vary parameters such as the dip of the subducting panel, the depth reached by the slab, the viscosity structure and the plate thickness within reasonable ranges to evaluate the volume of water reservoirs created by dynamic topography and its impact on the variations of sea level. In addition, we evaluate analytically the effect of an increase in temperature at the base of the lithosphere, as can be produced by thermal insulation above the convecting mantle during supercontinent aggregation, on the isostatic response of the continent, which modifies the continental reservoir shape and can produce sea level variations.

  10. Spatial patterns in the evolution of Cenozoic dynamic topography and its influence on the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lester; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Eagles, Graeme; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    Our knowledge of dynamic topography in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in dynamic topography in Antarctica by analysing grids of global dynamic topography in the Cenozoic (and late Cretaceous) based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene dynamic topography exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS)may have driven these dynamic topography effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting dynamic topography effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  11. A Tailored Computation of the Mean Dynamic Topography for a Consistent Integration into Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Losch, M.; Brockmann, J. M.; Freiwald, G.; Schuh, W.-D.

    2014-11-01

    Geostrophic surface velocities can be derived from the gradients of the mean dynamic topography—the difference between the mean sea surface and the geoid. Therefore, independently observed mean dynamic topography data are valuable input parameters and constraints for ocean circulation models. For a successful fit to observational dynamic topography data, not only the mean dynamic topography on the particular ocean model grid is required, but also information about its inverse covariance matrix. The calculation of the mean dynamic topography from satellite-based gravity field models and altimetric sea surface height measurements, however, is not straightforward. For this purpose, we previously developed an integrated approach to combining these two different observation groups in a consistent way without using the common filter approaches (Becker et al. in J Geodyn 59(60):99-110, 2012; Becker in Konsistente Kombination von Schwerefeld, Altimetrie und hydrographischen Daten zur Modellierung der dynamischen Ozeantopographie 2012). Within this combination method, the full spectral range of the observations is considered. Further, it allows the direct determination of the normal equations (i.e., the inverse of the error covariance matrix) of the mean dynamic topography on arbitrary grids, which is one of the requirements for ocean data assimilation. In this paper, we report progress through selection and improved processing of altimetric data sets. We focus on the preprocessing steps of along-track altimetry data from Jason-1 and Envisat to obtain a mean sea surface profile. During this procedure, a rigorous variance propagation is accomplished, so that, for the first time, the full covariance matrix of the mean sea surface is available. The combination of the mean profile and a combined GRACE/GOCE gravity field model yields a mean dynamic topography model for the North Atlantic Ocean that is characterized by a defined set of assumptions. We show that including the geodetically derived mean dynamic topography with the full error structure in a 3D stationary inverse ocean model improves modeled oceanographic features over previous estimates.

  12. Integrated approach to estimate the ocean's time variable dynamic topography including its covariance matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Silvia; Brockmann, Jan Martin; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The ocean's dynamic topography as the difference between the sea surface and the geoid reflects many characteristics of the general ocean circulation. Consequently, it provides valuable information for evaluating or tuning ocean circulation models. The sea surface is directly observed by satellite radar altimetry while the geoid cannot be observed directly. The satellite-based gravity field determination requires different measurement principles (satellite-to-satellite tracking (e.g. GRACE), satellite-gravity-gradiometry (GOCE)). In addition, hydrographic measurements (salinity, temperature and pressure; near-surface velocities) provide information on the dynamic topography. The observation types have different representations and spatial as well as temporal resolutions. Therefore, the determination of the dynamic topography is not straightforward. Furthermore, the integration of the dynamic topography into ocean circulation models requires not only the dynamic topography itself but also its inverse covariance matrix on the ocean model grid. We developed a rigorous combination method in which the dynamic topography is parameterized in space as well as in time. The altimetric sea surface heights are expressed as a sum of geoid heights represented in terms of spherical harmonics and the dynamic topography parameterized by a finite element method which can be directly related to the particular ocean model grid. Besides the difficult task of combining altimetry data with a gravity field model, a major aspect is the consistent combination of satellite data and in-situ observations. The particular characteristics and the signal content of the different observations must be adequately considered requiring the introduction of auxiliary parameters. Within our model the individual observation groups are combined in terms of normal equations considering their full covariance information; i.e. a rigorous variance/covariance propagation from the original measurements to the final product is accomplished. In conclusion, the developed integrated approach allows for estimating the dynamic topography and its inverse covariance matrix on arbitrary grids in space and time. The inverse covariance matrix contains the appropriate weights for model-data misfits in least-squares ocean model inversions. The focus of this study is on the North Atlantic Ocean. We will present the conceptual design and dynamic topography estimates based on time variable data from seven satellite altimeter missions (Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, Envisat, ERS-2, GFO, Cryosat2) in combination with the latest GOCE gravity field model and in-situ data from the Argo floats and near-surface drifting buoys.

  13. Calculating gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2015-12-01

    We present a generalized formalism for computing gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the combined effects of dynamic topography, geoid perturbations due to mantle convection, ice mass fluctuations and sediment redistribution on a deforming Earth. Our mathematical treatment conserves mass of the surface (ice plus ocean) load and the solid Earth. Moreover, it takes precise account of shoreline migration and the associated ocean loading. The new formalism avoids a variety of approximations adopted in previous models of sea level change driven by dynamic topography, including the assumption that a spatially fixed isostatic amplification of `air-loaded' dynamic topography accurately accounts for ocean loading effects. While our approach is valid for Earth models of arbitrary complexity, we present numerical results for a set of simple cases in which a pattern of dynamic topography is imposed, the response to surface mass loading assumes that Earth structure varies only with depth and that isostatic equilibrium is maintained at all times. These calculations, involving fluid Love number theory, indicate that the largest errors in previous predictions of sea level change driven by dynamic topography occur in regions of shoreline migration, and thus in the vicinity of most geological markers of ancient sea level. We conclude that a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of long-term sea level change is necessary in any effort to use such geological markers to estimate ancient ice volumes.

  14. Effect of surface topography upon micro-impact dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, M.; Morris, N. J.; Leighton, M.; Rahnejat, H.

    2016-03-01

    Often the effect of interactions at nano-scale determines the tribological performance of load bearing contacts. This is particularly the case for lightly loaded conjunctions where a plethora of short range kinetic interactions occur. It is also true of larger load bearing conjunctions where boundary interactions become dominant. At the diminutive scale of fairly smooth surface topography the cumulative discrete interactions give rise to the dominance of boundary effects rather than the bulk micro-scale phenomena, based on continuum mechanics. The integration of the manifold localized discrete interactions into a continuum is the pre-requisite to the understanding of characteristic boundary effects, which transcend the physical length scales and affect the key observed system attributes. These are energy efficiency and vibration refinement. This paper strives to present such an approach. It is shown that boundary and near boundary interactions can be adequately described by surface topographical measures, as well the thermodynamic conditions.

  15. Dynamic scalp topography reveals neural signs just before performance errors

    PubMed Central

    Ora, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Performance errors may cause serious consequences. It has been reported that ongoing activity of the frontal control regions across trials associates with the occurrence of performance errors. However, neural mechanisms that cause performance errors remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that some neural functions required for correct outcomes are lacking just before performance errors, and to determine this lack of neural function we applied a spatiotemporal analysis to high-density electroencephalogram signals recorded during a visual discrimination task, a d2 test of attention. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a difference in the temporal development of scalp ERP between trials with error, and correct outcomes as seen by topography during the d2 test of attention. We observed differences in the signal potential in the frontal region and then the occipital region between reaction times matched with correct and error outcomes. Our observations suggest that lapses of top-down signals from frontal control regions cause performance errors just after the lapses. PMID:26289925

  16. Dynamic scalp topography reveals neural signs just before performance errors.

    PubMed

    Ora, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Performance errors may cause serious consequences. It has been reported that ongoing activity of the frontal control regions across trials associates with the occurrence of performance errors. However, neural mechanisms that cause performance errors remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that some neural functions required for correct outcomes are lacking just before performance errors, and to determine this lack of neural function we applied a spatiotemporal analysis to high-density electroencephalogram signals recorded during a visual discrimination task, a d2 test of attention. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a difference in the temporal development of scalp ERP between trials with error, and correct outcomes as seen by topography during the d2 test of attention. We observed differences in the signal potential in the frontal region and then the occipital region between reaction times matched with correct and error outcomes. Our observations suggest that lapses of top-down signals from frontal control regions cause performance errors just after the lapses. PMID:26289925

  17. Geoid Anomalies and Dynamic Topography from Time Dependent, Spherical Axisymmetric Mantle Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Kellogg, Louise H.

    1998-01-01

    Geoid anomalies and dynamic topography are two important diagnostics of mantle convection. We present geoid and topography results for several time-dependent convection models in spherical axisymmetric geometry for Rayleigh numbers between 10(exp 6) and 10(exp 7) with depth-dependent viscosity and mixtures of bottom and internal heating. The models are strongly chaotic, with boundary layer instabilities erupting out of both thermal boundary layers. In some instances, instabilities from one boundary layer influence the development of instabilities in the other boundary layer. Such coupling between events at the top and bottom of the mantle has been suggested to play a role in a mid-Cretaceous episode of enhanced volcanism in the Pacific. These boundary layer instabilities produce large temporal variations in the geoid anomalies and dynamic nd to the topography associated with the convection. The amplitudes of these fluctuations depend on the detailed model parameter,.% it of this but fluctuations of 30-50% relative to the time-averaged geoid and topography are common. The convective planform is strongly sensitive to the specific initial conditions. Convection cells with larger aspect ratio tend to have larger fractional fluctuations in their geoid and topography amplitudes, because boundary layer instabilities have more time to develop in long cells. In some instances, we observe low-amplitude topographic highs adjacent to the topographic lows produced by cold downwellings. We discuss applications of these results to several situations, including the temporal variability of m basis. hotspots such as Hawaii, the topography of subduction zone outer rises, and the topography of coronae on Venus.

  18. How to approximate viscoelastic dynamic topographies of stagnant lid planetary bodies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Caroline; Čadek, Ondřej; Choblet, Gaël

    2013-04-01

    Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning dynamic topography of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the topography. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic dynamic topography induced by an internal load to topographies generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface topography and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic topography with an elastic filtering of the IVF topography. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These results naturally depend on the ratio between the mantle and the lithospheric thicknesses. We show that, in the case of Mars, it is not possible to approximate viscoelastic topographies generated by a stable plume using the elastic filtering of viscous dynamic topographies.

  19. Dynamic Topography and Sea Level Change Inferred from Dipole and Quadrupole Moments of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C. P.; Steinberger, B. M.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although constraints on the history of mantle flow are difficult to obtain, tectonic reconstructions contain information about the longest wavelength patterns of mantle flow that drove plate motions in the past. To examine the influence of this long-wavelength flow on global geodynamics, we computed the dipole and quadrupole moments (harmonic degrees 1 and 2) of the spherical vector fields associated with tectonic reconstructions of plate motions back to 250 Ma. Areas of dipole or quadrupole divergence lie above regions of major mantle upwelling, and convergence regions reside atop major mantle downwellings. To constrain the time-dependence of dynamic topography associated with these upwellings and downwellings, we used a numerical model of present-day mantle flow to relate degree-1 and degree-2 patterns of dynamic topography to the orientations and amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments of present-day plate motions. We then apply this relationship to the dipole and quadrupole moments of past plate motions to compute the long-wavelength components of dynamic topography for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Continental motions over this time-evolving dynamic topography predict patterns of continental uplift and subsidence that can be related to geological observations of continental surfaces relative to sea level. Net uplift or subsidence of the global seafloor can also induce eustatic sea level changes. We infer that dispersal of the Pangean supercontinent away from upwelling beneath Africa may have exposed the seafloor to an increasingly larger area of positive dynamic topography since the early Mesozoic that has caused up to 100 m of sea level rise during this time period. This component of sea level change helps to balance observations of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sea level change with an estimated total sea level budget that includes concurrent tectonic and climatic influences that produce sea level drop of up to ~250 m.

  20. Effect of the Earth's surface topography on quasi-dynamic earthquake cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Makiko; Hirahara, Kazuro

    2015-10-01

    We take account of the effect of Earth's surface topography in quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations using a boundary integral equation method. While we have so far assumed a homogeneous elastic half-space medium with a flat free surface, Earth's actual surface topography is complicated. Here, we constructed new slip response functions in half-space with an arbitrarily shaped surface topography in which we used slip response functions in full-space by introducing imaginary free surface cells in addition to embedded fault ones. By comparing analytical slip response functions in the case of a flat surface overlying half-space with the new ones, we developed a computationally efficient method for setting the Earth's surface region, which was divided into cells with the appropriate sizes depending on the fault source cell depth to maintain the computational accuracy. With these new slip response functions, we simulated simple interplate earthquake cycles in the region close to the Japan Trench, off Miyagi, Tohoku, in northeast Japan, which has the amplitude of 7 km in depth. Compared with the case where the flat surface level was set at the trench depth, the slip response functions for the case where actual seafloor topography was used had smaller amplitudes. Hence, the actual topography produces smaller recurrence times for earthquake cycles than that for the flat surface case. These effects of the actual Earth's surface topography mainly come from changes in the distance between the surface and the fault compared with the flat surface case. Changes in the slip response function also represent changes in the fault stiffness of the system. Considering the actual topography of the Earth's surface to be convex upwards as opposed to the flat, the fault stiffness becomes larger compared to the case of the flat Earth's surface. This leads to a change in the frictional instability, and sometime leads to the change in the way of rupture.

  1. Noise-driven cooperative dynamics between vegetation and topography in riparian zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-10-01

    Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic dynamics, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In order to elucidate how randomness shape riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments, and the stream is adopted, emphasizing the capability of vegetation to alter the plot topography. A minimalistic approach is pursued, and the probability density function of vegetation biomass is analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This probability density function strongly depends on the vegetation-topography feedback. We demonstrate how the vegetation-induced modifications of the bed topography create more suitable conditions for the survival of vegetation in a stochastically dominated environment.

  2. Dynamic topography change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Simmons, Nathan A; Grand, Stephen P

    2013-06-28

    Sedimentary rocks from Virginia through Florida record marine flooding during the mid-Pliocene. Several wave-cut scarps that at the time of deposition would have been horizontal are now draped over a warped surface with a maximum variation of 60 meters. We modeled dynamic topography by using mantle convection simulations that predict the amplitude and broad spatial distribution of this distortion. The results imply that dynamic topography and, to a lesser extent, glacial isostatic adjustment account for the current architecture of the coastal plain and proximal shelf. This confounds attempts to use regional stratigraphic relations as references for longer-term sea-level determinations. Inferences of Pliocene global sea-level heights or stability of Antarctic ice sheets therefore cannot be deciphered in the absence of an appropriate mantle dynamic reference frame. PMID:23686342

  3. A Mean Dynamic Topography of the Mediterranean Sea computed from altimetric data, in-situ measurements and a general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, M.-H.; Poulain, P.-M.; Pascual, A.; Mauri, E.; Larnicol, G.; Santoleri, R.

    2007-03-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, where the mean circulation is largely unknown and characterized by smaller scales and less intensity than in the open ocean, the interpretation of altimetric Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) is rather difficult. In the context of operational systems such as MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System) or MERCATOR, that assimilate the altimetric information, the estimation of a realistic Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) consistent with altimetric SLA to be used to reconstruct absolute sea level is a crucial issue. A method is developed here to estimate the required MDT combining oceanic observations as altimetric and in-situ measurements and outputs from an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). In a first step, the average over the 1993-1999 period of dynamic topography outputs from MFS OGCM provides a first guess for the computation of the MDT. Then, in a second step, drifting buoy velocities and altimetric data are combined using a synthetic method to obtain local estimates of the mean geostrophic circulation which are then used to improve the first guess through an inverse technique and map the MDT field (hereafter the Synthetic Mean Dynamic Topography or SMDT) on a 1/8 resolution grid. Many interesting current patterns and cyclonic/anticyclonic structures are visible on the SMDT obtained. The main Mediterranean coastal currents are well marked (as the Algerian Current or the Liguro-Proveno-Catalan Current). East of the Sicily channel, the Atlantic Ionian Stream divides into several main branches crossing the Ionian Sea at various latitudes before joining at 19E into a unique Mid-Mediterranean Jet. Also, strong signatures of the main Mediterranean eddies are obtained (as for instance the Alboran gyre, the Pelops, Ierapetra, Mersa-Matruh or Shikmona anticyclones and the Cretan, Rhodes or West Cyprius cyclones). Independent in-situ measurements from Sea Campaigns NORBAL in the North Balearic Sea and the North Tyrrhenian Sea and SYMPLEX in the Sicily channel are used to validate locally the SMDT: deduced absolute altimetric dynamic topography compares well with in-situ observations. Finally, the SMDT is used to compute absolute altimetric maps in the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Current. The use of absolute altimetric signal allows to accurately follow the formation and propagation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in both areas.

  4. Infrasound wavefield modeled by coupling conduit dynamics and topography by 3D-FDTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lacanna, giorgio; ripepe, maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Infrasound signal on active volcanoes has become an important tool for monitoring and understanding the explosive source dynamics. Volcano infrasound is the direct measure of pressure oscillations near open-vent and it can provide important constraints on the intensity of the eruption as well as on the source parameters including the variations of volumetric flux and exit velocity. At present, infrasonic signals recorded close to the volcano (<5 Km) have been used to model the acoustic source of volcanic explosions considering that at this distance the acoustic wavefield is relatively less affected by atmospheric structure. On the contrary, recent 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical modelling of infrasound propagation indicates a strong effect on the wavefield induced by the diffraction of the crater rim [Kim and Lees 2011] and by the near-source topography [Lacanna and Ripepe 2013]. However, the full three-dimensional interaction of acoustic source with conduit geometry and the topography of the volcano edifice have not been fully investigated. In order to evaluate these effects, we have developed a 3D-FDTD modelling to simulate infrasound propagation taking in account conduit dynamics and topography of the volcano. In linear acoustics, the pressure perturbations in a duct propagates as a plane wave front, which become spherical outside the vent. The radiation impedance at the vent depends on the pressure wavelength and the vent radius. In addition, the diffraction and reflection of topography contaminate the acoustic wave field and have a strong effect in reducing the amplitude and changing the waveform of the infrasonic signal also at short (<2 km) distances. Besides, the 3D numerical model allows to define in terms of Green's function the scattering effects on the acoustic wavefield caused by topography along the source-receiver path. Only by removing topographic effects from the infrasonic record and by considering the propagation inside the conduit we can quantify the source parameters with a strong impact on our understanding of the explosive dynamics.

  5. Absolute ball bearing wear measurements from SSME turbopump dynamic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how absolute ball bearing wear is measured in an operating turbopump from heavily loaded ball bearing vibration signatures. This technique was developed during testing of the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). A linear correlation was established between the cage frequency harmonic amplitudes on internal strain gages and the measured ball wear from pump disassembly. In a manner similar to that used by Sunnersj [1] for lightly loaded roller bearings, the dominant cage harmonics in the vibration spectra were shown to correspond to those of a Fourier series representation of the circumferential ball diameter variation or wear pattern. Strain gages and accelerometers on the external pump casing also show similar wear symptoms. These external measurements allow convenient wear monitoring for pre-flight testing of the SSME.

  6. Flat-slab subduction, topography, and mantle dynamics in southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grault, Mlanie; Husson, Laurent; Miller, Meghan S.; Humphreys, Eugene D.

    2015-09-01

    Topography above subduction zones arises from the isostatic contribution of crustal and lithospheric buoyancy, as well as the dynamic contribution from slab-driven mantle flow. We evaluate those effects in southwestern Mexico, where a segment of the Cocos slab subducts horizontally. The eastern part of the volcanic arcthe Trans-Mexican Volcanic Beltstands at an average elevation of 2.3 km, nearly 1.3 km above the fore-arc. Lateral changes in bulk crustal density are relatively small, and seismic imaging shows that there is little variation in crustal thickness between these two regions. Thus, the elevation difference between the arc and the fore-arc should arise from differences in mantle properties. We present finite element models of flat-slab subduction that provide a simultaneous match to topography, plate velocities, and stress state in the overriding plate. We find that the dynamic effects are primarily controlled by the amount of coupling at the subduction interface and in the mantle wedge, the lack of slab anchoring into the lower mantle, and the absence of continental mantle lithosphere. With a mantle wedge and a subduction interface that are, respectively, 2 and 4 orders of magnitude weaker than the asthenosphere, the flat slab exerts a downward pull that can explain most of the elevation difference between the fore-arc and the arc. We infer that lateral viscosity variations play a significant role in shaping dynamic topography in complex tectonic settings and that sublithospheric dynamics can influence the topography at wavelengths that are significantly shorter than previously recognized.

  7. Joint altimetric and in-situ data assimilation using the GRACE mean dynamic topography: a 1993-1998 hindcast experiment in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castruccio, Frdric; Verron, Jacques; Gourdeau, Lionel; Brankart, Jean-Michael; Brasseur, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    The altimetric satellite signal is the sum of the geoid and the dynamic topography, but only the latter is relevant to oceanographic applications. Poor knowledge of the geoid has prevented oceanographers from fully exploiting altimetric measurements through its absolute component, and applications have concentrated on ocean variability through analyses of sea level anomalies. Recent geodetic missions like CHAMP, GRACE and the forthcoming GOCE are changing this perspective. In this study, data assimilation is used to reconstruct the Tropical Pacific Ocean circulation during the 1993-1996 period. Multivariate observations are assimilated into a primitive equation ocean model (OPA) using a reduced order Kalman filter (the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman filter). A 6-year (1993-1998) hindcast experiment is analyzed and validated by comparison with observations. In this experiment, the new capability offered by an observed absolute dynamic topography (built using the GRACE geoid to reference the altimetric data) is used to assimilate, in an efficient way, the in-situ temperature profiles from the TAO/TRITON moorings together with the T/P and ERS1&2 altimetric signal. GRACE data improves compatibility between both observation data sets. The difficulties encountered in this regard in previous studies such as Parent et al. (J Mar Syst 40-41:381-401, 2003) are now circumvented. This improvement helps provide more efficient data assimilation, as evidenced, by assessing the results against independent data. This leads in particular to significantly more realistic currents and vertical thermal structures.

  8. Spatial Patterns of Channel Steepness in the Central Rockies: Do River Profiles Record Landscape Evolution Forcing By Yellowstone Dynamic Topography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.; Kirby, E.; Gregg, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous investigations demonstrate that mantle convective processes affect the surface topography of the overriding plate. 'Positive dynamic topography' refers to the surface expression of mantle upwelling. An advecting wave of dynamic topographic surface uplift plate is thought to result from migration of North America relative to the Yellowstone hotspot. Advection of positive dynamic topography through an overriding plate disturbs the landscape by a combination of a change in surface uplift rate and tilting. Identification of dynamic topography's contribution to evolution of the greater Yellowstone region's landscape, however, is complicated by the polygenetic regional topography that results from glaciation, bimodal volcanism, Basin and Range extension, early Cenozoic arc volcanism, and Laramide contraction. Our model, which is parameterized to Yellowstone but doesn't include climate variations, suggests contribution of the dynamic topography erosional signal should decrease from 0.1mm/yr to 0.5 mm/yr at a 100km radius from the hotspot uplift source. The cosmogenic chronology that we are building to constrain spatial patterns of incision in the Bighorn Basin indicates that there is differential incision occurring in the Bighorn basin. Rates vary from 2.8mm/yr in the western basin, which is closer to Yellowstone to 1.1mm/yr in the eastern basin. Global cooling and its effects at the Plio-Pleistocene transition is thought to be the dominant control on the region's erosional regime. However, the magnitude of the contribution from Yellowstone dynamic topography to the regional landscape evolution is still unknown because published incision rates lack the resolution to differentiate between incision forcing mechanisms. Bedrock stream profile analysis is powerful tool for determining spatial patterns of surface deformation. We compare results for normalized channel steepness indices across various basins in the Central Rockies and Greater Yellowstone area with existing datasets to determine whether regional steepness patterns are associated with the proposed spatial distribution of dynamic topography.

  9. Enhanced Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean Dynamic Topography including retracked CryoSat-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, O. B.; Jain, M.; Stenseng, L.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-12-01

    A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean dynamic topography (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models combining conventional altimetry with retracked CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. For the derivation of a mean dynamic topography the ESA GOCE derived geoid model have been used to constrain the longer wavelength. We present the retracking of C2 SAR data using various retrackes and how we have been able to combine data from various retrackers under various sea ice conditions. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the newest state of the art global high-resolution models including CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude and through combination with a GOCE geoid model completes coverage all the way to the North Pole. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.

  10. Active layer dynamics in three sites with contrasted topography in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernndez, Jess; Vieira, Gonalo

    2015-04-01

    Topography exerts a key role on permafrost distribution in areas where mean annual temperatures are slightly negative. This is the case of low-altitude environments in Maritime Antarctica, namely in the South Shetland Islands, where permafrost is marginal to discontinuous until elevations of 20-40 m asl turning to continuous at higher areas. Consequently, the active layer dynamics is also strongly conditioned by the geomorphological setting. In January 2014 we installed three sites for monitoring the active layer dynamics across the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands) in different geomorphological environments at elevations between 60 and 100 m. The purpose was to examine the role of the topography and microclimatic conditions on the active layer dynamics. At each site a set of loggers was set up to monitor: air temperatures, snow thickness, ground temperatures until 80 cm together with the coupling atmosphere-ground temperatures. During the first year of monitoring the mean annual air temperatures show similar values in the three sites, in all cases slightly below freezing. The snowy conditions during this year in this archipelago have resulted in a late melting of snow, which has also conditioned the duration of frozen conditions in the uppermost soil layers. Topography has a strong influence on snow cover duration, which in turn affects frozen ground conditions. The Domo site is located in a higher position with respect to the central plateau of Byers; here, the wind is stronger and snow cover thinner, which has conditioned a longer thawing season than in the other two sites (Cerro Negro, Escondido). These two sites are located in topographically protected areas favouring snow accumulation. The longer persistence of snow conditions a longer duration of negative temperatures in the active layer of the permafrost. This research was financially supported by the HOLOANTAR project (Portuguese Science Foundation) and the AXA Research Fund.

  11. The emergence of topographic steady-state in perpetually dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, L.; Ellis, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We report here the results of a series of analog experiments of landscape evolution in which the evolving topography and sediment flux is observed as a function of the rate of base-level fall (equivalent to rock uplift) under a constant model-climate. The experimental apparatus comprises a 50 cm x 50 cm box that contains up to 30 cm of ~20 micron silicon paste. Climate is simulated as a constant and spatially uniform rate of precipitation derived from an overhead suite of fine misters. Topography was measured via a laser scanner to a precision of less than 1mm and imaged digitally at 5 min intervals. Base-level fall is achieved through the slow sliding of two opposing sides of the box at rates between 9 to 60 mm/hr. Erosion occurs as both hillslope (mass movements) and channel processes; our slope-area data show that we are simulating reasonably realistic landscapes. Our results show that in a flux-steady-state landscape, the non-linear highly dynamic behavior of ridge-valley topography leads to the emergence of stable catchment geometries. We further demonstrate that this stability is a fundamental characteristic of internal system dynamics, is independent of climate and uplift rate and is instead linked to the exhumation of mountain relief: both scale-dependence and scale-invariance in topographic dynamics emerges after 1.2 relief-depths of erosion. We also show that the temporal evolution of sediment flux follows a classic growth curve in which flux decreases as a reflection of limited resources as propagating headwaters run out of new uneroded landscape. In response to changes in uplift rate, sediment flux also provides a measure of an intrinsic time-response within the system, which could be used to transform model time to real time.

  12. Effect of the Earth's surface topography on the quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    For quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations (ECSs) using BIEM, we have developed a method of calculating slip response function (SRF) in a homogeneous elastic medium with an arbitrary shaped Earth's surface topography (Ohtani and Hirahara, 2013; Paper1). In this study, we report the improvement in our method. Following Hok and Fukuyama (2011), we set the Earth's surface as a free surface, in addition to the fault interface, in a homogeneous full-space medium. Then, using the analytic solution in full-space, we can calculate the Earth's surface deformation, then the SRF change. The surface cell setting determines the accuracy. For reducing the computational amount, we use the different sizes of the surface region and its divided subfault cells, depending on the fault depth. Paper1 used the uniform size for surface cells. Here, we improved our method where the Earth's surface cells closer to the trench have the finer sizes for achieving more accuracy. With such numerical SRF, we performed the quasi-dynamic ECS on a model, where the Earth's surface is convex upward. Basically, with this topography, the slip behavior approaches the full-space case, from the half-space with flat surface case. This is because the distance from the Earth's surface to the fault becomes large. When we set two asperities with negative A - B in the positive A - B background at 10km and 35km depths, the two asperities rupture independently. The recurrence time of the shallow asperity is Trshalf = 34.95, Trsflat = 34.89, and Trsactual =32.82 years, when using analytic SRF in half-space, and numerical SRF with flat surface and with actual topography, respectively. For each case, the recurrence time of the deep asperity is Tr1_dhalf = 26.80, Tr1_dflat = 26.89, and Tr1_dactual =26.69 years. Thus, the shallower asperity is more affected by the Earth's surface topography than the deeper one, because the distance change rate from the surface to the fault is larger. On the other hand, when we set the entire seismogenic zone as negative A - B to produce coseismic slip, the slip behavior showed almost no change. This is because the rupture starts from the deep portion, and the deep area has less affected by the Earth's surface topography. We also examined the realistic case assuming the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone located in southeast, Japan.

  13. Broad band and absolute measurement of transient dynamic normal velocity of surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung-Geuk; Enoki, Manabu; Kishi, Teruo

    1998-02-01

    Broad band direct sensing of the transient dynamic normal velocity of an object surface and evaluating its absolute value were realized by using a sensor fabricated with a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride film and a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) back load and a PVC wear plate. The transient output signal from the sensor obtained by a test employing a well-defined steplike force, at the epicenter of a steel plate, showed very good agreement with the dynamic normal velocity calculated by using a Green's function and a simulated source function. The output was proportional to the dynamic normal velocity of the surface, and the frequency-dependent sensitivity for the velocity was flat within a deviation of ±3.8 dB for the average in the frequency range up to 2 MHz. The transient dynamic normal velocity of the surface could be absolutely determined by using a sensor calibrated by theoretical one.

  14. Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

  15. The impact of dynamic topography on the bedrock elevation and volume of the Pliocene Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Pollard, David; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro M.; DeConto, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of the Antarctic ice sheet over long timescales (i.e. Myrs) require estimates of bedrock elevation through time. Ice sheet models have accounted, with varying levels of sophistication, for changes in the bedrock elevation due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), but they have neglected other processes that may perturb topography. One notable example is dynamic topography, the deflection of the solid surface of the Earth due to convective flow within the mantle. Numerically predicted changes in dynamic topography have been used to correct paleo shorelines for this departure from eustasy, but the effect of such changes on ice sheet stability is unknown. In this study we use numerical predictions of time-varying dynamic topography to reconstruct bedrock elevation below the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid Pliocene warm period (~3 Ma). Moreover, we couple this reconstruction to a three-dimensional ice sheet model to explore the impact of dynamic topography on the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Pliocene. Our modeling indicates significant uplift in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes basin. This predicted uplift, which is at the lower end of geological inferences of uplift of the TAM, implies a lower elevation of the basin in the Pliocene. Relative to simulations that do not include dynamic topography, the lower elevation leads to a smaller Antarctic Ice Sheet volume and a more significant retreat of the grounding line in the Wilkes basin, both of which are consistent with offshore sediment core data. We conclude that reconstructions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the mid-Pliocene warm period should be based on bedrock elevation models that include the impact of both GIA and dynamic topography.

  16. Separation of dynamic and isostatic components for Venusian gravity and topography and its influence in crustal thickness calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, A.; Huang, J.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The crustal thickness of Venus can give us important information about the extent of melting and the tectonics of Venus's surface. With no seismological observation on Venus, the knowledge of Venusian crustal thickness can only be obtained from gravity and topography observations via satellites. However, analyses on the gravity and topography shown that on Venus the gravity and topography are strongly influenced by internal dynamical processes, especially the long-wavelength components or low-degree spherical harmonics. In many regions on Venus, gravity and topography are highly correlated and with high gravity topography ratio (GTR) and large apparent depth of compensation (ADC). All these led to the hypotheses that there are mantle plumes under these areas. In these cases, the dynamical influences need to be excluded from gravity and topography data in order to obtain a reasonable crustal thickness. In this study, we set up a method to separate the dynamic component of the gravity and topography from the observations by supposing that the Venusian crust is in a state of Airy isostasy if taking off the dynamic influences. After doing so, the Venusian global crustal thickness has been calculated and the results shown that (1) the gravity and topography are strongly correlated with the Venusian mantle convection and the Venusian crust has a significant influence on the observed topography;(2) the Venusian crustal thickness varies from 28 km to 70 km if an average thickness of 35 km is adopted; (3) Ishtar Terra, Ovda Regio and Thetis Regio in western Aphrodite Terra have the most largest crustal thickness (larger than 50 km). The high topography of these areas is thought to be supported by crustal compensation and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these areas are remnants of ancient continents; (4) the crustal thickness in the Beta, Themis, Dione, Eistla, Bell, and Lada regiones is thin and shows less correlation with the topography, especially in the Atla and Imdr regiones in the eastern part of Aphrodite Terra. This is consistent with the hypothesis that these highlands are mainly supported by mantle plumes.

  17. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  18. Direct Frequency Comb Measurements of Absolute Optical Frequencies and Population Transfer Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Adela; Stowe, Matthew C.; Felinto, Daniel; Ye, Jun

    2005-07-01

    A phase-stabilized femtosecond laser comb is directly used for high-resolution spectroscopy and absolute optical frequency measurements of one- and two-photon transitions in laser-cooled 87Rb atoms. Absolute atomic transition frequencies, such as the 5S1/2 F=2?7S1/2 F''=2 two-photon resonance measured at 788 794 768 921 (44) kHz, are determined without a priori knowledge about their values. Detailed dynamics of population transfer driven by a sequence of pulses are uncovered and taken into account for the measurement of the 5P states via resonantly enhanced two-photon transitions.

  19. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  20. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution. PMID:25430103

  1. Dynamic sea surface topography, gravity and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of SEASAT altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Williamson, R. G.; Patel, G. B.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous solution of dynamic ocean topography, gravity and orbits using satellite altimeter data is described. A GEM-T1 based gravitational model called PGS-3337 that incorporates Seasat altimetry, surface gravimetry and satellite tracking data has been determined complete to degree and order 50. The altimeter data is utilized as a dynamic observation of the satellite's height above the sea surface with a degree 10 model of dynamic topography being recovered simultaneously with the orbit parameters, gravity and tidal terms in this model. PGS-3337 has a geoid uncertainty of 60 cm root-mean-square (RMS) globally, with the uncertainty over the altimeter tracked ocean being in the 25 cm range. Doppler determined orbits for Seasat, show large improvements, with the sub-30 cm radial accuracies being achieved. When altimeter data is used in orbit determination, radial orbital accuracies of 20 cm are achieved. The RMS of fit to the altimeter data directly gives 30 cm fits for Seasat when using PGS-3337 and its geoid and dynamic topography model. This performance level is two to three times better than that achieved with earlier Goddard earth models (GEM) using the dynamic topography from long-term oceanographic averages. The recovered dynamic topography reveals the global long wavelength circulation of the oceans with a resolution of 1500 km. The power in the dynamic topography recovery is now found to be closer to that of oceanographic studies than for previous satellite solutions. This is attributed primarily to the improved modeling of the geoid which has occurred. Study of the altimeter residuals reveals regions where tidal models are poor and sea state effects are major limitations.

  2. Effect of surface topography on actin dynamics and receptor clustering in B cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Christina; Sun, Xiaoyu; Song, Wenxia; Fourkas, John; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2013-03-01

    B cells are activated upon binding of the B cell receptor (BCR) with antigen on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Activated B cells deform and spread on the surface of APCs which may comprise of complex membrane topologies. In order to model the diverse range of topographies that B cells may encounter, substrates fabricated with vertical ridges separated by gaps ranging from hundreds of nm to microns were coated with activating antigen to enable B cell spreading. Simultaneous imaging of actin and BCR shows that the organization of both depends profoundly on the ridge spacing. On smaller ridge spacing (<2 microns), actin forms long filopodial structures that explore the substrate parallel to ridges while the BCR clusters accumulate linearly along the direction of the ridges with limited ability to escape these channels. Cells on larger ridge spacing (>2 microns) exhibit central actin patches and peripheral actin waves and form semi-stable polymerization zones at ridges, while BCR distribution is more homogeneous. Our results indicate that surface topography may be a critical determinant of cytoskeletal dynamics and the spatiotemporal organization of signaling clusters. Biophysics Program

  3. Improvements in the oceanic mean dynamic topography as determined using GOCE gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher W.; Wilson, Chris; Gruber, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Data from GOCE have pushed the accuracy of the satellite-derived geoid out to shorter length scales than have previously been accessible. This is clear particularly over land regions where the match with levelling is improved, especially in regions which are poor in situ gravity measurement coverage. In principle, this should mean that it is possible to improve the resolution of ocean currents from a combination of geoid and mean sea surface, but handling of omission errors over the ocean is a subtle matter which can make any gains difficult to see. Here, we show that the combination of a combined GOCE-GRACE-altimetry-in situ gravity geoid (TUM2013c) with a compatible mean sea surface, and an adaptive filtering algorithm, provides clear improvements in the mean dynamic topography, especially over the Southern Ocean. The improvement is verified by comparison with mean sea surface temperature fields.

  4. Inferences on the flow dynamics of fluidized ejecta on Mars from topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Baloga, S.; Glaze, L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluidized ejecta on Mars probably flowed along the surface during their final stages of emplacement. Simple continuum flow models can provide inferences on the fluid dynamics responsible for the observed topographic shapes and morphology of these flows. We compare the solution of such a model in cylindrical geometry to the observed topography of fresh ejecta seen in Lunae Planum, Mars. Comparisons are made with ejecta facies that frequently possess an inner flow with a subtle rampart, separated by a moat and a very pronounced distal contiguous rampart. These are classified as multi-layered (MLE) by the Mars Consortium. We consider the fluid dynamics of two flow types that are likely to describe the emplacement of fluidized ejecta: (1) a basal glide flow where displacement is restricted to a small interface at the base of the flow, and (2) a debris or turbidity flow where motion is dependent on flow thickness to 3/2. The basal glide model describes well granular flows and long-run landslides. A debris flow model could explain the presence of boulders observed at the distal edge of pronounced ramparts of many fluidized ejecta that are reminiscent of the boulders that debris flow often transport at their distal edge. We will present continuum flow solutions for three assumptions: (1) conservation of volume, (2) conservation of mass where volume can change through fragmentation, and (3) entrainment and/or deposition during the final stages of emplacement. Solutions where the volume of the flow is conserved indicate that basal glide best describes the topography of the inner region of the flows (prior to the moat) as well as the distal ramparts.

  5. Evaluation of a Novel Spine and Surface Topography System for Dynamic Spinal Curvature Analysis during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Betsch, Marcel; Wild, Michael; Johnstone, Brian; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Khlmann, Britta; Rapp, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The assessment of spinal deformities with rasterstereography can enhance the understanding, as well as can reduce the number of x-rays needed. However, to date this technique only allows measurements under static conditions. Since it would be of great value to be able to also analyze the spine in dynamic conditions, the present study evaluated a novel rasterstereographic system. Materials and Methods A new rasterstereographic device was evaluated in a comparison with the gold standard in motion analysis, the VICON system. After initial testing using 12 flat infrared markers adhered to a solid plate, the two systems were evaluated with the markers adhered onto the backs of 8 test subjects. Four triangles were defined using the markers, and the sides of each triangle were measured under static and dynamic conditions. Results On the solid plate, the sides of the 4 triangles were measured with a measuring tape and then by the two optical systems. Rasterstereography showed a high accuracy in marker detection on the solid plate. Under dynamic conditions, with the subjects walking on a treadmill, the rasterstereographically-measured side lengths were compared with the lengths measured by the VICON system as an assessment of marker detection. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the systems, differing only 0.071.1% for all sides of the four triangles with both systems. Discussion A novel rasterstereographic measurement device that allows surface and spine topography under dynamic conditions was assessed. The accuracy of this system was with one millimeter on a solid plate and during dynamic measurements, to the gold standard for motion detection. The advantage of rasterstereography is that it can be used to determine a three-dimensional surface map and also allows the analysis of the underlying spine. PMID:23894674

  6. The Effect of Surface Topography on the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rossby Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarzhi, S. I.; Desjardins, O.; Pitsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    Boussinesq convection in rotating systems attracts a sustained attention of the fluid dynamics community, because it has intricate non-linear dynamics (Cross & Hohenberg 1993) and plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical applications, such as the motion of the liquid outer core of Earth, the Red Spot in Jupiter, the giant cells in the Sun etc. (Alridge et al. 1990). A fundamental distinction between the real geo- and astrophysical problems and the idealized laboratory studies is that natural systems are inhomogeneous (Alridge et al. 1990). Heterogeneities modulate the flow and influence significantly the dynamics of convective patterns (Alridge et al. 1990; Hide 1971). The effect of modulations on pattern formation and transition to turbulence in Boussinesq convection is far from being completely understood (Cross & Hohenberg 1993; Aranson & Kramer 2002). It is generally accepted that in the liquid outer core of the Earth the transport of the angular momentum and internal heat occurs via thermal Rossby waves (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). These waves been visualized in laboratory experiments in rotating liquid-filled spheres and concentric spherical shells (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). The basic dynamical features of Rossby waves have been reproduced in a cylindrical annulus, a system much simpler than the spherical ones (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). For convection in a cylindrical annulus, the fluid motion is two-dimensional, and gravity is replaced by a centrifugal force, (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). Hide (1971) has suggested that the momentum and heat transport in the core might be influenced significantly by so-called bumps, which are heterogeneities on the mantle-core boundary. To model the effect of surface topography on the transport of momentum and energy in the liquid outer core of the Earth, Bell & Soward (1996), Herrmann & Busse (1998) and Westerburg & Busse (2001) have studied the nonlinear dynamics of thermal Rossby waves in a cylindrical annulus with azimuthally modulated height.

  7. Advances in large-scale ocean dynamics from a decade of satellite altimetric measurement of ocean surface topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. L.; Menard, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface topography from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean dynamics since October 1992.

  8. Multiscale Reactive Molecular Dynamics for Absolute pK a Predictions and Amino Acid Deprotonation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J Gard; Peng, Yuxing; Silverstein, Daniel W; Swanson, Jessica M J

    2014-07-01

    Accurately calculating a weak acid's pK a from simulations remains a challenging task. We report a multiscale theoretical approach to calculate the free energy profile for acid ionization, resulting in accurate absolute pK a values in addition to insights into the underlying mechanism. Importantly, our approach minimizes empiricism by mapping electronic structure data (QM/MM forces) into a reactive molecular dynamics model capable of extensive sampling. Consequently, the bulk property of interest (the absolute pK a) is the natural consequence of the model, not a parameter used to fit it. This approach is applied to create reactive models of aspartic and glutamic acids. We show that these models predict the correct pK a values and provide ample statistics to probe the molecular mechanism of dissociation. This analysis shows changes in the solvation structure and Zundel-dominated transitions between the protonated acid, contact ion pair, and bulk solvated excess proton. PMID:25061442

  9. Complex dynamic substrate control: Dual-tone hydrogel photoresists allow double-dissociation of topography and modulus

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Changying; Wong, Darice

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels are widely utilized as artificial extracellular matrices, but current materials are unable to completely recapitulate the geometric, mechanical and dynamic characteristics of natural tissues. Here, we report an approach to dynamically tune both topography and elasticity in a single photoresponsive hydrogel substrate. Upon exposure to spatially controlled doses of light, a topographically and mechanically micropatterned surface forms. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate changes in topographical feature size and elastic moduli of the hydrogel surface as a function of irradiation time and wavelength. These photodegradable hydrogels can act as both positive and pseudo-negative photoresists, depending on exposure time and wavelength. By carefully controlling the aspect ratio (surface area to depth) of micropatterned features, unique swelling-induced ordered microstructures can be formed on the surface. These dual-tone hydrogel photoresists therefore allow dynamic tunability in both topography and elasticity, enabling the fabrication of complex and anisotropic biomaterials. PMID:24339260

  10. A comparative assessment of coastal mean dynamic topography in Norway by geodetic and ocean approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophaug, Vegard; Breili, Kristian; Gerlach, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the surface representation of ocean circulation. It may be determined by the ocean approach, using numerical ocean circulation models, or by the geodetic approach, where MDT is the height of the mean sea surface (MSS), or mean sea level (MSL), above the geoid. Using new geoid models, geodetic MDT profiles based on tide gauges, dedicated coastal altimetry products, and conventional altimetry are compared with six ocean MDT estimates independent of geodetic data. Emphasis is put on the determination of high-resolution geoid models, combining ESA's fifth release (R5) of GOCE satellite-only global gravity models (GGMs) with a regional geoid model for Norway by a filtering technique. Differences between MDT profiles along the Norwegian coast together with Taylor diagrams confirm that geodetic and ocean MDTs agree on the ˜3-7 cm level at the tide gauges, and on the ˜5-11 cm level at the altimetry sites. Some geodetic MDTs correlate more with the best-performing ocean MDT than do other ocean MDTs, suggesting a convergence of the methods. While the GOCE R5 geoids are shown to be more accurate over land, they do not necessarily show the best agreement over the ocean. Pointwise monomission altimetry products give results comparable with the multimission DTU13MSS grid on the ˜5 cm level. However, dedicated coastal altimetry products generally do not offer an improvement over conventional altimetry along the Norwegian coast.

  11. New clinical instrument for the early detection of cataract using dynamic light scattering and corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

    2000-06-01

    A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered light and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

  12. Future Evolution of Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.

    2013-12-01

    The recently concluded Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project (Bindschadler et al., 2013; Nowicki et al., 2013) provides some clues regarding the future evolution of Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in a warming climate. Using the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we combine the relevant SeaRISE results with possibly the best available GIA ice loading history for the past 21 kyr (Ivins et al., 2013), and provide first-order estimates of future uplift of AIS. While the model predicts minor subsidence in the interior of the east AIS and along the Wilkes Land, we find that the west AIS (Amundsen sea sector, in particular) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters over the next 100 and 500 years, respectively. Such uneven changes in topography imply that the bed slope will be modulated in the future, thereby potentially controlling the grounding line migration and eventually the ice sheet dynamics. Using hydrostatic equilibrium criterion and through high-order modeling of AIS, we demonstrate that proper treatment of GIA response is crucial on centennial timescale, as it promotes systematic, although mild, stability to marine portions of the ice sheet.

  13. Global mean dynamic topography based on GOCE data and Wiener filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardoni, Maddalena; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Albertella, Alberta

    2015-04-01

    A mean dynamic ocean topography (MDT) has been computed by using a GOCE-only gravity model and a given mean sea surface (MSS) obtained from satellite altimetry. Since the used gravity model, i.e. the fifth release of the time-wise solution covering the full mission lifetime, is truncated at a maximum harmonic degree of 280, the obtained MDT has to be consistently filtered. This has been done globally by using the spherical harmonic representation and following a Wiener minimization principle. This global filtering approach is convenient from the computational point of view but requires to have MDT values all over the Earth surface and therefore to fill the continents with fictitious data. The main improvements with respect to the already presented results are in the MDT filling procedure (to guarantee that the global signal has the same covariance of the one over the oceans), in the error modelling of the input MSS and in the error estimation of the filtered MDT and of the corresponding geostrophic velocities. The impact of GOCE data in the ocean circulation global modelling has been assessed by comparing the pattern of the obtained geostrophic currents with those computed by using EGM2008. Comparisons with independent circulation data based on drifters and other MDT models have been also performed with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of the obtained results.

  14. The status of measurement of the Mediterranean mean dynamic topography by geodetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Gravelle, Mdric; Marcos, Marta; Wppelmann, Guy; Hughes, Chris W.

    2015-08-01

    We review the measurement of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Mediterranean using ellipsoidal heights of sea level at discrete tide gauge locations, and across the entire basin using satellite altimetry, subtracting estimates of the geoid obtained from recent models. This `geodetic approach' to the determination of the MDT can be compared to the independent `ocean approach' that involves the use of in situ oceanographic measurements and ocean modelling. We demonstrate that with modern geoid and ocean models there is an encouraging level of consistency between the two sets of MDTs. In addition, we show how important geodetic MDT information can be in judging between existing global ocean circulation models, and in providing insight for the development of new ones. The review makes clear the major limitations in Mediterranean data sets that prevent a more complete validation, including the need for improved geoid models of high spatial resolution and accuracy. Suggestions are made on how a greater amount of reliable geo-located tide gauge information can be obtained in the future.

  15. The role of unbalanced dynamics and topography in the generation of mesoscale gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing

    2000-09-01

    Two well-documented mesoscale gravity wave events, one on 4 January 1994 along the East Coast of the United States and the other on 11-12 July 1981 over eastern Montana during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE), are investigated with a state-of-art mesoscale numerical model as well as advanced diagnostic tools. The MM5 model simulated reasonably well both cases, providing invaluable high-resolution datasets to evaluate the role of unbalanced dynamics and topography in the gravity wave initiation. This study has presented by far the most systematic and comprehensive inter- comparison between and evaluation of the utility of various unbalanced flow diagnostic tools for the study of mesoscale gravity waves. Composite wavelet analysis also has been employed for the first time to unambiguously track the origin and evolution of mesoscale gravity waves. Based on the East Coast case simulations, a two-stage conceptual model of wave generation by geostrophic adjustment and frontal occlusion is proposed. The initiation stage is characterized by the generation of an incipient gravity wave in the mid-upper troposphere immediately downstream of the maximum imbalance where the strongest upward motion associated with a tropopause fold passed over an occluding surface front. Downstream of this incipient wave, a slower-moving split front in the mid troposphere (warm occlusion) was developing as air of low equivalent potential temperature surged eastwards above the warm front. During the development stage, the incipient wave merged with the split front. The merger was essential to the rapid amplification and scale contraction of the incipient wave, after which the incipient wave and split front became inseparable. This merger resulted in enhanced vertical motion in a saturated layer of potential instability, which quickly triggered ``localized'' convection. Thereafter, a large amount of wave energy was transported downward through nonlinear fluxes, resulting in a large-amplitude gravity wave at the surface. A no-terrain simulation revealed that orography was not directly responsible for generating the gravity wave. For the first wave episode during CCOPE, the model revealed that the wave generation was due largely to lower-tropospheric processes in the presence of topography, and that unbalanced flow played no role. A four-stage wave development conceptual model was proposed in which the blocking of a westward-propagating density current resulting from the remnant of the previous day's mountain-plains circulation (MPS) was responsible for the wave initiation. Topography played two important roles here-not only was it responsible for generating the MPS, but the eastern slopes of the mountains acted to retard the density current and forced the gravity wave. For the second wave episode during CCOPE, the gravity wave was directly generated by the strong updraft associated with a developing daytime MPS as it impinged upon a stratified shear layer above the deep, well-mixed boundary layer that developed because of strong sensible heating over the Rocky Mountains. Explosive convection developed directly over the weakening gravity wave as an eastward propagating density current produced by a rainband generated within the leeside convergence zone merged with a westward-propagating density current in eastern Montana. The greatly strengthened density current resulting from this new convection then generated a bore wave that-propagated eastward, generating a Mesoscale Convective Complex. It was confirmed that the Uccellini and Koch (1987) conceptual model for mesoscale gravity wave activity occurred in both events, though the gravity wave generation mechanisms do not consist of ``pure geostrophic adjustment''. Wave ducting proposed by Lindzen and Tung (1976) is present in the East Coast case and also the first wave episode during CCOPE. However, wave-CISK was shown to be much more important to the maintenance and propagation of the gravity waves in the East Coast case and the second wave episode during CCOPE. The imbalance di

  16. Video Animation of Ocean Topography From TOPEX/POSEIDON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Leconte, Denis; Pihos, Greg; Davidson, Roger; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Tapley, Byron

    1993-01-01

    Three video loops showing various aspects of the dynamic ocean topography obtained from the TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry data will be presented. The first shows the temporal change of the global ocean topography during the first year of the mission. The time-averaged mean is removed to reveal the temporal variabilities. Temporal interpolation is performed to create daily maps for the animation. A spatial smoothing is also performed to retain only the large-sale features. Gyre-scale seasonal changes are the main features. The second shows the temporal evolution of the Gulf Stream. The high resolution gravimetric geoid of Rapp is used to obtain the absolute ocean topography. Simulated drifters are used to visualize the flow pattern of the current. Meanders and rings of the current are the main features. The third is an animation of the global ocean topography on a spherical earth. The JGM-2 geoid is used to obtain the ocean topography...

  17. Simulating depth-averaged, one-dimensional turbidity current dynamics using natural topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traer, M. M.; Fildani, A.; McHargue, T.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-08-01

    This study simulates turbidity currents through natural submarine topographies using a steady, one-dimensional, depth-averaged model to determine if modeled flows might traverse the length of channel forms observed at the seafloor or in shallow seismic data sets. To accomplish this, we calculated flow dynamics based on 50,000 sets of initial conditions drawn randomly between prescribed bounds and identified those conditions that allowed flows to traverse the naturally observed systems. We also used flow height and velocity to rule out initial conditions that produced flows that would be broadly accepted as unrealistic. We found that a small percentage (2.3-9.7%) of flows traversed the measured portion of these natural systems and maintained plausible peak depth-averaged velocities when laboratory-derived clear-water entrainment rules were used. However, even these flows reached peak heights that were many times (10-200) greater than that of the channel bottom to levee crest relief. When clear-water entrainment was removed from the model, a larger percentage of flows (34.5-41.6%) traversed the measured channel geometries, maintained lower ranges of flow height, and typically had higher flow velocities. Alternate entrainment relationships allowed flows to maintain realistic flow heights and velocities. We speculate that the unrealistic flows produced using clear-water entrainment rules arise because flow loss through stripping and/or overbank collapse is neglected in this one-dimensional model, or extrapolating laboratory-measured clear-water entrainment rules to the field is problematic.

  18. Contact dynamics of elasto-plastic thin beams simulated via absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Tao; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Under the frame of multibody dynamics, the contact dynamics of elasto-plastic spatial thin beams is numerically studied by using the spatial thin beam elements of absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). The internal force of the elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element is derived under the assumption that the plastic strain of the beam element depends only on its longitudinal deformation. A new body-fixed local coordinate system is introduced into the spatial thin beam element of ANCF for efficient contact detection in the contact dynamics simulation. The linear isotropic hardening constitutive law is used to describe the elasto-plastic deformation of beam material, and the classical return mapping algorithm is adopted to evaluate the plastic strains. A multi-zone contact approach of thin beams previously proposed by the authors is also introduced to detect the multiple contact zones of beams accurately, and the penalty method is used to compute the normal contact force of thin beams in contact. Four numerical examples are given to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element of ANCF for flexible multibody system dynamics.

  19. Forecasting the absolute and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system dynamics model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future dynamic changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system dynamics modeling to estimate future absolute and relative numbers of physicians. Method We constructed a forecasting model using a system dynamics approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis. Result & conclusion As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 20082030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians. PMID:23981198

  20. Combining Mantle Convection Modeling With Gravity and Topography Spectra to Constrain the Dynamic Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, T.; Werner, S. C.; Steinberger, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    From some perspective the terrestrial planets of our Solar System appear very similar, for instance in their bulk composition and the differentiation in core, silicate mantle and crust. However, from other perspectives they appear significantly different, perhaps most strikingly in their current tectonic mode: while Earth is the only planet with currently ongoing plate tectonics, Venus is likely to be in a regime of episodic resurfacing. Mars features the stagnant lid mode and so might Mercury, if its mantle is still undergoing large-scale convection at all. Understanding the similarities and differences in the dynamic evolution of the different planets can thus provide important information about the conditions needed to initialize and maintain plate tectonics and shed light on the question why Earth is unique in this respect. Reliable constraints for planets other than Earth are difficult to make and are mostly limited to the planetary surface. However, measuring a planet's gravity field provides one, though not unique, way to constrain the internal structure of a planet. Additionally, the planet's moment of inertia factor and surface topography may help to limit the number of possible structures. All of these, moment of inertia, gravity and topography are reasonably well known for the terrestrial planets from various satellite missions. Here, we use such measurements to constrain the radial structure of the planetary mantles. Dynamic forward modeling is then used to analyze the different evolutions and dynamic features that cause the inferred structures and the resulting geoid and topography spectra to evolve. Using dynamic models also enables us to estimate the role of lateral variations, particularly in viscosity. In this first step, we focus on a comparison between the Earth and Venus.

  1. The Development of a Degree 360 Expansion of the Dynamic Ocean Topography of the POCM_4B Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a degree 360 expansion of the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) of the POCM_4B ocean circulation model. The principles and software used that led to the final model are described. A key principle was the development of interpolated DOT values into land areas to avoid discontinuities at or near the land/ocean interface. The power spectrum of the POCM_4B is also presented with comparisons made between orthonormal (ON) and spherical harmonic magnitudes to degree 24. A merged file of ON and SH computed degree variances is proposed for applications where the DOT power spectrum from low to high (360) degrees is needed.

  2. Structure and Dynamics of the Polar Regions of Mars from MGS Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been engaged in systematic mapping of Mars since insertion into Mars orbit in September, 1997. The objectives of the MGS mission are to globally map Mars as well as to quantify seasonal changes on the planet. MGS geophysical/geodetic observations of topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from the Radio Science investigation are providing significant new insights on both static and time-varying aspects of the polar regions of Mars. These observations have implications for polar processes on diurnal seasonal and climatic timescales. Thus far, MOLA has collected over 300 million precise measurements of Martian topography and cloud heights. The instrument has also provided measurements of the width of the backscattered optical pulse and of the 1064 nm reflectivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. The along-track resolution of MOLA ground shots is approx. 300 m and the across-track spacing in the polar regions is a maximum of about four kilometers. The vertical accuracy of the topography is determined by the precision recovery of spacecraft orbits from the Radio Science investigation, which includes MOLA altimetry in the form of crossovers. This accuracy is currently approx. one meter. The gravity field is derived from X-band Doppler tracking with typical accuracy of 0.03 to 0.05 mm/s averaged over ten seconds. Current Mars gravity fields are to approximately degree and order 80 but are interpretable to the approximate degree and order 60 (spatial resolution < 180 km), which represents an estimate of the approximate coefficient limit of a field that can be produced without a power law constraint on the gravitational field inversion, which is commonly imposed for solution stability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Finite elements using absolute nodal coordinates for large-deformation flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrochenko, Oleg

    2008-06-01

    A family of structural finite elements using a modern absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) is discussed in the paper with many applicationsE This approach has been initiated in 1996 by A. Shabana. It introduces large displacements of 2D/3D finite elements relative to the global reference frame without using any local frame. The elements employ finite slopes as nodal variables and can be considered as generalizations of ordinary finite elements that use infinitesimal slopes. In contrast to other large deformation formulations, the equations of motion contain constant mass matrices and generalized gravity forces as well as zero centrifugal and Coriolis inertia forces. The only nonlinear term is a vector of elastic forces. This approach allows applying known abstractions of real elastic bodies: Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams and more general models as well as Kirchhoff and Mindlin plate theories. Shabana et al. proposed a sub-family of thick beam and plate finite elements with large deformations and employ the 3D theory of continuum mechanics. Despite the universality of such approach it has to use extra degrees of freedom when simulating thin beams and plates, which case is most important. In our research, we propose another sub-family of thin beams as well as rectangular and triangle plates. We use Kirchhoff plate theory with nonlinear strain-displacement relationships to obtain elastic forces. A number of static and dynamic simulation examples of problems with 2D/3D very elastic beams and plate underwent large displacements and/or deformations will be shown in the presentation.

  4. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they

  5. The ups and downs of North America: Evaluating the role of mantle dynamic topography since the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    The driving force for transient vertical motions of Earth's surface remains an outstanding question. A main difficulty lies in the uncertain role of the underlying mantle, especially during the geological past. Here I review previous studies on both observational constraints and physical mechanisms of North American topographic evolution since the Mesozoic. I first summarize the North American vertical motion history using proxies from structural geology, geochronology, sedimentary stratigraphy, and geomorphology, based on which I then discuss the published physical models. Overall, there is a progressive consensus on the contribution of mantle dynamic topography due to buoyancy structures associated with the past subduction. At the continental scale, a largely west-to-east migrating deformation pattern suggests an eastward translation of mantle dynamic effects, consistent with models involving an eastward subduction and sinking of former Farallon slabs since the Cretaceous. Among the existing models, the inverse model based on an adjoint algorithm and time-dependent data constraints provides the most extensive explanations for the temporal changes of North American topography since the Mesozoic. At regional scales, debates still exist on the predicted surface subsidence and uplift within both the western and eastern United States, where discrepancies are likely due to differences in model setup (e.g., mantle dynamic properties and boundary conditions) and the amount of time-dependent observational constraints. Toward the development of the next-generation predictive geodynamic models, new research directions may include (1) development of enhanced data assimilation capabilities, (2) exploration of multiscale and multiphysics processes, and (3) cross-disciplinary code coupling.

  6. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  7. Inferences on the Emplacement Dynamics of Martian Impact Crater Ejecta: Constraints from Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Baloga, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Lobate ejecta deposits surround many of the younger impact craters on Mars. Viking Orbiter images indicate the distal parts of the ejecta blankets of these lobate craters are characterized by ramparts. In the absence of detailed topographic data for characterizing the topology of these apparently fluidized ejecta deposits, physical models have relied upon their morphologic characteristics. The most widely accepted model for the formation of such rampart ejecta deposits on Mars invokes fluidization of the ejecta to produce one or more viscous flow lobes. The availability of high-precision topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter [4,51 facilitates a more quantitative examination of the physical processes involved in the formation of rampart ejecta deposits on Mars. Here we investigate the emplacement constraints that can be developed from the dimensions, topography, and morphology of martian rampart craters. The primary assumptions we have adopted are: (1) the ejecta blanket is emplaced as a continuum flow over the martian surface, rather than an airfall deposit, and (2) that the observable dimensions of the deposits are indicative of flow dimensions during emplacement.

  8. Dynamical effects from equation of state on topographies and geoid anomalies due to internal loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Hanjing; Yuen, D.A. )

    1990-11-10

    The effects of mantle compressibility on geoid and topographic signatures caused by internal loading in the mantle are studied. For a Cartesian compressible model the Green's functions of these geophysical signatures are determined by solving a two-point boundary value problem with depth for each horizontal wave number associated with the density anomaly. Various types of equations of state have been considered, which include both constant and depth-dependent thermodynamic parameters. Surface topographies are not changed too much by the effects of mantle compressibility, even for long wavelengths. The deformation of bottom boundary is not seriously influenced by mantle compressionibility, except for long wavelengths and large viscosity contrasts between the upper and lower mantles. Geoid signals with horizontal wavelengths, exceeding 10,000 km, can be greatly influenced by mantle compressibility. For large viscosity contrasts, differences of up to 100% between incompressible and compressible geoid responses can be found. The admittance function also shows great sensitivity to mantle compressibility at long wavelengths. There are significant differences in the geophysical signatures from the ways in parameterizing the viscosity stratification in the mantle. An exponentially dependent viscosity model produces smaller geoid and surface topographical signals than for a single step function viscosity model.

  9. Dynamical and Thermodynamical Signatures of Rossby Waves in Presence of Mean Flow and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailleux, R.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter data have revealed over the past decade many new and unexpected properties of baroclinic Rossby wave propagation, such as anomalous too-fast phase speed at mid and high-latitudes, and the wide- spread occurrence of eddy-like features. Ensuing theoretical work established the importance of the background mean flow, topography, and possible surface intensification to account for too-fast Rossby waves. Topographic variations were also found to play a role in causing a splitting of energy between wave modes, which may sometimes account for apparent spontaneous wave emission, which can be quantified using so-called mode conversion theory. Rossby waves have a SST signature which is expected to depend on the eddy or wave nature of the westward propagating signals, as well as on their possible coupling with the mixed layer. Fur ther work remains to be done to understand the physical processes controlling the westward penetration of boundary-driven waves, as well as to understand the generation mechanisms for signals not originating from the eastern boundaries.

  10. Dynamics of large-amplitude internal waves in stratified flows over topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Dilip

    1997-10-01

    In the first problem, the flow of a Boussinesq density- stratified fluid of large depth past the algebraic mountain ('Witch of Agnesi') is studied in the hydrostatic limit using the asymptotic theory of Kantzios & Akylas. The upstream conditions are those of constant velocity and Brunt-Vaisala frequency. On the further assumptions that the flow is steady and there is no permanent alteration of the upstream flow conditions (no upstream influence), Long's model predicts a critical amplitude of the mountain (/epsilon=0.85) above which local density inversions occur, leading to convective overturning. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that Long's steady flow is in fact unstable to infinitesimal modulations at topography amplitudes below this critical value, 0.65/ ~topography of weakly three-dimensional internal waves in a fluid with a linearly varying density distribution. The flow is shown to be governed by an integro-differential equation, which is capable of describing finite-amplitude waves and is valid until incipient density inversions take place. In addition to the nonlinearity caused by the presence of a topographic forcing, it is found that three-dimensional effects are also manifested as nonlinear terms in this evolution equation. The theory is observed to break down in the far-field, owing to the formation of an infinite downstream shelf. As in the two-dimensional problem, matched asymptotic expansions are used to resolve the difficulties caused by the shelf. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear evolution equation for waves in a channel are presented; the parameter space consists of a resonance detuning and a relative blockage, which measures three-dimensional effects. Wave breaking is found to occur over a finite range of detuning for a given relative blockage. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139- 4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Future Antarctic bed topography and its implications for ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has been generally losing its mass since the last glacial maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves. We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS. We find that the past loading is relatively less important than future loading on the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years 2100 and 2500 AD, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector of WAIS in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay approaches roughly 45 mm/yr in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is associated with the flattening of reverse bed, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote the stability to marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.

  12. Future Antarctic bed topography and its implications for ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Nowicki, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves. We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS. We find that past loading is relatively less important than future loading for the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years AD 2100 and 2500, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay will approach roughly 45 mm yr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is generally associated with the flattening of reverse bed slope, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote stability in marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.

  13. Future Antarctic bed topography and its implications for ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E.; Larour, E.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Nowicki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A~recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) is generally losing its mass since the last glacial maximum (LGM). In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves. We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS. We find that the past loading is relatively less important than future loading on the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years 2100 and 2500 AD, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay approaches roughly 45 mm yr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is associated with the flattening of reverse bed, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote the stability to marine portions of the ice sheet in future.

  14. Future Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik R.; Larour, Eric Y.; Seroussi, Helene L.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves.We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS.We find that past loading is relatively less important than future loading for the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years AD 2100 and 2500, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay will approach roughly 45mmyr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is generally associated with the flattening of reverse bed slope, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote stability in marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.

  15. Geological Influences on Bedrock Topography and East Antarctic Ice Sheet Dynamics in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Armadillo, E.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Jordan, T. A.; Balbi, P.; Bozzo, E.; Siegert, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) extends for 1,400 km from George V Land into the interior of East Antarctica and hosts several major glaciers that drain a large sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). This region is of key significance for the long-term stability of the ice sheet in East Antarctica, as it lies well below sea level and its bedrock deepens inland, making it potentially prone to marine ice sheet instability, much like areas of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) that are presently experiencing significant mass loss. We present new enhanced potential field images of the WSB combined with existing radar imaging to study geological controls on bedrock topography and ice flow regimes in this key sector of the ice sheet. These images reveal mayor Precambrian and Paleozoic basement faults that exert tectonic controls both on the margins of the basin and its sub-basins. Several major sub-basins can be recognised: the Eastern Basin, the Central Basins and the Western Basins. Using ICECAP aerogeophysical data we show that these tectonically controlled interior basins connect to newly identified basins underlying the Cook Ice Shelf region. This connection implies that any ocean-induced changes at the margin of the EAIS could potentially propagate rapidly further into the interior. With the aid of simple magnetic and gravity models we show that the WSB does not presently include major post Jurassic sedimentary infill. Its bedrock geology is highly variable and includes Proterozoic basement, Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sediments, intruded by Cambrian arc rocks, and cover rocks formed by Beacon sediments intruded by Jurassic Ferrar sills. Enhanced ice flow in this part of the EAIS occurs therefore in a area of mixed and spatially variable bedrock geology. This contrasts with some regions of the WAIS where more extensive sedimentary basins may represent a geological template for the onset and maintenance of fast glacial flow.

  16. Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J.; Ehrentraut, L.; Bonse, J.

    2010-05-15

    We have studied plasma formation and relaxation dynamics along with the corresponding topography modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final topography of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The evolution of the crater depth as a function of fluence can be described taking into account the individual bandgap of each material.

  17. Effects of bottom topography on dynamics of river discharges in tidal regions: case study of twin plumes in Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Kao, R.-C.; Ding, C.-F.

    2014-10-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighbouring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are similar in many respects, and yet the two plumes exhibit significantly different behaviour. We explain this through differences of the bottom topography in the areas adjacent to the two river mouths. The Zhuoshui River runs into a shallow area that is permanently exposed to strong tidal mixing, while the Wu River mouth is located in a deeper, stratified area outside the region of intense mixing. This destruction of the plume by tidal mixing is confirmed by the results of numerical modeling with POM. The spatial and temporal variability of turbulent kinetic energy, the rates of its production by shear and destruction rate by buoyancy in the study, as well as the horizontal diffusivity, are analysed with the emphasis given to the dependence of the turbulence parameters on the bottom topography on the one hand and their influence on the river plumes on the other. The results of the study support the central hypothesis of this paper: the dynamic behaviours of the Zhuoshui and Wu plumes are different because their evolution occurs under different regimes of bottom-generated turbulent mixing. Further, we use a Lagrangian particle tracking model in combination with POM to investigate the effect of the tidal wetting-and-drying (WAD) near the Zhuoshui River estuary, and demonstrate that WAD leads to significant reduction of the plume extent and surface salinity deficit near the river mouth. We use observational data from a short field campaign in the study area to tune and validate the model experiments.

  18. Sea level change since the Pliocene - a new formalism for predicting sea level in the presence of dynamic topography and isostasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Rovere, Alessio; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic topography (DT), as reflected in local sea level change, provides a unique lens for studying the imprint of deep Earth dynamics on the Earth's surface. The elevation of paleo-shorelines over long time scales is, however, not only perturbed by DT but also by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and eustatic changes in sea level. Isolating these contributions is essential for efforts to constrain past changes in ice volume or mantle convection models. Previous studies have performed this separation by modeling dynamic topography and superimposing the signal on the elevation of a GIA-corrected paleo-shoreline. However, this approach neglects deformation of the Earth in response to changes in the ocean load and geometry driven by DT. We describe a generalized, gravitationally self-consistent framework for computing sea-level changes that incorporates DT and GIA. The formalism is based on a sea-level theory developed within the GIA community that takes accurate account of viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, perturbations in the gravity field, migration of shorelines and the feedback into sea-level of contemporaneous (load-induced) changes in Earth rotation. Specifically, dynamic topography is introduced as a perturbation to the elevation of the solid surface that does not load the Earth because it is dynamically supported. However, water that is displaced by DT is allowed to redistribute, perturb the gravitational field and load (or unload) the ocean floor wherever the water column is increased (or decreased). The problem is complicated by plate tectonics, which (in a tectonic reference frame) leaves changes in topography and DT undefined in areas of the ocean floor where plates have been subducted. We interpolate these regions by imposing mass conservation of both the solid Earth and water on the reconstructed topography. We use the new formalism to calculate sea level change since the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma) using recent global simulations of dynamic topography that are constrained to fit a large suite of modern geophysical observables. We demonstrate that the results differ significantly from calculations in which dynamic topography is simply added to the elevation of GIA-corrected paleo-shorelines. Moreover, we apply these results to new paleo-shoreline data of Pliocene age from the US east coast, South Africa and southwest Australia to estimate peak eustatic sea level (and, thus, minimum ice volume) during the Mid Pliocene Warm Period.

  19. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  20. Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the predator pit topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic wasp-waist structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical boom-bust dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a predator pit type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cods wasp-waist prey, herring and sprat.

  1. Forecasting spatial plant dynamics under future climate change in a semiarid savanna ecosystem with complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    The space and time dynamics of savanna ecosystems in semiarid regions is tightly related to fluctuations and changes in the climate, and the competition strategies of individual plants for resources. In most parts of the southwest U.S., various General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict general warming trends with reduced annual precipitation amounts, and increased frequency of extreme droughts and wet periods in the 21st century. Despite the potential risks posed by climate change on vegetation patterns and hydrology, our ability to predict such changes at the catchment and regional scales is limited. In this study, we used a recently developed spatially explicit Cellular Automata Tree-Grass-Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics in a semiarid catchment (>3km2) located in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA. In the catchment north-facing slopes are characterized by a juniper-grass savanna, and south-facing slopes by creosote bush and grass species. Initialized by LIDAR-derived tree locations and simulated grass and shrub patterns obtained from model calibration, CATGraSS is forced by a weather generator, AWE-GEN, used to downscale an ensemble of eight different GCM outputs at the study basin, producing multiple stochastic realizations of a transient climate scenario for the next hundred years. The ensemble simulations are used to examine the uncertainty in vegetation response and develop probabilistic plant distribution maps in relation to landscape morphology. This study highlights the importance of understanding local scale plant-to-plant interactions and the role of climate variability in determining climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics at varying spatial scales.

  2. Studies of tropical ocean dynamics using the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-derived sea surface topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukas, Roger; Busalacchi, A. J., Jr.; Mitchum, G. T.; Wyrtki, K.

    1991-01-01

    Our primary objective is to carry out studies of tropical ocean dynamics using the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter-derived sea level data set in conjunction with the large in situ sea level data set available at the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Sea Level Center. These studies will be supported by an interaction with numerical model simulations of tropical ocean variability. Five specific objectives can be identified: (1) research products; (2) short-term climate variations; (3) tropical-current variations; (4) synoptic-scale variability; and (5) model simulations.

  3. Mariner 9 - An instrument of dynamical science. [for Mars gravitation and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. F.; Lorell, J.

    1975-01-01

    We review and evaluate the contributions of Mariner 9 in improving our knowledge of the dynamical characteristics of Mars and its two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Primary results include the discovery of the large gravitational and topographical bulge in the Tharsis region, the development of a detailed gravity model representable as coefficients in a spherical harmonic expansion, the development of a topographic model exhibiting a three kilometer displacement of the center of figure from the center of mass, and the determination of the size, shape and motion of Phobos and Deimos.

  4. Dynamic Ocean Topography Solutions Based on a new Mean sea Surface Model and a GRACE-Based Geoid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, N. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Andersen, O. B.

    2006-12-01

    A new Mean Sea Surface (MSS) model has been compiled recently at the Danish National Space Center (DNSC). This MSS model incorporates data from several altimeter missions (Geosat GM, ERS-1 and ERS-2, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, GFO, Envisat, and ICESat). In parallel, as part of an activity sponsored by the USA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, a new Preliminary Gravitational Model (PGM) has been developed recently. This model is an intermediate solution leading to a new Earth Gravitational Model complete to degree and order 2160. We have used the new MSS from DNSC and the latest PGM to estimate the mean Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT), represented both as an ocean-wide grid and in terms of surface spherical harmonics. Of particular interest to these analyses is the treatment of systematic errors in GRACE-based gravitational solutions that manifest themselves as "stripes", predominantly in the North-South direction. We will present our DOT solutions and compare them against DOT estimates obtained from Ocean Circulation Models. We will also present comparisons with hydrographic data that are independent from our solutions.

  5. Combining a Global GOCE Derived MDT with In-situ Current Observation for Regional Enhancement of the Mean Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's major current systems. Furthermore, finer scale features, such as meanders and branches of the current system have become visible. In this study, models of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) derived using a series of gravity models from GOCE combined with the DTU13MSS mean sea surface are used as a reference model. Then regional analyses are carried out using in-situ observations of the geostrophic surface currents obtained from drifters. The aim of those analyses is to evaluate the GOCE derived MDT in detail at regional scales. Subsequently, the in-situ observations are used in a regional enhancement of the estimated MDT and its associated currents. The data are combined using an optimal estimation technique such as least squares collocation, that is based on the functional relationship between the gravity field and the MDT as well as their a-priori statistical characteristics. The methodology and preliminary results will be presented.

  6. Improving Surface Geostrophic Current from a GOCE-Derived Mean Dynamic Topography Using Edge-Enhancing Diffusion Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Reales, J. M.; Andersen, O. B.; Vigo, M. I.

    2015-02-01

    With increased geoid resolution provided by the gravity and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission, the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) can be now estimated with an accuracy not available prior to using geodetic methods. However, an altimetric-derived MDT still needs filtering in order to remove short wavelength noise unless integrated methods are used in which the three quantities are determined simultaneously using appropriate covariance functions. We studied nonlinear anisotropic diffusive filtering applied to the oceańs MDT and a new approach based on edge-enhancing diffusion (EED) filtering is presented. EED filters enable controlling the direction and magnitude of the filtering, with subsequent enhancement of computations of the associated surface geostrophic currents (SGCs). Applying this method to a smooth MDT and to a noisy MDT, both for a region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, we found that EED filtering provides similar estimation of the current velocities in both cases, whereas a non-linear isotropic filter (the Perona and Malik filter) returns results influenced by local residual noise when a difficult case is tested. We found that EED filtering preserves all the advantages that the Perona and Malik filter have over the standard linear isotropic Gaussian filters. Moreover, EED is shown to be more stable and less influenced by outliers. This suggests that the EED filtering strategy would be preferred given its capabilities in controlling/preserving the SGCs.

  7. A New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Corneal Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

    2000-01-01

    A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered fight and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

  8. Determination of some dominant parameters of the global dynamic sea surface topography from GEOS-3 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The 1977 altimetry data bank is analyzed for the geometrical shape of the sea surface expressed as surface spherical harmonics after referral to the higher reference model defined by GEM 9. The resulting determination is expressed as quasi-stationary dynamic SST. Solutions are obtained from different sets of long arcs in the GEOS-3 altimeter data bank as well as from sub-sets related to the September 1975 and March 1976 equinoxes assembled with a view to minimizing seasonal effects. The results are compared with equivalent parameters obtained from the hydrostatic analysis of sporadic temperature, pressure and salinity measurements of the oceans and the known major steady state current systems with comparable wavelengths. The most clearly defined parameter (the zonal harmonic of degree 2) is obtained with an uncertainty of + or - 6 cm. The preferred numerical value is smaller than the oceanographic value due to the effect of the correction for the permanent earth tide. Similar precision is achieved for the zonal harmonic of degree 3. The precision obtained for the fourth degree zonal harmonic reflects more closely the accuracy expected from the level of noise in the orbital solutions.

  9. Extracting dynamic topography from river profiles and cosmogenic nuclide geochronology in the Middle Atlas and the High Plateaus of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Alvar; Babault, Julien; Owen, Lewis A.; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, María-Luisa

    2015-11-01

    The Moulouya river system has intensely eroded the Arhbalou, Missour, and Guercif Neogene foreland basins in northeastern Morocco, having changed from net aggradation during the Miocene-early Pliocene to net incision punctuated by alluvial fan deposition at late Pliocene or early Quaternary time. This region as a whole has experienced mantle-driven, surface uplift (dynamic topography) since the late Cenozoic, being locally affected by uplift due to crustal shortening and thickening of the Middle Atlas too. Knickpoints located along the major streams of the Moulouya fluvial network, appear on both the undeformed margins of the Missour and Guercif foreland basins (High Plateaus), as well as along the thrust mountain front of the southern Middle Atlas, where they reach heights of 800-1000 m. 500-550 m of the knickpoint vertical incision might be explained by long-wavelength mantle-driven dynamic surface uplift, whereas the remaining 450-500 m in the southern Middle Atlas front and 200-300 m in the northeastern Middle Atlas front seem to be thrust-related uplift of the Jebel Bou Naceur. Be-10 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides have been used to date two Quaternary river terraces in the Chegg Ard valley at 62 ± 14 ka and 411 ± 55 ka. The dated terraces allow the incision rates associated with the frontal structures of the Middle Atlas to be estimated at ~ 0.3 mm yr- 1. Furthermore, these ages have served to evaluate mantle-driven regional surface uplift since the middle Pleistocene in the central Missour basin, yielding values of ~ 0.1-0.2 mm yr- 1.

  10. Inherently mass-conservative version of the semi-Lagrangian absolute vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model dynamical core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashkin, V. V.; Tolstykh, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    The semi-Lagrangian absolute vorticity (SL-AV) atmospheric model is the global semi-Lagrangian hydrostatic model used for operational medium-range and seasonal forecasts at the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. The distinct feature of the SL-AV dynamical core is the semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence formulation on the unstaggered grid. A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach allows for long time steps but violates the global and local mass conservation. In particular, the total mass in simulations with semi-Lagrangian models can drift significantly if no a posteriori mass-fixing algorithm is applied. However, the global mass-fixing algorithms degrade the local mass conservation. The new inherently mass-conservative version of the SL-AV model dynamical core presented here ensures global and local mass conservation without mass-fixing algorithms. The mass conservation is achieved with the introduction of the finite-volume, semi-Lagrangian discretization for a continuity equation based on the 3-D extension of the conservative cascade semi-Lagrangian transport scheme (CCS). Numerical experiments show that the new version of the SL-AV dynamical core presented combines the accuracy and stability of the standard SL-AV dynamical core with the mass-conservation properties. The results of the mountain-induced Rossby-wave test and baroclinic instability test for the mass-conservative dynamical core are found to be in agreement with the results available in the literature.

  11. On the effect of the Post-perovskite phase change on global mantle flow, geoid and dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Kaban, Mikhail; Petrunin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In the lowermost parts of mantle, the D" layer is a profoundly important layer as it involves the process of heat and mass transfer between core and mantle. However, the physical nature of this layer is an issue of active debate. The seismic data represent a rapid increase and decrease of the shear velocity, especially beneath Circum-Pacific margins, in the D" layer. Indeed, such abrupt velocity discontinuity is not expected for this hot layer. The discovery of the perovskite (pv) to Post-perovskite (pPv) phase transformation has led to dramatic increase in our understanding of the structure of the D" layer, since it is thought to produce such seismic discontinuity. Here, we have investigate the influence of the phase transformation of pv to pPv on the geoid undulation as one of the most important geophysical observable, using 3D spherical shell mantle circulation models based on a seismic tomography model (S40RTS) and strongly lateral viscosity variations in the D" layer and the mantle above. We demonstrate that the geoid anomalies are strongly affected by the presence of pPv in the lowermost mantle. While the geoid heights over subduction zones are increased by considering a strong pPv compared to then surrounding mantle, a weak pPv reduces the geoid height, and a better fit to the observed geoid is obtained. We show that, applying a weak pPv viscosity of at least three orders of magnitude any higher viscosity contrast does not affect the geoid any further. We also investigate the effects of weak pPv combined with a different tomography model, a different pPv density contrast, the presence or absence of a global thermal-boundary-layer (TBL) and the presence or absence of lateral viscosity variations in the lower mantle. Keywords: Post-perovskite, phase transitions, geoid, dynamic topography

  12. Who is in control? Competing influences of geology, land use and topography on soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Can we identify distinct signatures of landscape elements in the event response of soil moisture and soil temperature? Moisture and temperature dynamics in soils are largely controlled by the climatic boundary conditions of rainfall, evapotranspiration and radiation. However, certain landscape features also leave characteristic finger prints on soil moisture and soil temperature time series. The extent of these influences and their time variable relative importance are important in a number of contexts, such as landscape scale prediction of soil moisture patterns or runoff generation, process predictions in ungauged basins or the improvement of hydrological model structures for the mesoscale. The competing influences of geology, land use and topography on temperature and moisture characteristics in the vadose zone are explored at the CAOS hydrological observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/) with a unique experimental setup of 45 sensor clusters. These sensor clusters cover three different geologies (schist, sandstone, marls), two land use classes (forest and grassland), five different landscape positions (plateau, top-, mid- and lower hillslope as well as near stream/floodplain locations), and contrasting expositions. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at depths from 10 to 70 cm, four soil temperature profiles as well as air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels were measured continuously. Time series of up to 2 years for the schist region and up to 6 months for the complete set of sites allow for a first intercomparison of characteristic event response behavior.

  13. Comparing the effects of rheology on the dynamics and topography of 3D subduction-collision models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. It is well known that they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. The differences among the structures and evolutions of mountain belts arise for several reasons, such as different strengths of materials, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergence plates. All these possible controlling factors can change with space and time. Of all the mountain belts and orogenic plateaus, the most striking example is the India-Asia collision zone, which gave rise to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau, the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such a highly elevated region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully 3D models are required. Here, we employed the 3D code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed long-term 3D simulations to analyse the dynamics and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the continental collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift and lateral extrusion of material). Moreover, different topographic regimes can be identified in the upper plate during continental subduction/collision, which can be determined using the Argand number and an initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Next, we investigate the effect of using more complex (powerlaw viscous and plastic) rheologies and compare the results with linear viscous models. Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on MOGON (ZDV Mainz computing center) and JUQUEEN (Jülich high-performance computing center).

  14. Equilibrium and Dynamic Vortex States near Absolute Zero in a Weak Pinning Amorphous Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Aguri; Sohara, Naoya; Kaneko, Shin-ichi; Kokubo, Nobuhito; Okuma, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    By developing and employing a mode-locking measurement with pulsed currents, we successfully determine the dynamic melting field B{c,dyn}∞ (T) for a driven vortex lattice of an amorphous MoxGe1‑x film in the limit of zero temperature (T → 0) and complete a dynamic as well as a static vortex phase diagram. At T = 0, the mixed state in the absence of pinning comprises vortex-lattice and quantum-vortex-liquid (QVL) phases, and the melting field separating the two phases is identified as B{c,dyn}∞ (0). Comparison of the dynamic and static phase diagrams reveals that, when the weak pinning is introduced into the pin-free system, a disordered phase emerges just above the vortex-lattice phase and a threshold field separating the two phases is slightly suppressed from B{c,dyn}∞ (0), indicative of defect-induced disordering of the lattice. By contrast, a melting field into QVL is much enhanced from B{c,dyn}∞ (0) up to a point near the upper critical field, resulting in a significant suppression of the QVL phase. This is attributed to the stronger effective pinning at lower T, which survives quantum fluctuations.

  15. Influence of bottom topography on dynamics of river plumes in semi-enclosed domains: Case study in Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter; Korotenko, Konstantin; Osadchiev, Alexander; Kao, Ruei-Chi; Ding, Chung-Feng

    2014-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a Russian-Taiwan research project focused on the role of continental discharges into the Taiwan Strait, an important channel in the western Pacific Ocean transporting water between the South China Sea and the East China Sea. Another critically important hydrographic feature in the area is the discharge of freshwater from multiple rivers of the western coast of Taiwan. With its long-term average discharge rate of 210 m3/s, the Zhuoshui River is the biggest of the rivers bringing a large amount of pollutants and nutrients into the Strait. The northern extremity of Zhuoshui River's plume often merges with that of the Wu River (also known as Dudu River) whose average discharge rate is about 120 m3/s. Oceanic waters in the area experience significant anthropogenic pressures, traceable to the distance of a few km offshore and tens of km along the shore. This is manifested, in particular, in strongly elevated concentrations of copper, iron, and other trace metals. The corresponding quantitative estimates are obtained. The newly obtained in situ data from a field campaign were also used to implement 2 numerical models aimed at simulating the pathways of the continental waters in the study region. One of them, based on the Princeton Ocean Model, was coupled with a regional barotropic tidal model for the Taiwan Strait. The other one, a fully Lagrangian model STRiPE is based on applying a complete set of momentum equations to individual "particles" of river water released into the ocean. Both models demonstrated reasonable good agreement with the in situ data and each other. The bathymetry, tides and winds significantly affect the dynamics of the Wu and Zhuoshui river plumes, acting together in a complex interactive manner. The Zhuoshui River plume stretches in a narrow alongshore belt both to the south and north from the river mouth while the larger, round-shaped Wu River's plume elongates mostly north of its mouth. The difference is explained through the bottom topography: while near the Zhuoshui mouth the bottom is very flat and shallow, the terrain adjacent to the Wu mouth is much steeper and deeper. Bottom topography and tidal inundation also play an important role in the plume dissipation: due to enhanced mixing in shallow areas subject to tidal drying/flooding of the bottom, such as the area north of the Zhoushui mouth, the salinity anomaly is generally smaller and the plume is narrower and dissipates faster than in the deeper near-mouth areas like that of Wu River. Under the NE wind conditions, the Wu and Zhuoshui plume almost merge and form a unified low salinity belt. In contrast, action of SW wind causes effective separation of river plumes. In the case of NW winds, the plumes are pressed towards the shore and trapped at the mouths, while in the case of SE wind they stretch towards the ocean. The daily mean area of the plumes under the SE wind conditions is about 6 times larger than that under the NW wind.

  16. Coseismic temporal changes of slip direction: the effect of absolute stress on dynamic rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Spudich, P.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of rupture at low-stress level. We show that one main difference between the dynamics of high- and low-stress events is the amount of coseismic temporal rake rotation occurring at given points on the fault. Curved stations on exposed fault surfaces and earthquake dislocation models derived from ground-motion inversion indicate that the slip direction may change with time at a pointon the fault during dynamic rupture. We use a 3D boundary integral method to model temporal rake variations during dynamic rupture propagation assuming a slip-weakening friction law and isotropic friction. The points at which the slip rotates most are characterized by an initial shear stress direction substantially different from the average stress direction over the fault plane. We show that for a given value of stress drop, the level of initial shear stress (i.e., the fractional stress drop) determines the amount of rotation in slip direction. We infer that seismic events that show evidence of temporal rake rorations are characterized by a low initial shear-stress level with spatially variable direction on the fault (possibly due to changes in fault surface geometry) and an almost complete stress drop. Our models motivate a new interpretation of curved and cross-cutting striations and put new constraints on their analysis. The initial rake is in general collinear with the initial stress at the hypocenter zone, supporting the assumptions made in stress-tensor inversion from first-motion analysis. At other points on the fualt, especially away from the hypocenter, the initial slip rake may not be collinear with the initial shear stress, contradicting a common assumption of structural geology. On the other hand, the later part of slip in our models is systematically more aligned withi the average stress direction than the early slip. Our modeling suggests that the length of the straight part of curved striations is usually an upper bound of the slip-weakening distance is this parameter is uniform over the fault plane, and the direction of the late part of slip of curved striations should have more weight in the estimate of initial stress direction.

  17. Determining the Absolute Concentration of Nanoparticles without Calibration Factor by Visualizing the Dynamic Processes of Interfacial Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wo, Xiang; Li, Zhimin; Jiang, Yingyan; Li, Minghe; Su, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wei; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-02-16

    Previous approaches of determining the molar concentration of nanoparticles often relied on the calibration factors extracted from standard samples or required prior knowledge regarding the geometry, optical, or chemical properties. In the present work, we proposed an absolute quantification method that determined the molar concentration of nano-objects without any calibration factor or prior knowledge. It was realized by monitoring the dynamic adsorption processes of individual nanoparticles with a high-speed surface plasmon resonance microscopy. In this case, diffusing nano-objects stochastically collided onto an adsorption interface and stayed there ("hit-n-stay" scenario), resulting in a semi-infinite diffusion system. The dynamic processes were analyzed with a theoretical model consisting of Fick's laws of diffusion and random-walk assumption. The quantification of molar concentration was achieved on the basis of an analytical expression, which involved only physical constants and experimental parameters. By using spherical polystyrene nanoparticles as a model, the present approach provided a molar concentration with excellent accuracy. PMID:26781326

  18. Free Energy Perturbation Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP\\H-REMD) for absolute ligand binding free energy calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Roux, B.

    2010-09-01

    Free Energy Perturbation with Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP/REMD) offers a powerful strategy to improve the convergence of free energy computations. In particular, it has been shown previously that a FEP/REMD scheme allowing random moves within an extended replica ensemble of thermodynamic coupling parameters '{lambda}' can improve the statistical convergence in calculations of absolute binding free energy of ligands to proteins [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2583]. In the present study, FEP/REMD is extended and combined with an accelerated MD simulations method based on Hamiltonian replica-exchange MD (H-REMD) to overcome the additional problems arising from the existence of kinetically trapped conformations within the protein receptor. In the combined strategy, each system with a given thermodynamic coupling factor {lambda} in the extended ensemble is further coupled with a set of replicas evolving on a biased energy surface with boosting potentials used to accelerate the interconversion among different rotameric states of the side chains in the neighborhood of the binding site. Exchanges are allowed to occur alternatively along the axes corresponding to the thermodynamic coupling parameter {lambda} and the boosting potential, in an extended dual array of coupled {lambda}- and H-REMD simulations. The method is implemented on the basis of new extensions to the REPDSTR module of the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM. As an illustrative example, the absolute binding free energy of p-xylene to the nonpolar cavity of the L99A mutant of the T4 lysozyme was calculated. The tests demonstrate that the dual {lambda}-REMD and H-REMD simulation scheme greatly accelerates the configurational sampling of the rotameric states of the side chains around the binding pocket, thereby improving the convergence of the FEP computations.

  19. Absolute quantification of a very virulent Marek's disease virus dynamic quantity and distributions in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Shaoqiong; Ma, Chengtai; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-06-01

    Chickens infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) carry the virus consistently for a long time, which increases the incidence and rate of virus-induced multi-organ tumors and increases its potential for horizontal transmission. There is a positive correlation between very virulent (vv) MDV quantity and the pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine the vvMDV loads dynamics in different phases, and the correlation between the viral quantity and tumor development. We used a SYBR Green duplex real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR) assay to detect and quantify MDV loads and distributions in different tissues, targeting the Eco-Q protein gene (meq) of the virus and the house-keeping ovotransferrin (ovo) gene of chickens. The q-PCR was performed using different tissue DNA preparations derived from chickens which were infected with 1,000 pfu of the SDWJ1302 strain and tissue samples were collected from control and MDV-infected birds on 7, 10, 15, 21, 28, 40, 60, and 90 d post-infection (DPI). The data indicated that the MDV genome was almost quantifiable in immune organs of infected chickens as early as 7 DPI, and the number of MDV genome copies in the blood and different organs peaked by 28 DPI, but then gradually decreased by 40 DPI. The levels of viral quantity in the lymphocytes, liver, and spleen were all higher than those in other organs, and that in the feather follicles was the highest among different phases of MDV infection. The vvMDV could still be detected in peripheral blood and tissues by 90 DPI, and the vast existence of virus will stimulate tissue destruction. The data provided further evidence of viral infection involving multi-organ distribution and mainly involving immune organ proliferation, resulting in immunosuppression. PMID:25834249

  20. Nuclear depolarization and absolute sensitivity in magic-angle spinning cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Paul, Subhradip; Lee, Daniel; Feintuch, Akiva; Hediger, Sabine; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2015-09-14

    Over the last two decades solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has witnessed a breakthrough in increasing the nuclear polarization, and thus experimental sensitivity, with the advent of Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP). To enhance the nuclear polarization of protons, exogenous nitroxide biradicals such as TOTAPOL or AMUPOL are routinely used. Their efficiency is usually assessed as the ratio between the NMR signal intensity in the presence and the absence of microwave irradiation εon/off. While TOTAPOL delivers an enhancement εon/off of about 60 on a model sample, the more recent AMUPOL is more efficient: >200 at 100 K. Such a comparison is valid as long as the signal measured in the absence of microwaves is merely the Boltzmann polarization and is not affected by the spinning of the sample. However, recent MAS-DNP studies at 25 K by Thurber and Tycko (2014) have demonstrated that the presence of nitroxide biradicals combined with sample spinning can lead to a depolarized nuclear state, below the Boltzmann polarization. In this work we demonstrate that TOTAPOL and AMUPOL both lead to observable depolarization at ≈110 K, and that the magnitude of this depolarization is radical dependent. Compared to the static sample, TOTAPOL and AMUPOL lead, respectively, to nuclear polarization losses of up to 20% and 60% at a 10 kHz MAS frequency, while Trityl OX63 does not depolarize at all. This experimental work is analyzed using a theoretical model that explains how the depolarization process works under MAS and gives new insights into the DNP mechanism and into the spin parameters, which are relevant for the efficiency of a biradical. In light of these results, the outstanding performance of AMUPOL must be revised and we propose a new method to assess the polarization gain for future radicals. PMID:26235749

  1. Counter-intuitive features of the dynamic topography unveiled by tectonically realistic 3D numerical models of mantle-lithosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2013-04-01

    It has been long assumed that the dynamic topography associated with mantle-lithosphere interactions should be characterized by long-wavelength features (> 1000 km) correlating with morphology of mantle flow and expanding beyond the scale of tectonic processes. For example, debates on the existence of mantle plumes largely originate from interpretations of expected signatures of plume-induced topography that are compared to the predictions of analytical and numerical models of plume- or mantle-lithosphere interactions (MLI). Yet, most of the large-scale models treat the lithosphere as a homogeneous stagnant layer. We show that in continents, the dynamic topography is strongly affected by rheological properties and layered structure of the lithosphere. For that we reconcile mantle- and tectonic-scale models by introducing a tectonically realistic continental plate model in 3D large-scale plume-mantle-lithosphere interaction context. This model accounts for stratified structure of continental lithosphere, ductile and frictional (Mohr-Coulomb) plastic properties and thermodynamically consistent density variations. The experiments reveal a number of important differences from the predictions of the conventional models. In particular, plate bending, mechanical decoupling of crustal and mantle layers and intra-plate tension-compression instabilities result in transient topographic signatures such as alternating small-scale surface features that could be misinterpreted in terms of regional tectonics. Actually thick ductile lower crustal layer absorbs most of the "direct" dynamic topography and the features produced at surface are mostly controlled by the mechanical instabilities in the upper and intermediate crustal layers produced by MLI-induced shear and bending at Moho and LAB. Moreover, the 3D models predict anisotropic response of the lithosphere even in case of isotropic solicitations by axisymmetric mantle upwellings such as plumes. In particular, in presence of small (i.e. insufficient to produce solely any significant deformation) uniaxial extensional tectonic stress field, the plume-produced surface and LAB features have anisotropic linear shapes perpendicular to the far-field tectonic forces, typical for continental rifts. Compressional field results in singular sub-linear folds above the plume head, perpendicular to the direction of compression. Small bi-axial tectonic stress fields (compression in one direction and extension in the orthogonal direction) result in oblique, almost linear segmented normal or inverse faults with strike-slip components (or visa verse , strike-slip faults with normal or inverse components)

  2. Does Dynamical Downscaling Introduce Novel Information in Climate Model Simulations of Recipitation Change over a Complex Topography Region?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tselioudis, George; Douvis, Costas; Zerefos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Current climate and future climate-warming runs with the RegCM Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 50 and 11 km-resolutions forced by the ECHAM GCM are used to examine whether the increased resolution of the RCM introduces novel information in the precipitation field when the models are run for the mountainous region of the Hellenic peninsula. The model results are inter-compared with the resolution of the RCM output degraded to match that of the GCM, and it is found that in both the present and future climate runs the regional models produce more precipitation than the forcing GCM. At the same time, the RCM runs produce increases in precipitation with climate warming even though they are forced with a GCM that shows no precipitation change in the region. The additional precipitation is mostly concentrated over the mountain ranges, where orographic precipitation formation is expected to be a dominant mechanism. It is found that, when examined at the same resolution, the elevation heights of the GCM are lower than those of the averaged RCM in the areas of the main mountain ranges. It is also found that the majority of the difference in precipitation between the RCM and the GCM can be explained by their difference in topographic height. The study results indicate that, in complex topography regions, GCM predictions of precipitation change with climate warming may be dry biased due to the GCM smoothing of the regional topography.

  3. Determination of absolute configuration in chiral solvents with nuclear magnetic resonance. A combined molecular dynamics/quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ji?; Dra?nsk, Martin; Bou?, Petr

    2015-05-28

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is omnipresent in chemical analysis. However, chirality of a molecule can only be detected indirectly by NMR, e.g., by monitoring its interaction with another chiral object. In the present study, we investigate the spectroscopic behavior of chiral molecules placed into a chiral solvent. In this case, the solvent-solute interaction is much weaker, but the application range of such NMR analysis is wider than for a specific chemical shift agent. Two alcohols and an amine were used as model systems, and differences in NMR chemical shifts dependent on the solute-solvent chirality combination were experimentally detected. Combined quantum mechanic/molecular mechanic (QM/MM) computations were applied to reveal the underlying solute-solvent interactions. NMR shielding was calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). While the experimental observations could not be reproduced quantitatively, the modeling provided a qualitative agreement and detailed insight into the essence of solvent-solute chiral interactions. The potentials of mean force (PMF) obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) indicate that the chiral interaction brings about differences in conformer ratios, which are to a large extent responsible for the NMR shifts. The MD results also predicted slight changes in the solvent structure, including the radial distribution function (RDF), to depend on the solvent/solute chirality combination. Apart from the conformer distribution, an effective average solvent electrostatic field was tested as another major factor contributing to the chiral NMR effect. The possibility to simulate spectral effects of chiral solvents from the first-principles opens up the way to NMR spectroscopic determination of the absolute configuration for a larger scale of compounds, including those not forming specific complexes. PMID:25411905

  4. Two-phase thermodynamic model for efficient and accurate absolute entropy of water from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiang-Tai; Maiti, Prabal K; Goddard, William A

    2010-06-24

    Presented here is the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model for the calculation of energy and entropy of molecular fluids from the trajectory of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this method, the density of state (DoS) functions (including the normal modes of translation, rotation, and intramolecular vibration motions) are determined from the Fourier transform of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation functions. A fluidicity parameter (f), extracted from the thermodynamic state of the system derived from the same MD, is used to partition the translation and rotation modes into a diffusive, gas-like component (with 3Nf degrees of freedom) and a nondiffusive, solid-like component. The thermodynamic properties, including the absolute value of entropy, are then obtained by applying quantum statistics to the solid component and applying hard sphere/rigid rotor thermodynamics to the gas component. The 2PT method produces exact thermodynamic properties of the system in two limiting states: the nondiffusive solid state (where the fluidicity is zero) and the ideal gas state (where the fluidicity becomes unity). We examine the 2PT entropy for various water models (F3C, SPC, SPC/E, TIP3P, and TIP4P-Ew) at ambient conditions and find good agreement with literature results obtained based on other simulation techniques. We also validate the entropy of water in the liquid and vapor phases along the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve from the triple point to the critical point. We show that this method produces converged liquid phase entropy in tens of picoseconds, making it an efficient means for extracting thermodynamic properties from MD simulations. PMID:20504009

  5. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  6. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their students attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  7. Geoid anomalies and dynamic topography from convection in cylindrical geometry - Applications to mantle plumes on earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that at least some hotspots are formed by quasi-cylindrical mantle plumes upwelling from deep in the mantle. Such plumes are modeled in cylindrical, axisymmetric geometry with depth-dependent, Newtonian viscosity. Cylindrical and sheet-like, Cartesian upwellings have significantly different geoid and topography signatures. However, Rayleigh number-Nusselt number systematics in the two geometries are quite similar. The geoid anomaly and topographic uplift over a plume are insensitive to the viscosity of the surface layer, provided that it is at least 1000 times the interior viscosity. Increasing the Rayleigh number or including a low-viscosity asthenosphere decreases the geoid anomaly and the topographic uplift associated with an upwelling plume.

  8. Effects of bottom topography on dynamics of river discharges in tidal regions: case study of twin plumes in Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Kao, R.-C.; Ding, C.-F.

    2014-04-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighboring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are similar in many respects, and yet the two plumes exhibit significantly different behavior. We explain this through differences of the bottom topography in the areas adjacent to the two river mouths. The Zhuoshui River runs into a shallow area that is permanently exposed to strong tidal mixing, while the Wu River mouth is located in a deeper, stratified area outside the region of intense mixing. This destruction of the plume by tidal mixing is confirmed by the results of numerical modeling with POM. The spatial and temporal variability of turbulent kinetic energy and its production rate in the study region, as well as the horizontal diffusivity, are analyzed with the emphasis given to the dependence of the turbulence parameters on the bottom topography on the one hand and their influence on the river plumes on the other. Further, we use a Lagrangian particle tracking model in combination with POM to investigate the effect of the tidal wetting-and-drying (WAD) of land taking place near the Zhuoshui estuary, and demonstrate that WAD leads to significant reduction of the plume extent and surface salinity deficit near the river mouth. We use observational data from a short field campaign in the study area to tune and validate the model experiments.

  9. Application of the BEM approach for a determination of the regional marine geoid model and the mean dynamic topography in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, R.; ?underlk, R.; Dayoub, N.; Abdalla, A.

    2012-01-01

    We apply a novel approach for the gravimetric marine geoid modelling which utilise the boundary element method (BEM). The direct BEM formulation for the Laplace equation is applied to obtain a numerical solution to the linearised fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem in points at the Earth's surface. The numerical scheme uses the collocation method with linear basis functions. It involves a discretisation of the Earth's surface which is considered as a fixed boundary. The surface gravity disturbances represent the oblique derivative boundary condition. The BEM approach is applied to determine the marine geoid model over the study area of the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea using DNSC08 marine gravity data. The comparison of the BEM-derived and EGM2008 geoid models reveals that the geoid height differences vary within -25 and 18 cm with the standard deviation of 6 cm. The DNSC08 sea surface topography data and the new marine geoid are then used for modelling of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) over the study area. The local vertical datum (LVD) offsets estimated at 15 tide-gauge stations in New Zealand are finally used for testing the coastal MDT. The average value of differences between the MDT and LVD offsets is 1 cm.

  10. Dynamic topography of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic topography results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because dynamic topography is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted topography) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of dynamic mantle-driven uplift along the Jemez anomaly in the last 3.6 Ma. Apatite fission-track ages indicate a tilted 30 Ma 110C isotherm, however, suggesting that Jemez mantle-driven uplift is superimposed on earlier Rocky Mountain uplift that was initiated in the mid-Tertiary.

  11. Seismic waveform inversion for core-mantle boundary topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

    2014-07-01

    The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is directly linked to the dynamics of both the mantle and the outer core, although it is poorly constrained and understood. Recent studies have produced topography models with mutual agreement up to degree 2. A broad-band waveform inversion strategy is introduced and applied here, with relatively low computational cost and based on a first-order Born approximation. Its performance is validated using synthetic waveforms calculated in theoretical earth models that include different topography patterns with varying lateral wavelengths, from 600 to 2500 km, and magnitudes (10 km peak-to-peak). The source-receiver geometry focuses mainly on the Pdiff, PKP, PcP and ScS phases. The results show that PKP branches, PcP and ScS generally perform well and in a similar fashion, while Pdiff yields unsatisfactory results. We investigate also how 3-D mantle correction influences the output models, and find that despite the disturbance introduced, the models recovered do not appear to be biased, provided that the 3-D model is correct. Using cross-correlated traveltimes, we derive new topography models from both P and S waves. The static corrections used to remove the mantle effect are likely to affect the inversion, compromising the agreement between models derived from P and S data. By modelling traveltime residuals starting from sensitivity kernels, we show how the simultaneous use of volumetric and boundary kernels can reduce the bias coming from mantle structures. The joint inversion approach should be the only reliable method to invert for CMB topography using absolute cross-correlation traveltimes.

  12. A million-plus neuron model of the hippocampal dentate gyrus: Dependency of spatio-temporal network dynamics on topography.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Dong Song; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust, non-random pattern of spiking best described as spatiotemporal "clustering". To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters", we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatio-temporal distribution of clustered firing. These results uncover a functional organization of perforant path afferents to the dentate gyrus not previously recognized: topography-dependent clusters of granule cell activity as "functional units" that organize the processing of entorhinal signals. PMID:26737346

  13. Dynamics and Topography of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular topography covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.

  14. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 2. Suprasubduction zone ophiolite formation and metamorphic sole exhumation in context of absolute plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Peters, Kalijn; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim; Guilmette, Carl; Thieulot, Cedric; Plümper, Oliver; Gürer, Derya; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Aldanmaz, Ercan; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2015-06-01

    Analyzing subduction initiation is key for understanding the coupling between plate tectonics and the underlying mantle. Here we focus on suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites and how their formation links to intraoceanic subduction initiation in an absolute plate motion frame. SSZ ophiolites form the majority of exposed oceanic lithosphere fragments and are widely recognized to have formed during intraoceanic subduction initiation. Structural, petrological, geochemical, and plate kinematic constraints on their kinematic evolution show that SSZ crust forms at fore-arc spreading centers at the expense of a mantle wedge, thereby flattening the nascent slab. This leads to the typical inverted pressure gradients found in metamorphic soles that form at the subduction plate contact below and during SSZ crust crystallization. Former spreading centers are preserved in forearcs when subduction initiates along transform faults or off-ridge oceanic detachments. We show how these are reactivated when subduction initiates in the absolute plate motion direction of the inverting weakness zone. Upon inception of slab pull due to, e.g., eclogitization, the sole is separated from the slab, remains welded to the thinned overriding plate lithosphere, and can become intruded by mafic dikes upon asthenospheric influx into the mantle wedge. We propound that most ophiolites thus formed under special geodynamic circumstances and may not be representative of normal oceanic crust. Our study highlights how far-field geodynamic processes and absolute plate motions may force intraoceanic subduction initiation as key toward advancing our understanding of the entire plate tectonic cycle.

  15. Effects of rheology on the dynamics and development of topography in 3D numerical simulations of continental collision, with an application to the India-Asia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau represent the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of the region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully 3D models are required. Here, we employed the 3D code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed a large number of 3D simulations to analyse the dynamics and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the continental collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift and lateral extrusion of material). Despite the complex dynamics and the great variation in slab shape across the subduction-collision zone, which are consistent with tomographic observations, we note that slab-pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate. Several studies suggested that external forces (i.e. ridge push, plume push or slab suction) must be important in order to sustain the on-going convergence of India towards Eurasia. We show that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin within the Asian lithosphere are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus, analogous to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Next, we present a few models with more complex (power-law viscous and plastic) rheologies and compare them with linear viscous models. Funding was provided by the ERC under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830.

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing of Landscape Freeze/Thaw State Dynamics for Complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using Multi-Sensor Radar and SRTM Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Kimball, J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    The annual freeze/thaw cycle drives the length of the growing season in the boreal forest, and is a major factor determining annual productivity and associated exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Variations in freeze/thaw processes are spatially and temporally complex in boreal environments, particularly in areas of complex topography and in fire disturbance regimes. We investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of seasonal freeze/thaw dynamics in complex boreal landscapes, as derived from radar backscatter measured with ERS (C-band, VV polarization, 200m resolution) and JERS-1 (L-band, HH polarization, 100m resolution) Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), and with the SeaWinds scatterometer (Ku-band, 25km resolution). C- and L-band backscatter are applied to characterize freeze/thaw transitions for a chronosequence of recovering burn sites near Delta Junction, Alaska, and for a region of complex topography on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freeze/thaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields. A temporal change discriminator is applied to classify time series radar imagery to classify the landscape freeze-thaw state. We apply a 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to orthorectify the time series SAR imagery over the complex terrain site. This DEM was integrated with the SAR imagery to examine elevation and slope aspect effects on freeze/thaw transitions. Scaling assessments of the relationship between SAR and SeaWinds backscatter provide a means for determining sub-grid spatial variability in land cover, terrain and freeze/thaw processes, based on semi-variogram analyses. Results show that the high-resolution SARs may be applied to map freeze/thaw transitions in complex landscapes. In regions of complex terrain, dynamics related to elevation and slope aspect are delineated. Fusion with accurate DEM information as provided by SRTM facilitates orthorectification and analysis of terrain effects. The SARs also observe distinguishable differences in backscatter amplitude response and in the timing of freeze/thaw transitions associated with varying disturbance regimes driven by forest fire. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering landscape heterogeneity for development of remote sensing techniques for monitoring phenological processes across complex, heterogeneous landscapes in boreal ecosystems. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and the University of Montana under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Topography of chance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-11-01

    We present a model of multiplicative Langevin dynamics that is based on two foundations: the Langevin equation and the notion of multiplicative evolution. The model is a nonlinear mechanism transforming a white-noise input to a dynamic-equilibrium output, using a single control: an underlying convex U-shaped potential function. The output is quantified by a stationary density which can attain a given number of shapes and a given number of randomness categories. The model generates each admissible combination of the output's shape and randomness in a universal and robust fashion. Moreover, practically all the probability distributions that are supported on the positive half-line, and that are commonly encountered and applied across the sciences, can be reverse engineered by this model. Hence, this model is a universal equilibrium mechanism, in the context of multiplicative dynamics, for the robust generation of chance: the model's output. In turn, the properties of the produced chance, the output's shape and randomness, are determined with mathematical precision by the control's landscape, its topography. Thus, a topographic map of chance is established. As a particular application, probability distributions with power-law tails are shown to be universally and robustly generated by controls on the edge of convexity: convex U-shaped potential functions with asymptotically linear wings.

  18. Spatially uniform and nonuniform analyses of electroencephalographic dynamics,with application to the topography of the alpha rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S. C.; Robinson, P. A.

    2004-07-01

    Corticothalamic dynamics are investigated using a model in which spatial nonuniformities are incorporated via the coupling of spatial eigenmodes. Comparison of spectra generated using the nonuniform analysis with those generated using a uniform one demonstrates that, for most frequencies, local activity is only weakly dependent on activity elsewhere in the cortex; however, dispersion of low-wave-number activity ensures that distant dynamics influence local dynamics at low frequencies (below approximately 2Hz ), and at the alpha frequency (approximately 10Hz ), where propagating signals are inherently weakly damped, and wavelengths are large. When certain model parameters have similar spatial profiles, as is expected from physiology, the low-frequency discrepancies tend to cancel, and the uniform analysis with local parameter values is an adequate approximation to the full nonuniform one across the whole spectrum, at least for large-scale nonuniformities. After comparing the uniform and nonuniform analyses, we consider one possible application of the nonuniform analysis: studying the phenomenon of occipital alpha dominance, whereby the alpha frequency and power are greater at the back of the head (occipitally) than at the front. In order to infer realistic nonuniformities in the model parameters, the uniform version of the model is first fitted to data recorded from 98 normal subjects in a waking, eyes-closed state. This yields a set of parameters at each of five electrode sites along the midline. The inferred parameter nonuniformities are consistent with anatomical and physiological constraints. Introducing these spatial profiles into the full nonuniform model then quantitatively reproduces observed site-dependent variations in the alpha power and frequency. The results confirm that the frequency shift is mainly due to a decrease in the corticothalamic propagation delay, but indicate that the delay nonuniformity cannot account for the observed occipital increase in alpha power; the occipital alpha dominance is due to decreased cortical gains and increased thalamic gains in occipital regions compared to frontal ones.

  19. Coupled dynamics of the co-evolution of gravel bed topography, flow turbulence and sediment transport in an experimental channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of flume experiments were conducted in a large experimental channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory to understand the coupled dynamics of flow and bed forms above the sediment-water interface. Simultaneous high resolution measurements of velocity fluctuations, bed elevations and sediment flux at the downstream end of the channel, were made for a range of discharges. The probability density functions (pdfs) of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stress reveal a power law tail behavior and a wavelet cross-correlation analysis depicts a strong dependence of these series across a range of scales, indicating a feedback between bed form dynamics and near-bed turbulence. These results complement our previous findings in which the signature of bed form evolution on the near-bed velocity fluctuations was confirmed via the presence of a spectral gap and two distinct power law scaling regimes in the spectral density of velocity fluctuations. We report herein a strong asymmetry in the probability distribution of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stresses, the latter being further analyzed and interpreted via a quadrant analysis of velocity fluctuations in the longitudinal and vertical directions. We also report the presence of intermittency (multifractality) in bed elevation increments and interpret it, in view of the asymmetric nature of the pdfs, as the result of scale coupling. In other words, the geometric asymmetry at the bed form scale gets transferred down to a probabilistic asymmetry at all smaller scales indicating a local anisotropy in the energy transfer. Finally, we propose a predictive relationship between bed form averaged sediment transport rates and bed form averaged instantaneous Reynolds stress and validate it using our experimental data.

  20. Map of Mars' Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Map of Mars' topography with zonal spherical harmonic degree 1 (COM/COF offset along the polar z-axis) removed. The projection is rectangular to show topography from pole to pole. Note the general similarity in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres. The figure highlights the two other significant components of martian topography: the Tharsis province and the Hellas impact basin. Here we have not removed shorter-wavelength topographic features, including those comprising the dichotomy boundary scarp.

  1. Neuronal correlates of decisions to speak and act: Spontaneous emergence and dynamic topographies in a computational model of frontal and temporal areas

    PubMed Central

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the spontaneous, stimulus-independent emergence of intentions and decisions to act are poorly understood. Using a neurobiologically realistic model of frontal and temporal areas of the brain, we simulated the learning of perceptionaction circuits for speech and hand-related actions and subsequently observed their spontaneous behaviour. Noise-driven accumulation of reverberant activity in these circuits leads to their spontaneous ignition and partial-to-full activation, which we interpret, respectively, as model correlates of action intention emergence and action decision-and-execution. Importantly, activity emerged first in higher-association prefrontal and temporal cortices, subsequently spreading to secondary and finally primary sensorimotor model-areas, hence reproducing the dynamics of cortical correlates of voluntary action revealed by readiness-potential and verb-generation experiments. This model for the first time explains the cortical origins and topography of endogenous action decisions, and the natural emergence of functional specialisation in the cortex, as mechanistic consequences of neurobiological principles, anatomical structure and sensorimotor experience. PMID:23489583

  2. Neuronal correlates of decisions to speak and act: Spontaneous emergence and dynamic topographies in a computational model of frontal and temporal areas.

    PubMed

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermller, Friedemann

    2013-10-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the spontaneous, stimulus-independent emergence of intentions and decisions to act are poorly understood. Using a neurobiologically realistic model of frontal and temporal areas of the brain, we simulated the learning of perception-action circuits for speech and hand-related actions and subsequently observed their spontaneous behaviour. Noise-driven accumulation of reverberant activity in these circuits leads to their spontaneous ignition and partial-to-full activation, which we interpret, respectively, as model correlates of action intention emergence and action decision-and-execution. Importantly, activity emerged first in higher-association prefrontal and temporal cortices, subsequently spreading to secondary and finally primary sensorimotor model-areas, hence reproducing the dynamics of cortical correlates of voluntary action revealed by readiness-potential and verb-generation experiments. This model for the first time explains the cortical origins and topography of endogenous action decisions, and the natural emergence of functional specialisation in the cortex, as mechanistic consequences of neurobiological principles, anatomical structure and sensorimotor experience. PMID:23489583

  3. Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak Configuration Variable

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G.; Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

  4. Australian plate motion and topography linked to fossil New Guinea slab below Lake Eyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    2015-07-01

    Unravelling causes for absolute plate velocity change and continental dynamic topography change is challenging because of the interdependence of large-scale geodynamic driving processes. Here, we unravel a clear spatio-temporal relation between latest Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic subduction at the northern edge of the Australian plate, Early Cenozoic Australian plate motion changes and Cenozoic topography evolution of the Australian continent. We present evidence for a ?4000 km wide subduction zone, which culminated in ophiolite obduction and arc-continent collision in the New Guinea-Pocklington Trough region during subduction termination, coinciding with cessation of spreading in the Coral Sea, a ?5 cm/yr decrease in northward Australian plate velocity, and slab detachment. Renewed northward motion caused the Australian plate to override the sinking subduction remnant, which we detect with seismic tomography at 800-1200 km depth in the mantle under central-southeast Australia at a position predicted by our absolute plate reconstructions. With a numerical model of slab sinking and mantle flow we predict a long-wavelength subsidence (negative dynamic topography) migrating southward from ?50 Ma to present, explaining Eocene-Oligocene subsidence of the Queensland Plateau, ?330 m of late Eocene-early Oligocene subsidence in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Marion Plateau, and providing a first-order fit to the present-day, ?200 m deep, topographic depression of the Lake Eyre Basin and Murray-Darling Basin. We propound that dynamic topography evolution provides an independent means to couple geological processes to a mantle reference frame. This is complementary to, and can be integrated with, other approaches such as hotspot and slab reference frames.

  5. Membrane related dynamics and the formation of actin in cells growing on micro-topographies: a spatial computational model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intra-cellular processes of cells at the interface to an implant surface are influenced significantly by their extra-cellular surrounding. Specifically, when growing osteoblasts on titanium surfaces with regular micro-ranged geometry, filaments are shorter, less aligned and they concentrate at the top of the geometric structures. Changes to the cytoskeleton network, i. e., its localization, alignment, orientation, and lengths of the filaments, as well as the overall concentration and distribution of key-actors are induced. For example, integrin is distributed homogeneously, whereas integrin in activated state and vinculin, both components of focal adhesions, have been found clustered on the micro-ranged geometries. Also, the concentration of Rho, an intracellular signaling protein related to focal adhesion regulation, was significantly lower. Results To explore whether regulations associated with the focal adhesion complex can be responsible for the changed actin filament patterns, a spatial computational model has been developed using ML-Space, a rule-based model description language, and its associated Brownian-motion-based simulator. The focus has been on the deactivation of cofilin in the vicinity of the focal adhesion complex. The results underline the importance of sensing mechanisms to support a clustering of actin filament nucleations on the micro-ranged geometries, and of intracellular diffusion processes, which lead to spatially heterogeneous distributions of active (dephosphorylated) cofilin, which in turn influences the organization of the actin network. We find, for example, that the spatial heterogeneity of key molecular actors can explain the difference in filament lengths in cells on different micro-geometries partly, but to explain the full extent, further model assumptions need to be added and experimentally validated. In particular, our findings and hypothesis referring to the role, distribution, and amount of active cofilin have still to be verified in wet-lab experiments. Conclusion Letting cells grow on surface structures is a possibility to shed new light on the intricate mechanisms that relate membrane and actin related dynamics in the cell. Our results demonstrate the need for declarative expressive spatial modeling approaches that allow probing different hypotheses, and the central role of the focal adhesion complex not only for nucleating actin filaments, but also for regulating possible severing agents locally. PMID:25200251

  6. Two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy with absolute phasing by confocal imaging of a dynamic grating and 27-step phase-cycling

    SciTech Connect

    De, Arijit K. Fleming, Graham R.; Monahan, Daniele; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2014-05-21

    We present a novel experimental scheme for two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy (2D-FDCS) using a non-collinear beam geometry with the aid of “confocal imaging” of dynamic (population) grating and 27-step phase-cycling to extract the signal. This arrangement obviates the need for distinct experimental designs for previously developed transmission detected non-collinear two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (2D-CS) and collinear 2D-FDCS. We also describe a novel method for absolute phasing of the 2D spectrum. We apply this method to record 2D spectra of a fluorescent dye in solution at room temperature and observe “spectral diffusion.”.

  7. Combining Steady-State and Dynamic Methods for Determining Absolute Signs of Hyperfine Interactions: Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE)

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying causes of asymmetric intensities in Davies pulsed ENDOR spectra that are associated with the signs of the hyperfine interaction are reinvestigated. The intensity variations in these asymmetric ENDOR patterns are best described as shifts in an apparent baseline intensity that occurs dynamically following on-resonance ENDOR transitions. We have developed an extremely straightforward multi-sequence protocol that is capable of giving the sign of the hyperfine interaction by probing a single ENDOR transition, without reference to its partner transition. This technique, Pulsed ENDOR Saturatation and Recovery (PESTRE) monitors dynamic shifts in the baseline following measurements at a single RF frequency (single ENDOR peak), rather than observing anomalous ENDOR intensity differences between the two branches of an ENDOR response. These baseline shifts, referred to as dynamic reference levels (DRLs), can be directly tied to the electron spin manifold from which that ENDOR transition arises. The application of this protocol is demonstrated on 57Fe ENDOR of a 2Fe-2S ferredoxin. We use the 14N ENDOR transitions of the S = 3/2 [Fe(II)NO]2+ center of the non-heme iron enzyme, anthranilate dioxygenase (AntDO) to examine the details of the relaxation model using PESTRE. PMID:21075026

  8. Combining steady-state and dynamic methods for determining absolute signs of hyperfine interactions: Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The underlying causes of asymmetric intensities in Davies pulsed ENDOR spectra that are associated with the signs of the hyperfine interaction are reinvestigated. The intensity variations in these asymmetric ENDOR patterns are best described as shifts in an apparent baseline intensity that occurs dynamically following on-resonance ENDOR transitions. We have developed an extremely straightforward multi-sequence protocol that is capable of giving the sign of the hyperfine interaction by probing a single ENDOR transition, without reference to its partner transition. This technique, Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE) monitors dynamic shifts in the baseline following measurements at a single RF frequency (single ENDOR peak), rather than observing anomalous ENDOR intensity differences between the two branches of an ENDOR response. These baseline shifts, referred to as dynamic reference levels (DRLs), can be directly tied to the electron-spin manifold from which that ENDOR transition arises. The application of this protocol is demonstrated on 57Fe ENDOR of a 2Fe-2S ferredoxin. We use the 14N ENDOR transitions of the S = 3/2[Fe(II)NO]2+ center of the non-heme iron enzyme, anthranilate dioxygenase (AntDO) to examine the details of the relaxation model using PESTRE.

  9. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.

  10. X Ray Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some aspects in X-ray topography, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts

  12. Experimental and numerical modeling of wind flow over complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Ashkan

    Wind mapping is of utmost importance in various wind engineering, wind environment, and wind energy applications. The available wind atlases usually provide wind data with low resolutions relative to the wind turbine height and size and usually neglect the effect of topographic features with relatively large or sudden changes in elevation. Developing a cost effective methodology to predict the wind patterns and to obtain wind maps over any topographic terrain is absolutely needed for wind turbine/farm siting. As the previous analytic and empirical attempts to resolve the flow over topographic features were limited to basic geometries that hardly exist in nature, applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement techniques in wind tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques in numerical simulation of the flow over topography seems to be the best alternative solution to the problem. PIV measurements and CFD simulations are carried out on a 1:3000 scale model of complex topographic area. Three distinct topographic features are investigated: a valley, a ridge and a hill. The PIV measurements compare well with hot-wire based mean velocity profiles for the three cases. Moreover, the turbulence intensity profiles match well for flow regions without recirculation. The ridge wake region shows discrepancies between the two techniques which are attributed to the complexity of the flow in this region and limitations of both techniques. A procedure incorporating Geographic Information System (GIS) and surface modeling techniques is introduced to build the CFD model of a complex terrain starting from the existing topography maps with desired resolutions. Moreover, a new approach is made to simulate the terrain roughness up to ultimate roughness heights, by implementing arrays of bell-shaped roughness elements in the CFD model. The velocity profiles and velocity vectors were compared with the PIV measurements and were found to be in good agreement near the ground and up to the full scale height of 300m. The study shows that PIV measurements and CFD simulations can be successfully used in qualifying and quantifying the flow over complex topography consisting of a wide range of roughness heights, enabling to map the flow structure with very high spatial resolution. KEYWORDS: Wind mapping, Complex topography, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  13. Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration Dynamics to Topography and Burn Severity in two contrasting ecosystems: the Case of the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of Western Canada & that of a Typical Mediterranean site in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios; Griffirths, Hywel M.; Louka, Panagiota

    2015-04-01

    Altering land cover dynamics is currently regarded as the single most important variable of global change affecting ecological systems. Wildfires are an integral part of many terrestrial ecosystems and are considered to dramatically affect land cover dynamics at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. In this context, knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics is of key importance. In this study, we explore the relationships between vegetation recovery dynamics to topography and burn severity for two different ecosystems using a chronosequence of Landsat TM data images analysis. One of our experimental sites is the Okanagan Mountain Park, located in the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of western Canada at which a fire occurred in 2003. The other is Mt. Parnitha, located in Greece, representing a typical Mediterranean setting. The spatio-temporal patterns of regrowth for 8 years following the fire events were quantified based on the analysis of 2 widely used indices, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Regeneration Index (RI). Burn severity was derived from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) index computed from the Landsat TM images. Topographical information for the studied area was obtained from the ASTER global operational product. Relationships of vegetation regrowth to both topography and burn severity was quantified using a series of additional statistical metrics. In overall, results indicated noticeable differences in the recovery rates of both ecosystems to the pre-fire patterns. Re-growth rates appeared to be somewhat higher in north-facing slopes in comparison to south facing ones for both experimental sites, in common with other similar studies in different ecosystems. Lastly, areas of lower burn severity exhibited a higher recovery rate compared to areas of high severity burns. Results are presented in detail and an explanation of the main observation trends is also attempted to be provided. To our knowledge, this study is one of the few attempting to explore the relationships between post-fire vegetation regrowth and topography or burn severity, particularly so in such a comparative and systematic manner between two contrasting ecosystem types. It corroborates the significance of EO technology as a successful and cost-effective solution in providing information related to post-fire regeneration assessment. Keywords: post-fire vegetation regeneration, topography, burn severity, Landsat, remote sensing, Cordillera Ecozones, Canada, Mt. Parnitha, Greece

  14. Universal multifractal Martian topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, F.; Schmidt, F.; Lovejoy, S.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the scaling properties of the topography of Mars. Planetary topographic fields are well known to roughly exhibit (mono)fractal behavior. Indeed, the fractal formalism reproduces much of the variability observed in topography. Still, a single fractal dimension is not enough to explain the huge variability and intermittency. Previous studies have claimed that fractal dimensions might be different from one region to another, excluding a general description at the planetary scale. In this article, we analyze the Martian topographic data with a multifractal formalism to study the scaling intermittency. In the multifractal paradigm, the apparent local variation of the fractal dimension is interpreted as a statistical property of multifractal fields. We analyze the topography measured with the Mars Orbiter Laser altimeter (MOLA) at 300 m horizontal resolution, 1 m vertical resolution. We adapted the Haar fluctuation method to the irregularly sampled signal. The results suggest a multifractal behavior from the planetary scale down to 10 km. From 10 to 300 m, the topography seems to be simple monofractal. This transition indicates a significant change in the geological processes governing the Red Planet's surface.

  15. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  16. The oscillation model of hydrothermal dynamics beneath Aso volcano, southwest Japan after small eruption on May 2011: A new understanding model using repeated absolute and relative gravity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Shin; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Ohkura, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2010, the seismic activity in Aso volcano intensely increased and water level in the Nakadake crater decreased until early in 2011, then was followed by a small eruption in May 2011. After the eruption and heavy rain, the volcanic activity subsided to calm period, crater bottom was refilled with water, and water level increased in the Nakadake crater. The next tremor reappeared in 2014 and tracked to eruption in November 2014. This eruptive pattern and water level variation in the crater repeatedly appeared on the surface, and it should be related to the hydrothermal dynamics beneath Aso volcano. We initiated the gravity measurements in relation to hydrothermal dynamics in the subsurface of Aso volcano using Scintrex CG-5 (549) and LaCoste Romberg type G-1016 relative gravimeter at 28 benchmarks in April 2011, one month before the eruption. The repeated gravity measurements continue to monitor Aso volcano with a series of the measurement after the eruption in every three months to a half year. We analyze the gravity variation from 2011 to 2014 between the time of the phreatic and strombolian eruption. The measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. A new gravity network was also installed in May 2010 at seven benchmarks using A10-017 absolute gravimeter, which re-occupied in October 2010, June 2011 and two benchmarks in June 2014. As a result, the gravity changes distinguish hydrothermal dynamic in the subsurface, which has a direct correlation to water level fluctuation in the crater, after the first eruption and before the second discharge. The monitoring data notice large gravity changes between the surveys at benchmarks around Nakadake crater and Kusasenri area. The simple 3D inversion models of the 4-D gravity data deduce the density contrast distribution beneath Aso volcano. The inversion and mass change result generate the oscillation typical as a new understanding model. The variation of the mass shows a similar trend with the hydrothermal input rate to the crater of past research. The third year monitoring from April 2013 displays a large gravity and mass variation, while precipitation data in this period is smaller than the previous season. The largest increased mass about 43 million tons by Gaussian method occurred between May 2013 and September 2013. According to the three year gravity monitoring, the calm period in Aso volcano happens after May 2011 eruption until September 2013, which is followed by the active period, before the November 2014 eruption. This result will contribute to understand the process of eruption.

  17. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  18. Evolution of Shallow Isotherms Under Dynamic 3D Topography and Sampling Strategies for U-Th/He Dating: Examples From the Appalachian Blue Ridge and Southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.; Ault, A. L.; Idleman, B. D.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Koons, P. O.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of erosion on temperatures in the crust and the way this can complicate interpretation of cooling ages has been a venerable subject explored many times in both one and two dimensions. Unlike other thermochronological systems, the ~70 C closure isotherm pertinent to the U-Th/He system will be quite sensitive to topography at scale lengths that would seem to require a 3D approach to sampling, data interpretation, and modeling. As we illustrate with models and data from two end members, these complications in the temperature field are relevant to both older, more slowly eroding settings as well as active, rapidly exhuming settings where extreme erosion rates are in play. Solution of the transient heat flow equation in three dimensions identifies the thermal and temporal structures predicted for these two end-members. In older, more slowly eroding regions, such as the Appalachian Blue Ridge, relief is lower but the longer time scales and larger topographic wavelength conspire to allow non-trivial deflection of shallow isotherms that can thwart simple sampling strategies based on 2D age-elevation transects. In mountains such as Nanga Parbat and Namche Barwa in the Himalaya and the Southern Alps in New Zealand, rapid exhumation leaves shallow isotherms pushed well up into topography and sub-parallel to the topographic surface. Although the situation is complex, 3D modeling can help identify experimental and sampling strategies that permit interesting questions to be addressed in mountain-scale landscape evolution, such as the degree of lateral migration of mountainous topography. One simple approach is to generate predictive age-residual maps where the modeled 70 C closure surface is subtracted from the DEM used in generating the 3D model. This reveals locations where sampling can yield ages with useful variation, as in the southern Appalachians where existing age-elevation transects have not been particularly revealing on their own in reconstructions of the post-orogenic evolution of that landscape.

  19. The Dawn Topography Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-topography and tidal hydro-dynamics of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-topography of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-topography included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.

  3. Toward optical coherence topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui

    2012-03-01

    Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and topography are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.

  4. Topography of Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Lateral variations in the structure and crystallization of the inner core will likely be associated with lateral variations in the topography of its boundary. Depending on liquid fraction and the ratio of solid over liquid viscosity, the process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at the solidifying boundary can be dynamically unstable, resulting in small-scale corrugations of the boundary of 0.1 to 5 km height with a horizontal scale on the order of 1 to 10 km. Evidence of such ICB topography has been inferred from waveforms of PKiKP doublets (1). An additional observation consistent ICB topography includes the seismic wave diffracted around the top of the inner core (PKP-Cdiff), whose travel time agrees with that predicted by the AK135 Earth model, but whose amplitude decays more rapidly into the inner core shadow than is predicted by AK135 (2). These observations are modeled by synthesizing seismic body waves with a pseudospectral method (3) having a densified grid in the vicinity of a rough ICB. Validation of the forward modeling includes a comparison of results obtained with a boundary element method. Modeled spectra of ICB topography are used to constrain the parameters and processes that produce the topography. These include compaction length (assuming freezing upward from below), the structure of precipitated piles (assuming metallic snow falling from above), the sedimentary processes due to flow in the overlying F-layer of the outer core, and the relaxation of topography from viscous deformation of the inner core. 1. Cao, A., Y. Masson, and B. Romanowicz, PNAS, 104, 31-35, 2007. 2. Zou, Z., K. Koper, and V.F. Cormier, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005316. 3. Furumura T., B.L.N. Kennett, and M. Furumura, Geophys. J. Int., 135, 845--860, 1998.

  5. Antarctic topography from balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanon, N.; Julian, P. R.; Suomi, V. E.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation involving the collection of Antarctic ice sheet surface topography data by means of balloons, floating at an altitude of about 12.5 km, which traversed the Antarctic during its 1975 summer. These balloons were part of 411 constant density balloons launched in the Southern Hemisphere during the Tropical Wind, Energy conversion and Reference Level Experiment. The three sensors carried by each balloon included a radio altimeter, a pressure sensor, and an ambient temperature sensor. Data transmitted by a balloon are received by a measuring system on board the Nimbus-6 satellite. A synoptic map is presented of the 150 mbar pressure surface at 1200 GMT, December 11, 1975.

  6. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  7. Topography of Io (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.

    North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  8. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  9. Implications of MOLA Global Roughness, Statistics, and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonson, O.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    New insights are emerging as the ongoing high-quality measurements of the Martian surface topography by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft increase in coverage, resolution, and diversity. For the first time, a global characterization of the statistical properties of topography is possible. The data were collected during the aerobreaking hiatus, science phasing, and mapping orbits of MGS, and have a resolution of 300-400 m along track, a range resolution of 37.5 cm, a range precision of 1-10 m for surface slopes up to 30 deg., and an absolute accuracy of topography of 13 m. The spacecraft's orbit inclination dictates that nadir observations have latitude coverage of about 87.1S to 87.1N; the addition of observations obtained during a period of off-nadir pointing over the north pole extended coverage to 90N. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Lake Topography and Wind Waves Determining Seasonal-Spatial Dynamics of Total Suspended Matter in Turbid Lake Taihu, China: Assessment Using Long-Term High-Resolution MERIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r2 = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake topography, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r2 = 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206

  11. Support of long-wavelength topography on Mercury inferred from MESSENGER measurements of gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Peter B.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-02-01

    To explore the mechanisms of support of surface topography on Mercury, we have determined the admittances and correlations of topography and gravity in Mercury's northern hemisphere from measurements obtained by NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. These admittances and correlations can be interpreted in the context of a number of theoretical scenarios, including flexural loading and dynamic flow. We find that long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degree l < 15) surface topography on Mercury is primarily supported through a combination of crustal thickness variations and deep mass anomalies. The deep mass anomalies may be interpreted either as lateral variations in mantle density or as relief on compositional interfaces. Domical topographic swells are associated with high admittances and are compensated at 300-400 km depth in the lower reaches of Mercury's mantle. Quasi-linear topographic rises are primarily associated with shallow crustal compensation and are weakly correlated with positive mass anomalies in the mantle. The center of the Caloris basin features some of the thinnest crust on the planet, and the basin is underlain by a large negative mass anomaly. We also explore models of dynamic flow in the presence of compositional stratification above the liquid core. If there is substantial compositional stratification in Mercury's solid outer shell, relaxation of perturbed compositional interfaces may be capable of creating and sustaining long-wavelength topography.

  12. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  13. The length-scaling properties of topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Malinverno, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of topography are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the absolute elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((absolute value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.

  14. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  15. Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

    2003-01-01

    We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

  16. Topography driven spreading.

    PubMed

    McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Aqil, S; Perry, C C; Newton, M I

    2004-07-16

    Roughening a hydrophobic surface enhances its nonwetting properties into superhydrophobicity. For liquids other than water, roughness can induce a complete rollup of a droplet. However, topographic effects can also enhance partial wetting by a given liquid into complete wetting to create superwetting. In this work, a model system of spreading droplets of a nonvolatile liquid on surfaces having lithographically produced pillars is used to show that superwetting also modifies the dynamics of spreading. The edge speed-dynamic contact angle relation is shown to obey a simple power law, and such power laws are shown to apply to naturally occurring surfaces. PMID:15323838

  17. Absolute configuration of neostenine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wencai; Shaw, Pang-Chui; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Mak, Thomas C. W.

    2010-03-01

    Heavy atoms bromine and iodine were incorporated into the neostenine ( 1) skeleton through reductive cleavage of the lactone ring, followed by acylation with 4-bromobenzoyl chloride, and salt formation with methyl iodide, respectively. The absolute configuration of the seven chiral centers C1, C9, C9a, C10, C11, C1 and C13 in 1 were assigned as S, S, R, R, R, R, and S, respectively, based on the Flack parameters in X-ray structure refinement, and results from the two heavy atom derivatives are consistent with each other. As many Stemona alkaloids share the same lactone and pyrrolo[1,2-α]azepine nucleus as those in 1, the facile method reported in this paper can be applied for the determination of absolute configurations of similar alkaloids.

  18. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  19. Absolute configuration of odorine

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, known as odorine or roxburghiline {systematic name: (S)-N-[(R)-1-cinnamoylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-2-methylbutanamide}, C18H24N2O2, is a nitrogenous compound isolated from the leaves of Aglaia odorata. The absolute configuration was determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu K? radiation showing positions 2 and 2? to be S and R, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along [010] by intermolecular NH?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21588760

  20. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the mirror is slightly tilted. Hence, one can determine the amount and direction of tilt from the coordinates of the target image on the viewing plane.

  1. Fabrication of gradient colloidal topography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilin; Xue, Longjian; Han, Yanchun

    2005-06-21

    A rather simple but yet effective way to self-assemble polystyrene (PS) beads in gradient colloidal crystal topography is proposed. The PS bead concentration, solvent, and substrate have a big effect on the colloidal crystal topography. Whether the gradient-shaped crystals can form or not depends on the Bond number [Bo; the ratio of gravitational potential energy (G) to adhesive energy (E(a)), or gravitational to capillary forces]. When Bo < 1, that is, the capillary force dominates over the gravitational force, the liquid meniscus is stable. The gradient-shaped crystals can form. Otherwise, PS beads form a uniform multilayer structure. PMID:15952805

  2. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  3. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, H.; Saito, N.; Alekseev, I.; Sviridia, D.; Bravar, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nass, A.; Wood, J.; Zelenski, A.; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Haeberli, W.; Wise, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Stephenson, E.

    2008-02-06

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of {delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam}<5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of A{sub N} in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001<-t<0.032(GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  4. Toward a High-Resolution Monitoring of Continental Surface Water Extent and Dynamics, at Global Scale: from GIEMS (Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites) to SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Aires, Filipe; Papa, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Up to now, high-resolution mapping of surface water extent from satellites has only been available for a few regions, over limited time periods. The extension of the temporal and spatial coverage was difficult, due to the limitation of the remote sensing technique [e.g., the interaction of the radiation with vegetation or cloud for visible observations or the temporal sampling with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR)]. The advantages and the limitations of the various satellite techniques are reviewed. The need to have a global and consistent estimate of the water surfaces over long time periods triggered the development of a multi-satellite methodology to obtain consistent surface water all over the globe, regardless of the environments. The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-satellites (GIEMS) combines the complementary strengths of satellite observations from the visible to the microwave, to produce a low-resolution monthly dataset (0.25 0.25) of surface water extent and dynamics. Downscaling algorithms are now developed and applied to GIEMS, using high-spatial-resolution information from visible, near-infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images, or from digital elevation models. Preliminary products are available down to 500-m spatial resolution. This work bridges the gaps and prepares for the future NASA/CNES Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission to be launched in 2020. SWOT will delineate surface water extent estimates and their water storage with an unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy, thanks to a SAR in an interferometry mode. When available, the SWOT data will be adopted to downscale GIEMS, to produce a long time series of water surfaces at global scale, consistent with the SWOT observations.

  5. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  6. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  7. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  8. Residual topography and lithospheric structure of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, I.; Baranov, A.; Danesi, S.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    Antarctica has been the subject of considerable interest in the past few years, following the International Polar Year. The structure of its crust at a continental scale is however still known with large uncertainty. A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (AntMoho), merging copious information from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data has been analyzed: mostly seismic experiments, as well as receiver functions and geological studies, ranging from DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent seismic receiver function studies. AntMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography. Residual topography is obtained by removing the isostatic contribution of the crust from the observed topography. Long-wavelength residual topography is interpreted as dynamic response to large scale mantle convection and density contrasts. Our calculations show that significantly different inferences on lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics may result from the variance in Moho depth recorded in the different models. A better knowledge of Moho depth and, more generally, crustal structure for Antarctica at a continent scale is a goal with likely consequences for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

  9. A scanning radar altimeter for mapping continental topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Topographic information constitutes a fundamental data set for the Earth sciences. In the geological and geophysical sciences, topography combined with gravitational information provides an important constraint on the structure and rheologic properties of the crust and lithosphere. Detailed topography data can also be used to map offsets associated with faulting and to reveal the effects of tectonic deformation. In the polar regions, elevation data form a crucial but as yet largely unavailable resource for studying ice sheet mass balance and ice flow dynamics. The vast Antarctic ice sheet is the largest fresh water reservoir on Earth and is an important influence on ocean circulation and global climate. However, our knowledge of its stability is so limited that we cannot even specify whether the Antarctic ice sheet is growing or shrinking. It is clear that there is need for high quality global topography data. A summary of potential applications with their resolution requirements is shown.

  10. Linear baroclinic instability in the presence of large scale topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 topography on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the topography influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the topography and the forced wave influence the growth rates and the spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The latter are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the dynamical equations. Agreement is good between the two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 topography, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time-dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the topography, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.

  11. Hybrid Steered Molecular Dynamics Approach to Computing Absolute Binding Free Energy of Ligand–Protein Complexes: A Brute Force Approach That Is Fast and Accurate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Computing the free energy of binding a ligand to a protein is a difficult task of essential importance for which purpose various theoretical/computational approaches have been pursued. In this paper, we develop a hybrid steered molecular dynamics (hSMD) method capable of resolving one ligand–protein complex within a few wall-clock days with high enough accuracy to compare with the experimental data. This hSMD approach is based on the relationship between the binding affinity and the potential of mean force (PMF) in the established literature. It involves simultaneously steering n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) centers of mass of n selected segments of the ligand using n springs of infinite stiffness. Steering the ligand from a single initial state chosen from the bound state ensemble to the corresponding dissociated state, disallowing any fluctuations of the pulling centers along the way, one can determine a 3n-dimensional PMF curve connecting the two states by sampling a small number of forward and reverse pulling paths. This PMF constitutes a large but not the sole contribution to the binding free energy. Two other contributors are (1) the partial partition function containing the equilibrium fluctuations of the ligand at the binding site and the deviation of the initial state from the PMF minimum and (2) the partial partition function containing rotation and fluctuations of the ligand around one of the pulling centers that is fixed at a position far from the protein. We implement this hSMD approach for two ligand–protein complexes whose structures were determined and whose binding affinities were measured experimentally: caprylic acid binding to bovine β-lactoglobulin and glutathione binding to Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase tyrosine 7 to phenylalanine mutant. Our computed binding affinities agree with the experimental data within a factor of 1.5. The total time of computation for these two all-atom model systems (consisting of 96K and 114K atoms, respectively) was less than one wall-clock week using 512 cores (32 Xeon E5-2680 processors). PMID:25937822

  12. X-ray Topography in Protein Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Kenichi; Tachibana, Masaru

    X-ray topography, especially synchrotron X-ray topography, provides a useful tool for the characterization of protein crystals in order to characterize the defects. We observed clear images of dislocations in hen-egg white lysozyme crystals. In this article we overviewed the research on crystal defects, especially dislocations of protein crystals by synchrotron X-ray topography.

  13. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Rosen, Paul A.; Caro, Edward; Crippen, Robert; Duren, Riley; Hensley, Scott; Kobrick, Michael; Paller, Mimi; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Roth, Ladislav; Seal, David; Shaffer, Scott; Shimada, Joanne; Umland, Jeffrey; Werner, Marian; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Alsdorf, Douglas

    2007-06-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.

  14. Shape and Topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft are showing a new planet in its range of topography and in the detail of the geological features. MGS arrived at Mars in Sept 1997 and since Feb. 28, 1999 the laser altimeter has operated continuously. By the end of April 2000 MOLA had acquired over 350 million measurements of the planet's shape and topography. These observations show a strong down-hill topographic gradient from the south pole to the north pole with an extremely low and flat basin encompassing most of the northern hemisphere. Large outflow channels are seen in the Chyrse region that strongly suggest considerable quantities of water once flowed into the lower northern hemisphere from the south. The northern icecap, which rises to a height of three kilometers above the surrounding terrain, is shown to be largely composed of water ice and at the center of a large basin. The southern hemisphere is about five kilometers higher than the low northern plains and dominated by the Hellas impact basin whose ejecta is the major contributor to the topography of the hemisphere and the crustal dichotomy. The south polar icecap, which is part of a much larger region of layered terrain composed of water ice and dust, reaches an elevation of nearly five kilometers and except for the large Tharsis volcanoes is the highest part of the planet.

  15. Earth rotation and core topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Clayton, Robert W.; Spieth, Mary Ann

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Geodynamics program has as one of its missions highly accurate monitoring of polar motion, including changes in length of day (LOD). These observations place fundamental constraints on processes occurring in the atmosphere, in the mantle, and in the core of the planet. Short-timescale (t less than or approx 1 yr) variations in LOD are mainly the result of interaction between the atmosphere and the solid earth, while variations in LOD on decade timescales result from the exchange of angular momentum between the mantle and the fluid core. One mechanism for this exchange of angular momentum is through topographic coupling between pressure variations associated with flow in the core interacting with topography at the core-mantel boundary (CMB). Work done under another NASA grant addressing the origin of long-wavelength geoid anomalies as well as evidence from seismology, resulted in several models of CMB topography. The purpose of work supported by NAG5-819 was to study further the problem of CMB topography, using geodesy, fluid mechanics, geomagnetics, and seismology. This is a final report.

  16. Gravity and topography. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, dynamical oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and topography, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.

  17. Seismological Modeling of Inner Core Boundary Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. M.; Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's solid inner core is created by the slow freezing of a well-mixed, vigorously convecting, iron-rich outer core. The structure near inner core boundary (ICB) has a significant effect on core dynamics including the mechanisms behind the growth of inner core and the compositional convection driving the geodynamo. A dynamically unstable process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at a solidifying boundary can produce small-scale corrugations of the inner core boundary with heights on the order of 1km, consistent with a number of previous observations of body waves interacting with the ICB. We determine topographic models of a rough ICB that match the observed PKiKP and PKP-Cdiff waveforms. In order to constrain parameters of the modeled topography, the observations are compared with synthetic seismograms generated using a boundary element method that exploits a dense discretization along the surface of the ICB. This method of modeling is more computationally efficient and flexible than finite difference methods previously used in these studies, which in turn allows us to make our calculations more accurate. The implementation of the modeling procedure starts by setting up boundary element method for a two-layered homogeneous interior and exterior of ICB system and later adds the real Earth's radial inhomogeneity to the exterior where propagation of rays are calculated using ray theory. An initial test is carried out to identify the parametric limits of models where ICB topography begins to impose observable effects to the PKiKP coda at approximately 50 great circle distance.

  18. Topography, Cell Response, and Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2010-01-01

    In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed topography can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to topography is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface topographies. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret topography remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of topography on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response. PMID:20438370

  19. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative

  20. Precision Measurement Of Corneal Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R.; Macri, Timothy F.; Telfair, William B.; Bennett, Peter S.; Martin, Clifford A.; Warner, John W.

    1989-05-01

    We describe a new electro-optical device being developed to provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional topography of the human cornea. This device, called a digital keratoscope, is intended primarily for use in preparing for and determining the effect of corneal surgery procedures such as laser refractive keratectomy, radial keratotomy or corneal transplant on the refractive power of the cornea. It also may serve as an aid in prescribing contact lenses. The basic design features of the hardware and of the associated computer software are discussed, the means for alignment and calibration are described and typical results are given.

  1. Effect of topography on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.

    PubMed

    Vujovi?, Dragana; Vu?kovi?, Vladan; Curi?, Mla?en

    2014-03-01

    An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of topography on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex topography of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud dynamics, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic topography, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without topography. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real topography conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real topography give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %. PMID:24243093

  2. Plasma processing for nanostructured topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Nicholas Alfred

    Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial topographies. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating topographies with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.

  3. Venus topography - A harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, B. G.; Kobrick, M.

    1985-01-01

    A model of Venusian global topography has been obtained by fitting an eighteenth-degree harmonic series to Pioneer Venus orbiter radar altimeter data. The mean radius is (6051.45 + or - 0.04) km. The corresponding mean density is (5244.8 + or 0.5) kg/cu m. The center of figure is displaced from the center of mass by (0.339 + or - 0.088) km towards (6.6 + or 10.1) deg N, (148. 8 + or - 7.7) deg. The figure of Venus is distinctly triaxial, but the orientation and magnitudes of the principal topographic axes correlate rather poorly with the gravitational principal axes. However, the higher-degree harmonics of topography and gravity are significantly correlated. The topographic variance spectrum of Venus is very similar in form to those of the moon, Mars, and especially earth. It is suggested that this spectral similarity simply reflects a statistical balance between constructional and degradational geomorphic proceses. Venus and earth are particularly similar (and differ from the moon and Mars) in that the larger bodies both exhibit a significant low degree deficit (relative to the extrapolated trend of the higher harmonics).

  4. Topography from single radar images.

    PubMed

    Wildey, R L

    1984-04-13

    A mathematical theory and a corresponding numerical procedure have been developed to produce digital topography from radar images as digital photometric arrays. Thus, as radargrammetry is to photogrammetry, so radarclinometry is to photoclinometry. Photoclinometry encompasses a fundamental indeterminacy principle even for terrain that is homogeneous in normal albedo, because the surface normal consistent with a given reflected specific intensity is not unique. A geometric locus of such normal directions is implied, which generates a surface. For microwave backscatter, in specific application to radarclinometry, this surface is a cone whose half-angle is the incidence angle, whose axis contains the radar, and whose apex coincides with the terrain point. Although the indeterminacy can be removed if a properly directed profile of ground truth is available as a constraint, such is seldom the case. In its absence, an auxiliary assumption, such as that the strike line runs perpendicular to the illumination line, is needed. If metric integrity is a goal, then this is an absurd assumption. Herein, "the hypothesis of local cylindricity" has been assumed, a premise regarding the nature of topographic curvature that seems more realistic and that makes possible the production of topography as a set of parallel line integrals. PMID:17744680

  5. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  6. Predicting channel bed topography in hydraulic falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Alexander; Yu, Zheng; Kelso, Richard M.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2015-11-01

    We consider inverse methods for predicting the channel bed topography in experiments of hydraulic falls. Nonlinear solutions and weakly nonlinear approximations from Euler-based models are compared to experimental observations. Accurate predictions are obtained for the maximum height of the topography and its constant horizontal level far downstream using the nonlinear method. The weakly nonlinear approximation is shown only to be a good predictor of the maximum height of the topography. The error in the inverse predictions is examined and discussed.

  7. Wrinkled surface topographies of electrospun polymer fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Pai, Chia-Ling; Boyce, Mary C.; Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2009-04-01

    Electrospun polymer fibers are shown to have wrinkled surface topographies that result from buckling instabilities during processing. A glassy shell forms on the surface of the gel-like core during solvent evaporation; continued evaporation leads to a contraction mismatch between the core and shell that triggers buckling of the shell. The wrinkled topographies are quantified in terms of the critical buckling wave number and wavelength. The results explain the observed wrinkled topographies and provide a framework for designing fibers with high specific surface areas and textured/patterned surface topographies to enhance surface dominated properties in fibers and fibrous mats.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Complex Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Matthias; Rotach, Mathias; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gohm, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale the budget of carbon dioxide (CO_2) bears a quite substantial uncertainty, which is commonly understood to be mainly due to land-surface exchange processes. In this project we investigate to what extent complex topography can amplify these land-surface exchange processes. The hypothesis is that, on the meso-scale, topography adds additional atmospheric mechanisms that drive the exchange of CO2 at the surface. This sensitivity model study investigates an idealized sine shaped valley with the atmospheric numerical model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled to the community land model (CLM) to study the effect of complex topography on the CO2 budget compared to flat terrain. The experiment is designed to estimate the effect of the topography during maximum ecosystem exchange in summer using meteorological and ecosystem conditions at solstice, the 21. of June. Systematic variation of meteorological initial conditions, plant functional types and the topography creates an ensemble that unveils the fundamental factors that dominate the differences of CO2 between simulations with topography compared to plain surfaces in the model. The sign and magnitude of the difference between the CO2 exchange over topography and over a plain simulation are strongly dependent on the CLM plant functional type, the initial temperature, the initial relative humidity, the latitude and the area height distribution of the topography. However, in this model experiment the topography is, in the mean, a sink to the CO2 budget in the order of 5% per day.

  9. Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandstra, Joel Z.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-12-01

    The topography of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using topography parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of topography parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface topography in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d2/d3) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d1/d3) . This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the topography of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that absolute rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface topography alone. To identify independent sets of topography parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d1/d3 and d2/d3 and computed a suite of common topography parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E [s ] , can serve to uniquely determine d1/d3 and d2/d3 provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D >1.5 (which corresponds to D >2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface topography becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface topography are not independent and any single topography parameter contains all of the available mechanistic information about the surface. Our results also indicate that root-mean-square roughness cannot be used to reliably characterize the surface topography of fractal surfaces because it is an inherently noisy parameter for such surfaces with the scale of the noise being independent of length scale.

  10. Venus - Global gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1993-05-01

    A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of topography based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.

  11. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    2000-01-01

    On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.

  12. Rejuvenation of Appalachian topography due to subsidence induced differential erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2014-12-01

    In ancient orogens, such as the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, the difference between the high and low pointstopographic reliefcan continue to increase long after the tectonic forces that created the range have become inactive. Climatic forcing and mantle-induced dynamic uplift are proposed to drive formation of relief, but clear evidence is lacking in the Appalachian Mountains. Here I use a numerical simulation of dynamic topography in North America, combined with reconstructions of the sedimentation history from the Gulf of Mexico, to show that rejuvenation of topographic relief in the Appalachian Mountains since the Palaeogene period could have been caused by mantle-induced dynamic subsidence associated with sinking of the subducted Farallon slab. Specifically, I show that patterns of continental erosion and the eastward migration of sediment deposition centres in the Gulf of Mexico closely follow the locus of predicted dynamic subsidence. Furthermore, pulses of rapid sediment deposition in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic correlate with enhanced erosion in the Appalachian Mountains during the Miocene epoch, caused by dynamic tilting of the continent. Calculations show that such subsidence-induced differential erosion caused flexural-isostatic adjustments of Appalachian topography that led to the development of both relief and elevation. I propose that dynamically induced continental tilting may provide a mechanism for topographic rejuvenation in ancient orogens.

  13. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  14. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of topography and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.

  15. Crustal thickness and support of topography on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Peter B.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2013-04-01

    The topography of a terrestrial planet can be supported by several mechanisms: (1) crustal thickness variations, (2) density variations in the crust and mantle, (3) dynamic support, and (4) lithospheric stresses. Each of these mechanisms could play a role in compensating topography on Venus, and we distinguish between these mechanisms in part by calculating geoid-to-topography ratios and apparent depths of compensation. By simultaneously inverting for mass anomalies at two depths, we solve for the spatial distribution of crustal thickness and a similar map of mass anomalies in the mantle, thus separating the effects of shallow and deep compensation mechanisms on the geoid. The roughly circular regions of mantle mass deficit coincide with the locations of what are commonly interpreted to be buoyant mantle plumes. Additionally, there is a significant geographic correlation between patches of thickened crust and mass deficits in the mantle, especially for spherical harmonic degree l < 40. These mass deficits may be interpreted either as lateral thermal variations or as Mg-rich melt residuum. The magnitudes of mass deficits under the crustal highlands are roughly consistent with a paradigm in which highland crust is produced by melting of upwelling plumes. The mean thickness of the crust is constrained to a range of 8-25 km, somewhat lower than previous estimates. The best two-layered inversion of gravity incorporates a dynamic mantle load at a depth of 250 km.

  16. High surface topography related to upper mantle flow beneath Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komut, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Eastern Anatolia region between north-south colliding Arabian and Eurasian plates has no significant crustal root and shallow (upper) mantle flow beneath seems to be vertically supporting its high topography. It has a high surface heat flow and the underlying mantle is characterized by low seismic velocity zones. Using a mantle density/temperature variation field derived from P-wave seismic velocity, current shallow mantle flow and resultant dynamic topography of Eastern Anatolia and adjacent Arabian foreland and Caucasus areas were calculated along a vertical section. The section crosses the tectonic boundaries interrelated with slab bodies (high seismic velocity/cold regions) and the low velocity zones above the slabs. According to the modelling experiments, the surface topography of Eastern Anatolia seems to be supported by shallow mantle flow dynamics. On the other hand, residual topography for the region was calculated using high resolution crustal thickness data. Positive residual topography that suggests an undercompensated state of Eastern Anatolia is in concordance with the dynamic topography anomaly. The modelled local shallow mantle flow support due to the density contrast between hot (low velocity) zones and underlying cold slab bodies beneath the area may be the present-day snapshot of the mantle flow uplift in Eastern Anatolia presence of which was previously suggested.

  17. Venus atmosphere and extreme surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, L.; Khatuntsev, I.; Patsaeva, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Rodin, A.; Turin, A.; Markiewicz, W.; Piccioni, G.

    2015-10-01

    The temperature fields at several levels in the Venus mesosphere(60-95 km)as well as the altitude of the upper boundary of clouds retrieved from Venera-15 (FS-V15) [1], and the zonal wind fields and albedo of the upper clouds, measured by VMC Venus Express [2], and altitude of the upper boundary of clouds VIRTIS-M VEX [3] data are compared with the topographic map, obtained by Magellan [4] . The results show that the isotherms and the altitude isolines of the upper clouds boundary reproduce the extended surface features Ishtar and Atalanta Planitia. In turn, the shapes of wind isovelocities and albedo at the upper boundary of clouds (VMC) closely follow the details of relief of Terra Aphrodite as well the isolines of altitude of the cloud tops (VIRTIS). In all cases the isolines are shifted with respect to topography by about 30° in the direction of superrotation. Non-hydrostatic general circulation model of the Venus atmosphere[5] demonstrates that the major topographic features such as Maxwell Montes and Terra Aphrodite provide a prominent impact on the atmospheric dynamics at levels as high as 90-95 km.

  18. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  19. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  20. Maps of Mars Global Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Maps of Mars' global topography. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.

  1. Topography driven conceptual modelling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H.

    2009-12-01

    Heterogeneity and complexity of hydrological processes offer substantial challenges to the hydrological modeller. Some hydrologists try to tackle this problem by introducing more and more detail in their models, or by setting-up more and more complex models starting from basic principles at the smallest possible level. As we know, this reductionist approach leads to ever higher levels of equifinality and predictive uncertainty. On the other hand, simple, lumped and parsimonious models may be too simple to be realistic or representative of the dominant hydrological processes. In this paper, a new model approach is proposed that tries to find the middle way between complex distributed and simple lumped modelling approaches. It addresses an aspect often overlooked in model uncertainty assessment: the structural errors made by conceptual misrepresentation. It uses a flexible model architecture based on a classification system that is topography driven. Catchments are divided into different conceptual model classes, which are subsequently modelled with parsimonious conceptual models. The approach is process based, but not physically based in the traditional sense. Instead, it is based on a conceptual representation of the dominant physical processes in certain key elements of the landscape.

  2. Moho depth and residual topography of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Alexey; Molinari, Irene; Morelli, Andrea; Danesi, Stefania

    2013-04-01

    A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (ANTMoho), merging information retrieved from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data have been analyzed: from active seismic prospection,including DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent passive seismic receiver function and geological studies. ANTMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. The oldest Archean and Proterozoic crust of East Antarctica has a thickness of 36-56 km (with an average of about 41 km). The continental crust of the Transantarctic Mountains, the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilkes Basin has a thickness of 30-40 km (with an average Moho of about 30 km). The youngest rifted continental crust of the West Antarctic Rift System has a thickness of 16-28 km (with an average Moho of about 26 km). The mean Moho depth of the whole model is 33.8 km. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography -- an indicator of dynamic response to large-scale mantle flow. We adopt the semianalytical methodology implemented in the HC code (developed and maintained by Prof. T. Becker). The spatial resolution is limited by the L=127 of the input model. The Transantarctic Mountains appear not to be isostatically compensated, such as the neighboring Wilkes Subglacial Basin. East Antarctica on a large scale does not show significant uncompensated topography. There are however some smaller-scale residual topography features, that correlate with sub-glacial topography and that may indicate some limitation in resolution or laterally-variable crustal density. Better knowledge of crustal structure is therefore an important tool for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

  3. Feinberg on Absolute Legal Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Gene G.

    1976-01-01

    Although the author wished that there were absolute rights, as Joel Feinberg has argued there are, he presented an argument to the contrary. Among the points he attempted to establish was that there is no hard and fast distinction between legal rights and legal privileges as Feinberg has maintained. (Author/RK)

  4. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  5. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  6. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W. M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Gro, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-07-01

    Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing ?a and the receding ?r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations ?(p) for the inclination angle ?, contact angle ?, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis relative to the first boundary points XB,10. Therefore, sessile drops during the inclination of the sample surface are video recorded and different specific contact angle events in dependence on the acceleration/deceleration of the triple line motion are analyzed. This procedure results in characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. The used procedures lead to the possibility to investigate influences on contact angles more in detail.

  7. Absolute Performance of AUSGeoid09 in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussanna, Vittorio; Janssen, Volker; Gibbings, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Australian Height Datum (AHD) is the current national vertical datum for Australia, and AUSGeoid09 is the latest quasigeoid model used to compute (normal-orthometric)AHDheights fromGlobalNavigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived ellipsoidal heights. While previous studies have evaluated the AUSGeoid09 model across Australia, such studies have not focused on mountainous regions in particular. This paper investigates the performance of AUSGeoid09 in an absolute sense in the Mid Hunter and Snowy Mountains regions of New South Wales. Absolute (i.e. single point) comparisons were undertaken between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and published AHD heights. The performance of AUSGeoid09 was evaluated relative to its predecessor AUSGeoid98. In both study areas, an overall improvement is evident when applying AUSGeoid09 to compute AHD heights in an absolute sense. In the MidHunter, AUSGeoid09 provided a substantial improvement over its predecessor, clearly demonstrating the benefits of its new geometric component on GNSS-derived AHD height determination. In the Snowy Mountains, moderate improvement over AUSGeoid98 was evident. However, a slope was detected for AUSGeoid09 residuals, and it appears that the geometric component may have overcompensated for sea surface topography in this area. While this appraisal of AUSGeoid09 performance in mountainous regions is encouraging, it has been shown that some discrepancies still remain between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and AHD. Eventually, a new vertical datum will be necessary to ensure homogeneity across Australia.

  8. Improved Lunar Control and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Rosiek, M. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Redding, B. L.

    2005-08-01

    We are completing the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) 2005, an update and combination of the ULCN (Davies and Colvin 1994) and the Clementine LCN (CLCN) (unpublished) on which USGS Clementine mosaics are based. The new network should correct for large ( 7 km average to > 15 km) errors in the CLCN by constraining ULCN positions and camera angles, and by solving for radii at all points rather than assuming a sphere. The result will be a 3-D network, including a globally complete and consistent topographic model for the Moon tied directly to horizontal control. The estimated horizontal accuracy of our current solution ranges from 1 km in the areas of ULCN points to 3 km outside these areas. The current ULCN has a vertical accuracy of a few hundred meters when compared to Clementine lidar. The true accuracy may be higher, due to interpolation and lidar positional errors involved in the comparison. The final version should be available at the time of the DPS. Our current solution includes 546,142 image measures of 272,949 points and 43,866 Clementine (mostly 750-nm) images. We will report the results in a peer-reviewed article and distribute the network data from our website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ControlNetworks/). This solution will be useful for scientific study of lunar morphology and basins; and for operational uses in selecting and targeting landing sites and evaluating landing hazards due to topography. A future solution will include Lunar Orbiter, Mariner 10, and Galileo data. Additionally, it will serve as the basis for solutions with data from upcoming missions, thus placing all data in one consistent coordinate system. We acknowledge the initiation of this work by T. Colvin and (the late) M. Davies at RAND, and funding from the NASA PG&G program.

  9. Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

    2011-12-01

    Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface topography, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace topography evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.

  10. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  11. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  12. Convection-driven compaction as a possible origin of Enceladus's long wavelength topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besserer, J.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The long wavelength surface topography of Enceladus shows depressions about 1 km in depth and 102 km wide. One possible cause of this topography is spatially variable amounts of compaction of an initially porous ice shell, driven by spatial variations in heat flux. Here, we show that the heat flux variations associated with convection in the shell can quantitatively match the observed features. We develop a simple model of viscous compaction that includes the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity, and find that an initial shell porosity of at least 20-25% is required to develop the observed topography over 1 Ga. This mechanism produces topographic depressions, not rises, above convective upwellings, and does not generate detectable gravity anomalies. Unlike transient dynamic topography, it can potentially leave a permanent record of ancient convective processes in the shallow lithospheres of icy satellites.

  13. Topography of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1997-01-01

    Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar Topography Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an absolute vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the topography shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of topography is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin topography is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 10(exp 1) - 10(exp 2) km correlates with elevation and surface age.

  14. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of SERTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Condor, C. E.; Haas, J. P.; Linard, D. L., II; Swartz, M.; Kent, B. J.; Hollandt, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. We have recently carried out a complete end-to-end calibration of the instrument to determine its absolute radiometric response over the full bandpass of 300 -- 365 Angstroms. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibration of the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) experiment now flying aboard the SOHO spacecraft. For our SERTS project, the unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany was re-calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (1sigma ) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the SERTS aperture over a range of pitch and yaw angles were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to <= 25%, considering all sources of error. These results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted `insensitive' line ratios. The recent measurements at RAL also give information about the uniformity of illumination across the collimated source beam, as well as about polarization characteristics of both the instrument and radiation source, which may prove helpful in correctly interpreting the original CDS calibration data. We hope to repeat such calibration measurements and to provide future SERTS flights annually, at least throughout the duration of the SOHO mission. Coordinated observing programs would then allow these updated absolute calibrations to be transferred on a regular basis to several of the instruments onboard SOHO, including CDS, EIT, and CELIAS.

  15. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  16. Influence of topography on tropical African vegetation coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Gerlinde; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Hominid evolution in the late Miocene has long been hypothesized to be linked to the retreat of the tropical rainforest in Africa. One cause for the climatic and vegetation change often considered was uplift of Africa, but also uplift of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau was suggested to have impacted rainfall distribution over Africa. Recent proxy data suggest that in East Africa open grassland habitats were available to the common ancestors of hominins and apes long before their divergence and do not find evidence for a closed rainforest in the late Miocene. We used the coupled global general circulation model CCSM3 including an interactively coupled dynamic vegetation module to investigate the impact of topography on African hydro-climate and vegetation. We performed sensitivity experiments altering elevations of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau as well as of East and Southern Africa. The simulations confirm the dominant impact of African topography for climate and vegetation development of the African tropics. Only a weak influence of prescribed Asian uplift on African climate could be detected. The model simulations show that rainforest coverage of Central Africa is strongly determined by the presence of elevated African topography. In East Africa, despite wetter conditions with lowered African topography, the conditions were not favorable enough to maintain a closed rainforest. A discussion of the results with respect to other model studies indicates a minor importance of vegetation-atmosphere or ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and a large dependence of the simulated vegetation response on the land surface/vegetation model.

  17. Evaluating Marie Byrd Land stability using an improved basal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschuh, N.; Pollard, D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Prior understanding of the ice-sheet setting in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) was derived primarily from geologic and geochemical studies of the current nunataks, with very few geophysical surveys imaging the ice covered regions. The geologic context suggested that the ice rests on a broad regional high, in contrast to the deep basins and trenches that characterize the majority of West Antarctica. This assumed topography would favor long-term stability for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in MBL. Airborne geophysical data collected in 2009 reveal a much deeper bed than previously estimated, including a significant trough underlying DeVicq Glacier and evidence for extensive glacial erosion. Using these data, we produce a new map of subglacial topography, with which we model the sensitivity of WAIS to a warming ocean using the ice-sheet model of Pollard and DeConto (2012b). We compare the results to estimates of ice loss during WAIS collapse using the previously defined subglacial topography, to determine the impact of the newly discovered subglacial features. Our results indicate that the topographic changes are not sufficient to destabilize the northern margin of MBL currently feeding the Getz Ice Shelf; the majority of ice loss occurs from flow toward the Siple Coast. However, despite only slight dynamic differences, using the new bed as a boundary condition results in an additional 8 cm of sea-level rise during major glacial retreat, an increase of just over 2%. Precise estimation of past and future ice retreat, as well as a complete understanding of the geologic history of the region, will require a higher resolution picture of the bed topography around the Executive Committee mountains.

  18. Reconstructing Pliocene coastlines, topography and bathymetry: A geodynamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    The middle Pliocene period (~3.3-3.0 Mya) was characterized by warm temperatures (2-3℃ higher) and high carbon-dioxide (~400 ppmv) concentrations which has led to its recognition as a possible analogue for the future climate. Under the auspices of the Pliocene Modeling and Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), general circulation models (GCM's) are being employed to simulate mid-Pliocene climate to better understand the biases in these models, which are presently used to make future climate predictions. Necessary boundary conditions for these simulations — land mask, topography, surface albedo and vegetation cover are being provided by the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project. Bathymetry, which is not part of the PRISM supplied dataset has been adjusted by raising the sea-level by an assumed constant eustatic amount. At present the PRISM land mask, topography and bathymetry reconstructions do not incorporate the gravitationally self consistent changes that would be required to account for the mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets that produced the assumed rise in eustatic sea level. The effects of dynamic topography induced corrections, due to the action of the mantle convection process, have also been neglected.The influence of these corrections on the predictions of Pliocene climate using modern GCM's remains unexplored. The continuing failure of these models to simulate proxy inferred levels of warming in high-latitude [Dowsett et al., 2013, Sci. Rep.] regions where the magnitude of the required corrections are expected to be largest make it especially important that their impact be assessed. Here, we present the results from a preliminary of the required modifications to the boundary condition data sets.We compute the gravitationally self consistent corrections using the viscoelastic theory of global, glacial isostatic adjustment and relative sea level history for a spherically symmetric Earth model. Dynamic topography related changes are computed using a 3D convection model initialized using seismic tomography. Together, this creates an updated picture of the mid-Pliocene shoreline, topography and bathymetry that can be employed as boundary conditions for future Pliocene climate modeling.

  19. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  20. Familial aggregation of absolute pitch.

    PubMed

    Baharloo, S; Service, S K; Risch, N; Gitschier, J; Freimer, N B

    2000-09-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as "AP-1." As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  1. Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex topography on tornado genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007), Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010) and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011) have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4-T5 (Torro scale) and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a) 0% (actual topography) and (b) -100% (without topography). The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes - mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN), the energy helicity index (EHI), the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH) and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e). Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis absolute vorticity budget. Numerical simulations revealed that the complex topography was denoted as an important factor during 17 November 2007 and 12 February 2010 events, based on EHI and BRN analyses. Topography around 20 September 2011 event was characterized as the least factor based on EHI, SRH, BRN analyses.

  2. Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of complex Greek topography on tornadogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.

    2014-07-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over recent decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. While it has been established that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea to the west and the Aegean Sea to the east, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornadogenesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thebes (Boeotia, 17 November 2007), Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010) and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011) were selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensities were T4-T5 (on the TORRO scale), causing significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic weather research and forecasting model (WRF), initialized by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow for the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the mesoscale. In the experiments, the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a) 0% (actual topography) and (b) -100% (without topography), making an effort to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes - mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The principal instability variables employed consisted of the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the energy helicity index (EHI), the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum ?e). Additionally, a model verification was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied by analysis of the absolute vorticity budget. Numerical simulations revealed that the complex topography constituted an important factor during the 17 November 2007 and 12 February 2010 events, based on EHI, SRH, BRN, and MCAPE analyses. Conversely, topography around the 20 September 2011 event was characterized as the least significant factor based on EHI, SRH, BRN, and MCAPE analyses.

  3. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, P. N.; Roundtree, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems. PMID:26053075

  4. Development of topography in 3-D continental-collision models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. Here we employ 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale model. Distinct dynamics are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision models: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical models suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).

  5. Influence of subduction history on South American topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Mller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of South American topography is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American topography as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the topography of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in dynamic uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of dynamic subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is restricted to the oceanic domain.

  6. Absolute Measurement of STIRAP Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Sun, Yuan; Allred, Claire; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Driving atoms from an initial to a final state of the same parity via an intermediate state of opposite parity is most efficiently done using STIRAPfootnotetextU. Gaubatz et al., J. Chem. Phys., 92, 5363 (1990)., because it doesn't populate the intermediate state. For optical transitions this requires appropriate pulses of light in the counter-intuitive order - first coupling the intermediate and final states. We populate Rydberg states of He (n = 26) in a beam of average velocity 1070 m/s by having them cross two laser beams in a tunable dc electric field of ˜100 V/cm. The ``red" light near λ= 796 nm connects the 3^3P states to the Rydberg states and the ``blue" beam connects the metastable 2^3S state atoms emitted by our source to their 3^3P states. By varying the relative position of these beams we can vary the order and overlap encountered by the atoms. We vary the dc field to sweep across several Stark states of the Rydberg manifold. We measure the absolute efficiency using a curved wavefront beam of λ= 1.083,m light to deflect residual 2^3S atoms out of the beam, and we measure their flux with and without the STIRAP beams. This uncontaminated measurement has high absolute accuracy. *Presently at Columbia Univ., 1027 Pupin Hall, New York, NY 10027

  7. Absolute Measurement of STIRAP Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Sun, Yuan; Allred, Claire; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Driving atoms from an initial to a final state of the same parity via an intermediate state of opposite parity is most efficiently done using STIRAPootnotetextU. Gaubatz et al., J. Chem. Phys., 92, 5363 (1990)., because it doesn't populate the intermediate state. For optical transitions this requires appropriate pulses of light in the counter-intuitive order - first coupling the intermediate and final states. We populate Rydberg states of He (n = 26) in a beam of average velocity 1070 m/s by having them cross two laser beams in a tunable dc electric field of ˜100 V/cm. The ``red" light near λ= 796 nm connects the 3^3P states to the Rydberg states and the ``blue" beam connects the metastable 2^3S state atoms emitted by our source to their 3^3P states. By varying the relative position of these beams we can vary the order and overlap encountered by the atoms. We vary the dc field to sweep across several Stark states of the Rydberg manifold. We measure the absolute efficiency using a curved wavefront beam of λ= 1.083,m light to deflect residual 2^3S atoms out of the beam, and we measure their flux with and without the STIRAP beams. This uncontaminated measurement has high absolute accuracy.

  8. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects. PMID:8206802

  9. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres. PMID:588883

  10. Topography Restoration of Historic City Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong

    2015-08-01

    The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present topography. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present topography is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient topography of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.

  11. Structures of lee waves over combined topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Maltseva, Janna; Cherevko, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The problem on non-homogeneous shear flows over rough terrain is considered semi-analytically. A non-linear model of stratified flow over combined obstacle is constructed in the small amplitude limit for the topography. The method uses a Fourier series in modal decomposition of waves caused by a localized multi-bump obstacle modeling a mountain range. The focus of attention is on the stationary wave patterns formed directly above the mountain range. Wave solutions corresponding to topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated. These solutions predict rigorously the splitting of a near-field flow into separate wave zones having different spatial scales.

  12. Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Ravikumar

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned topography tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned topography is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  13. Experiences with modern absolute instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, E. Kring

    1990-02-01

    The author has worked with geomagnetic instruments for more than 40 years and had arrived at the attitude that it was hardly worth while to devote one's time to fractions of a nT because there were so many sources of error which came into play when you approached this accuracy. Lately, the author has changed his mind. It seems that modern instruments are definitely better than the classical instruments, and it is now possible to measure, even absolutely, with an accuracy of less than 1 nT. A historical account is given of when and why a shift was made from classical to electronic instruments in our observatories in Denmark and Greenland.

  14. Absolute configuration of xerophenone A

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Laphookhieo, Surat; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C33H42O5, known as xerophenone A {systematic name: (1R,3R,4R,6S,8E,10R)-10-hydroxy-8-[hydroxy(phenyl)methylene]-4-methyl-1,6-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3-(3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)-11-oxatricyclo[4.3.1.14,10]undecane-7,9-dione} is a naturally occurring rearranged benzophenone compound which was isolated from the twigs of Garcinia propinqua. The absolute configuration was determined by refining the Flack parameter to 0.18?(16). The absolute configurations at positions 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10 of the xerophenone A are R, R, R, S and R. In the molecule, the cyclohexane-1,3-dione, tetrahydro-2H-pyran and tetrahydrofuran rings adopt twisted boat, standard chair and envelope conformations, respectively. The 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl substituent is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.771?(11):0.229?(11) ratio. An intramolecular OH?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked by OH?O and weak CH?O interactions into a chain along the a axis. A very weak CH?? interaction and C?O short contact [2.989?(2)?] are also present. PMID:22590330

  15. Uncertainty of absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, Michel; Williams, Simon D. P.; Francis, Olivier

    2005-05-01

    A total of 96 absolute gravity (AG) measurements at the Membach station and 221 at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) is analyzed for noise content. The lengths of the series were around 10 years (POL) and 8 years (Membach). First the noise at frequencies lower than 1 cpd is studied. This noise consists in setup-dependent offsets and geophysical colored sources. The setup white noise is estimated using continuous relative superconducting gravity (SG) measurements at Membach. The colored environmental noise affecting both AG and SG is estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation technique to fit two types of stochastic models to the SG time series, power law noise, and first-order Gauss Markov (FOGM) noise. We estimate the noise amplitudes of a white noise process plus power law model while simultaneously solving for the spectral index and the noise amplitudes of a white noise process plus FOGM noise model is also estimated. The gravity rate of change and the associated uncertainties as a function of the noise structure are then computed. At frequencies higher than 1 cpd, a time-varying white noise component usually dominates AG time series. Finally, the POL and Membach experiments are applied to estimate the uncertainties for AG campaigns repeated once or twice a year to monitor crustal deformation. Such repeated AG measurements should allow one to constrain gravity rate of change with an uncertainty of 1 nm s-2 yr-1 (or 0.5 mm yr-1) after 14 or 24 years, depending on the noise model. Therefore long-term measurements using absolute gravimeters are appropriate for monitoring slow vertical tectonic deformation.

  16. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W.; O'Connor, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first principles for statistically stationary, random surfaces. For rougher surfaces, correlations can be found experimentally for specific manufacturing processes. Improvements in computational methods encourage us to revisit light scattering as a powerful and versatile tool to investigate surface and thin film topographies, potentially providing information on both topography and defects over large areas at high speed. Future scattering techniques will be applied for complex film systems and for sub-surface damage measurement, but more research is required to quantify and standardise such measurements. A fundamental limitation of all topography measurement systems is their finite spatial bandwidth, which limits the slopes that they can detect. The third section ‘Optical measurements of surfaces containing high slope angles’ discusses this limitation and potential methods to overcome it. In some cases, a rough surface can allow measurement of slopes outside the classical optics limit, but more research is needed to fully understand this process. The last section ‘What are the challenges for high dynamic range surface measurement?’ presents the challenge facing metrologists by the use of surfaces that need measurement systems with very high spatial and temporal bandwidths, for example, those found in roll-to-roll manufacturing. High resolution, large areas and fast measurement times are needed, and these needs are unlikely to be fulfilled by developing a single all-purpose instrument. A toolbox of techniques needs to be developed which can be applied for any specific manufacturing scenario. The functional significance of surface topography has been known for centuries. Mirrors are smooth. Sliding behaviour depends on roughness. We have been measuring surfaces for centuries, but we still face many challenges. New manufacturing paradigms suggest that we need to make rapid measurements online that relate to the functional performance of the surface. This first ‘open questions’ collection addresses a subset of the challenges facing the surface metrology community. There are many more challenges which we would like to address in future ‘open questions’ articles. We welcome your feedback and your suggestions.

  17. Slip Trajectories and Absolute Traction from Analysis of Slickenlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    How much can the orientation of slip vary during a single earthquake? Establishing the physical limits on the degree of rake variation is an important component to improving our ability to image slip of large earthquakes. Here we take the approach of examining the geological record of slip orientation on a single, exceptionally preserved fault plane. We measure slickenlines on the exposed fault surface of the Corona Heights fault, San Francisco, and relate the slickenline geometry to the tectonic stress resolved on the fault. Both the fault surface topography and the shape of slickenlines are measured using ground based light detection and ranging (LiDAR), which allows a large area of fault to be examined. The fault surface is non-planar, with meso-scale corrugations, or bumps, having aligned long axes that rake approximately 30 down to the northeast. Slickenlines also rake approximately 30, however, in the field they appear to be deflected around the bumps. Extracting the slickenlines from the LiDAR data cloud allows their orientations to be measured; the rakes measured in the plane of the fault range by 20 degrees but are normally distributed about the mean with a standard deviation of 4 indicating relatively coherent motion over 10's of meters scale. This observation also suggests that the local traction on the surface is a combination of the resolved tectonic stress and an extra stress due to the topography that causes the slickenline deflection. We use this insight to analyze the shape of slickenlines in combination with the known topography to infer the constraints on the absolute stress. The slickenlines that show the greatest deviation from the mean cluster around the edges of bumps in the fault surface. However, the correlation with simple parameters like topographic height is not straightforward. Interpretation requires calculating the stress pattern from the topography. As a preliminary analysis, we model the deflecting stresses as due to an elastic compression of the bumps. Using a Hertzian contact solution, we calculate the deflecting stress and show that this derived quantity correlates with the angle of deflection of the slickenlines. Measuring the deflection and calculating the deflecting stress therefore will allow the tectonic stress to be constrained.

  18. Roughness of three types of gravity disturbances and their correlation with topography in rugged mountains and flat regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, Robert; Hamayun, H.; Vajda, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the roughness of and the correlation with topography of the observed, topographically corrected (T), and bathymetrically and topographically corrected (BT) gravity disturbances. The numerical investigation is carried out for the gravity disturbances at the Earth's surface and for the upward continued gravity disturbances at different altitudes. The area of study comprises a rough part of the Canadian Rockies surrounded by flat regions. The smoothest at the Earth's surface are the BT gravity disturbances. The evolution of roughness with altitude shows an interesting phenomenon, diverse for the three types of gravity disturbances. The correlation with topography over the study area of the observed gravity disturbances is bellow 0.6, and of the BT gravity disturbances approximately -0.6. The largest absolute value, of about -0.75, is found between the topography and the T gravity disturbances. This large negative correlation indicates a presence of the isostatic compensation in mountainous regions of the Canadian west coast.

  19. Overland Tsunami Flow through Complex Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Cox, D. T.; Park, H.; Wiebe, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    As seen in numerous Japanese eyewitness videos that captured the tsunami inundation on March 11th 2011, flow interaction with the built environment is extremely complex. In addition to the entrainment of sediment and large discrete objects such as cars and ships, tsunami energy amplification due to topographic focusing was widely observed. In coastal towns and cities, this topographic focusing was due to large structures which channelled the flow to either side, often through roadways or other low-obstruction pathways. Structures in the "line-of-fire" of this channelized flow were often found to have been inflicted with relatively greater levels of damage, while the opposite was true for structures in the flow-shadow of large buildings. In this presentation, we attempt to quantify the hydrodynamic variability of flow through complex topography, such as a city layout. Understanding this variability is of particular relevance to on-going engineering efforts to develop standards for tsunami design of coastal structures. A novel set of large-scale experimental data will be introduced and used to validate a depth-integrated model. The experiment was performed in the Tsunami Wave Basin at Oregon State University. Transient long wave flooding in a 1/50 scale model of the town of Seaside, Oregon was tested. Data from the experiment, including water elevations and co-located flow speeds, are used to confirm the simulated dynamics in the numerical model. The model is shown to be capable of accurately reproducing the instantaneous wave elevation, velocity, and momentum flux of a long wave flooding a town. It is found that the numerical prediction is sensitive to the value of the bottom roughness coefficient. The model is then extended to look at the hydrodynamics in more detail and for other cases. Predicted momentum flux values from with structures resolved, with-out structures resolved, and with spatially variable bottom roughness will be discussed. It is found that localized maximum momentum flux values can be two orders of magnitude greater than the alongshore-transect mean. A method to calculate statistical variability of hydrodynamic flow properties, such as might be used in a risk-based analysis, will be discussed.

  20. OPC verification considering CMP induced topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncha, Rakesh Kumar; Narayana Samy, Aravind; Katakamsetty, Ushasree

    2015-09-01

    OPC Verification is important to identify the critical wafer hotspots prior to mask fabrication. It helps to identify process limiting structures and possible yield limiters. These hotspots are also used by litho engineers to set up process conditions upfront. OPC Verification generally involves verification done at nominal and process window conditions. The process window conditions take into consideration typical process variations for lithography. In this standard flow, the post CMP topography variation was also lumped into these process variations via focus. But in current technologies especially in higher metal layers, CMP induced topography variation has become a major contributor to limit the overall process window. This results in different best focus for structures with different topography. This gives rises to requirement of OPC Verification flow taking into account these location-specific variations in order to know if the mask data can be used or not. This paper proposes a method to incorporate the topography induced focus shift into the OPC Verification flow. OPC Verification checks are performed at the new nominal and Process window conditions to identify the real hotspots seen on wafer. Results are shown where the highlighted hotspots with the proposed new flow correlate better with wafer results. Runtime was also taken into consideration when the flow was developed. Experiments on various products show better accuracy with minimal runtime impact.

  1. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  2. Robot arm with positional absolute encoded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, S. K.; Baribeau, C.; Pharand, A.; Petriu, E.

    An absolute position measurement method used for control of an experimental three-joint robot arm is based on pseudo random binary sequence properties. A scanning technique is used to solve the code reading ambiguity problems. An 8-bit absolute position encoder was implemented in each robot joint and tested. The absolute encoder is used in conjunction with a conventional incremental encoder mounted on the input motor shaft. This solution provides the advantages of both position measuring techniques, the absolute encoder's noise immunity, and the incremental encoder's very high resolution. The control algorithm and hardware implementation are discussed.

  3. X-Ray Topography Techniques for Defect Characterization of Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Dhanaraj, Govindhan

    X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of structural defects such as dislocations, inclusions/precipitates, stacking faults, growth sector boundaries, twins, and low-angle grain boundaries in single-crystal materials. From the first x-ray diffraction image, recorded by Berg in 1931, to the double-crystal technique developed by Bond and Andrus in 1952 and the transmission technique developed by Lang in 1958 through to present-day synchrotron-radiation-based techniques, x-ray topography has evolved into a powerful, nondestructive method for the rapid characterization of large single crystals of a wide range of chemical compositions and physical properties, such as semiconductors, oxides, metals, and organic materials. Different defects are readily identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and dynamical theories of x-ray diffraction. This method is capable of imaging extended defects in the entire volume of the crystal and in some cases in wafers with devices fabricated on them. It is well established as an indispensable tool for the development of growth techniques for highly perfect crystals (for, e.g., Czochralski growth of silicon) for semiconductor and electronic applications. The capability of in situ characterization during crystal growth, heat treatment, stress application, device operation, etc. to study the generation, interaction, and propagation of defects makes it a versatile technique to study many materials processes.

  4. Continuum Statistics of the Bed Topography in a Sandy River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B.; Jerolmack, D.; Mohrig, D.

    2005-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variabilities in the bed geometry of sandy rivers contain information about processes of sediment transport that has not been fully appreciated. This is primarily due to a disparity between the dynamic nature of the sediment-fluid interface and the relatively static methods of surveying bed elevation, e.g. single profiles or point measurements. High resolution topographic data is paramount to understanding the dynamic behavior of sandy beds. We present and analyze a data set collected on a 2cm x 2cm grid at 1 minute intervals and with a vertical precision of ~1mm. This was accomplished by using Lambert-Beer's Law for attenuation of light to transform low-altitude aerial photographs into digital elevation models. Forty successive models were generated for a 20 m by 30 m section of channel bottom of the N. Loup River, Nebraska. To calculate the average, whole bed translation rate, or celerity, cross-correlations between a reference bed topography and its proceeding configurations were determined. Time differences between models were related to the shift lengths that produced correlation maxima for each model pair. The result is a celerity of ~3.8cm/s with a correlation coefficient of 0.992. Bed topography also deforms while it translates, and this can be seen as a secular decrease of correlation maxima. The form of this decrease in correlation is exponential, and from it an interface half-life is defined. In this case, the bed had become extensively reorganized within ~40 minutes, the time necessary to translate the bed one wavelength of the dominant roughness element. Although the bed is continuously deforming, its roughness is statistically stationary. Essentially, a mean roughness is maintained as the bed creates new realizations of itself. The dynamic nature of the whole bed and similarly transient behavior of individual elements suggests the utility of a holistic approach to studying the feedback between bed topography, fluid flow, and sediment transport. Furthermore, it raises questions about the usefulness of detailed analysis of flow and transport over individual forms.

  5. Geoid and topography for infinite Prandtl number convection in a spherical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercovici, D.; Schubert, G.; Zebib, A.

    1988-01-01

    Geoid anomalies and surface and lower-boundary topographies are calculated for numerically generated thermal convection for an infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq, axisymmetric spherical fluid shell with constant gravity and viscosity, for heating both entirely from below and entirely from within. Convection solutions are obtained for Rayleigh numbers Ra up to 20 times the critical Ra in heating from below and 27 times critical for heating from within. Geoid parallels surface undulations, and boundary deformation generally increases with increasing cell wavelength. Dimensionless geoid and topography in heating from below are about 5 times greater than in heating from within. Values for heating from within correlate more closely with geophysical data than values from heating from below, suggesting a predominance of internal heating in the mantle. The study emphasizes that dynamically induced topography and geoid are sensitive to the mode of heating in the earth's mantle.

  6. Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnnicke, M. G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; da Costa, E. M.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.

    2010-06-01

    We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd, and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, using x-ray topography and high-angular-resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang topography revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray topography showed dislocations and vertical stripes that could be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular- resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with findings predicted by the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter (? d/ d) on the order of 10-5. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (e.g., detectors) and as x-ray monochromators.

  7. Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.

    2009-09-13

    We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray topography and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang topography revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray topography shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.

  8. Global relationship between oceanic geoid and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazenave, A.; Dominh, K.; Allegre, C. J.; Marsh, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The transfer function of geoid over topography as a function of wavelength is derived. The relationship between oceanic geoid and seafloor depth is analyzed. The correction of the geoid and topological data for thermal cooling of the oceanic lithosphere, sediment loading, and crustal thickening induced by volcanism under large ocean plateaus is discussed. The global residual depth and geoid anomalies are computed. The admittance and correlation between residual depth and geoid anomalies as a function of wavelength are examined.

  9. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  10. Diffraction imaging (topography) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri

    1988-01-01

    Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (topography). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.

  11. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface topography.

  12. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography.

  13. Topography measurement of specular and diffuse surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano García, David Ignacio; Martínez García, Amalia; Rayas-Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2010-08-01

    We measured the topography of lens by using a technique of diffuse reflection (fringe projection technique) and by a method based on specular reflection technique (similar to Placido disk system). The obtained results with both techniques are compared with those obtained with a spherometer. The retrieval of the three-dimensional shape of the lens is an issue of great interest for wide medical application, particularly in ophthalmology.

  14. Wholemount immunohistochemistry for revealing complex brain topography.

    PubMed

    White, Joshua J; Reeber, Stacey L; Hawkes, Richard; Sillitoe, Roy V

    2012-01-01

    The repeated and well-understood cellular architecture of the cerebellum make it an ideal model system for exploring brain topography. Underlying its relatively uniform cytoarchitecture is a complex array of parasagittal domains of gene and protein expression. The molecular compartmentalization of the cerebellum is mirrored by the anatomical and functional organization of afferent fibers. To fully appreciate the complexity of cerebellar organization we previously refined a wholemount staining approach for high throughput analysis of patterning defects in the mouse cerebellum. This protocol describes in detail the reagents, tools, and practical steps that are useful to successfully reveal protein expression patterns in the adult mouse cerebellum by using wholemount immunostaining. The steps highlighted here demonstrate the utility of this method using the expression of zebrinII/aldolaseC as an example of how the fine topography of the brain can be revealed in its native three-dimensional conformation. Also described are adaptations to the protocol that allow for the visualization of protein expression in afferent projections and large cerebella for comparative studies of molecular topography. To illustrate these applications, data from afferent staining of the rat cerebellum are included. PMID:22508094

  15. EAARL topography: Gateway National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (bare earth) maps and GIS files for the Sandy Hook Unit within Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  16. Neurofunctional topography of the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Barron, Daniel S; Kirby, Lauren A J; Bottenhorn, Katherine L; Hill, Ashley C; Murphy, Jerry E; Katz, Jeffrey S; Salibi, Nouha; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T

    2015-12-01

    Much of what was assumed about the functional topography of the hippocampus was derived from a single case study over half a century ago. Given advances in the imaging sciences, a new era of discovery is underway, with potential to transform the understanding of healthy processing as well as the ability to treat disorders. Coactivation-based parcellation, a meta-analytic approach, and ultra-high field, high-resolution functional and structural neuroimaging to characterize the neurofunctional topography of the hippocampus was employed. Data revealed strong support for an evolutionarily preserved topography along the long-axis. Specifically, the left hippocampus was segmented into three distinct clusters: an emotional processing cluster supported by structural and functional connectivity to the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, a cognitive operations cluster, with functional connectivity to the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus, and a posterior perceptual cluster with distinct structural connectivity patterns to the occipital lobe coupled with functional connectivity to the precuneus and angular gyrus. The right hippocampal segmentation was more ambiguous, with plausible 2- and 5-cluster solutions. Segmentations shared connectivity with brain regions known to support the correlated processes. This represented the first neurofunctional topographic model of the hippocampus using a robust, bias-free, multimodal approach. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5018-5037, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350954

  17. EAARL topography: George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia. These lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.

  18. EAARL Topography-Padre Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  19. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly

  20. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and

  1. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  2. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  3. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme

  4. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1?403?186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 7236103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2?=?0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  5. NCAR global model topography generation software for unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauritzen, P. H.; Bacmeister, J. T.; Callaghan, P. F.; Taylor, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to document the NCAR global model topography generation software for unstructured grids. Given a model grid, the software computes the fraction of the grid box covered by land, the gridbox mean elevation, and associated sub-grid scale variances commonly used for gravity wave and turbulent mountain stress parameterizations. The software supports regular latitude-longitude grids as well as unstructured grids; e.g. icosahedral, Voronoi, cubed-sphere and variable resolution grids. As an example application and in the spirit of documenting model development, exploratory simulations illustrating the impacts of topographic smoothing with the NCAR-DOE CESM (Community Earth System Model) CAM5.2-SE (Community Atmosphere Model version 5.2 - Spectral Elements dynamical core) are shown.

  6. Evolution of topography and material removal during nanoscale grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, S. J.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Vernes, A.; Betz, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we perform molecular dynamics simulations to quantify and parametrize the evolution of a bcc Fe work piece topography during nanometric grinding with multiple hard abrasive particles. The final surface quality depends on both the normal pressure and the abrasive geometry. We fit the time development of the substrates root mean squared roughness to an exponential function, allowing the definition of a run-in regime, during which the surface forgets about its initial state, and a steady-state regime where the roughness no longer changes. The time constants associated with smoothing and material removal are almost inversely proportional to each other, highlighting the distinctiveness of these two simultaneously occurring processes. We also describe an attempt to reduce the time required to achieve the smoothest possible surface finish by periodically re-adjusting the normal pressure during the grinding process.

  7. Imaging Surface Topography using Lloyd's Mirror in Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesson, D. E.; Pavlov, K. M.; Morgan, M. J.; Usher, B. F.

    2007-07-01

    We use Lloyd’s mirror to modulate electron photoemission in photoemission electron microscopy. This results in the projection of Lloyd’s fringes on to three-dimensional (3D) surface objects. An iterative reconstruction method is used to correct for distortions in the fringe pattern due to the cathode immersion lens, thereby providing a quantitative interpretation of surface shape. It is therefore possible to extract 3D height information directly from a two-dimensional, plan-view image. The technique is of sufficient intensity and contrast to study real-time changes in surface topography and we apply the method to study unusual contact-line dynamics during the reactive wetting of metal droplets.

  8. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  9. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the OpenTopography catalog, providing users a "one-stop shop" for such information. With several thousand active users, OpenTopography is an excellent example of a mature Spatial Data Infrastructure system that is enabling access to challenging data for research, education and outreach. Ongoing OpenTopography design and development work includes the archive and publication of datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); creation of a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; expanded support for satellite and terrestrial lidar; and creation of a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party programs and algorithms. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the project's next phase, we are working to enable equally easy and successful sharing of services for processing and analysis of these data.

  10. Reenvisioning cross-sectional at-a-station hydraulic geometry as spatially explicit hydraulic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2015-10-01

    Transect-based hydraulic geometry is well established but depends on a complex set of subjective fieldwork and computational decisions that sometimes go unexplained. As a result, it is ripe for reenvisioning in the light of the emergence of meter-scale, spatially explicit data and algorithmic geospatial analysis. This study developed and evaluated a new spatially explicit method for analyzing discharge-dependent hydraulics coined 'hydraulic topography' that not only increases accuracy but also eliminates several sample- and assumption-based inconsistencies. Using data and hydrodynamic simulations from the regulated, gravel-cobble-bed lower Yuba River in California, power functions were fitted to discharge-dependent average width, depth, and depth-weighted velocity for three spatial scales and then their corresponding exponents and coefficients were compared across scales and against ones computed using traditional approaches. Average hydraulic values from cross sections at the segment scale spanned up to 1.5 orders of magnitude for a given discharge. Transect-determined exponents for reach-scale depth and velocity relations were consistently over- and underestimated, respectively, relative to the hydraulic topography benchmark. Overall, 73% of cross-sectional power regression parameters assessed fell between 10 and 50 absolute percent error with respect to the spatially explicit hydraulic topography baseline. Although traditional transect-based sampling may be viable for certain uses, percent errors of this magnitude could compromise engineering applications in river management and training works.

  11. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the modeled topography. We also test several viscosity models, either radially symmetric, the V1 profile from Mitrovica and Forte [2004], or more complex laterally varying structures. All the property fields are expanded in spherical harmonics, until degree 24, and implemented in the code StagYY [Tackley, 2008] to perform mantle instantaneous flow modeling and compute surface topography and gravitational field. Our results show the importance of constraining the crustal and mantle density structure relying on a multidisciplinary approach that involves experimentally robust thermodynamic datasets. Crustal density field has a strong effect on the isostatic component of topography. The models that we test, CRUST 1.0 and those in Guerri and Cammarano [2015], produce strong differences in the computed isostatic topography, in the range ±600 m. For the lithospheric mantle, relying on experimentally robust material properties constraints is necessary to infer a reliable density model that takes into account chemical heterogeneities. This approach is also fundamental to correctly interpret seismic models in temperature, a crucial parameter, necessary to determine the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, where static effects on topography leave place to dynamic ones. The comparison between results obtained with different viscosity fields, either radially symmetric or vertically and laterally varying, shows how lateral viscosity variations affect the results, in particular the modeled geoid, at different wavelengths. References: Brocher, T. M. (2005), Empirical Relations between Elastic Wavespeeds and Density in the Earth's Crust, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(6), 2081-2092. Cammarano, F., P. J. Tackley, and L. Boschi (2011), Seismic, petrological and geodynamical constraints on thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle: global thermochemical models, Geophys. J. Int. Connolly, J. A. D. (2005), Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters (236), 524-541. Guerri, M., and F. Cammarano (2015), On the effects of chemical composition, water and temperature on physical properties of the Earth's continental crust, submitted to Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystem. Holland, T. J. B., and R. Powell (1998), An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest, J. metamorphic Geol., 16(309-343). Laske, G., G. Masters, Z. Ma, and M. E. Pasyanos (2013), CRUST1.0: An updated global model of Earth's crust, in EGU General Assembly 2013, edited, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna. Mitrovica, J. X., and A. M. Forte (2004), A new inference of mantle viscosity based upon joint inversion of convection and glacial isostatic adjustment data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 225, 177-189. Tackley, P. J. (2008), Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid, Phys. Earth Planet. Int.

  12. Numerical studies on the structure of Venusian mantle convection constrained by the geoid and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, A.; Huang, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Venus is a planet very similar to the Earth in terms of size, density and composition. However, different from the Earth which has active plate tectonics, Venus is a one-plate planet covered by a thick immobile lithosphere. Observations show that there may be nine hotspots on Venus and they may be still active. The topography and geoid of Venus have relatively long wavelength character with the degree 3 terms are the highest. Analysis about the geoid and topography of Venus shows that their correlation is high and the admittance ratio at lower degrees is large, suggesting a mainly dynamic origin for the topography and geoid at lower degrees. Using these results above as the main constraints, we systematically investigated the influence of phase transitions on the structure of Venusian mantle convection in 3D spherical shell. Both mantle phase transitions from olivine to spinel and from spinel to perovskite are included in our model. We employed an extended Boussinesq approximation, an infinite Prandtl number assumption and strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity in our model. Calculations are performed with the finite element code CitcomS. Numerical simulations show that convective structure is affected significantly by phase changes. The amplitude of the Clapeyron slops of phase changes and Rayleigh number control the dominant convective wavelength. When no phase changes are included in the model, a representative convective structure shows dominant short-wavelengths with numerous of plumes, typical of stagnant-lid convection. The geoid and the surface topography are highly correlated with large admittance at lower degrees and the powers of the topography and geoid spectra are significantly reduced at long-wavelengths compared with the observed. Phase changes could promote long-wavelength convective structures as previous findings. When other parameters are kept the same, increasing the Clapeyron slops of the phase changes will increase the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the lower degrees and decrease the number of plumes. The increase of Rayleigh number will also increase the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the lower degrees, but it will decrease the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the relatively higher degrees. All these cases have Venus like large admittance ratio at lower degrees and high correlation for the topography and geoid. The model parameters that most satisfy Venus' observations are with a Rayleigh number of 210^8 and Clapeyron slops of +-3.5 MPa/K, which generally satisfy the number of plumes, the geoid amplitude spectra, and the admittance and correlation of Venus. The lithosphere is about 256 Km and the lower mantle viscosity is about 210^21 Pa.s.

  13. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM-site-independent peptides in the total cellular protein and their peptide yields. The PTM occupancy determination is achieved by measuring the absolute amounts of both PTM and non-PTM peptides from the highly purified protein sample expressed in transgenic organisms or directly isolated from an organism using affinity purification. The absolute amount of each PTM isoform in the total cellular protein extract is finally calculated from these two variables. Following this approach, the ion intensities given by mass spectrometers are used to calculated the peptide amounts, from which the amounts of protein isoforms are then deduced. In this chapter, we describe the principles underlying the experimental design and procedures used in AQUIP method. This quantitation method basically employs stable isotope-labeled peptide standards and affinity purification from a tagged recombinant protein of interest. Other quantitation strategies and purification techniques related to this method are also discussed. PMID:25930697

  14. NMR and MD Studies Reveal That the Isolated Dengue NS3 Protease Is an Intrinsically Disordered Chymotrypsin Fold Which Absolutely Requests NS2B for Correct Folding and Functional Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Garvita; Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing

    2015-01-01

    Dengue genome encodes a two component protease complex (NS2B-NS3pro) essential for the viral maturation/infectivity, thus representing a key drug target. Previously, due to its “complete insolubility”, the isolated NS3pro could not be experimentally studied and it remains elusive what structure it adopts without NS2B and why NS2B is indispensable. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery, the isolated NS3pro has been surprisingly deciphered by NMR to be the first intrinsically-disordered chymotrypsin-like fold, which exists in a loosely-packed state with non-native long-range interactions as revealed by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). The disordered NS3pro appears to be needed for binding a human host factor to trigger the membrane remodeling. Moreover, we have in vitro refolded the NS3pro in complex with either NS2B (48–100) or the full-length NS2B (1–130) anchored into the LMPC micelle, and the two complexes have similar activities but different dynamics. We also performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the results revealed that NS2B shows the highest structural fluctuations in the complex, thus providing the dynamic basis for the observation on its conformational exchange between open and closed states. Remarkably, the NS2B cofactor plays a central role in maintaining the correlated motion network required for the catalysis as we previously decoded for the SARS 3CL protease. Indeed, a truncated NS2B (48–100;Δ77–84) with the flexible loop deleted is able to trap the NS2B-NS3pro complex in a highly dynamic and catalytically-impotent state. Taken together, our study implies potential strategies to perturb the NS2B-NS3pro interface for design of inhibitors for treating dengue infection. PMID:26258523

  15. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  16. Secondary standard stars for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oke, J. B.; Gunn, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an adopted absolute spectral energy distribution for the primary standard star Alpha Lyrae, absolute fluxes are given for the four very metal-deficient F type subdwarfs HD 19445, HD 84937, BD + 26.2606 deg, and BD + 17.4703 deg. Somewhat inferior data are also given for HD 140283. The data are given for 40-A bands and cover the wavelength range from 3080 A to 12,000 A. The four stars, all near magnitude 9 and distributed around the sky, are intended as secondary standards for absolute spectrophotometry.

  17. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  18. Seismic waveform sensitivity to global boundary topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the implications of lateral variations in the topography of global seismic discontinuities, in the framework of high-resolution forward modelling and seismic imaging. We run 3-D wave-propagation simulations accurate at periods of 10 s and longer, with Earth models including core-mantle boundary topography anomalies of 1000 km spatial wavelength and up to 10 km height. We obtain very different waveform signatures for PcP (reflected) and Pdiff (diffracted) phases, supporting the theoretical expectation that the latter are sensitive primarily to large-scale structure, whereas the former only to small scale, where large and small are relative to the frequency. PcP at 10 s seems to be well suited to map such a small-scale perturbation, whereas Pdiff at the same frequency carries faint signatures that do not allow any tomographic reconstruction. Only at higher frequency, the signature becomes stronger. We present a new algorithm to compute sensitivity kernels relating seismic traveltimes (measured by cross-correlation of observed and theoretical seismograms) to the topography of seismic discontinuities at any depth in the Earth using full 3-D wave propagation. Calculation of accurate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is notoriously expensive, but we reduce computational costs drastically by limiting ourselves to spherically symmetric reference models, and exploiting the axial symmetry of the resulting propagating wavefield that collapses to a 2-D numerical domain. We compute and analyse a suite of kernels for upper and lower mantle discontinuities that can be used for finite-frequency waveform inversion. The PcP and Pdiff sensitivity footprints are in good agreement with the result obtained cross-correlating perturbed and unperturbed seismogram, validating our approach against full 3-D modelling to invert for such structures.

  19. Topography Influences Adherent Cell Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, M; Cooper, L F; Ogino, Y; Mendonca, D; Liang, R; Yang, S; Mendonca, G; Uoshima, K

    2016-03-01

    The importance of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the process of osseointegration has not been widely considered. In this study, cell culture was used to investigate the hypothesis that the function of implant-adherent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in osteoclastogenesis is influenced by surface topography. BMSCs isolated from femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto 3 types of titanium surfaces (smooth, micro, and nano) and a control surface (tissue culture plastic) with or without osteogenic supplements. After 3 to 14 d, conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Subsequently, rat bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in media supplemented with soluble receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) as well as BMSC CM from each of the 4 surfaces. Gene expression levels of soluble RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor ?, and M-CSF in cultured BMSCs at different time points were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The number of differentiated osteoclastic cells was determined after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Analysis of variance and t test were used for statistical analysis. The expression of prominent osteoclast-promoting factors tumor necrosis factor ? and M-CSF was increased by BMSCs cultured on both micro- and nanoscale titanium topographies (P < 0.01). BMSC CM contained a heat-labile factor that increased BMMs osteoclastogenesis. CM from both micro- and nanoscale surface-adherent BMSCs increased the osteoclast number (P < 0.01). Difference in surface topography altered BMSC phenotype and influenced BMM osteoclastogenesis. Local signaling by implant-adherent cells at the implant-bone interface may indirectly control osteoclastogenesis and bone accrual around endosseous implants. PMID:26553885

  20. Macromolecular Topography Leaps into the Digital Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    A low-cost, real-time digital topography system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the topography images. With this development macromolecular topography finally comes into the digital age.

  1. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.

    2010-03-12

    The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination topography. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

  3. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this field yields across an array of applications in the modern world. To this end, we have gathered leading experts from across our scope to form our inaugural editorial board. Their broad subject knowledge and experience will help to guide the journal and ensure we meet our goal of high-quality research, published quickly, across the breadth of the subject. We are committed to providing a rapid and yet rigorous peer review process. As a launch promotion, all STMP's published content will be free to readers during 2013. The editorial board and I hope you will be as excited by the possibilities of this new journal as we are, and that you will choose to both submit your research and read STMP in the months and years to come. We look forward to reading your papers!

  4. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2014-06-01

    The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than dynamically caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's topography in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS topography and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS topography. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.

  5. Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    The influence of a reduced Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS topography on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse rate corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than dynamically caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the NH flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's topography in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS topography and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the topography is the sensible heat flux (SHFLX). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHFLX. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHFLX and anomalous cold winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS topography. For the NEEM ice core site, our model suggests that up to 3.2 C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these topography-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.

  6. Determination of ¹⁵N-incorporation into plant proteins and their absolute quantitation: a new tool to study nitrogen flux dynamics and protein pool sizes elicited by plant-herbivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Ullmann-Zeunert, Lynn; Muck, Alexander; Wielsch, Natalie; Hufsky, Franziska; Stanton, Mariana A; Bartram, Stefan; Böcker, Sebastian; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-10-01

    Herbivory leads to changes in the allocation of nitrogen among different pools and tissues; however, a detailed quantitative analysis of these changes has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that a mass spectrometric data-independent acquisition approach known as LC-MS(E), combined with a novel algorithm to quantify heavy atom enrichment in peptides, is able to quantify elicited changes in protein amounts and (15)N flux in a high throughput manner. The reliable identification/quantitation of rabbit phosphorylase b protein spiked into leaf protein extract was achieved. The linear dynamic range, reproducibility of technical and biological replicates, and differences between measured and expected (15)N-incorporation into the small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and RuBisCO activase 2 (RCA2) of Nicotiana attenuata plants grown in hydroponic culture at different known concentrations of (15)N-labeled nitrate were used to further evaluate the procedure. The utility of the method for whole-plant studies in ecologically realistic contexts was demonstrated by using (15)N-pulse protocols on plants growing in soil under unknown (15)N-incorporation levels. Additionally, we quantified the amounts of lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2) protein, an enzyme important in antiherbivore defense responses, demonstrating that the approach allows for in-depth quantitative proteomics and (15)N flux analyses of the metabolic dynamics elicited during plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:22905865

  7. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production ? as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -?S , where ?S is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: ? characterizing ordinary irreversibility and ?S describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  8. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  9. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  10. High-precision Ice Surface Topography Mapping Using Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Michel, T.; Rignot, E. J.; Simard, M.; Krabill, W. B.; Sonntag, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface topography was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year activities. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A): a 35.6 GHz single-pass interferometer. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. However, for this application the electromagnetic wave will penetrate an unknown amount into the snow cover thus producing an effective bias that must be calibrated. To evaluate this, GLISTIN-A flew a coordinated collection with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) on a transect from Greenland’s Summit to its West coast. Two field calibration sites were established at Colorado Institute for Research in Environmental Science’s Swiss Camp and the National Science Foundation’s Summit station. Additional collections entailed flying a mosaic over Jakobshavn glacier which was repeated after 6 days to reveal surface dynamics. Through detailed calibration and inter-sensor comparisons we were able to observe penetration biases and compare them with theoretical expectations. We also demonstrated GLISTIN-A’s capability to measure the topography of large glacier systems in a seamless fashion and accurately measuring volume changes with a high level of spatial detail. In particular, repeating the airborne campaigns to observe elevation changes over time will allow very accurate volume change measurements. Not only is this very important for mass balance studies to have a precise mass-loss estimate, but the spatial pattern can reveal ice dynamics effects and surface mass balance effects. In this manner a high resolution, high-precision topographic mapping capability is an ideal complement to the ICESat, ICESat II and Cryosat altimeters. Interpolating between the high-accuracy elevation profiles from altimeters such as the ATM or ICESat II with the high-resolution GLISTIN-A swath will enable detailed ice-surface topography maps and extended spatial coverage. The result is the potential for higher fidelity mass-balance estimates and improved observational coverage. Upgrades are currently underway to improve the performance and portability of GLISTIN-A such that, onboard a long-range aircraft this radar can map Greenland’s significant glaciers in a few days. The upgraded GLISTIN-A will be compatible with GlobalHawk installation making, Antarctica basin and coastal mapping feasible. GLISTIN will make more topographic products available to glaciologists, initially through dedicated airborne campaigns or ultimately, perhaps, as a satellite mission.

  11. EAARL Topography-Colonial National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Stevens, Sara; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2008-01-01

    These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program, Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs, barrier islands, and various nearshore coastal environments for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.

  12. Uncertainty in measurement of surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitjema, Han

    2015-09-01

    The 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) roughness parameters were standardized in 2012. With their increasing use in science and industry, the request for traceability and uncertainty evaluation for these parameters follows logically. This paper gives an overview of the problems and possibilities that appear when uncertainties have to be associated with values that are derived from a measured surface topography, such as the Ra-value of a periodic specimen, the RSm value of a type-D standard, and the Sa-value of a single cutoff length of a type D standard. It is shown that straightforward implementation of the methods described in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) leads to impossible and impracticable equations because of the correlations between some millions of measurement points. A practical solution is found by considering the main aspects of uncertainty, as these are given in the recent ISO 25178 standards series, and applying these to a measured surface topography as a whole.

  13. Analysis Of Scoliosis By Back Shape Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Harris, John D.

    1983-07-01

    The use of surface topography for the assessment of scoliotic deformity in the clinic depends firstly on the quality of measures which reliably characterise deformity of the back, and secondly on the ease and speed with which these measures can be applied. A method of analysis of back shape measurements is presented which can be applied to any topographic measurement system. Measures presented are substantially independent of minor changes in the patient's posture in rotation and flexion from one clinic to the next, and yet sensitive enough to indicate significant improvement or degeneration of the disease. The presentation shows (1) horizontal cross-sections at ten levels up the back from sacrum to vertebra prominens, (2) angles of rotation of the surface over a small region about the spine, (3) three vertical profiles following the line of the spine, and (4) measures of maximum kyphosis and lordosis. Dependence on the operator has been reduced to a minimum. Extreme care in positioning the patient is unnecessary and those spinous processes which are easily palpable, the vertebra prominens and the two dimples over the posterior superior iliac spines are marked. Analysis proceeds entirely automatically once the basic shape data have been supplied. Applications of the technique to indirect moire topography and a television topographic measurement system are described.

  14. Reconstructing hotspot-induced dynamic topography through palaeogeomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitchurch, A. L.; Gupta, S.; Barfod, D.

    2009-12-01

    The interaction of a buoyant mantle plume head with the overlying lithosphere is thought to generate significant, kilometre-scale topographic doming of the crust. Consequently, continental mantle plumes should have an observable response in river drainage systems and should potentially drive large-scale erosional denudation. The key to understanding the complex landscape evolution associated with the life cycle of a mantle plume is therefore locked within the sedimentary record of basins neighbouring such uplifts. The Yellowstone region, western USA, provides the perfect natural laboratory in which to test the above hypothesis. The Yellowstone hotspot initiated at the Oregon-Nevada border ca. 16 Ma. It is associated with a hotspot track, marked by time-transgressive volcanic centres which line the Snake River Plain, generated through migration of the North American plate across this stationary mantle plume. Today the hotspot is located beneath Yellowstone National Park and is thought to generate crustal-scale doming. We investigate the Mio-Pliocene Sixmile Creek Formation within the Ruby Basin, a rift basin located on the northern shoulder of the hotspot track between ~16-6 Ma. Through the temporal reconstruction of sedimentary architecture, grain size, palaeoslope and palaeocurrent trends, we show that hotspot-related crustal doming acted to uplift the headwaters of a fluvial system supplying the basin, driving exhumation that was associated with distinct fluvial reconfiguration. Evolution of the axial river system is evidenced by the transition from isolated, single-storey ribbon channels to amalgamated, multi-storey, braided fluvial deposition. This subsequently drove a pulse of coarse-grained gravel progradation through the basin. Detailed grain size analysis and calculation of fluvial palaeoslopes indicates a distinct coarsening of the axial river sediment and an increase in depositional slope from ~0.47 m/km to ~1.90 m/km between ~12-6 Ma. Our results help to constrain the scale, geometry and evolution of hotspot-generated topographic doming over the life cycle of the Yellowstone mantle plume. This study demonstrates the use of field geologic work in providing insight into large-scale geodynamic problems.

  15. Hydrothermal circulation in fault slots with topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Sofya; McCaig, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    There are numerous cases where the circulation of hydrothermal fluid is likely to be confined within a permeable fault slot. Examples are (1) the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) at 30 N in the Atlantic, which is likely to be controlled by large E-W faults related to the Atlantis transform fault and mass wasting on the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, and (2) large normal faults bounding the Hess Deep rift in the East Pacific, which contain intense hydrothermal metamorphic assemblages in lower crustal gabbros formed at 200-350 C. This type of circulation could occur anywhere where steep faults cut the oceanic crust, including large near-axis normal faults, transform faults and faults at subduction bend zones, and could be the major way in which the upper mantle and lower crust are hydrated. It is therefore important to constrain the controls on temperature conditions of alteration and hence mineral assemblages. Previous 2-D modelling of the LCHF shows that seafloor topography and permeability structure combine together to localise the field near the highest point of the Atlantis Massif. Our new models are 3-D, based on a 10km cube with seafloor topography of ~ 2km affecting both the fault slot and impermeable wall rocks. We have used Comsol multiphysics in this modelling, with a constant basal heatflow corresponding to the near conductive thermal gradient measured in IODP Hole 1309D, 5km north of the LCHF, and a constant temperature seafloor boundary condition. The wall rocks of the slot have a permeability of 10-17 m2 while permeability in the slot is varied between 10-14 and 10-15 m2. Initial conditions are a conductive thermal structure corresponding to the basal heatflow at steady state. Generic models not based on any particular known topography quickly stabilise a hydrothermal system in the fault slot with a single upflow zone close to the model edge with highest topography. In models with a depth of circulation in the fault slot of about 6 km, after an initial period of higher temperature venting which removes heat from the initial condition, venting temperature is approximately 200 C with a permeability of 3x10-15 m2. This falls to about 170 C with a permeability of 5x10-15 m2. Temperatures can be reduced by restricting the depth of hydrothermal circulation. These temperatures correspond to prehnite-chlorite assemblages seen in fault rocks at Hess Deep, but are higher than those observed at the LCHF. Work is continuing to vary permeability, fault slot geometry and topography to better match the conditions in the Atlantis Massif, and to model the effects of dyke intrusion into the fault zone as observed at Hess Deep.

  16. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution topography include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system on September 19, 2004. The survey resulted in the acquisition of 3.2 gigabytes of data. The data were processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of 'last return' elevations.

  17. Topography and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gephart, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the topography and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the topography, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of topography in this orogen depends strongly on the dynamics of subduction. Other factors that might affect the topography and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of topography near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the dynamics of subduction.

  18. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  19. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  20. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  1. STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.

    2001-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.

  2. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S. Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.

    2014-01-27

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography.

  3. Mariner ultraviolet spectrometer: topography and polar cap.

    PubMed

    Barth, C A; Hord, C W

    1971-07-16

    Mars, the red planet, reflects sunlight in the ultraviolet, but it is the atmosphere, not the surface, that is responsible for the reflected light. Even though there are atmospheric scatterers in addition to the molecular scatterers, it is possible to relate the intensity of the scattered radiation with the atmospheric pressure. The variation of pressure over the planet reveals the topography to vary over 7 kilometers in height and to be correlated with visible features. The carbon dioxide polar cap, in addition to being a cold trap for volatile gases in the atmosphere, may alsobe a very efficient adsorption trap for nonvolatiles. This last property may make the cap a repository for gases produced by geological or biological activity (15). PMID:17741407

  4. EAARL topography: Dry Tortugas National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2008-01-01

    This lidar-derived submarine topography map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, ad event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.

  5. Architecture and development of olivocerebellar circuit topography

    PubMed Central

    Reeber, Stacey L.; White, Joshua J.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Sillitoe, Roy V.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum has a simple tri-laminar structure that is comprised of relatively few cell types. Yet, its internal micro-circuitry is anatomically, biochemically, and functionally complex. The most striking feature of cerebellar circuit complexity is its compartmentalized topography. Each cell type within the cerebellar cortex is organized into an exquisite map; molecular expression patterns, dendrite projections, and axon terminal fields divide the medial-lateral axis of the cerebellum into topographic sagittal zones. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that establish zones and highlight how gene expression and neural activity contribute to cerebellar pattern formation. We focus on the olivocerebellar system because its developmental mechanisms are becoming clear, its topographic termination patterns are very precise, and its contribution to zonal function is debated. This review deconstructs the architecture and development of the olivocerebellar pathway to provide an update on how brain circuit maps form and function. PMID:23293588

  6. Assimilation of altimeter topography into oceanic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demey, Pierre; Menard, Yves; Pinardi, Nadia; Schroeter, J.; Verron, J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary goals of the authors are to build an intuition for assimilation techniques and to investigate the impact of variable altimeter topography on simple or complex oceanic models. In particular, applying various techniques and sensitivity studies to model and data constraints plays a key role. We are starting to use quasi-geostrophic, semigeostrophic, and primitive-equation (PE) models and to test the schemes in regions of interest to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), as well as in the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The impact of scatterometer wind forcing on the results is also investigated. The use of Geosat, European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1), and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry data is crucial in fine tuning the models and schemes to the selected areas of interest.

  7. Rotating barotropic flow over finite isolated topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, P. R.

    1980-11-01

    A study is presented of the flow of a rotating incompressible fluid over isolated topography whose nondimensional height (i.e., topographic height divided by the mean fluid depth) is large compared with the Rossby number. Attention is restricted to the flow which is sufficiently shallow that the free-surface equations provide an adequate description. The flow is forced laterally by a specified upstream inflow and by a prescribed surface stress; dissipation is incorporated using a Rayleigh friction acting antiparallel to the flow. Steady state solutions for uniform inflow on an f-plane are found for linear viscous flow, quasi-geostrophic flow with and without friction, and inviscid flow with and without a rigid lid.

  8. Absorber topography dependence of phase edge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Waller, Laura; Neureuther, Andy

    2015-10-01

    Mask topography contributes to phase at the wafer plane, even for OMOG binary masks currently in use at the 22nm node in deep UV (193nm) lithography. Here, numerical experiments with rigorous FDTD simulation are used to study the impact of mask 3D effects on aerial imaging, by varying the height of the absorber stack and its sidewall angle. Using a thin mask boundary layer model to fit to rigorous simulations it is seen that increasing the absorber thickness, and hence the phase through the middle of a feature (bulk phase) monotonically changes the wafer-plane phase. Absorber height also influences best focus, revealed by an up/down shift in the Bossung plot (linewidth vs. defocus). Bossung plot tilt, however, responsible for process window variability at the wafer, is insensitive to changes in the absorber height (and hence also the bulk phase). It is seen to depend instead on EM edge diffraction from the thick mask edge (edge phase), but stays constant for variations in mask thickness within a 10% range. Both bulk phase and edge phase are also independent of sidewall angle fluctuation, which is seen to linearly affect the CD at the wafer, but does not alter wafer phase or the defocus process window. Notably, as mask topography varies, the effect of edge phase can be replicated by a thin mask model with 8nm wide boundary layers, irrespective of absorber height or sidewall angle. The conclusions are validated with measurements on phase shifting masks having different topographic parameters, confirming the strong dependence of phase variations at the wafer on bulk phase of the mask absorber.

  9. Bedrock topography beneath the Red Lake peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Shaw, G.H. . Geology Dept.); Glaser, P. . Limnological Research Center); Siegel, D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Detailed hydrologic investigations of peat landforms in the Red Lake Peatlands have revealed that groundwater flow is significantly related to the type of landform and vegetation community present at a given site. Hydrogeologic modeling of shallow groundwater systems suggests that bedrock topography is an important, perhaps the vital, boundary condition controlling groundwater flow. Determination of depth to bedrock beneath different peat landforms is necessary to test the hydrogeologic models and obtain a better understanding of the processes which produce them. Direct determination of bedrock depth in peatlands is hampered by the difficult conditions and high costs of boring. In addition, environmental impacts from boring activities would probably be substantial in these sensitive ecosystems. Shallow seismic methods appear to be the most promising approach to obtain the necessary data. Unfortunately the 2+ meters of peat covering Lake Agassiz sediments overlying the bedrock is not only a poor substrate for geophone emplacement, but is a strong attenuator of seismic waves. These difficulties have been overcome by constructing a tool which allows the geophones to be emplaced beneath the peat and into the top of the sediments. The shotgun cartridge source is also located beneath the peat. This combination results in very good seismic records, far better than those possible with surface sources and geophones. The results from a preliminary survey along a 600m line show that there are significant variations in bedrock topography below the peat. In a distance of less than 500m, depth to bedrock changes by about 30%, from about 55m to about 40m. This is similar to variations indicated by the models.

  10. An Assessment of Topography Measurements on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard; Hurford, T.; Foley, M.

    2006-09-01

    Many small patches of chaotic terrain on Europa appear to be bulged upward, giving qualitative impressions that chaos might represent "cryovolcanic" and/or convective upwelling. The same bulged appearance is explained by the oceanic melt-through model, as simply the topography expected after refreezing and buoyant equilibrium. Greenberg et al. suggested an observational test to discriminate between these models, based on whether the up-bulged chaos is higher than the typical tectonic terrain in the region (for up-welling) or only higher than its immediate moat-like surroundings (melt-through and refreezing). Several authors have taken up this challenge, presenting topographic maps to refute the melt-through model by showing high elevations for chaos. However, details on the methods (based on combinations of stereo images and photoclinometry) have been sketchy, and without quantitative analyses of precision. For example, near Tyre, topographic maps and profiles reportedly show elevated chaos areas. Yet the elevations differ between published results by much more than the purported 10m precision. Moreover, high-elevation portions of profiles that were labeled as chaos are actually tectonic terrain. Stereo actually shows that major chaos areas are lower than the tectonic terrain in the area. Also, variations in elevation within the tectonic terrain are so great that differences from chaotic terrain are in the noise. Moreover, our error-analyses for both stereo and photoclinometry indicate that uncertainties are greater than reported differences between elevations of chaotic and tectonic terrain. For example, stereo-based models may exaggerate the height of chaos by favoring rafts as tie features, and photoclinometry is sensitive to an uncertain photometric function and to sub-pixel slope variations. To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of the melt-through model have been greatly exaggerated. Any results based on topography should not be accepted until the methods involved have been subjected to rigorous and transparent quantitative evaluation.

  11. Geostatistical modeling of topography using auxiliary maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengl, Tomislav; Bajat, Branislav; Blagojevi?, Dragan; Reuter, Hannes I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper recommends computational procedures for employing auxiliary maps, such as maps of drainage patterns, land cover and remote-sensing-based indices, directly in the geostatistical modeling of topography. The methodology is based on the regression-kriging technique, as implemented in the R package gstat. The computational procedures are illustrated using a case study in the south-west part of Serbia. Two point data sets were used for geostatistical modeling: (1) 2051 elevation points were used to generate DEMs and (2) an independent error assessment data set (1020 points) was used to assess errors in the topo-DEM and the SRTM-DEM. Four auxiliary maps were used to improve generation of DEMs from point data: (1) distance to streams, (2) terrain complexity measured by standard deviation filter, (3) analytical hillshading map and (4) NDVI map derived from the Landsat image. The auxiliary predictors were significantly correlated with elevations (adj.R2=0.20) and DEM errors (adj.R2=0.27). By including auxiliary maps in the geostatistical modeling of topography, realizations of DEMs can be generated that represent geomorphology of a terrain more accurately. In addition, downscaling of a coarse 3 arcsec SRTM DEM using auxiliary maps and regression-kriging is demonstrated using the same case study. A methodological advantage of regression-kriging, compared to splines, is the possibility to automate the data processing and incorporate multiple auxiliary predictors. The remaining open issues are computational efficiency, application of local regression-kriging algorithms and preparation of suitable auxiliary data layers for such analyses.

  12. Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2012-09-01

    The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution topography data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.

  13. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  14. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adn

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number ? and the Tsirelson-like number ? of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ? /? approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  15. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  16. Applications of laser ranging to ocean, ice, and land topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1991-09-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has been used for over two decades in the study of a variety of geophysical phenomena, including global tectonic plate motion, regional crustal deformation near plate boundaries, Earth''s gravity field, the orientation of its polar axis and rate of spin, lunar dynamics and general relativistic studies. The subcentimeter precision of the technique is now attracting the attention of a new community of scientists, notably those interested in high- resolution ocean, ice, and land topography. Over the next several years, the international SLR network will provide an essential link between the geocentric terrestrial reference frame (as presently defined by the international VLBI and SLR networks) and two new oceanographic satellites, ERS-1 and TOPEX-Poseidon, which will range to sea and ice surfaces using microwave altimeters. The combined SLR/altimetry data set will provide precise orbits, improved gravity models, and estimates of the marine geoid. The latter are necessary to infer the dynamic sea surface topography and will enable measurements of parameters important to an understanding of global change, such as mean sea level and ice sheet thickness. Laser tracking of oceanographic satellites from multiple sites as they overfly special calibration towers equipped with tide gauges will also provide periodic estimates of microwave altimeter bias. The few-centimeter precision orbits determined by the SLR network will be used as ''ground truth'' data in the intercomparison and performance evaluation of developmental space radio-navigation systems such as GPS (TOPEX/Poseidon) and PRARE (ERS-1). Future spaceborne two-color SLR instruments, such as NASA''s geoscience laser ranging system (GLRS), can monitor the tectonically-induced motions of tide gauges by bouncing laser pulses off of collocated retroreflectors. Similar systems can measure the barometric loading over the open ocean. When used as transmitters in spaceborne or airborne altimeters, the narrow beamwidths and short pulsewidths available from lasers can provide high spatial resolution (both horizontal and vertical) topographic data over land and ice in support of a diverse set of science applications.

  17. Interior structure of the Moon: Constraints from seismic tomography, gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Bernhard; Zhao, Dapeng; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2015-08-01

    Seismic tomography can be combined with constraints from geoid, topography and other surface observations to gain information about mantle structure and dynamics. This approach has been taken with much success for the Earth mantle, and here it is, for the first time, applied to the Moon. Lunar tomography has much lower resolution as for the Earth and is mostly restricted to the near side, nevertheless we can assess under what assumptions the fit between predicted geoid (based on a tomography model) and observed geoid is best. Among the models tested, we find the most similar pattern (correlation about 0.5) if we only consider tomography below 225 km depth, if density anomalies cause little or no dynamic topography and if we compare to the geoid with the flattening (l = 2, m = 0) term removed. This could mean that (a) like for the Earth, seismic anomalies shallower than 225 km are caused by a combination of thermal and compositional effects and therefore cannot be simply converted to density anomalies; (b) the lithosphere is sufficiently thick to prevent dynamic topography more than a small fraction of total topography; and (c) flattening is a "fossil" bulge unrelated to present-day mantle anomalies. However, we have to be cautious with interpreting our results, because for models with a comparatively higher correlation and a conversion from seismic velocity to density anomalies similar to the Earth's upper mantle, the amplitude of the predicted geoid is much lower than observed. This could either mean that the tomography model is strongly damped, or that the geoid is mostly due to shallow causes such as crustal thickness variations, with only a small part coming from the deeper mantle.

  18. Rejuvenation of Appalachian topography caused by subsidence-induced differential erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun

    2014-07-01

    In ancient orogens, such as the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, the difference between the high and low points--topographic relief--can continue to increase long after the tectonic forces that created the range have become inactive. Climatic forcing and mantle-induced dynamic uplift could drive formation of relief, but clear evidence is lacking in the Appalachian Mountains. Here I use a numerical simulation of dynamic topography in North America, combined with reconstructions of the sedimentation history from the Gulf of Mexico, to show that rejuvenation of topographic relief in the Appalachian Mountains since the Palaeogene period could have been caused by mantle-induced dynamic subsidence associated with sinking of the subducted Farallon slab. Specifically, I show that patterns of continental erosion and the eastward migration of sediment deposition centres in the Gulf of Mexico closely follow the locus of predicted dynamic subsidence. Furthermore, pulses of rapid sediment deposition in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic correlate with enhanced erosion in the Appalachian Mountains during the Miocene epoch, caused by dynamic tilting of the continent. The model predicts that such subsidence-induced differential erosion caused flexural-isostatic adjustments of Appalachian topography that led to the development of 400 m of relief and more than 200 m of elevation. I propose that dynamically induced continental tilting may provide a mechanism for topographic rejuvenation in ancient orogens.

  19. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  20. Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

  1. Representation of topography in spectral climate models and its effect on simulated precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, C.; Broccoli, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    Spectral climate models are distinguished by their representation of variables as finite sums of spherical harmonics, with coefficients computed by an orthogonal projection of the variables onto the spherical harmonics. Representing the surface elevation in this manner results in its contamination by Gibbs-like truncation artifacts, which appear as spurious valleys and mountain chains in the topography. These {open_quotes}Gibbs ripples{close_quotes} are present in the surface topographies of spectral climate models from a number of research institutions. Integrations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model over a range of horizontal resolutions indicate that the Gibbs ripples lead to spurious, small-scale extrema in the spatial distribution of precipitation. This {open_quotes}cellular precipitation pathology{close_quotes} becomes more pronounced with increasing horizontal resolution, causing a deterioration in the fidelity of simulated precipitation in higher resolution models. A method is described for reducing the Gibbs ripples that occur when making an incomplete spherical harmonic expansion of the topography. The new spherical harmonic representations of topography are formed by fitting a nonuniform spherical smoothing spline to geodetic data and found by solving a fixed-point problem. This regularization technique results in less distortion of features such as mountain height and continental boundaries than previous smoothing methods. These new expansions of the topography, when used as a lower boundary surface in the GFDL climate model, substantially diminish the cellular precipitation pathology and produce markedly more realistic simulations of precipitation. These developments make the prospect of using higher resolution spectral models for studies of regional hydrologic climate more attractive. 34 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of surface topography on stress concentration factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengkun; Liao, Ridong

    2015-11-01

    Neuber rule and Arola-Ramulu model are widely used to predict the stress concentration factor of rough specimens. However, the height parameters and effective valley radius used in these two models depend strongly on the resolution of the roughness-measuring instruments and are easily introduce measuring errors. Besides, it is difficult to find a suitable parameter to characterize surface topography to quantitatively describe its effect on stress concentration factor. In order to overcome these disadvantages, profile moments are carried out to characterize surface topography, surface topography is simulated by superposing series of cosine components, the stress concentration factors of different micro cosine-shaped surface topographies are investigated by finite element analysis. In terms of micro cosine-shaped surface topography, an equation using the second profile moment to estimate the stress concentration factor is proposed, predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% error compared with the results of finite element analysis, which are more accurate than other models. Moreover, the proposed equation is applied to the real surface topography machined by turning. Predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% of the maximum stress concentration factors and about 5% of the effective stress concentration factors estimated from the finite element analysis for three levels of turning surface topographies under different simulated scales. The proposed model is feasible in predicting the stress concentration factors of real machined surface topographies.

  3. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E. ); Davis, R.K. ); Hopkins, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data.

  4. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data.

  5. Investigation of the mode of compensation of Venus topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The Venus gravity data derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter indicates a strong correlation of gravity to topography at all resolvable wavelengths. Focus was on an analysis in the spatial domain, using a geophysical model of topographic compensation together with the topography data to compute gravity vectors corresponding to the observed data and comparison of the calculated and observed gravity vectors.

  6. High-resolution modelling and error analysis of late-Cenozoic African topography driven by mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.; Mitrovica, J.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Glisovic, P.

    2010-12-01

    An outstanding problem in African continental dynamics is the delineation of the mantle convective flow below the African plate and its relationship to the evolution of continental topography. Over the last decade numerous studies have focused on modelling the present-day African dynamic topography using seismic-tomography based mantle convection simulations (e.g. Lithgow-Bertolini et al., 1998; Gurnis et al., 2000; Daradich et al., 2003; Forte et al., 2010). However, the majority of these investigations of tomography-based convection below Africa have been based on long wavelength global tomography models, which resolve structures with scale lengths generally in excess of 1000 km. This spatial resolution is insufficient for mapping out a detailed connection between the surface manifestations of African hotspot magmatism, topographic anomalies and the sublithospheric mantle flow pattern below the African plate. Substantial progress has recently been made in deriving a seismic tomography model which approaches the horizontal resolution needed to address these modelling challenges (e.g. Simmons et al., 2009). This tomography model provides explicit estimates of both thermal and chemical contributions to mantle buoyancy and we employ it in a mantle convection simulation that satisfies the combined set of geodynamic constraints related to the present-day surface gravity and topography anomalies. Utilizing this present-day geodynamic model we reconstruct the late Cenozoic dynamic topography of Africa by carrying out backward-in-time mantle flow simulations. Uncertainties in our reconstruction of topography that originate from the starting models of mantle heterogeneity, rheology and different plate reconstructions are fully investigated and compared with the geological record. The consideration of such uncertainties was usually ignored in previous studies, but we demonstrate their importance in evaluating the robustness of the time-dependent topography reconstructions in the geologic past.

  7. Absolute free energies of biomolecules from unperturbed ensembles.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2013-12-01

    Computing the absolute free energy of a macromolecule's structural state, F, is a challenging problem of high relevance. This study presents a method that computes F using only information from an unperturbed simulation of the macromolecule in the relevant conformational state, ensemble, and environment. Absolute free energies produced by this method, dubbed Valuation of Local Configuration Integral with Dynamics (VALOCIDY), enable comparison of alternative states. For example, comparing explicitly solvated and vaporous states of amino acid side-chain analogs produces solvation free energies in good agreement with experiments. Also, comparisons between alternative conformational states of model heptapeptides (including the unfolded state) produce free energy differences in agreement with data from ?s molecular-dynamics simulations and experimental propensities. The potential of using VALOCIDY in computational protein design is explored via a small design problem of stabilizing a ?-turn structure. When VALOCIDY-based estimation of folding free energy is used as the design metric, the resulting sequence folds into the desired structure within the atomistic force field used in design. The VALOCIDY-based approach also recognizes the distinct status of the native sequence regardless of minor details of the starting template structure, in stark contrast with a traditional fixed-backbone approach. PMID:24132787

  8. Stereo Pair: Inverted Topography, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow-, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.

    Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, and drainage ends up in salty lakes (blue if shallow, black if deep). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lakebeds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1,4,7 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

  9. New Global Bathymetry and Topography Model Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine topography model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land topography data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data. GEBCO has agreed to adopt this model and begin updating it in 2009. Ongoing tasks include building an uncertainty model and including information from the latest IBCAO map of the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Topography and Volcanoes on Io (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The images used to create this enhanced color composite of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. Low sun angles near the terminator (day-night boundary near the left side of the image) offer lighting conditions which emphasize the topography or relief on the volcanic satellite. The topography appears very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horse-shoe shaped feature near the terminator) while a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere. The big reddish-orange ring in the lower right is formed by material deposited from the eruption of Pele, Io's largest volcanic plume.

    North is to the top of this picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The resolution is 6.1 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a range of 600,000 kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    Concurrent results from Galileo's exploration of Io appear in the October 15th, 1997 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers are: Temperature and Area Constraints of the South Volund Volcano on Io from the NIMS and SSI Instruments during the Galileo G1 Orbit, by A.G. Davies, A.S. McEwen, R. Lopes-Gautier, L. Keszthelyi, R.W. Carlson and W.D. Smythe. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment, by A. McEwen, D. Simonelli, D. Senske, K. Klassen, L. Keszthelyi, T. Johnson, P. Geissler, M. Carr, and M. Belton. Io: Galileo evidence for major variations in regolith properties, by D. Simonelli, J. Veverka, and A. McEwen.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

    1995-11-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation. PMID:8587772

  12. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims

  13. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

  14. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The

  15. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  16. Absolute Differential Positronium-Formation Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, M.; Armitage, S.; Beale, J.; Brawley, S. J.; Fayer, S. E.; Garner, A. J.; Leslie, D. E.; Van Reeth, P.; Laricchia, G.

    2015-07-01

    The first absolute experimental determinations of the differential cross sections for the formation of ground-state positronium are presented for He, Ar, H2 , and CO2 near 0. Results are compared with available theories. The ratio of the differential and integrated cross sections for the targets exposes the higher propensity for forward emission of positronium formed from He and H2 .

  17. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  18. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  19. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is

  20. Absolute distance interferometry using diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners-Hagen, K.; Abou-Zeid, A.; Hartmann, L.

    2008-10-01

    An approach to a homodyne absolute distance interferometer (ADI) was previously presented which makes use of two extended cavity diode lasers (ECDL). The length measurement is performed by combining variable synthetic wavelength interferometry and two wavelength interferometry in one setup. In this contribution the ADI was compared to a counting HeNe laser interferometer up to a length of 10 m.

  1. Adaptive Topographies and Equilibrium Selection in an Evolutionary Game

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, Hinke M.; Marshall, James A. R.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known in the field of population genetics that adaptive topographies, in which population equilibria maximise mean population fitness for a trait regardless of its genetic bases, do not exist. Whether one chooses to model selection acting on a single locus or multiple loci does matter. In evolutionary game theory, analysis of a simple and general game involving distinct roles for the two players has shown that whether strategies are modelled using a single ‘locus’ or one ‘locus’ for each role, the stable population equilibria are unchanged and correspond to the fitness-maximising evolutionary stable strategies of the game. This is curious given the aforementioned population genetical results on the importance of the genetic bases of traits. Here we present a dynamical systems analysis of the game with roles detailing how, while the stable equilibria in this game are unchanged by the number of ‘loci’ modelled, equilibrium selection may differ under the two modelling approaches. PMID:25706762

  2. Renewable Interfaces: Surface Topography Actuation for Complex Biological Adhesion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocivavsek, Luka; Ye, Sangho; Cao, Kathleen; Lee, Ka Yee C.; Velankar, Sachin; Wagner, William

    2015-03-01

    Controlling adhesion at biological interfaces is a complex problem with great biomedical importance. We use dynamic wrinkling, generated with PDMS/UVO chemistry under different macroscopic strains (ɛij ~ 0 . 3), to create a mechanical interfacial term that frustrates particle adhesion. This device actuates surface topography between flat (zero surface confinement χij) and wrinkled surfaces (χij ~(A / λ) 2 , where A and λ are wrinkle amplitude and wavelength, respectively), with a maximum rate of 0.6 Hz. Un-actuated PDMS placed in contact with whole sheep blood shows near total surface coverage with adhered platelets over 90 min. Actuation showed a nearly 100-fold decrease in platelet adhesion. Interestingly, topographic actuation is four times as effective compared to flat surface actuation in controlling platelet adhesion. Our model explores the competition between surface tension terms (Uγ = γɛij) and interfacial elastic terms (Uχ =Eij (t .ɛij2 +t3 . (χij /λ2)) generated because of actuation and wrinkling, where Eij is platelet modulus and t is characteristic platelet length scale. The condition for de-adhesion is Uχ >Uγ .

  3. Topography and Vegetation Characterization using Dual-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Bradford, B.; Magruder, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring Earth surface dynamics at an ever increasing resolution has helped to support the characterization of local topography, including vegetated and urban environments. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to characterize vegetation and landscapes as it provides detailed three-dimensional spatial data with multiple elevation recordings for each laser pulse. The full waveform LIDAR receiver is unique in this aspect as it can capture and record the complete temporal history of the reflected signal, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and ground surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the utility of co-collected, dual-wavelength, full waveform LIDAR data to characterize vegetation and landscapes through the extraction of waveform features, including total waveform energy, canopy energy distribution, and foliage penetration metrics. Assessments are performed using data collected in May 2014 over Monterey, CA, including the Naval Postgraduate School campus area as well as the Point Lobos State Natural Reserve situated on the Monterey coast. The surveys were performed with the Chiroptera dual-laser LIDAR mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), which can collect both green (515nm) and near infrared (1064nm) waveforms simultaneously. Making use of the dual waveforms allows for detailed characterization of the vegetation and landscape not previously possible with airborne LIDAR.

  4. Imaging, Reconstruction, And Display Of Corneal Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Stephen D.; Wilson, Steven E.

    1989-12-01

    The cornea is the major refractive element in the eye; even minor surface distortions can produce a significant reduction in visual acuity. Standard clinical methods used to evaluate corneal shape include keratometry, which assumes the cornea is ellipsoidal in shape, and photokeratoscopy, which images a series of concentric light rings on the corneal surface. These methods fail to document many of the corneal distortions that can degrade visual acuity. Algorithms have been developed to reconstruct the three dimensional shape of the cornea from keratoscope images, and to present these data in the clinically useful display of color-coded contour maps of corneal surface power. This approach has been implemented on a new generation video keratoscope system (Computed Anatomy, Inc.) with rapid automatic digitization of the image rings by a rule-based approach. The system has found clinical use in the early diagnosis of corneal shape anomalies such as keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal warpage, in the evaluation of cataract and corneal transplant procedures, and in the assessment of corneal refractive surgical procedures. Currently, ray tracing techniques are being used to correlate corneal surface topography with potential visual acuity in an effort to more fully understand the tolerances of corneal shape consistent with good vision and to help determine the site of dysfunction in the visually impaired.

  5. Mercury's Global Topography from Radar Ranging Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Asmar, S. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Slade, M. A., III; Standish, E. M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    When Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging data is reduced substantially. Previously, data spanning an observing interval from 1966 to 1990 were used to infer an equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) X 10(exp -6) and a center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset of (640 +/- 78) m. The magnitude of this equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity field, and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, bounds on crustal thickness can be derived. Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km. The Mercury radar ranging observing interval has been extended from 1966 to the present. In addition, improvements in data reduction techniques have resulted in a set of Mercury ranging data less affected by systematic error, in particular the biases introduced by local topographic variations. We use this new set of reduced ranging data to improve Mercury's global topography and center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset. New results on crustal thickness are derived, and prospects for further improvement with Mercury Orbiter data are discussed.

  6. Epitope topography controls bioactivity in supramolecular nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Shantanu; Tantakitti, Faifan; Matson, John B.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating bioactivity into artificial scaffolds using peptide epitopes present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a well-known approach. A common strategy has involved epitopes that provide cells with attachment points and external cues through interaction with integrin receptors. Although a variety of bioactive sequences have been identified so far, less is known about their optimal display in a scaffold. We report here on the use of self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofiber matrices to investigate the impact of spatial presentation of the fibronectin derived epitope RGDS on cell response. Using one, three, or five glycine residues, RGDS epitopes were systematically spaced out from the surface of the rigid nanofibers. We found that cell morphology was strongly affected by the separation of the epitope from the nanofiber surface, with the longest distance yielding the most cell-spreading, bundling of actin filaments, and a round-to-polygonal transformation of cell shape. Cell response to this type of epitope display was also accompanied with activated integrin-mediated signaling and formation of stronger adhesions between cells and substrate. Interestingly, unlike length, changing the molecular flexibility of the linker had minimal influence on cell behavior on the substrate for reasons that remain poorly understood. The use in this study of high persistence length nanofibers rather than common flexible polymers allows us to conclude that epitope topography at the nanoscale structure of a scaffold influences its bioactive properties independent of epitope density and mechanical properties. PMID:25745558

  7. Inversion of topography in Martian highland terrains

    SciTech Connect

    De Hon, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Ring furrows are flat-floored trenches, circulate in plan view, forming rings 7 to 50 km in diameter. Typically, ring furrows, which are 0.5 km deep and 2 to 10 km wide, surround a central, flat-topped, circular mesa or plateau. The central plateau is about the same elevation or lower than the plain outside the ring. Ring furrows are unique features of the dissected martian uplands. Related landforms range from ring furrows with fractured central plateaus to circular mesas without encircling moats. Ring furrows are superposed on many types of materials, but they are most common cratered plateau-type materials that are interpreted as volcanic flow material overlying ancient cratered terrain. The ring shape and size suggest that they are related to craters partially buried by lava flows. Ring furrows were formed by preferential removal of exposed rims of partially buried craters. Evidence of overland flow of water is lacking except within the channels. Ground ice decay and sapping followed by fluvial erosion are responsible for removal of the less resistant rim materials. Thus, differential erosion has caused a reversal of topography in which the originally elevated rim is reduced to negative relief.

  8. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50-141. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  9. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography.

    PubMed

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50-141. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable I(D)/I(G) and sp/sp ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF? implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF? implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF? implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity. PMID:21343636

  10. Mantle dynamics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden

    1990-01-01

    Both completed work and work that is still in progress are presented. The completed work presented includes: (1) core-mantle boundary topography; (2) absolute value for mantle viscosity; (3) code development; (4) lateral heterogeneity of subduction zone rheology; and (5) planning for the Coolfront meeting. The work presented that is still in progress includes: (1) geoid anomalies for a chemically stratified mantle; and (2) geoid anomalies with lateral variations in viscosity.

  11. Enabling Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography for Earth Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Baru, Chaitan

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging a.k.a. laser scanning) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the geomorphic processes acting along the Earth's surface. These data, acquired from either an airborne platform or from a tripod-mounted scanner, are emerging as a fundamental tool for research on a variety of topics ranging from earthquake hazards to ice sheet dynamics. Lidar topography data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate digital representation of landforms and geologic hazards. However, along with the potential of lidar topography comes an increase in the volume and complexity of data that must be efficiently managed, archived, distributed, processed and integrated in order for them to be of use to the community. A single lidar data acquisition may generate terabytes of data in the form of point clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs), and derivative imagery. This massive volume of data is often difficult to manage and poses significant distribution challenges when trying to allow access to the data for a large scientific user community. Furthermore, the datasets can be technically challenging to work with and may require specific software and computing resources that are not readily available to many users. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is an online data access and processing system designed to address the challenges posed by lidar data, and to democratize access to these data for the scientific user community. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including raw lidar point cloud data, standard DEMs, and easily accessible Google Earth visualizations. OpenTopography uses cyberinfrastructure resources to allow users, regardless of their level of expertise, to access lidar data products that can be applied to their research. In addition to data access, the system uses customized algorithms and high-performance computing resources to allow users to perform on-the-fly data processing tasks such as the generation of custom DEMs. OpenTopography's primarily focus is on large, community-oriented, scientific data sets, such as those acquired by the NSF-funded EarthScope project. We are actively expanding our holdings through collaborations with researchers and data providers to include data from a wide variety of landscapes and geologic domains. Ultimately, the goal is for OpenTopography to be the primary clearing house for Earth science-oriented high-resolution topography. This presentation will provide an overview of the OpenTopography Facility, including available data, processing capabilities and resources, examples from scientific use cases, and a snapshot of system and data usage thus far. We will also discuss current development activities related to deploying high-performance algorithms for hydrologic processing of DEMs, geomorphic change detection analysis, and the incorporation of full waveform lidar data into the system.

  12. Coastal currents generated by outflow and vorticity and their interaction with topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Byoung Woong; McDonald, N. Robb

    2004-08-01

    The offshore spreading of coastal river outflows over shelf-like topography is inhibited by the demands of potential vorticity conservation. As a result, outflows tend to remain coastally trapped and flow parallel to the coast. Alongshore currents may also form when the outflow fluid has vorticity relative to the surrounding fluid, in which case the 'image' vorticity drives the outflow parallel to the coast. In the present work, the combined effects of topography and anomalous vorticity of the outflow in forming coastal currents are studied. Shelf-like topography is considered in the form of a sudden step change in depth, running parallel to a straight coast, some distance offshore. A simple model incorporating these effects is formulated using quasigeostrophic dynamics for a barotropic fluid with a rigid lid. The role of topographic wave radiation in establishing coastal currents is studied using the linearised barotropic potential vorticity equation for the case of a weak outflow of fluid with zero anomalous vorticity. The outflow is shown to be confined to the shelf and flows to the right of the source region. For stronger outflows, with relative vorticity, the method of contour dynamics is used to study the nonlinear evolution of the outflow plume and, in particular, its interaction with topography. The effects of outflow strength, magnitude and sign of the relative vorticity of the outflow fluid are considered in detail. In particular, the offshore penetration distance and rate of alongshore spreading of the outflow plume are studied. When the outflow comprises of fluid with positive (cyclonic) vorticity, the topographic and vorticity-driven image effects reinforce each other and increase the spreading rate of the outflow plume to the right of the source. For negative (anticyclonic) vorticity outflows the effects oppose each other leading to enhanced offshore spreading of the outflow. The numerical results demonstrate that the offshore transport is achieved by an efficient dipolar vortex mechanism.

  13. Influence of planetary-scale topography on the diurnal thermal tide during the 1971 Martian dust storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained with the Mariner 9 infrared spectroscopy experiment during the Martian Dust Storm of 1971 to 1972 are examined for evidence of topographic influence on the atmospheric thermal structure. Temperature perturbations which are well correlated with the planetary scale topography are found superposed on the large amplitude diurnal thermal tide. Applications of tidal theory to the data indicate that the observed perturbations result from the kinematic interaction of the westward traveling diurnal wave with the large scale components of topography. The dominant mode is excited by the wave-number two topography component and is a vertically evanescent eastward traveling wave with an equivalent depth comparable to the atmospheric scale height. The principle dynamic effect of this mode is the enhancement of the amplitude of the near-surface diurnal wind to over 40m/sec in limited areas near 30 deg south latitude. It appears likely that dust was injected into the atmosphere in these regions during the storm.

  14. Simulation of stratified flow over three-dimensional topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li

    2002-01-01

    Large eddy simulation is employed to study the stratified flow over three-dimensional topography. Incompressible, time-dependent, three-dimensional and filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite-volume method. The subgrid scale flow motions are modeled by a dynamic mixed model. The LES code is applied to the simulation of linearly stratified flow over a bell-shaped hill. The performance of the LES code has been investigated by comparing its predictions with those from a towing tank experiment. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The height of the dividing streamline which separates the flow over the hill from the flow around the hill can be estimated by Sheppard's formula only because the energy loss due to friction/turbulence is balanced by energy provided by the pressure field. Drazin's theory can be used to predict the flow field when F < 0.4 if there is no wake region in the flow. Lee waves caused by the perturbation of the topography follow the linear theory reasonably. The effects of hill geometry have been studied by varying steepness and width of the hill. The variation of the dividing-streamline height with hill geometry is the result of the change of the pressure field. Two wake structures have been found at the leeside of the hill when F < l. One has a constant wake width and the other is similar to the wake generated by the two-dimensional flow passing around cylindrical bodies with a cross section equivalent to that of the hill at each level. In the low Froude number case (F << 1), the wake structure is dominated by the latter structure due to strong stratification. In the high Froude number case (F 1), the tilting of baroclinically-generated vortices forms a pair of vertically-oriented vortices with an approximately constant wake width. A scalar is released upstream at different heights. The major diffusion occurs when the plume approaches the hill due to the increasing shear. The distortion of streamlines by the hill has a great impact on the diffusion of the scalar.

  15. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    PubMed Central

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  16. The Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.

    2007-12-01

    Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global topography compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic/). Local data sources include high-resolution bathymetry swaths and grids from over 210 research cruises, submersible dives, and related compilations to date. GMRT is accessible via a OGC Web Map Service (WMS) which offers dynamic resolution and on-the-fly map re- projection. A growing number of commercial and open-source clients support OGC protocols, including recent versions of Google Earth and Google Maps which now support WMS natively. GMRT is incorporated as a primary basemap in science Web portals and geobrowsers including EarthChem (www.earthchem.org) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org), which also serves the underlying elevation values. Future development work will include extension of GMRT to higher resolutions; addition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO; www.ibcso.org) and the improved SRTM V2; and deployment of new OGC services including a Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Terrain Service (WTS).

  17. SRTM Anaglyph: Inverted Topography, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued, and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.

    Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, but instead the drainage ends up in salty lakes (dark water, some with bright shores). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lake beds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat band 7 (short infrared) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

  18. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Marcia; Fons, Juan Manuel; Popa, Elena Mădălina; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells. PMID:26538639

  19. Science in Motion: Isolated Araneiform Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Have you ever found that to describe something you had to go to the dictionary and search for just the right word?

    The south polar terrain is so full of unearthly features that we had to visit Mr. Webster to find a suitable term. 'Araneiform' means 'spider-like'. These are channels that are carved in the surface by carbon dioxide gas. We do not have this process on Earth.

    The channels are somewhat radially organized (figure 1) and widen and deepen as they converge. In the past we've just refered to them as 'spiders.' 'Isolated araneiform topography' means that our features look like spiders that are not in contact with each other.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003087_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 24-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -87.1 degrees latitude, 126.3 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.4 km (152.8 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.5 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 73 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 08:22 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 81 degrees, thus the sun was about 9 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 206.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  20. Functional topography of the dorsomedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mutsumi; McAllen, Robin M

    2008-02-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) has been proposed to play key roles in both the defense reaction to acute stress and in the thermoregulatory response to cold. We reasoned that the autonomic/respiratory motor patterns of these responses would be mediated by at least partly distinct DMH neuron populations. To test this, we made simultaneous recordings of phrenic nerve and plantar cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC) activity in 14 vagotomized, ventilated, urethane-anesthetized rats. Microinjections of d,l-homocysteic acid (DLH; 15 nl, 50 mM) were used to cause localized, short-lasting (<1 min) activation of DMH neuron clusters. Cooling the rat's trunk skin by perfusing cold water through a water jacket-activated plantar CVC activity but depressed phrenic burst rate (cold-response pattern). The expected "stress/defense response" pattern would be phrenic activation, with increased blood pressure, heart rate, and possibly CVC activity. DLH microinjections into 76 sites within the DMH region never reduced phrenic activity. They frequently increased phrenic rate and/or plantar CVC activity, but the magnitudes of those two responses were not significantly correlated. Plantar CVC responses were evoked most strongly from the dorsal hypothalamic area and most dorsal part of the dorsomedial nucleus, whereas peak phrenic rate responses were evoked from more caudal sites; their relative magnitudes varied systematically with rostrocaudal position. Tachycardia correlated with plantar CVC responses but not phrenic rate. These findings indicate that localized activation of DMH neurons does not evoke full "cold-response" or stress/defense response patterns, but they demonstrate the existence of significant functional topography within the DMH region. PMID:18077509

  1. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. A.; Shaw, C. P.; Zavgorodni, S. F.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 1013 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  2. Morphology and Absolute Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antn, S.

    2014-10-01

    The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, dynamics, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive absolute magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on absolute magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman ? forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and absolute magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.

  3. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  4. Dynamo action by turbulence in absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan Ganga Prasath, Srinivasa; Fauve, Stéphan; Brachet, Marc

    2014-04-01

    We consider the generation of a large-scale magnetic field by a turbulent flow driven by a small-scale helical forcing in a low magnetic Prandtl number fluid. We provide an estimate of the dynamo threshold that takes into account the presence of large-scale turbulent fluctuations by considering that the scales of the flow that mostly contribute to the dynamo process are roughly in absolute equilibrium. We show that turbulent flows in absolute equilibrium do generate dynamos and we compare their growth rates to their laminar counterparts. Finally, we show that the back reaction of the growing magnetic field modifies the statistical properties of turbulent flow by suppressing its kinetic helicity at large magnetic Reynolds number.

  5. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  6. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jrn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  7. Relaxation towards negative absolute temperature states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Stephan; Feiguin, Adrian; Manmana, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observation of negative absolute temperature states with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, [Braun et al., Science 339 52 (2013)], we discuss the formation of these states. More specifically, we consider the relaxation after a sudden inversion of the external parabolic confining potential. First, previous numerical simulation results of a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the case of fermions will be discussed, which show a surprisingly slow equilibration due to the diffusive rearrangement of the local kinetic energies in the inhomogeneous system. We then focus on the integrable system of one-dimensional hard-core bosons. Here, we provide convincing numerical evidence for the relaxation to a generalized Gibbs ensemble at negative absolute temperature, a notion we define in this context.

  8. FOC Absolute Sensitivity (F/48 Relay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paresce, Francesco

    1992-06-01

    The absolute DQE for the f/48 camera has not yet been directly measured in orbit. This has been in part due to the absence of faint enough standards. This proposal will attempt to correct this deficiency by observations of UV standard stars with combinations of filters and small formats to achieve count rates that are not seriously nonlinear. Because of the use of small formats, interactive acquisitions will be required as well as special commanding for nonstandard formats. Internal LED exposures will also be necessary to geometrically calibrate the nonstandard format and to tie its absolute response to those of other formats (there is a significant format- dependent response variation for f/48).

  9. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  10. Redetermination and absolute configuration of (+)-7-epiclusianone

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Omar E.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Ky, Khoa; Pradhan, Shreedu; Manandhar, Anjela; Richmond, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The absolute configuration of 3-benzoyl-4-hy­droxy-6,6-dimethyl-1,5,7-tris­(3-methyl­but-2-en­yl)bicyclo­[3.3.1]non-3-ene-2,9-dione, C33H42O4, isolated from Hypericum hypericoides, has been determined. The previous study [Xiao et al. (2007 ▶). J. Nat. Prod. 70, 1779–1782] gave only the established relative configuration. The three stereogenic centers are now established as 1R, 5R and 7S on the basis of the refinement of the Flack absolute structure parameter against Cu Kα data and correspond to a specific rotation of [α]D 20 = +66°. The enol–hy­droxy group forms an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond to close an S(6) ring. PMID:23284527

  11. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < 21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > 15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of 19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at 16.75.

  12. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  13. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  14. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  15. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  16. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  17. Absolute Differential Positronium-Formation Cross Sections.

    PubMed

    Shipman, M; Armitage, S; Beale, J; Brawley, S J; Fayer, S E; Garner, A J; Leslie, D E; Van Reeth, P; Laricchia, G

    2015-07-17

    The first absolute experimental determinations of the differential cross sections for the formation of ground-state positronium are presented for He, Ar, H2, and CO2 near 0. Results are compared with available theories. The ratio of the differential and integrated cross sections for the targets exposes the higher propensity for forward emission of positronium formed from He and H2. PMID:26230792

  18. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  19. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30, 60, -60 and -30, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  20. Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone

    2012-09-15

    We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

  1. Absolute and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LCMS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding 13C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For absolute in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to absolute amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear dynamic range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236

  2. Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted topography

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J.; Montgomery, David R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which topography was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 104 years after the last major glaciation the topography of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial topography in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial topography and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain. PMID:26271245

  3. Profile measuring and topography modeling of aluminum alloy sheet surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhigang

    2006-11-01

    With the development of lightweight vehicles, aluminum alloy sheet plays a more and more important role in auto panel production because of its high strength and low mass. However, aluminum alloy sheet is more difficult to forming than steel and its contact and friction behavior with the die surface in warm forming is more complicated. In order to study the laws of the contact and friction behavior, the topography data of aluminum alloy sheet surface should be obtained first so that the topography model can be set up. The authors introduce the principle and the performance of AF-LI Contact and Non-contact Synthesis Measuring Profilometer, get the topography data of aluminum alloy sheet surface by using contact measuring method. Then a statistical topography model of aluminum alloy sheet surface is set up based on the data.

  4. Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasicek, Gnther; Larsen, Isaac J.; Montgomery, David R.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which topography was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 104 years after the last major glaciation the topography of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial topography in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial topography and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain.

  5. Surface topography and the impact on fatigue performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardi, D. T.; Li, Y. G.; Chan, K. H. K.; Blunt, L.; Bache, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    Areal characterization was applied to plain fatigue specimens manufactured from a nickel-based superalloy, Alloy 720Li, to determine the impact of machined/finished surface topography on fatigue performance of this material. Samples were subjected to fatigue testing in the as-turned and shot peened conditions to study the interaction between residual stresses and topography in influencing the fatigue performance. The turning process was deliberately manipulated to produce three distinct finishes which were subsequently given an identical shot peening, resulting in six grades of surface topography. Surface topography was found to influence fatigue even in the presence of peened compressive residual stresses by promoting crack initiation at valley sites. Both the roughness amplitude and spatial characteristics of the surface were found to be important when correlating to fatigue performance.

  6. X-ray topography of a lysozyme crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff,V.; Siddons, D.

    1996-01-01

    X-ray topography methods were employed to identify defects in lysozyme crystals. White-beam and monochromatic topographs of lysozyme crystals obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source are presented.

  7. Geoid height versus topography for oceanic plateaus and swells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and topography is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to topography between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/topography ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/topography ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.

  8. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: Foundations and extensions

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:22478402

  9. Calculation of irrotational wind pattern with application to Cleveland topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1972-01-01

    Small perturbation theory is applied to compute the deflection of the wind blowing across land that has an irregular topography. As an illustration, the method is applied first to the flow around a single hill of Gaussian profile. Then calculations are made for the irregular topography on the east side of Cleveland where the elevation changes by several hundred feet. It was found that the topography produced small wind deflections that would not be of practical importance in air pollution dispersion studies. The calculations were for a neutrally stable atmosphere. Although they are not investigated here, other factors such as thermal stratification of the atmosphere, diurnal variations, and convection currents resulting from the proximity of Lake Erie and the city heat island effect are expected to be more significant than the influence of topography.

  10. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  11. Engineering microscale topographies to control the cellsubstrate interface

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including topography and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale topographies to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cellsubstrate interface. Topographies of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar topographies to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application. PMID:22521491

  12. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 LOWER END TOPOGRAPHY AND SECTIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 - LOWER END TOPOGRAPHY AND SECTIONS. February 1934. Reference BS-150. - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  14. Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted topography.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J; Montgomery, David R

    2015-01-01

    One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which topography was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 10(4) years after the last major glaciation the topography of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial topography in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial topography and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain. PMID:26271245

  15. Re-Envisioning Cross Sectional Hydraulic Geometry as Spatially Explicit Hydraulic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional transect-based methodology for determining hydraulic geometry relationships depends on a complex set of opaque fieldwork and computational decisions that sometimes go unexplained. The fields of river hydraulics and fluvial geomorphology are in the midst of a transformation from considering limited cross-sectional data to using an abundance of spatially explicit data. Hydraulic geometry is one of the classic tools of fluvial geomorphology that is ripe for re-envisioning so it can continue to be useful in the spatially explicit era. This study developed a new method for analyzing discharge-dependent hydraulics coined "hydraulic topography" that not only increases the accuracy of the tool, but also should eliminate several sample- and assumption-based inconsistencies from traditional hydraulic geometry analysis. Hydraulic topography relied on detailed, near-census river surveying and served as the standard by which to assess cross sectional methods. Both hydraulic topography and uniformly spaced cross sectional hydraulic geometry sample approaches were applied to a series of high resolution 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the gravel-cobble bed lower Yuba River- their associated results were analyzed. More specifically, the power functions fit to discharge-dependent average width, depth, and velocity for three spatial scales were visually inspected and their corresponding exponents and coefficients were compared. Average cross sectional hydraulics at the segment scale spanned up to 1.5 orders of magnitude for a given discharge. Transect-determined rates of reach scale depth and velocity increase with changing discharge were consistently over- and underestimated, respectively, relative to the near-census benchmark. Both methods showed that relative to riffles, pools had lower velocities at low discharges but a higher rate of velocity increase with increased flows. Overall, 73 percent of cross sectional power regression parameters assessed fell between 10 and 50 absolute percent error with respect to the spatially explicit hydraulic topography approach. Although traditional transect-based sampling may be viable for certain uses, percent errors of this magnitude could still compromise engineering applications in river management and training works.

  16. The Effect of Surface Topography on Interface Stresses During Peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Dufresne, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Surface topography can have a large impact on the adhesive strength of soft interfaces. While previous experiments have revealed some of the underlying mechanisms, there has been no direct measurement of interface stresses during adhesive failure. We use traction force microscopy to measure the microscopic distribution of interface stresses during peeling. We focus on the relationship between local stresses and topography near the peeling front.

  17. Three-dimensional inversion of CSAMT data including topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Tan, H.; Tong, T.; Zeng, W.

    2013-12-01

    CSAMT is widely used in geothermal prospecting, mineral and petroleum exploration, environmental geophysics and geological engineering. However, few data are collected on the flat surface in the field CSAMT work. Most of CSAMT data are collected in the presence of strong topography either at the source position or in the survey area. Large interpretation errors may occur in CSAMT surveys if field distortions caused by the surface topography are not considered. Therefore, the CSAMT inversion should consider the topographic effect. In this work we develop a 3D inversion algorithm for inverting CSAMT data with topography using conjugate gradient inversion method. In the 3D forward problem, the total electric and magnetic fields is separated into their primary and secondary components to calculate the response from the 3D model with irregular topography. 3D rectangular grid with stair-stepped ground-air interface is used to approximate topography. The primary electric and magnetic field can be calculated by one-dimensional modeling, using the altitude of the highest point of the topography as the altitude of the flat surface. The secondary electric and magnetic field can be calculated using the staggered-grid finite difference method. Then, the apparent resistivity and phase response can be obtained by Cagniard equation. In the 3D inversion problem, conjugate gradient method is used to invert the CSAMT apparent resistivity and phase data including topography. The background resistivity is a constant value and the anomalous resistivity is used as the inversion parameter. Only the anomalous resistivity under the surface topography is updated in the inversion. Results from the synthetic tests show the validity and stability of the inversion algorithm.

  18. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images.

  19. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features and processes taking place on Earth."

  20. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated landscapes are quite distinct from their fluvial counterparts in both landforms and processes. Given the scarcity of purely fluvial, active mountain ranges, it is essential that glacial erosion be considered amongst the processes sculpting active orogenic belts.

  1. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  2. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  3. Mechanosensitivity of fibroblast cell shape and movement to anisotropic substratum topography gradients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Ho; Han, Karam; Gupta, Kshitiz; Kwon, Keon W; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Levchenko, Andre

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we describe using ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL) to create a model substratum of anisotropic micro- and nanotopographic pattern arrays with variable local density for the analysis of cell-substratum interactions. A single cell adhesion substratum with the constant ridge width (1 microm), and depth (400 nm) and variable groove widths (1-9.1 microm) allowed us to characterize the dependence of cellular responses, including cell shape, orientation, and migration, on the anisotropy and local density of the variable micro- and nanotopographic pattern. We found that fibroblasts adhering to the denser pattern areas aligned and elongated more strongly along the direction of ridges, vs. those on the sparser areas, exhibiting a biphasic dependence of the migration speed on the pattern density. In addition, cells responded to local variations in topography by altering morphology and migrating along the direction of grooves biased by the direction of pattern orientation (short term) and pattern density (long term), suggesting that single cells can sense the topography gradient. Molecular dynamic live cell imaging and immunocytochemical analysis of focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton suggest that variable substratum topography can result in distinct types of cytoskeleton reorganization. We also demonstrate that fibroblasts cultured as monolayers on the same substratum retain most of the properties displayed by single cells. This result, in addition to demonstrating a more sophisticated method to study aspects of wound healing processes, strongly suggests that even in the presence of adhesive cell-cell interactions, the cues provided by the underlying substratum topography continue to exercise substantial influence on cell behavior. The described experimental platform might not only further our understanding of biomechanical regulation of cell-matrix interactions, but also contribute to bioengineering of devices with the optimally structured design of cell-material interface. PMID:19595452

  4. Gravitational Acceleration as a Cue for Absolute Size and Distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Kaiser, Mary K.; Banks, Martin S.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    When an object's motion is influenced by gravity, such as the rise and fall of a thrown ball, the vertical component of acceleration is roughly constant at 9.8 m/sec2. In principle, an observer could use this information to estimate the absolute size and distance of the object (Saxberg, 1987a; Watson, Banks, von Hofsten, & Royden, 1992). In three experiments, we examined the ability to utilize the size and distance information provided by gravitational acceleration. Observers viewed computer simulations of an object rising and falling on a trajectory parallel to the gravitational vector. The simulated objects were three balls of different diameters presented across a wide range of simulated distances. Observers were asked to identify which ball was presented and the distance at which it was presented. The results of Experiment 1 showed that size and distance judgments were significantly better than chance, but not as accurate as expected if the information contained in the dynamics of free fall were used fully utilized. The results of Experiment 2 showed that acceleration information is used, but that observers can also make use of velocity information. Finally, the results of Experiment 3 showed that observers can use projected size information, but that their size and distance judgments are much more accurate when motion information is present as well. These results show that observers can use the information in the dynamics of free fall to estimate absolute size and distance, but their estimates are not as accurate as they could be if the information were used effectively.

  5. Comparison of soil moisture dynamics across different land covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelbach, Heidi; Henschel, Florian; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture and its dependency on local or regional scale characteristics, such as soil texture, land cover and topography as well as weather and climate anomalies, is a fundamental feature for environmental applications. In a recent study based on a network of grassland stations in Switzerland (Mittelbach and Seneviratne 2012), it was shown that the spatio-temporal variability of absolute soil moisture is clearly distinct from the spatio-temporal variability of temporal soil moisture anomalies, and that regional-scale patterns of soil moisture dynamics could clearly be identified at the scale of Switzerland. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these conclusions apply across land cover types. In the current study, we investigate differences in soil moisture dynamics at paired grassland-forest sites and their dependency either on dynamic or static site properties. The analysis is based on three-year continuous soil moisture measurements at three paired grassland and nearby forest sites of the SwissSMEX (http://www.iac.ethz.ch/url/research/SwissSMEX) soil moisture network. The three paired sites are located in different climatic regions of Switzerland. They are characterized by similar meteorological conditions but within the pairs differences in topography (elevation, slope, aspect) and soil properties are found. At all sites continuous measurements of soil moisture are available in four different depths, from 5 cm to 50 cm. The analyses of daily mean soil moisture at the single depths and integrated over the 50 cm soil column reveal different behaviour with respect to absolute soil moisture levels and temporal soil moisture dynamics between grassland and forest sites during the whole three-year period. Focusing on the recession of soil moisture during precipitation-free periods, a seasonal dependency is observed with strongest recession in summer for both land covers. However, a different behaviour is found in spring and autumn. While stronger recession is found over grassland in spring, the forest sites indicate stronger recession in autumn, with most pronounced differences at deeper depths. This investigation thus suggests that differences in soil moisture dynamics across land cover types depend on the dynamics of the vegetation cover and less on static site properties. Reference: Mittelbach, H., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2012: A new perspective on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture: temporal dynamics versus time invariant contributions. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2169-2179.

  6. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  7. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Systme Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  8. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, C.; Peters, G.; Clemens, M.; Lengfeld, K.; Ament, F.

    2015-02-01

    The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band) and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD) profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (approx. 30 dBZ). Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates) around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is in the order of 1%. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of 8 range gates on both sides of the vertically pointing radar is most appropriate for calibration.

  9. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  10. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  11. Evolution of the long-wavelength, subduction-driven topography of South America since 150 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, N. E.; Gurnis, M.; Williams, S.; Bower, D. J.; Seton, M.; Mller, D.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction to the west of South America spans 6000 km along strike and has been active for over 250 Myr. The influence of the history of subduction on the geodynamics of South America has been profound, driving mountain building and arc volcanism in the Andean Cordillera. Here, we investigate the long-wavelength changes in the topography of South America associated with subduction and plate motion and their interplay with the lithospheric deformation associated with the opening of the South Atlantic. We pay particular attention to the topographic expression of flat-lying subduction zones. We develop time-dependent geodynamic models of mantle flow and lithosphere deformation to investigate the evolution of South American dynamic and total topography since the late Jurassic (150 Ma). Our models are semi-empirical because the computational cost of fully dynamic, evolutionary models is still prohibitive. We impose the kinematics of global plate reconstructions with deforming continents in forward global mantle convection models with compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere embedded within the thermal lithosphere. The shallow thermal structure of subducting slabs is imposed, allowing us to investigate the evolution of dynamic topography around flat slab segments in time-dependent models. Multiple cases are used to investigate how the evolution of South American dynamic topography is influenced by mantle viscosity, the kinematics of the opening of the South Atlantic and alternative scenarios for recent and past flat-slab subduction. We predict that the migration of South America over sinking oceanic lithosphere resulted in continental tilt to the west until ~ 45 Ma, inverting to an eastward tilt thereafter. This first-order result is consistent with the reversal of the drainage of the Amazon River system. We investigate which scenarios of flat-slab subduction since the Eocene are compatible with geological constraints on the evolution of the Solimoes Basin, the Chaco Basin, the Sierras Pampeanas and the Central Patagonian Basin. To broadly constrain mantle viscosity, we compare models to the total subsidence inferred from well data offshore Argentina and Brazil, and to mantle tomography, since the initial and boundary conditions are based on independent plate reconstructions.

  12. Striving for atomic resolution in biomolecular topography: the scanning force microscope (SFM).

    PubMed

    Schaper, A; Jovin, T M

    1996-11-01

    The invention in 1986 of scanning force microscopy (SFM) provided a new and powerful tool for the investigation of biological structures. SFM yields a three-dimensional view at nanometer resolution of the surface topography associated with biological objects. The potential for imaging either macromolecules or biomolecules and cells under native (physiological) conditions is currently being exploited to obtain functional information at the molecular level. In addition, the forces involved in individual bimolecular interactions are being assessed under static and dynamic conditions. In this report we focus on the imaging capability of the SFM. The rather broad spectrum of applications represented is intended to orient the prospective user of biological SFM. PMID:8999781

  13. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  14. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  15. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou

    2012-06-15

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  16. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  17. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  18. Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility.

    PubMed

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-18

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force ('absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells. PMID:16107829

  19. Brownian motion: Absolute negative particle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-01

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.

  20. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  1. Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose dynamics are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the dynamics of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.

  2. Observation on Effect of Optical Stimulation to Human Using Optical Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Hiro-Fumi; Yorimoto, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Toshio; Fujii, Kan-ichi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ichikawa, Noriyoshi; Koshino, Yoshihumi

    2005-08-01

    We have observed the time course features of cerebral response while a subject is performing the visual tracking task or visual tracking plus finger tapping task using Optiocal Topography (OT). The distribution maps of both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins are demonstrated in contrast with the time course diagram. The response of the cerebrum differs, depending on whether the optical stimulation is static or dynamic, even when the overall nature of the pattern and intensity of the stimulation is the same. The cerebral response to a dynamic optical stimulation is very rapid and clear, and greater in magnitude than that to static optical stimulation, but it is suppressed when an auxiliary finger tapping task is also performed. From these results, it was confirmed that OT is sensitive to both static and dynamic optical stimulations.

  3. Circum-Arctic mantle structure and long-wavelength topography since the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Flament, N.; Williams, S.; Seton, M.; Gurnis, M.; Mller, R. D.

    2014-10-01

    The circum-Arctic is one of the most tectonically complex regions of the world, shaped by a history of ocean basin opening and closure since the Early Jurassic. The region is characterized by contemporaneous large-scale Cenozoic exhumation extending from Alaska to the Atlantic, but its driving force is unknown. We show that the mantle flow associated with subducted slabs of the South Anuyi, Mongol-Okhotsk, and Panthalassa oceans have imparted long-wavelength deflection on overriding plates. We identify the Jurassic-Cretaceous South Anuyi slab under present-day Greenland in seismic tomography and numerical mantle flow models. Under North America, we propose the "Farallon" slab results from Andean-style ocean-continent convergence around ~30N and from a combination of ocean-continent and intraoceanic subduction north of 50N. We compute circum-Arctic dynamic topography through time from subduction-driven convection models and find that slabs have imparted on average <1-16 m/Myr of dynamic subsidence across the region from at least 170 Ma to ~50 Ma. With the exception of Siberia, the main phase of circum-Arctic dynamic subsidence has been followed either by slowed subsidence or by uplift of <1-6 m/Myr on average to present day. Comparing these results to geological inferences suggest that subduction-driven dynamic topography can account for rapid Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence in the Slave Craton and North Slope (respectively, <15 and 21 m/Myr, between 170 and 130 Ma) and for dynamic subsidence (<7 m/Myr, ~170-50 Ma) followed by dynamic uplift (<6 m/Myr since 50 Ma) of the Barents Sea region. Combining detailed kinematic reconstructions with geodynamic modeling and key geological observations constitutes a powerful tool to investigate the origin of vertical motion in remote regions.

  4. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachrade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  5. The absolute bioavailability of caffeine in man.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, J; Sawers, S J

    1983-01-01

    The absolute bioavailability of orally administered caffeine was investigated in 10 healthy adult male volunteers, aged 18.8 to 30.0 years. The subjects were administered a 5 mg/kg dose of caffeine as either an aqueous oral solution or an intravenous infusion, on separate occasions about 1 week apart, in a randomized crossover fashion. Plasma samples were collected over the 24-h period following each dose and assayed for their caffeine content using a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. The oral absorption was very rapid, reaching a peak (Tp) plasma concentration after 29.8 +/- 8.1 min (mean +/- SEM). In addition, the variation in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was low, 10.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml. The absolute bioavailability was assessed by comparing the areas under the plasma concentration vs. time curves for the intravenous and oral doses of caffeine. The rapid absorption resulted in essentially complete bioavailability of the oral caffeine, F(%) = 108.3 +/- 3.6%. The caffeine plasma half-lives varied from 2.7 to 9.9 h, indicating substantial inter-subject variability in its elimination. PMID:6832208

  6. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  7. Absolute spectrophotometry of very large redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oke, J. B.; Korycansky, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometric observations of 19 quasars with redshifts greater than 2.66 are reported. Observations were made with a multichannel spectrometer covering wavelengths from 3200 to 10000 A at low resolution and allowing accurate absolute fluxes to be determined for continuum and emission lines. Analysis of energy distribution measurements indicates the continuum spectral index redward of Lyman alpha to vary from -0.2 to -1.2. Average flux levels drop by 29% between Lyman alpha and Lyman beta, and by a further 10% below Lyman beta, and a drop or change of slope occurs near the Lyman limit, all of which are attributed to absorbing clouds at different redshifts. Estimations of a covering factor of 0.08 based on the Lyman alpha and He II 1640 lines are consistent with the production of these lines by recombination. The measured emission lines are observed to have intensities proportional to the continuum flux, with the exception of C IV, which shows the luminosity effect similar to that found by Baldwin (1977).

  8. Supplementary and Enrichment Series: Absolute Value. SP-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include absolute value, addition and multiplication in terms of absolute value, graphs of absolute

  9. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in

  10. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the

  11. Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR Topography in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earths surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The OpenTopography Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. OpenTopography hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR topography into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, OpenTopography currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the OpenTopography Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. OpenTopography also provides dynamically generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the OpenTopography point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the OpenTopography results page and viewed directly in the browser.

  12. Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Margot, Jean-Luc; McNutt, Ralph; Mazarico, Erwan M.; Oberst, Jurgen; Peale, Stanley J.; Perry, Mark; Purucker, Michael E.; Rowlands, David D.; Torrence, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe-rich outer core of radius 2030 +/- 37 km, and an assumed solid inner core. Magnetic field measurements indicate a northward offset of Mercury's axial magnetic dipole from the geographic equator by 479 +/-3 km and provide evidence for a regional-scale magnetic field approximately collocated with the northern volcanic plains of possible crustal origin. These results from MESSENGER indicate a complex and asymmetric evolution of internal structure and dynamics in this end-member inner planet.

  13. Resolving the influences of climatology and topography on water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, D. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Hren, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopography records are critical to understanding geodynamic processes in ancient mountain ranges. The imprint of topography on stable isotopes of precipitation ("water isotopes") has become the most widely used method for reconstructing topography. Current approximations of how orographic lifting drives fractionation of water isotopes use 1D topography and a model based on either empirical observations or 1D Rayleigh fractionation. However, atmospheric physics tells us that the pattern and magnitude of lifting varies due to the shape of topography. We also know that the source of water isotopes and the local climatology (e.g., wind speed and direction, moist stability of the air) vary on both short and long time scales. Current approaches fail to separate the signal of topography from that of potentially large, short-term (<100 kyr) climate variations in water isotope records. We present an isotope-enabled version of the linear theory of orographic precipitation (LTOP) of Smith and Barstad (2004), which describes the response of water isotopes to topography. This model provides a first-order approximation of the water-isotope field produced by moist air flowing over complex 3D topography, which allows us to explore how the water isotope field is influenced by variations in climatology and topography. The LTOP model is attractive because of its simplicity: just 7 variables are used calculate the water isotope field, but the model still accounts for lateral flow and upwind phase tilting due to topographic barriers (to the non-linear limit). We tested this model in modern Patagonia, where there is a simple westerly pattern of atmospheric flow across a north-south mountain range. The model reproduces the strong observed fractionation and matches 166 field measurements of water isotopes in precipitation fairly well (R2 = 0.61). Sensitivity tests indicate the water isotope field is most sensitive to variations in the composition of source water (ocean), wind speed, and wind direction. Short-term climate variations are on the order of 16 ?D; isotope records showing less variability should be treated as unreliable. The capacity of the LTOP model to describe the observed complexity of atmospheric behavior in response to 3D topography is an important step towards future advances in paleotopography work.

  14. Button-pressing affects P300 amplitude and scalp topography

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F.; Rutherford, Bret; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Scant and equivocal research exists examining the effects of button-pressing on P300. Button-pressing may decrease P300 latency and amplitude. The melding of motor potentials and P300 may also confound studies of P300 topography, such as studies of temporal scalp-area asymmetries in schizophrenia. Method P300 was measured on button-press and silent-count tasks in control subjects. An estimate of motor activity was constructed from a simple reaction time task, with reaction times matched to the button-press task. The motor estimate was subtracted from the button-press P300 to assess Koks (1988) additive model. Lastly, lateral P300 from schizophrenia patients was compared with each conditions P300. Results P300 was smaller and its topography different in the button-pressing task relative to silent-counting. The motor-correction procedure generated a P300 with normal topography. Comparison of the button-press P300 in controls to the silent-count P300 in schizophrenia patients reduced a significant lateral asymmetry to trend level. This asymmetry was significant after the correction procedure. Conclusions Button-pressing generates smaller P300 than silent-counting. Also, P300 topography in button-pressing tasks is confounded by motor potentials. The distortion can be corrected with a motor potential estimate. Motor potentials can occlude differences in P300 topography between groups. PMID:11514251

  15. Simulation of surface topography of big aspheric fabrication by ultra-precision diamond turning based on tool swing feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Honghui; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the respect of ultra-precision manufacturing of axisymmetric surface, the machine tool with tool swing feeding which has less interpolation error sources compared to the conventional ultra-precision diamond turning machine tool with T-structureis worth studying.Therefore,based on the dynamic simulation modeling and multi-body dynamics theory,in this paper, we establish the control model,and tool path for Ultra-precision machine.Then we got the model for surface topography with differentinput parameters like spindle speed, feedrate, tool parameters and so on. Taking the spherical optics part with diameter of 300 mm, for example, we input the process parameters and get its surface topography, then evaluate its surface quality by surface roughness value (Ra) and surface shape accuracy(PV) .

  16. Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood dynamics but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved topography, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived topography. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated peak flow, we can examine the flow behavior at the site of the apparent subaqueous dunes and, in particular, assess whether the flow in this area is uniquely conducive to the formation of such bedforms [e.g., 9]. [1] Berman D. C. and Hartmann W. K. (2002) Icarus 159, 1-17. [2] Burr D. M. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 53-73. [3] Jaeger W. L. et al. (2010) Icarus 205, 230-243. [4] Keszthelyi L. P. et al. (2007) GRL 34, L21206. [5] McIntyre et al. (2012) JGR 117, E03009. [6] Burr D. (2005) Geomorphology 69, 242-252. [7] Burr D. M. et al. (2004) Icarus 171, 68-83. [8] Denlinger R. P. and O'Connell D. R. H. (2008) J. Hyd. Eng. 134, 1590-1602. [9] Kleinhans M. G. (2005) JGR 110, E12003.

  17. The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Phillips, R J; Head, J W; Garvin, J B; Banerdt, W B; Muhleman, D O; Pettengill, G H; Neumann, G A; Lemoine, F G; Abshire, J B; Aharonson, O; Brown, C D; Hauck, S A; Ivanov, A B; McGovern, P J; Zwally, H J; Duxbury, T C

    1999-05-28

    Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province, and the Hellas impact basin. The northern hemisphere depression is primarily a long-wavelength effect that has been shaped by an internal mechanism. The topography of Tharsis consists of two broad rises. Material excavated from Hellas contributes to the high elevation of the southern hemisphere and to the scarp along the hemispheric boundary. The present topography has three major drainage centers, with the northern lowlands being the largest. The two polar cap volumes yield an upper limit of the present surface water inventory of 3.2 to 4.7 million cubic kilometers. PMID:10348732

  18. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  19. Topographies of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2010-11-01

    We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct topographies: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each topography is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free topography is obtained.

  20. Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography.

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

  1. Topographies of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    SciTech Connect

    Goerrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2010-11-15

    We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct topographies: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each topography is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free topography is obtained.

  2. Absolute instability of a viscous hollow jet.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M

    2007-02-01

    An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be absolutely unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity. PMID:17358457

  3. Optical cryostat realizations at absolut System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Tanchon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two kinds of optical cryostats designed and manufactured at Absolut System. The first one makes use of pressurized LN2 for temperature control of a sample holder in the 80 K - 470 K temperature range. An optical window is implemented above the sample holder to allow for rugosity and 3D distortion of heterogeneous semicon sample assemblies on a wafer. The second one makes use of CRYOMECH remote motor type pulse tube cryocoolers for temperature control of the sample holder in the 3 K - 300 K temperature range. In this type of cryostats, particular attention has been paid to reduce the vibrations exported by the cooler. These 4 K ultra low vibration cryostats are used for characterization of samples via optical windows. Both designs will be presented and the performance reported.

  4. Enhanced functional networks in absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Functional networks in the human brain give rise to complex cognitive and perceptual abilities. While the decrease of functional connectivity is linked to neurological and psychiatric disorders, less is known about the consequences of increased functional connectivity. One population that has exceptionally enhanced perceptual abilities is people with absolute pitch (AP) an ability to categorize tones into pitch classes without reference. AP has been linked to exceptional talent as well as to psychiatric and neurological conditions. Here we show that AP possessors have increased functional activation during music listening, as well as increased degrees, clustering, and local efficiency of functional correlations, with the difference being highest around the left superior temporal gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that increased functional connectivity in a small-world brain network is related to exceptional perceptual abilities in a healthy population. PMID:22836173

  5. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  6. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  7. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  8. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  9. TOPEX/Poseidon - The ocean topography experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Christensen, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Michel

    1991-01-01

    The configuration of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission is discussed in an overview of the launch and experimental objectives related to the deployment planned for 1992. The spacecraft carries equipment for radar altimetry and precise orbit determination, and the instruments are expected to provide precise observations of global ocean dynamics. Six scientific instruments are described including the Laser Retroreflector Array, the Tracking System Receiver, and GPS Demonstration Receiver. Also described are the orbit configuration of the satellite, verification of system performance, and the techniques for data processing. The observations from the TOPEX/Poseidon experiment can provide data that is free of sea-level variabilities and describes the general circulation of the ocean and its variability.

  10. Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheats, Julian Taylor

    The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like topography to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how topography affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of topography in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon topographies. The role of topography on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to topographies was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.

  11. A downscaling method for simulating deep current interactions with topography - Application to the Sigsbee Escarpment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Steven L.; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.

    2013-09-01

    A nesting approach is applied to dynamically downscale the deep circulation from a basin-scale model in regions of complicated topography where deep dynamics may be poorly resolved. The method is applied to nest a high vertical and horizontal resolution Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) domain covering the north-central Gulf of Mexico within a HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Gulf of Mexico domain. The northwestern Gulf of Mexico has a very steep topographic feature, the Sigsbee Escarpment, over which localized bottom-intensified currents with short cross-isobath length scales have been observed in water depths between 1500 m and 3000 m. It has been hypothesized that these intense currents are related to the presence of the Loop Current or Loop Current Eddies, strong upper ocean mesoscale circulation features in the Gulf. A modeling system is required that can resolve the short length scales of topography and the currents, resolve the vertical trapping of the currents, and realistically simulate the mesoscale upper and deep ocean circulation features. The multi-model nesting approach described here simulates these intense currents with characteristics very similar to observations, and demonstrates the connectivity to the larger scale ocean circulation features.

  12. Spatial patterns of catchment water redistribution: The intersection of topography and vegetation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of runoff source areas represents a grand challenge in hydrology. While catchment structural characteristics, including topography and soils, are known to drive hydrologic connectivity of upland areas to the riparian and stream system, the effects of vegetation on the connectedness of water flow pathways are less well identified. The combination of lateral water redistribution by topographically driven drainage and water uptake by vegetation leads to shifting patterns of catchment storage. Hydrologic response exhibits threshold behavior with the transition from unsaturated to saturated subsurface conditions. This threshold nature in conjunction with changing storage patterns leads to effective runoff sources areas that are dynamic through time. To investigate these dynamics, we developed and applied a parsimonious but spatially distributed watershed modeling framework and used it to quantify the effects of vegetation on the temporal evolution of catchment connectivity over two years in a snow-dominated watershed in central Montana. Spatially distributed catchment water inputs were derived from two NRCS SNOTEL sites nearby with a simple temperature based snowmelt model. Evapotranspiration was measured at an eddy-covariance tower in the watershed and disaggregated based on vegetation structure. We used this modeling framework to further explore the effects of different vegetation pattern scenarios on the temporal expansion and cessation of catchment connectivity. With this work we seek to improve our understanding of how the intersection of physical (topography) and biological (vegetation) factors mediates hydrologic connectivity in headwater catchments.

  13. Switchable micropatterned surface topographies mediated by reversible shape memory.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sara A; Zhou, Jing; Sheiko, Sergei S; Ashby, Valerie Sheares

    2014-06-11

    Reversibly switching topography on micrometer length scales greatly expands the functionality of stimuli-responsive substrates. Here we report the first usage of reversible shape memory for the actuation of two-way transitions between microscopically patterned substrates, resulting in corresponding modulations of the wetting properties. Reversible switching of the surface topography is achieved through partial melting and recrystallization of a semi-crystalline polyester embossed with microscopic features. This behavior is monitored with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. We demonstrate that the magnitude of the contact angle variations depends on the embossment pattern. PMID:24824729

  14. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Kearns, James A.; Zhou, Ji-Xun

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques were developed for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular topography is understood to imply a ground surface that: (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat, or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  15. Venus gravity anomalies and their correlations with topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. B.; Konopliv, A. R.; Mottinger, N. A.; Ritke, S. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the high-resolution gravity data obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter radio tracking data. Gravity maps, covering a 70 deg latitude band through 360 deg of longitude, are displayed as line-of-sight and vertical gravity. Topography converted to gravity and Bouguer gravity maps are also shown in both systems. Topography to gravity ratios are made over several regions of the planet. There are markedly different ratios for the Aphrodite area as compared to the Beta and Atla areas.

  16. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Zhou, Ji-Xun; Kearns, James A.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular topography is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or that is no idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  17. Topography aware DFM rule based scoring for silicon yield modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Vikas; Katakamsetty, Ushasree; Yeo, Sky; Hui, Colin

    2015-03-01

    DFM rule based scoring is associated with manufacturability rules checking and applying the scoring to predict the yield entitlement for an IC chip design. Achieving high DFM score is one of the key requirements to get high yield. The DFM scoring methodology is currently limited to DFM recommend rules and their associated failure rates. In contrast to failure mechanism, chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) step topography variations places an important role to it. In this paper, we present an advanced DFM analysis flow to compute DFM score that incorporate topography variation along with recommend rule scoring using complex scoring model to increase silicon yield correlation.

  18. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  19. Influence of surface topography on the multilayer film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.; Tolstikhina, A. L.

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between the topography of substrates and multilayer films deposited on these substrates (which are used in ring laser gyroscopes) has been investigated. The surfaces were studied by atomic-force microscopy. The statistical properties of the surface topography are analyzed within the approach based on a comparative analysis of the power spectral density functions of roughness calculated for the substrate and film. The degree of correlation between the substrate nanotopography and multilayer film is determined, and the influence of the substrate roughness on the optical characteristics of the deposited mirrors is established.

  20. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, J. A.; Pierce, A. D.; Main, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere was developed. Irregular topography here is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealized as being perfectly flat or that is not idealized as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The interest focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  1. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, A. D.; Main, G. L.; Kearns, J. A.; Benator, D. R.; Parish, J. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The development of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere is discussed. Irregular topography here is understood to imply a ground surface that (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The study focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  2. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia.