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1

Validation of CryoSat-2 Classical Altimetry Data over Ocean using a GOCE Geoid to derive Absolute Dynamic Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA Earth Explorer mission CryoSat-2 provides a unique opportunity for exploring a broad variety of scientific applications in the fields of Geodesy and Oceanography. The quality assessment of CryoSat-2 data and in particular Low Rate Mode Level 2 (LRM L2) data is an essential step for a successful integration of the data products into operational usage and processing. The investigations presented in this paper are divided into two parts; on the one side the data quality analysis and on the other side the computation and use of an enhanced data product in an oceanographic application. After one year of data acquisition, the evolution of data quality is clearly visible. In this context, a comprehensive data quality analysis has been carried out, focussing mainly on cross-over difference analysis and the estimation of a present time tag bias in detail as well as other parameters, such as consistency and availability of the product. Different types of measures will be shown: Firstly, a CryoSat-2 mission internal analysis of the cross-over differences and secondly, a validation of CryoSat-2 with respect to Jason-2 as reference. As a consequence of the present deficiencies in the delivered products, a correction, to be applied to the product's data, was computed in order to gain enhanced data. To prove the feasibility of this enhancement, a case study will demonstrate the improvement of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) results in an oceanic region, such as the Gulf Stream. For the ADT computation in an along track approach, geoid heights derived from the GOCE time-wise geoid model are used. The spatial resolution of the ADT is at 100km. A validation of the CryoSat-2/GOCE ADT results with other independently derived ADT estimates will be shown. A comprehensive description of the data, the techniques, the references and the models used will be included.

Horvath, A.; Dinardo, S.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.; Benveniste, J.

2011-12-01

2

Dynamic topography over the Antarctic continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of dynamic topography in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in dynamic topography in Antarctica by analysing grids of global dynamic topography from present-day to 80 Ma based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene dynamic topography exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) may have driven these dynamic topography effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting dynamic topography effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B. M.; Ritsema, J. E.

2012-12-01

3

Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

2012-01-01

4

Mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

Farrell, Sinéad Louise; McAdoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katharine

2012-01-01

5

Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ?15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

2012-12-01

6

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

7

Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

2013-04-01

8

Mercury's Thermal Evolution, Dynamical Topography and Geoid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the terrestrial planets Mercury is not only the smallest, but also the densest (after correction for self-compression). To explain Mercury's high density it is considered likely that the planet's mantle was removed during a giant impact event, when proto-Mercury was already differentiated into an iron core and a silicate mantle. Beside the damage to the planet's mantle the vaporization would cause a significant loss of volatile elements, leaving the remaining planet molten and dominated by extremely refractory material.Since the arrival of a spacecraft at the enigmatic planet is not to be expected before 2011 (Messenger) or 2019 (BepiColombo) we might already prepare ourselves for the upcoming results and perform tests that allow some anticipation of the measured data. The hermean mantle is modelled as an internally and bottom heated, isochemical fluid in a spherical shell. The principle of this convection model is widely accepted and is used for various models of thermal evolution of terrestrial planets, e.g., the Earth, Mars or the Moon. We are solving the hydrodynamical equations, derived from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A program originally written by S. Zhang is used to solve the temperature field which employs a combination of a spectral and a finite difference method. Beside the large core as a heat source 'from below' the decay of radioactive isotopes provides internal heating of the hermean mantle. The viscosity of the mantel material depends exponentially on the inverse temperature. The model results show the typical behaviour of a one-plate-planet, meaning the surface is not broken into several tectonic plates but the outside is a single rigid shell. The thermal evolution is generally charaterized by the growth of a massive lithosphere on top of the convecting mantle. The lower mantle and core cool comparatively little and stay at temperatures between 1900K and 2000K until about 2.0Ga after the simulation was started. The stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (dynamical topography) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc) numerous models are required to understand the importance and influence of the mentioned variables.

Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes

9

Causes and Consequences of Time-Varying Dynamic Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective circulation of the Earth's mantle maintains plate motion but we know little about the spatial and temporal details of this circulation. Accurate maps of the spatial and temporal pattern of dynamic topography will profoundly affect our understanding the the relationship between surface geology and deep Earth processes. A major difficulty is the 'tyranny of isostasy'. In other words, dynamic topography is difficult to measure because crustal and lithospheric thickness and density changes are the dominant control of surface elevation. Some progress can be made along continental margins by measuring residual depth anomalies of the oldest oceanic floor on newly available seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles. These estimates of dynamic topography have amplitudes of ±1 km and wavelengths of 102-104 km. They mostly, but not always, correlate with long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies. Correlation with seismic tomographic images is much poorer. The distribution of dynamic topography throughout the rest of the oceanic realm can be supplemented by using ship-track data in regions with sparse sedimentary cover and by exploiting the mid-oceanic ridge system. On the continents, it is more difficult to measure dynamic topography with the same accuracy since the density structure of continental lithosphere is so variable but progress can be made on three fronts. First, long-wavelength gravity anomalies which straddle continental margins are an obvious and important guide. Secondly, stratal geometries across continental shelves contain information about positive and negative surface elevation changes. In several cases, 2- and 3-D seismic surveys calibrated by boreholes can be used to constrain spatial and temporal patterns of dynamic topography. In the North Atlantic Ocean, examples of buried ephemeral landscapes suggest that dynamic topography can grow and decay on timescales as short as a few million years. Recognition of positive and negative vertical motions, which cannot be accounted for by global eustasy, is encouraging and suggests that we are on the verge of creating global dynamic topographic maps which can be used to test predictive global models.

White, Nicky

2013-04-01

10

Impact of lithosphere rheology on the dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic topography is a key observable signature of the Earth's and planetary (e.g. Venus) mantle dynamics. In general view, it reflects complex mantle flow patterns, and hence is supposed to correlate at different extent with seismic tomography, SKS fast orientations, geodetic velocity fields and geoid anomalies. However, identification of dynamic topography had no systematic success, specifically in the Earth's continents. Here we argue that lithosphere rheology, in particular, rheological stratification of continents, results in modulation of dynamic topography, converting commonly expected long-wavelength/small amplitude undulations into short-wavelength surface undulations with wide amplitude spectrum, superimposed onto "tectonic" topography. These ideas are explored in 3D using unprecedentedly high resolution numerical experiments (grid step size 2-3 km for 1500x1500x600 km computational area) incorporating realistic rheologically stratified lithosphere. Such high resolution is actually needed to resolve small-scale crustal faulting and inter-layer coupling/uncoupling that shape surface topography. The results reveal strikingly discordant, counterintuitive features of 3D dynamic topography, going far beyond the inferences from previous models. In particular, even weak anisotropic tectonic stress field results both in large-scale small-amplitude dynamic topography and in strongly anisotropic short-wavelength (at least in one direction) dynamic topography with wide amplitude range (from 100 to 2000-3000 m), including basins and ranges and large-scale linear normal and strike-slip faults. Even very slightly pre-stressed strong lithosphere yields and localizes deformation much easier , than un-prestressed one, in response to plume impact and mantle flow. The results shed new light on the importance of lithosphere rheology and active role of lithosphere in mantle-lithosphere interactions as well as on the role of mantle flow and far-field stresses in tectonic-scale deformation. We show, for example, that crustal fault patterns initiated by plume impact are rapidly re-organized in sub-linear rifts and spreading centers, which orientation is largely dictated (e.g., perpendicular to) by the direction of the tectonic far-field stress field, as well as the plume-head material soon starts to flow along the sub-linear rifted shear zones in crustal and mantle lithosphere further amplifying their development. The final surface deformation and mantle flow patterns rapidly loose the initial axisymmetric character and take elongated sub-linear shapes whereas brittle deformation at surface is amplified and stabilized by coherent flow of mantle/plume-head material from below. These "tectonically" looking dynamic topography patterns are quite different from those expected from conventional models as well as from those directly observed, for example, on Venus where plume-lithosphere interactions produce only axisymmetric coronae domal-shaped features with radiating extensional rifts, suggesting that the Venusian lithosphere is rheologically too weak , and its crust is too thin, to produce any significant impact on the dynamic topography.

Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras; Koptev, Alexander

2014-05-01

11

Predicting surface dynamic topographies of stagnant lid planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although planetary mantles are viscoelastic media, numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging. Here, we examine the validity of simplified mechanical and rheological frameworks classically used to approximate viscoelastic dynamic topography. We compare three simplified approaches to a linear Maxwell viscoelastic shell with a pseudo upper free-surface, considered as the reference model. A viscous model with a free-slip boundary condition at the surface correctly reproduces the final relaxed shape of the viscoelastic body but it cannot reproduce the time evolution of the viscoelastic topography. Nevertheless, characterizing the topography development is important since it can represent a significant fraction of the history for planets having a thick and rigid lithosphere (e.g. Mars). A viscous model with a pseudo free-surface, despite its time-dependency, also systematically fails to describe correctly these transient stages. An elastic filtering of the instantaneous viscous topography is required to capture the essence of the time evolution of the topography. We show that a single effective elastic thickness is needed to correctly reproduce the constant transient viscoelastic topography obtained when the lithosphere corresponds to a step-like viscosity variation, while a time-dependence of the effective elastic thickness must be considered to take account of realistic temperature-dependent viscosity variations in the lithosphere. In this case, the appropriate thickness of the elastic shell can be evaluated, at a given instant, with a simple procedure based on the local Maxwell time. Furthermore, if the elastic filtering is performed using the thin elastic shell formulation, an unrealistic degree-dependence of the thickness of the elastic shell is needed to correctly approximate the viscoelastic topography. We show that a model that fully couples a viscous body to an elastic shell of finite thickness estimated using the local Maxwell time gives the best approximation of the viscoelastic deformation, whatever the degree of the load and the time of loading.

Dumoulin, C.; ?adek, O.; Choblet, G.

2013-12-01

12

Dynamic topography in subduction zones: insights from laboratory models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography in subduction zones can exhibit very complex patterns due to the variety of forces operating this setting. If we can deduce the theoretical isostatic value from density structure of the lithosphere, the effect of flexural bending and the dynamic component of topography are difficult to quantify. In this work, we attempt to measure and analyze the topography of the overriding plate during subduction compared to a pure shortening setting. We use analog models where the lithospheres are modeled by thin-sheet layers of silicone putty lying on low-viscosity syrup (asthenosphere). The model is shorten by a piston pushing an oceanic plate while a continental plate including a weak zone to localize the deformation is fixed. In one type of experiments, the oceanic plate bends and subducts underneath the continental one; in a second type the two plates are in contact without any trench, and thus simply shorten. The topography evolution is monitored with a laser-scanner. In the shortening model, the elevation increases progressively, especially in the weak zone, and is consistent with expected isostatic values. In the subduction model, the topography is characterized, from the piston to the back-wall, by a low elevation of the dense oceanic plate, a flexural bulge, the trench forming a deep depression, the highly elevated weak zone, and the continental upper plate of intermediate elevation. The topography of the upper plate is consistent with isostatic values for very early stages, but exhibits lower elevations than expected for later stages. For a same amount of shortening of the continental plate, the thickening is the same and the plate should have the same elevation in both types of models. However, comparing the topography at 20, 29 and 39% of shortening, we found that the weak zone is 0.4 to 0.6 mm lower when there is an active subduction. Theses values correspond to 2.6 to 4 km in nature. Although theses values are high, there are of the same order as dynamic topography and could represent the dynamic effect of the slab sinking into the asthenosphere and lowering the elevation of the upper plate.

Bajolet, Flora; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca

2014-05-01

13

The influence of topography on dynamic wetting.  

PubMed

The paramount importance of wetting applications and the significant economic value of controlling wetting-based industrial processes has stimulated a deep interest in wetting science. In many industrial applications the motion of a complex liquid front over nano-textured surfaces controls the fate of the processes. However our knowledge of the impact of nano-heterogeneities on static and dynamic wetting is very limited. In this article, the fundamentals of wetting are briefly reviewed, with a particular focus on hysteresis and roughness issues. Present knowledge and models of dynamic wetting on smooth and rough surfaces are then examined, with particular attention devoted to the case of nano-topographical heterogeneities and solid-fluid-fluid systems. PMID:23726301

Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John; Fetzer, Renate; Sedev, Rossen

2014-04-01

14

Effects of dynamic topography on Australian Paleogeography in the Cenozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effects of dynamic topography combined with eustatic sea level variations on Australian paleogeography for the Late Cretaceous to present. Using an analytical flow model (Steinberger et al., 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00229-1 with the surface plate velocity field as boundary condition, we advect density anomalies converted from tomographic velocity anomalies (SMEAN tomographic model; Becker &Boschi, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000168) back through time. For each time step, we compute dynamic topography with a free upper boundary. This approach allows us to evaluate the spatio-temporal effects of large scale mantle convection patterns on surface processes like continental flooding and sediment deposition. The Australian continent, especially the southern Australian margin, provides a unique example for an extensive region that has been stable and fairly isolated from plate boundary processes like flexure or rift shoulder uplift for the time between 70 Ma to the present. This makes it ideal to investigate the effects of dynamic topography. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary deposits along the southern Australian margin indicate transgressive/regressive phases of limited extent, which can not be explained by eustatic sea level fluctuations alone. By using common estimates for the eustatic sea level in conjunction with our dynamic topography model, we have been able to reconstruct the position of the Australian paleo-shorelines, flooding patterns and water depths. We find a good agreement of our computed paleogeography with published stratigraphic data for Tertiary brown coal deposits along the southern Australian seabord (Gippsland, Murray, Otway and Bremer Basins) and stratigraphic sequences in the Murray Basin region, along the NW Australian margin and in the Eromanga Basin. Despite minor spatial discrepancies between the current model output and geological data which yet remain unresolved, our approach and modular workflow set up provides an important stepping stone to understand the influence of deep Earth processes and their impact on sediment deposition and other geomorphological processes. Due to the usage of non-proprietary data formats and open-source software it is possible to easily change the dynamic topography model input and extend the computations to incorporate the effects of sedimentation history and isostasy. We expect a further convergence of predicted paleogeography from dynamic topography models with increasing accuracy and resolution of tomographic models.

Heine, C.; M{Ü}Ller, R.; Steinberger, B.

2006-12-01

15

Spatial and Temporal variability in Dynamic Topography in East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent aerogeophysical exploration has provided novel views of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and the Wilkes and Aurora subglacial basins in East Antarctica. Reconstructing the evolution of East Antarctic topography through time is a critical next step for developing new coupled climate and ice sheet models (e.g. http://www.antscape.org/). Insights into tectonic and isostatic components driving the uplift of the Gamburtsevs have emerged from geophysical investigations and modeling (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). However, our knowledge of the larger-scale consequences of dynamic topography in East Antarctica remains poor compared to other continents. Seismic tomographic models provide a tool to derive large-scale models of convection in the Earth's mantle, which can then be used to reconstruct dynamic topography through time. By analyzing grids of global dynamic topography from present-day to 100 Ma based on the tomographic models S40RTS & S20RTS (Ritsema et al. 1999, 2011) we assess for the first time the potential space-time variability in dynamic topography in East Antarctica. We acknowledge that there are significant limitations when compared to similar studies over other continents, such as the relatively poor seismic resolution of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath East Antarctica and the lack of geological and geophysical data to constrain surface movements through time. However, currently available global datasets do reveal several new insights. Our models reveal that at ca 65 Ma the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land regions were elevated. This was followed by at least 500 m of subsidence throughout the Cenozoic. The increased regional elevation likely facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic, which was followed by ice cap coalescence to form the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ca 34 Ma. In contrast, a major and more rapid increase in elevation (up to 1,000 m) is observed over the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes Subglacial Basin, in particular over the last 15 Ma. Neogene dynamic topography in the TAM region may be related to the flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System and/or the Balleny plume.

Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B.; Ritsema, J.

2012-04-01

16

Iceland, the Farallon slab, and dynamic topography of the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle is thought to elevate or depress Earth's surface on a continental scale. Direct observation of this ''dynamic topography'' on the seafloor, however, has remained elusive because it is obscured by isostatically sup- ported topography caused by near-surface density variations. We calculate the nonisostatic topography of the North Atlantic by correcting seafloor depths for

Clinton P. Conrad; Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni; Keith E. Louden

2004-01-01

17

?-Meta Dynamics Approach To Compute Absolute Solvation Free Energy  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach to combine ? dynamics with meta-dynamics (named ?-meta dynamics) to compute free energy surface with respect to ?. Particularly, the ?-meta dynamics method extends meta-dynamics to a single virtual variable ?, i.e., the coupling parameter between solute and solvent, to compute absolute solvation free energy as an exemplary application. We demonstrate that ?-meta dynamics simulations can recover the accurate potential of mean force surface with respect to ? compared to the benchmark results from traditional ?-dynamics with umbrella sampling. The solvation free energy results for five small organic molecules from ?-meta dynamics simulations using the same filling scheme show that the statistical errors are within ±0.5 kcal/mol. The new ?-meta dynamics method is general and other variables such as order parameters to describe conformational changes can be easily combined with ?-meta dynamics. This should allow for efficient samplings on high-dimension free energy landscapes.

Wu, Pan

2013-01-01

18

Dynamic ocean topography for the northeast Pacific and its continental margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of dynamic ocean (or sea surface) topography based on satellite altimetry and gravity observations generally become degraded as they approach land. In this study, dynamic ocean topography for the northeast Pacific Ocean is computed independently of satellite observations using a high resolution model and seasonal climatologies of temperature, salinity, and wind stress. Comparisons with estimates based on satellite gravity

M. G. G. Foreman; W. R. Crawford; J. Y. Cherniawsky; J. Galbraith

2008-01-01

19

Mantle flow and dynamic topography associated with slab window opening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A slab window is defined as an 'hole' in the subducting lithosphere. In the classical view, slab windows develop where a spreading ridge intersects a subduction zone. The main consequences of this phenomenon are the modifications of the physical, chemical and thermal conditions in the backarc mantle that in turn affect the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the overriding plate. In this work, we perform dynamically self-consistent mantle-scale laboratory models, to evaluate how the opening of a window in the subducting panel influences the geometry and the kinematics of the slab, the mantle circulation pattern and, finally, the overriding plate dynamic topography. The adopted setup consists in a two-layer linearly viscous system simulating the roll-back of a fixed subducting plate (simulated using silicone putty) into the upper mantle (simulated using glucose syrup). Our experimental setting is also characterized by a constant-width rectangular window located at the center of a laterally confined slab, modeling the case of the interaction of a trench-parallel spreading ridge with a wide subduction zone. We find that the geometry and the kinematics of the slab are only minorly affected by the opening of a slab window. On the contrary, slab induced mantle circulation, quantified using Feature Tracking image analysis technique, is strongly modified and produces a peculiar non-isostatic topographic signal on the overriding plate. Assuming that our modeling results can be representative of the natural behavior of subduction zones, we compare them to the Patagonian subduction zone finding that anomalous backarc volcanism that developed since middle Miocene could result from the lateral flowage of subslab mantle, and that part of the Patagonian uplift could be dynamically supported.

Guillaume, Benjamin; Moroni, Monica; Funiciello, Francesca; Martinod, Joseph; Faccenna, Claudio

2010-05-01

20

Dynamic modeling of predictive uncertainty by regression on absolute errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty of hydrological forecasts represents valuable information for water managers and hydrologists. This explains the popularity of probabilistic models, which provide the entire distribution of the hydrological forecast. Nevertheless, many existing hydrological models are deterministic and provide point estimates of the variable of interest. Often, the model residual error is assumed to be homoscedastic; however, practical evidence shows that the hypothesis usually does not hold. In this paper we propose a simple and effective method to quantify predictive uncertainty of deterministic hydrological models affected by heteroscedastic residual errors. It considers the error variance as a hydrological process separate from that of the hydrological forecast and therefore predictable by an independent model. The variance model is built up using time series of model residuals, and under some conditions on the same residuals, it is applicable to any deterministic model. Tools for regression analysis applied to the time series of residual errors, or better their absolute values, combined with physical considerations of the hydrological features of the system can help to identify the most suitable input to the variance model and the most parsimonious model structure, including dynamic structure if needed. The approach has been called dynamic uncertainty modeling by regression on absolute errors and is demonstrated by application to two test cases, both affected by heteroscedasticity but with very different dynamics of uncertainty. Modeling results and comparison with other approaches, i.e., a constant, a cyclostationary, and a static model of the variance, confirm the validity of the proposed method.

Pianosi, F.; Raso, L.

2012-03-01

21

Integrated approach to estimate the ocean's time variable dynamic topography including its covariance matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean's mean dynamic topography as the difference between the sea surface and the geoid reflects many characteristics of the general ocean circulation. Consequently, it provides valuable information for evaluating or tuning ocean circulation models. However, the determination of the mean dynamic topography from satellite based gravity field and altimetric observations is not straightforward. For the integration of the dynamic topography into ocean circulation models not only the dynamic topography itself but also its inverse covariance matrix on the ocean model grid is required. We developed a rigorous combination method where both instrumental errors and omission errors are accounted for, including the determination of optimal relative weights between the observation groups. The altimetric mean sea surface is expressed as a sum of geoid heights represented in terms of spherical harmonics and the mean dynamic topography parameterized by a finite element method which can be directly related to the particular ocean model grid. The different observation groups are combined in terms of normal equations. This allows the direct determination of the normal equations of the mean dynamic topography which contain the appropriate weights for model-data misfits in least-squares ocean model inversions. The developed integrated approach can be extended by modeling the time variable component of the dynamic topography to provide estimates not only at a mean state but also at arbitrary points in time including a rigorously computed covariance matrix. The focus of this study is on the North Atlantic Ocean. We will present the conceptual design and dynamic topography estimates based on time variable data from several satellite altimeter missions in combination with GOCE and GRACE gravity field models.

Becker, Silvia; Brockmann, Jan Martin; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter

2014-05-01

22

Spatial patterns in the evolution of Cenozoic dynamic topography and its influence on the Antarctic continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of dynamic topography in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in dynamic topography in Antarctica by analysing grids of global dynamic topography in the Cenozoic (and late Cretaceous) based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene dynamic topography exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS)may have driven these dynamic topography effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting dynamic topography effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Anderson, Lester; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Eagles, Graeme; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ritsema, Jeroen

2013-04-01

23

Measurement of fine dynamic changes of corneal topography by use of interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper presents results of in vivo measurements of dynamic variations of the corneal topography by use of the Twyman Green interferometer. Sequence of interferograms were recorded by the CCD camera and stored in the computer memory. Then the fringe tracking method was used separately to each interferogram giving the phase surface of the wave reflected from the cornea in the numerical form. Results from neighboring interferograms were subtracted giving new sequence of changes of the corneal topography within 40 ms. Obtained results show the complex space distribution of the corneal topography variations.

Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.

2002-06-01

24

Resurfacing events on Venus: Implications on plume dynamics and surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global resurfacing events explain the relatively young and uniformly aged surface of Venus. In numerical models featuring these events a variety of plume classes occur ranging from strong, stable to smaller, wind-driven upwellings. We investigate this plume dynamics in a 3D Cartesian geometry paying special attention to the surface topography. While the stable upwellings of the stagnant-lid phase correlate with an elevation of the surface, the wind-driven upwellings of the resurfacing phase do not necessarily correlate with a positive topography signal. We rather observe that a thick plate can dominate the topography above upwellings.

Stein, C.; Fahl, A.; Hansen, U.

2010-01-01

25

Progress Report on Accurate Measurement of Dynamic Topography in the Oceanic and Continental Realms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective circulation of the Earth's mantle maintains plate motion but we know little about the spatial and temporal details of this circulation. Accurate maps of the spatial and temporal pattern of dynamic topography should profoundly affect our understanding the the relationship between surface geology and deep Earth processes. The major difficulty is the `tyranny of isostasy'. In other words, dynamic topography is difficult to measure because crustal and lithospheric thickness and density changes are the dominant control of surface elevation. Some progress can be made along continental margins by measuring residual depth anomalies of the oldest oceanic floor on newly available seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles. These estimates of dynamic topography have amplitudes of ± 1 km and wavelengths of 102--104 km. They mostly, but not always, correlate with long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies, although correlation with seismic tomographic images is poorer. The distribution of dynamic topography throughout the rest of the oceanic realm can be supplemented by using ship-track data in regions with sparse sedimentary cover and by exploiting the mid-oceanic ridge system. On the continents, it is more difficult to measure dynamic topography with the same accuracy since the density structure of continental lithosphere is so variable but progress can be made on three fronts. First, long-wavelength gravity anomalies which straddle continental margins are an obvious and important guide. Secondly, stratal geometries across continental shelves contain information about positive and negative surface elevation changes, provided sea-level variation is known. In several cases, well-calibrated seismic surveys can be used to constrain spatial and temporal patterns of dynamic topography. Our results suggest that dynamic topography can rapidly change on short wavelengths. Finally, drainage networks appear to contain information about the spatial and temporal patterns of dynamic topography. If used with care, calibrated inverse modeling of dense networks of longitudinal river profiles may help to map these patterns continent-wide. In summary, we are on the verge of creating global dynamic topographic maps which can be used to test predictive global models.

White, N. J.

2012-12-01

26

Geoid Anomalies and Dynamic Topography from Time Dependent, Spherical Axisymmetric Mantle Convection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoid anomalies and dynamic topography are two important diagnostics of mantle convection. We present geoid and topography results for several time-dependent convection models in spherical axisymmetric geometry for Rayleigh numbers between 10(exp 6) and 10(exp 7) with depth-dependent viscosity and mixtures of bottom and internal heating. The models are strongly chaotic, with boundary layer instabilities erupting out of both thermal boundary layers. In some instances, instabilities from one boundary layer influence the development of instabilities in the other boundary layer. Such coupling between events at the top and bottom of the mantle has been suggested to play a role in a mid-Cretaceous episode of enhanced volcanism in the Pacific. These boundary layer instabilities produce large temporal variations in the geoid anomalies and dynamic nd to the topography associated with the convection. The amplitudes of these fluctuations depend on the detailed model parameter,.% it of this but fluctuations of 30-50% relative to the time-averaged geoid and topography are common. The convective planform is strongly sensitive to the specific initial conditions. Convection cells with larger aspect ratio tend to have larger fractional fluctuations in their geoid and topography amplitudes, because boundary layer instabilities have more time to develop in long cells. In some instances, we observe low-amplitude topographic highs adjacent to the topographic lows produced by cold downwellings. We discuss applications of these results to several situations, including the temporal variability of m basis. hotspots such as Hawaii, the topography of subduction zone outer rises, and the topography of coronae on Venus.

Kiefer, Walter S.; Kellogg, Louise H.

1998-01-01

27

How to approximate viscoelastic dynamic topographies of stagnant lid planetary bodies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning dynamic topography of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the topography. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic dynamic topography induced by an internal load to topographies generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface topography and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic topography with an elastic filtering of the IVF topography. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These results naturally depend on the ratio between the mantle and the lithospheric thicknesses. We show that, in the case of Mars, it is not possible to approximate viscoelastic topographies generated by a stable plume using the elastic filtering of viscous dynamic topographies.

Dumoulin, Caroline; ?adek, Ond?ej; Choblet, Gaël

2013-04-01

28

The bottom topography and dynamics of the Obskaya and Baydaratskaya Bays, Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the arctic gas fields requires a gas transport system to be laid across the Obskaya Bay and the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea. Designing, construction and safe operation of the offshore parts of the crossing demands special knowledge about a structure of the bottom topography and coastal zone dynamics. Results of investigation indicate a difference between those regions

A. Ermolov; A. Noskov; S. Ogorodov

2009-01-01

29

Understanding the topography effects on competitive adsorption on a nanosized anatase crystal: a molecular dynamics study.  

PubMed

Using Molecular Mechanics and Molecular Dynamics methods, we investigated at the atomistic level the topography effects both on physisorption on different crystalline planes of TiO2 anatase and on the competitive adsorption when three different crystallographic faces were simultaneously present in an idealized nanosized crystal interacting with a simple heteroaromatic molecule experimentally used in sunlight-induced photosynthetic reaction. PMID:23862182

Raffaini, Giuseppina; Melone, Lucio; Punta, Carlo

2013-09-01

30

The Mid-Pliocene sea-level conundrum: Glacial isostasy, eustasy and dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining eustatic sea level during the Mid-Pliocene warm period (?3.3 to 2.9 Ma) has been a central but elusive goal in the study of past warm climates. Estimates of eustatic sea level based on geologic data span a broad range; variation that we now recognize is due in part to geographically varying post-depositional displacement caused by glacial isostatic adjustment and dynamic topography. In this study, we combine field observations and glacial isostatic adjustment modeling to estimate the dynamic topography signal in three areas that are important to paleo-sea level studies of the Mid-Pliocene warm period (South Africa, West Australia and southeastern United States). We show that dynamic topography played a significant role in the post-depositional displacement of Pliocene, and even younger Pleistocene, shorelines. In this regard, we provide a robust paleo-sea level elevation data set, corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment, that can be used to evaluate predictions from mantle flow models of dynamic topography.

Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M. J.; Inglis, J. D.

2014-02-01

31

Contact surface topography and system dynamics of brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake noise is an example of noise caused by vibrations induced by friction forces. During brake operation, the friction between the pad and the disc can induce a dynamic instability in the system. Brake squeal can occur in the frequency range between 1 and 20kHz, and more. Approaches to this problem are usually confined to the analysis of the system

Francesco Massi; Yves Berthier; Laurent Baillet

2008-01-01

32

A Mean Dynamic Topography of the Mediterranean Sea computed from altimetric data, in-situ measurements and a general circulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mediterranean Sea, where the mean circulation is largely unknown and characterized by smaller scales and less intensity than in the open ocean, the interpretation of altimetric Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) is rather difficult. In the context of operational systems such as MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System) or MERCATOR, that assimilate the altimetric information, the estimation of a realistic Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) consistent with altimetric SLA to be used to reconstruct absolute sea level is a crucial issue. A method is developed here to estimate the required MDT combining oceanic observations as altimetric and in-situ measurements and outputs from an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). In a first step, the average over the 1993-1999 period of dynamic topography outputs from MFS OGCM provides a first guess for the computation of the MDT. Then, in a second step, drifting buoy velocities and altimetric data are combined using a synthetic method to obtain local estimates of the mean geostrophic circulation which are then used to improve the first guess through an inverse technique and map the MDT field (hereafter the Synthetic Mean Dynamic Topography or SMDT) on a 1/8° resolution grid. Many interesting current patterns and cyclonic/anticyclonic structures are visible on the SMDT obtained. The main Mediterranean coastal currents are well marked (as the Algerian Current or the Liguro-Provenço-Catalan Current). East of the Sicily channel, the Atlantic Ionian Stream divides into several main branches crossing the Ionian Sea at various latitudes before joining at 19°E into a unique Mid-Mediterranean Jet. Also, strong signatures of the main Mediterranean eddies are obtained (as for instance the Alboran gyre, the Pelops, Ierapetra, Mersa-Matruh or Shikmona anticyclones and the Cretan, Rhodes or West Cyprius cyclones). Independent in-situ measurements from Sea Campaigns NORBAL in the North Balearic Sea and the North Tyrrhenian Sea and SYMPLEX in the Sicily channel are used to validate locally the SMDT: deduced absolute altimetric dynamic topography compares well with in-situ observations. Finally, the SMDT is used to compute absolute altimetric maps in the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Current. The use of absolute altimetric signal allows to accurately follow the formation and propagation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in both areas.

Rio, M.-H.; Poulain, P.-M.; Pascual, A.; Mauri, E.; Larnicol, G.; Santoleri, R.

2007-03-01

33

Dynamic topography change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago.  

PubMed

Sedimentary rocks from Virginia through Florida record marine flooding during the mid-Pliocene. Several wave-cut scarps that at the time of deposition would have been horizontal are now draped over a warped surface with a maximum variation of 60 meters. We modeled dynamic topography by using mantle convection simulations that predict the amplitude and broad spatial distribution of this distortion. The results imply that dynamic topography and, to a lesser extent, glacial isostatic adjustment account for the current architecture of the coastal plain and proximal shelf. This confounds attempts to use regional stratigraphic relations as references for longer-term sea-level determinations. Inferences of Pliocene global sea-level heights or stability of Antarctic ice sheets therefore cannot be deciphered in the absence of an appropriate mantle dynamic reference frame. PMID:23686342

Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Simmons, Nathan A; Grand, Stephen P

2013-06-28

34

Spatial and temporal patterns of Australian dynamic topography from River Profile Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its importance, the temporal and spatial evolution of continental dynamic topography is poorly known. Australia's isolation from active plate boundaries and its rapid northward motion within a hot spot reference frame make it a useful place to investigate the interplay between mantle convection, topography, and drainage. Offshore, dynamic topography is relatively well constrained and can be accounted for by Australia's translation over the mantle's convective circulation. To build a database of onshore constraints, we have analyzed an inventory of longitudinal river profiles, which is sensitive to uplift rate history. Using independently constrained erosional parameters, we determine uplift rates by minimizing the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles. Resultant fits are excellent and calculated uplift histories match independent geologic constraints. We infer that western and central Australia underwent regional uplift during the last 50 Myr and that the Eastern Highlands have been uplifted in two stages. The first stage from 120 to 80 Ma, coincided with rifting along the eastern margin and its existence is supported by thermochronological measurements. A second stage occurred at 80-10 Ma, formed the Great Escarpment, and coincided with Cenozoic volcanism. The relationship between topography, gravity anomalies, and shear wave tomographic models suggest that regional elevation is supported by temperature anomalies within the lithosphere's thermal boundary layer. Morphology and stratigraphy of the Eastern Highlands imply that these anomalies have been coupled to the base of the plate during Australia's northward motion over the last 70 Myr.

Czarnota, K.; Roberts, G. G.; White, N. J.; Fishwick, S.

2014-02-01

35

Infrasound wavefield modeled by coupling conduit dynamics and topography by 3D-FDTD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasound signal on active volcanoes has become an important tool for monitoring and understanding the explosive source dynamics. Volcano infrasound is the direct measure of pressure oscillations near open-vent and it can provide important constraints on the intensity of the eruption as well as on the source parameters including the variations of volumetric flux and exit velocity. At present, infrasonic signals recorded close to the volcano (<5 Km) have been used to model the acoustic source of volcanic explosions considering that at this distance the acoustic wavefield is relatively less affected by atmospheric structure. On the contrary, recent 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical modelling of infrasound propagation indicates a strong effect on the wavefield induced by the diffraction of the crater rim [Kim and Lees 2011] and by the near-source topography [Lacanna and Ripepe 2013]. However, the full three-dimensional interaction of acoustic source with conduit geometry and the topography of the volcano edifice have not been fully investigated. In order to evaluate these effects, we have developed a 3D-FDTD modelling to simulate infrasound propagation taking in account conduit dynamics and topography of the volcano. In linear acoustics, the pressure perturbations in a duct propagates as a plane wave front, which become spherical outside the vent. The radiation impedance at the vent depends on the pressure wavelength and the vent radius. In addition, the diffraction and reflection of topography contaminate the acoustic wave field and have a strong effect in reducing the amplitude and changing the waveform of the infrasonic signal also at short (<2 km) distances. Besides, the 3D numerical model allows to define in terms of Green's function the scattering effects on the acoustic wavefield caused by topography along the source-receiver path. Only by removing topographic effects from the infrasonic record and by considering the propagation inside the conduit we can quantify the source parameters with a strong impact on our understanding of the explosive dynamics.

lacanna, giorgio; ripepe, maurizio

2014-05-01

36

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled topography changes.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-07-01

37

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-11-01

38

Joint altimetric and in-situ data assimilation using the GRACE mean dynamic topography: a 1993-1998 hindcast experiment in the Tropical Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The altimetric satellite signal is the sum of the geoid and the dynamic topography, but only the latter is relevant to oceanographic applications. Poor knowledge of the geoid has prevented oceanographers from fully exploiting altimetric measurements through its absolute component, and applications have concentrated on ocean variability through analyses of sea level anomalies. Recent geodetic missions like CHAMP, GRACE and the forthcoming GOCE are changing this perspective. In this study, data assimilation is used to reconstruct the Tropical Pacific Ocean circulation during the 1993-1996 period. Multivariate observations are assimilated into a primitive equation ocean model (OPA) using a reduced order Kalman filter (the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman filter). A 6-year (1993-1998) hindcast experiment is analyzed and validated by comparison with observations. In this experiment, the new capability offered by an observed absolute dynamic topography (built using the GRACE geoid to reference the altimetric data) is used to assimilate, in an efficient way, the in-situ temperature profiles from the TAO/TRITON moorings together with the T/P and ERS1&2 altimetric signal. GRACE data improves compatibility between both observation data sets. The difficulties encountered in this regard in previous studies such as Parent et al. (J Mar Syst 40-41:381-401, 2003) are now circumvented. This improvement helps provide more efficient data assimilation, as evidenced, by assessing the results against independent data. This leads in particular to significantly more realistic currents and vertical thermal structures.

Castruccio, Frédéric; Verron, Jacques; Gourdeau, Lionel; Brankart, Jean-Michael; Brasseur, Pierre

2008-03-01

39

The emergence of topographic steady-state in perpetually dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the results of a series of analog experiments of landscape evolution in which the evolving topography and sediment flux is observed as a function of the rate of base-level fall (equivalent to rock uplift) under a constant model-climate. The experimental apparatus comprises a 50 cm x 50 cm box that contains up to 30 cm of ~20 micron silicon paste. Climate is simulated as a constant and spatially uniform rate of precipitation derived from an overhead suite of fine misters. Topography was measured via a laser scanner to a precision of less than 1mm and imaged digitally at 5 min intervals. Base-level fall is achieved through the slow sliding of two opposing sides of the box at rates between 9 to 60 mm/hr. Erosion occurs as both hillslope (mass movements) and channel processes; our slope-area data show that we are simulating reasonably realistic landscapes. Our results show that in a flux-steady-state landscape, the non-linear highly dynamic behavior of ridge-valley topography leads to the emergence of stable catchment geometries. We further demonstrate that this stability is a fundamental characteristic of internal system dynamics, is independent of climate and uplift rate and is instead linked to the exhumation of mountain relief: both scale-dependence and scale-invariance in topographic dynamics emerges after 1.2 relief-depths of erosion. We also show that the temporal evolution of sediment flux follows a classic growth curve in which flux decreases as a reflection of limited resources as propagating headwaters run out of new uneroded landscape. In response to changes in uplift rate, sediment flux also provides a measure of an intrinsic time-response within the system, which could be used to transform model time to real time.

Reinhardt, L.; Ellis, M. A.

2012-12-01

40

Interferometer for measuring the dynamic surface topography of a human tear film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing dynamic tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the dynamic surface topography. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal topography and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.

Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.

2012-02-01

41

Enhancing the Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean Dynamic Topography with CryoSat-2 Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean dynamic topography (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models that includes CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. In an attempt to extrapolate across the gap above 82 degrees latitude the previously models included ICESat data, gravimetrical geoids, ocean circulation models and various combinations hereof. Unfortunately cloud cover and the short periods of operation has a negative effect on the number of ICESat sea surface observations. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the new generation of state of the art global high-resolution models that includes CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.

Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole B.; Knudsen, Per

2014-05-01

42

Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.

Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.

1991-01-01

43

Separation of dynamic and isostatic components for Venusian gravity and topography and its influence in crustal thickness calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustal thickness of Venus can give us important information about the extent of melting and the tectonics of Venus's surface. With no seismological observation on Venus, the knowledge of Venusian crustal thickness can only be obtained from gravity and topography observations via satellites. However, analyses on the gravity and topography shown that on Venus the gravity and topography are strongly influenced by internal dynamical processes, especially the long-wavelength components or low-degree spherical harmonics. In many regions on Venus, gravity and topography are highly correlated and with high gravity topography ratio (GTR) and large apparent depth of compensation (ADC). All these led to the hypotheses that there are mantle plumes under these areas. In these cases, the dynamical influences need to be excluded from gravity and topography data in order to obtain a reasonable crustal thickness. In this study, we set up a method to separate the dynamic component of the gravity and topography from the observations by supposing that the Venusian crust is in a state of Airy isostasy if taking off the dynamic influences. After doing so, the Venusian global crustal thickness has been calculated and the results shown that (1) the gravity and topography are strongly correlated with the Venusian mantle convection and the Venusian crust has a significant influence on the observed topography;(2) the Venusian crustal thickness varies from 28 km to 70 km if an average thickness of 35 km is adopted; (3) Ishtar Terra, Ovda Regio and Thetis Regio in western Aphrodite Terra have the most largest crustal thickness (larger than 50 km). The high topography of these areas is thought to be supported by crustal compensation and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these areas are remnants of ancient continents; (4) the crustal thickness in the Beta, Themis, Dione, Eistla, Bell, and Lada regiones is thin and shows less correlation with the topography, especially in the Atla and Imdr regiones in the eastern part of Aphrodite Terra. This is consistent with the hypothesis that these highlands are mainly supported by mantle plumes.

Yang, A.; Huang, J.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

44

Modelling and Estimation of Dynamic Ocean Topography Within Global Geopotential Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this poster, we will present a report on the ongoing investigation "Improved Gravitational and Dynamic Height Models Through the use of Oceanographic Data." we have used a two year mean (1993-1994) of the Dynamic ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the Semtner and Chervin POCM_4B model, and developed normal equations in surface spherical harmonics to degree and order 30. These normal equations, were combined with normal equations derived from TOPEX and ERS-1 altimeter data over the same time period. Combination solutions (based on satellite tracking data, altimeter data, surface gravity data and OCM data) were were developed Test solutions were obtained estimating the DOT field to 2Ox2O and 3ox3O. These solutions were tested with independent DOT values computed over 38 WOCE hydrographic sections, which contained a total of 3072 stations and represented 216000 km of travelled lines. The weighted standard deviation of the differences between the DOT obtained from the hydrographic data and and the field estimated from the joint combination solutions was computed for each of the test models, the weighted standard deviation for the baseline combination solution excluding the POCM4_B data was 9.7 cm for a DOT solution to 30x30, where introducing the POCM4_B data into the combination model reduced the standard deviation to 9.2 cm, indicating the the introduction of oceanographic information benefits the solution for the dynamic ocean topography. We will discuss the weighting schemes applied and the method of solution. Another aspect of our investigation involves testing alternate parametric representations of the dynamic height field. We looked at the alternative representations in terms of the Proudman functions (PF), and compared these to the use of spherical harmonics (SH) to represent the dynamic ocean topography, using once again the 1993 and 1994 output of the POCM4_B OCM as the reference model. A significant advantage of PF's over SH's is that the former require no "fill-in" values over areas where the DOT is undefined. We show that the PF and SH results using equal number of parameters agree quite well in overall content. In addition, PFs appear better suited for representation of high frequency signals close to the signal boundary. The development of the PF solutions for the DOT will be described and the statistics of the comparisons will be presented.

Lemoine, Frank G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos; Wang, Y. M.; Cox, C. M.

1998-01-01

45

The eustatic chimera: isn't the Cenomanian maximum flood a dynamic topography puzzle?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more, dynamic topography is predicted to seriously control sea level, which challenges the concept of eustasy, but field evidence are sparse. In order to evaluate the space and time evolution of relative sea level variations, we made paleogeographic reconstructions for three consecutive stages around the presumed Cenomanian maximum flood. For that purpose, we compiled stratigraphic charts and existing paleogeographic maps to reconstruct shorelines at a global scale and infer transgressive and regressive phases. The Cenomanian transgressive phase is essentially present around the Tethys, whereas regression prevails at higher latitudes. Furthermore, diachronicity accompanies the presumed sea level high, for the trend reverses between the three stages in the northern hemisphere while it further subsides in the southern one. These reconstructions therefore suggest that an evolving degree two structure of uplift and subsidence may be more endemic of this period than uniform sea level change and thus, they better recall internal dynamics than eustasy. Indeed, flooding accompanies the Tethyan subduction zone, while regressions are located above spreading oceans. We interpret relative sea level change during the late Cretaceous as the traces of the negative dynamic subsidence above the Tehyan slab in the one hand, and in the other hand of the superplumes (African in particular) that lead to the breakup of the Atlantic. We further confront our results to the predictions of Steinberger, who provides estimates of dynamic topography since the latest Albian. We conformably observe, for instance, positive anomalies in North America, in the Baltic area, or in South Africa, but the model mostly fails to predict the observe diachronicity in vertical ground motion.

Ostanciaux, E.; Robin, C.; Guillocheau, F.; Trotin, G.; Husson, L.

2012-04-01

46

Dynamic sea surface topography, gravity and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of SEASAT altimeter data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the simultaneous solution of dynamic ocean topography, gravity and orbits using satellite altimeter data is described. A GEM-T1 based gravitational model called PGS-3337 that incorporates Seasat altimetry, surface gravimetry and satellite tracking data has been determined complete to degree and order 50. The altimeter data is utilized as a dynamic observation of the satellite's height above the sea surface with a degree 10 model of dynamic topography being recovered simultaneously with the orbit parameters, gravity and tidal terms in this model. PGS-3337 has a geoid uncertainty of 60 cm root-mean-square (RMS) globally, with the uncertainty over the altimeter tracked ocean being in the 25 cm range. Doppler determined orbits for Seasat, show large improvements, with the sub-30 cm radial accuracies being achieved. When altimeter data is used in orbit determination, radial orbital accuracies of 20 cm are achieved. The RMS of fit to the altimeter data directly gives 30 cm fits for Seasat when using PGS-3337 and its geoid and dynamic topography model. This performance level is two to three times better than that achieved with earlier Goddard earth models (GEM) using the dynamic topography from long-term oceanographic averages. The recovered dynamic topography reveals the global long wavelength circulation of the oceans with a resolution of 1500 km. The power in the dynamic topography recovery is now found to be closer to that of oceanographic studies than for previous satellite solutions. This is attributed primarily to the improved modeling of the geoid which has occurred. Study of the altimeter residuals reveals regions where tidal models are poor and sea state effects are major limitations.

Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Williamson, R. G.; Patel, G. B.

1989-01-01

47

Application of the Absolute Nodal Co-Ordinate Formulation to Multibody System Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floating frame of reference formulation is currently the most widely used approach in flexible multibody simulations. The use of this approach, however, has been limited to small deformation problems. In this investigation, the computer implementation of the newabsolute nodal co-ordinate formulationand its use in the small and large deformation analysis of flexible multibody systems that consist of interconnected bodies are discussed. While in the floating frame of reference formulation a mixed set of absolute reference and local elastic co-ordinates are used, in the absolute nodal co-ordinate formulation only absolute co-ordinates are used. In the absolute nodal co-ordinate formulation, new interpretation of the nodal co-ordinates of the finite elements is used. No infinitesimal or finite rotations are used as nodal co-ordinates from beams and plates, instead, global slopes are used to define the element nodal co-ordinates. Using this interpretation of the element co-ordinates, beams and plates can be considered as isoparametric elements, and as a result, exact modelling of the rigid body dynamics can be obtained using the element shape function and the absolute nodal co-ordinates. Unlike the floating frame of reference approach, no co-ordinate transformation is required in order to determine the element inertia. The mass matrix of the finite elements is a constant matrix, and therefore, the centrifugal and Coriolis forces are equal to zero when the absolute nodal co-ordinate formulation is used. Another advantage of using the absolute nodal co-ordinate formulation in the dynamic simulation of multibody systems is its simplicity in imposing some of the joint constraints and also its simplicity in formulating the generalized forces due to spring-damper elements. The results obtained in this investigation show an excellent agreement with the results obtained using the floating frame of reference formulation when large rotation-small deformation problems are considered.

Escalona, J. L.; Hussien, H. A.; Shabana, A. A.

1998-07-01

48

Effect of surface topography on actin dynamics and receptor clustering in B cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B cells are activated upon binding of the B cell receptor (BCR) with antigen on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Activated B cells deform and spread on the surface of APCs which may comprise of complex membrane topologies. In order to model the diverse range of topographies that B cells may encounter, substrates fabricated with vertical ridges separated by gaps ranging from hundreds of nm to microns were coated with activating antigen to enable B cell spreading. Simultaneous imaging of actin and BCR shows that the organization of both depends profoundly on the ridge spacing. On smaller ridge spacing (2 microns), actin forms long filopodial structures that explore the substrate parallel to ridges while the BCR clusters accumulate linearly along the direction of the ridges with limited ability to escape these channels. Cells on larger ridge spacing (2 microns) exhibit central actin patches and peripheral actin waves and form semi-stable polymerization zones at ridges, while BCR distribution is more homogeneous. Our results indicate that surface topography may be a critical determinant of cytoskeletal dynamics and the spatiotemporal organization of signaling clusters.

Ketchum, Christina; Sun, Xiaoyu; Song, Wenxia; Fourkas, John; Upadhyaya, Arpita

2013-03-01

49

Deployment dynamics of a simplified spinning IKAROS solar sail via absolute coordinate based method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinning solar sail of large scale has been well developed in recent years. Such a solar sail can be considered as a rigid-flexible multibody system mainly composed of a spinning central rigid hub, a number of flexible thin tethers, sail membranes, and tip masses. A simplified interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the Sun (IKAROS) model is established in this study by using the absolute-coordinate-based (ACB) method that combines the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) describing the central rigid hub and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) describing flexible parts. The initial configuration of the system in the second-stage deployment is determined through both dynamic and static analyses. The huge set of stiff equations of system dynamics is solved by using the generalized-alpha method, and thus the deployment dynamics of the system can be well understood.

Zhao, Jiang; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Hai-Yan

2013-02-01

50

Improving Surface Geostrophic Current from a GOCE derived Mean Dynamic Topography using Edge Enhancing Diffusion filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the geoid resolution provided by the Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission, the ocean's Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) can be now estimated with an accuracy that has not been seen before using geodetic methods. Nevertheless, it still needs to be filtered in order to remove the noise in the signal. Here we deal with the capabilities of the Edge Enhancing Diffusion (EED) filters for filtering the MDT in order to improve the computation of the surface geostrophic currents (SGC). It is proved how this method conserves all the advantages that the non-linear isotropic filters have over the standard linear isotropic Gaussian filters. Moreover, the EED is shown to be more stable and almost independent of the local errors. This fact makes this filtering strategy preferred when filtering noisy surfaces.

Sánchez Reales, J. M.; Andersen, O. B.; Vigo, M. I.

2012-04-01

51

Mean dynamic topography estimates purely based on GOCE gravity field models and altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of mean dynamic topography (MDT) models derived from an altimetric mean sea surface and a gravity field model mainly depends on the spatial resolution and accuracy of the particular gravity field model. We use an integrated approach which allows for estimating the MDT and its (inverse) covariance matrix on a predefined grid which is one of the requirements for ocean data assimilation. The quality and accuracy of the MDT directly reflects the quality and accuracy of the used gravity field model. For the first time, MDT estimates along with its full error covariance matrix based on Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) data can be provided. We demonstrate the progress accomplished with GOCE processing and the valuable contribution of the GOCE gravity field models regarding the estimation of the MDT by showing results based on altimetric observations of Jason-1 and Envisat in combination with different GOCE gravity field models for the North Atlantic.

Becker, S.; Brockmann, J. M.; Schuh, W.-D.

2014-03-01

52

Venus - Dynamic Interior, Gravity Field and Topography Analyzed by Multiresolution Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of our effort is to find such an interior structure of Venus which best predicts the geoid data. Our models are based on different kinds of topography support. The predicted data are compared with observed ones on the basis of common spectral methods and localization methods. First, we apply the principle of isostasy and we look for an average apparent depth of compensation (ADC). For the whole spectrum, dominated by the low degrees, a 165 km depth is found which might correspond to a bottom of the lithosphere. However, the predicted geoid does not fit well to the observed data in the whole spectral interval. Studying the degree-dependent ADC and the admittance function we obtain a uniform depth of compensation around 35 km for degrees higher than 40. For the geoid at degrees lower than 40 we propose a dynamic origin. This hypothesis is investigated in the framework of the internal loading theory. Assuming that the buoyancy force does not vary with depth (which roughly corresponds to a plume-like style of mantle convection) we can well explain about 90% of both geoid and topography. The best fit to the data and the observed admittance function is found for the viscosity profile with a ~100 km thick lithosphere and a viscosity increase by factor 10-100 through the mantle. Second, we analyze our results by means of multiresolution methods. This technique is generally a useful tool for filtering the full-spectra signal. In comparison with the spherical harmonics the wavelet base (or some other suitable function) is well localized (i.e. has non-zero amplitudes only in a vicinity of the point of interest). So using this method we obtain true field anomalies without artificial oscillations. In our study of geoid and topography of Venus we can also look at localized "qualitative" fields: correlation and admittance. There are two major approaches - spectral one presented by Simons et al. (1997) and spatial one presented by Kido et al. (2003). We use the later one motivated by a possible improvement of resolution in the selected regions. For an intermediate and short wavelengths the spherical harmonic expansions of the geoid contain too much of global signature which makes the local features unreadable. In contrast, the use of a localization function gives us a clear picture with individual features. This could be a base for intuitive comparison of structures on the given scale - in our case observed and predicted fields. Localization of the qualitative functions as of correlation or admittance could give us information about observed geophysical models as well as about degree of agreement with our results and spatial errors. References: Kido, M., D.A. Yuen, and A.P. Vincent, Continuous wavelet-like filter for a spherical surface and its application to localized admittance function on Mars, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 135, 1-16, 2003. M. Simons, S. C. Solomon, and B. H. Hager, Localization of gravity and topography: Constraints on the tectonics and mantle dynamics of Venus,, Geophys. J. Int., 131, 24-44, 1997.

Pauer, M.

2003-12-01

53

Mantle flow and dynamic topography associated with slab window opening: Insights from laboratory models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present dynamically self-consistent mantle-scale laboratory models that have been conducted to improve our understanding of the influence of slab window opening on subduction dynamics, mantle flow and associated dynamic topography over geological time scales. The adopted setup consists of a two-layer linearly viscous system simulating the subduction of a fixed plate of silicone (lithosphere) under negative buoyancy in a viscous layer of glucose syrup (mantle). Our experimental setting is also characterized by a constant-width rectangular window located at the center of a laterally confined slab, modeling the case of the interaction of a trench-parallel spreading ridge with a wide subduction zone. We found that the opening of a slab window does not produce consistent changes of the geometry and the kinematics of the slab. On the contrary, slab-induced mantle circulation, quantified both in the vertical and horizontal sections using the Feature Tracking image analysis technique, is strongly modified. In particular, rollback subduction and the opening of the slab window generate a complex mantle circulation pattern characterized by the presence of poloidal and toroidal components, with the importance of each evolving according to kinematic stages. Mantle coming from the oceanic domain floods through the slab window, indenting the supra-slab mantle zone and producing its deformation without any mixing between mantle portions. The opening of the slab window and the upwelling of sub-slab mantle produce a regional-scale non-isostatic topographic uplift of the overriding plate that would correspond to values ranging between ca. 1 and 5 km in nature. Assuming that our modeling results can be representative of the natural behavior of subduction zones, we compared them to the tectonics and volcanism of the Patagonian subduction zone. We found that the anomalous backarc volcanism that has been developing since the middle Miocene could result from the lateral flow of sub-slab mantle and that part of the Patagonian uplift could be dynamically supported.

Guillaume, Benjamin; Moroni, Monica; Funiciello, Francesca; Martinod, Joseph; Faccenna, Claudio

2010-12-01

54

Impacts of topography on aspen and black spruce successional dynamics in the boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forest contains over 30 percent of Earth's terrestrial carbon, stored mainly as organic matter in soils underlain by discontinuous permafrost. In interior Alaska, black spruce trees dominate these nutrient-depleted soils where the combination of cold temperatures and nutrient-poor black spruce detritus results in an accumulation of a thick layer of organic matter that is not easily decomposed. However, warming temperatures have decreased fire return intervals and resulted in permafrost recession, opening more boreal forest space to early-successional hardwoods such aspen. Because aspen and black spruce stands have a much different capacity for near-surface carbon storage, shifts in vegetation type have important implications for carbon storage in boreal forests. Yet, existing global climate models that run at resolutions of 50-100 square kilometers cannot capture vegetation dynamics that result from fire and topographic variation, where significant heterogeneity is present on scales of 1 square kilometer or less. In this study we use the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 to examine the growth and mortality dynamics of black spruce and aspen trees. Employing meteorological forcing data from the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (BNZ-LTER) weather station (64.70°N, 148.25°W) we investigate the interdependence of permafrost depth, soil temperature, soil moisture content and plant functional type on topography. Modeled plant densities are corroborated with observed aspen and black spruce distributions at the BNZ-LTER and nearby Delta Junction, AK. We then show how an accurate spatial parameterization of aspen and black spruce trees can be used to better simulate boreal zone carbon dynamics with receding permafrost and increased fire frequency.

Trugman, A. T.; Medvigy, D.

2013-12-01

55

New clinical instrument for the early detection of cataract using dynamic light scattering and corneal topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered light and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

2000-06-01

56

Geopotential Model Improvement Using POCM_4B Dynamic Ocean Topography Information: PGM2000A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-year mean (1993-1994) Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the POCM_4B circulation model was used to develop normal equations for DOT, in a surface spherical harmonic representation. These normal equations were combined with normal equations from satellite tracking data, surface gravity data, and altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1. Several least-squares combination solutions were developed in this fashion, by varying parameters such as the maximum degree of the estimated DOT and the relative weights of the different data. The solutions were evaluated in terms of orbit fit residuals, GPS/Leveling-derived undulations, and independent DOT information from in situ WOCE hydrographic data. An optimal solution was developed in this fashion which was originally presented at the 1998 EGS meeting in Nice, France. This model, designated here PGM2000A, maintains the orbit and land geoid modeling performance of EGM96, while improving its marine geoid modeling capability. In addition, PGM2000A's error spectrum is considerably more realistic than those of other contemporary gravitational models and agrees well with the error spectrum of EGM96. We will present the development and evaluation of PGM2000A, with particular emphasis on the weighting of the DOT information implied by POCM_4B. We will also present an inter-comparison of PGM2000A with the GRIM5-C1 and TEG-4 models. Directions for future work and problematic areas will be identified.

Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

57

Future Evolution of Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently concluded Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project (Bindschadler et al., 2013; Nowicki et al., 2013) provides some clues regarding the future evolution of Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in a warming climate. Using the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we combine the relevant SeaRISE results with possibly the best available GIA ice loading history for the past 21 kyr (Ivins et al., 2013), and provide first-order estimates of future uplift of AIS. While the model predicts minor subsidence in the interior of the east AIS and along the Wilkes Land, we find that the west AIS (Amundsen sea sector, in particular) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters over the next 100 and 500 years, respectively. Such uneven changes in topography imply that the bed slope will be modulated in the future, thereby potentially controlling the grounding line migration and eventually the ice sheet dynamics. Using hydrostatic equilibrium criterion and through high-order modeling of AIS, we demonstrate that proper treatment of GIA response is crucial on centennial timescale, as it promotes systematic, although mild, stability to marine portions of the ice sheet.

Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.

2013-12-01

58

A new filter for the Mean Dynamic Topography of the ocean derived directly from satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) of the ocean provides valuable information about the ocean's surface currents. Therefore the MDT is computed from satellite observations and then assimilated into ocean models in order to improve the ocean circulation estimates. However, the computation of the MDT from satellite observations of sea surface height and the Earth's gravity field is not straightforward and requires additional filtering of the data combination. The choice of the filter is crucial as it determines the amount of small-scale noise in the data and the resolution of the final MDT. There exist various approaches for the determination of an "optimal" filter. However, they all have in common the more or less subjective choice of the filter type and filter width. Here, a new filter is presented that is determined directly from the geodetic normal equations. By its construction, this filter accurately accounts for the correlations within the MDT data and requires no subjective choice about the filter radius. The new filtered MDT is assimilated into an inverse ocean model. Modifications in the meridional overturning circulation and in the poleward heat transports can be observed, compared to the result of the assimilation using the unfiltered MDT.

Freiwald, G.

2013-12-01

59

Mean dynamic topography in the Southern Ocean: Evaluating Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean Dynamic Ocean Topography (MDT) is the difference between the time-averaged sea surface height and the geoid. Combining sea level and geoid measurements, which are both attained primarily by satellite, is complicated by ocean variability and differences in resolved spatial scales. Accurate knowledge of the MDT is particularly difficult in the Southern Ocean as this region is characterized by high temporal variability, relatively short spatial scales, and a lack of in situ gravity observations. In this study, four recent Southern Ocean MDT products are evaluated along with an MDT diagnosed from a Southern Ocean state estimate. MDT products differ in some locations by more than the nominal error bars. Attempts to decrease this discrepancy by accounting for temporal differences in the time period each product represents were unsuccessful, likely due to issues regarding resolved spatial scales. The mean mass transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) system can be determined by combining the MDT products with climatological ocean density fields. On average, MDT products predict higher ACC transports than inferred from observations. More importantly, the MDT products imply an unrealistic lack of mass conservation that cannot be explained by the a priori uncertainties. MDT estimates can possibly be improved by accounting for an ocean mass balance constraint.

Griesel, A.; Mazloff, M. R.; Gille, S. T.

2012-01-01

60

Dynamic changes in corneal topography and its influence on the point-spread function of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic changes of the anterior surface of the eye are investigated. A Twyman-Green interferometer is used to record topographic images at 40 ms intervals. A method of analysis of the dynamic changes in topography by use of Zernike polynomials enables a general distinction to be made between dynamic alterations in the shape of the cornea itself and the changes in the layer of the tears. The influence of deviations in the shape of the anterior surface of the eye on the retinal image is estimated.

Siedlecki, Damian; Kasprzak, Henryk; Pierscionek, Barbara K.

2007-03-01

61

Calibration-free quantification of absolute oxygen saturation based on the dynamics of photoacoustic signals  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging technique that has broad preclinical and clinical applications. Based on the photoacoustic effect, PAT directly measures specific optical absorption, which is the product of the tissue-intrinsic optical absorption coefficient and the local optical fluence. Therefore, quantitative PAT, such as absolute oxygen saturation (sO2) quantification, requires knowledge of the local optical fluence, which can be estimated only through invasive measurements or sophisticated modeling of light transportation. In this work, we circumvent this requirement by taking advantage of the dynamics in sO2. The new method works when the sO2 transition can be simultaneously monitored with multiple wavelengths. For each wavelength, the ratio of photoacoustic amplitudes measured at different sO2 states is utilized. Using the ratio cancels the contribution from optical fluence and allows calibration-free quantification of absolute sO2. The new method was validated through both phantom and in vivo experiments.

Xia, Jun; Danielli, Amos; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lidai; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-01-01

62

Dynamically consistent hydrography and absolute velocity in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of mapping a dynamically consistent hydrographic field and associated absolute geostrophic flow in the eastern North Atlantic between 24 deg and 36 deg N is related directly to the solution of the so-called thermocline equations. A nonlinear optimization problem involving Needler's P equation is solved to find the hydrography and resulting flow that minimizes the vertical mixing above about 1500 m in the ocean and is simultaneously consistent with the observations. A sharp minimum (at least in some dimensions) is found, apparently corresponding to a solution nearly conserving potential vorticity and with vertical eddy coefficient less than about 10(exp -5) sq m/s. Estimates of `residual' quantities such as eddy coefficients are extremely sensitive to slight modifications to the observed fields. Boundary conditions, vertical velocities, etc., are a product of the optimization and produce estimates differing quantitatively from prior ones relying directly upon observed hydrography. The results are generally insensitive to particular elements of the solution methodology, but many questions remain concerning the extent to which different synoptic sections can be asserted to represent the same ocean. The method can be regarded as a practical generalization of the beta spiral and geostrophic balance inverses for the estimate of absolute geostrophic flows. Numerous improvements to the methodology used in this preliminary attempt are possible.

Wunsch, Carl

1994-01-01

63

Prediction of Seasonal to Inter-annual Hydro-climatology including the Effects of Vegetation Dynamics and Topography over Large River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the proposed research is to enhance the predictability of hydrology and atmospheric conditions at daily, seasonal and inter-annual time scales. Capturing the interplay between seasonally dynamic vegetation and topography occurring through the local mechanisms of radiation and soil moisture re- distribution may contribute significantly towards increasing hydro-climatological predictability at fine spatio- temporal scales. We present a coupled model that improves the representation of vegetation dynamics with complex topography using the TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) coupled with an advanced regional atmospheric model (WRF, Weather Research Forecasting). The tRIBS-WRF coupled model has been implemented in a parallel computing framework to allow fine scale simulations over large spatial domains for multi year time periods. The simulations have been carried out for a multi year period and we analyze the accuracy of predicted hydro-climatological variables such as monthly precipitation accumulation, soil moisture and vegetation (LAI, phenology) for different cases of (i) flat topography, prescribed vegetation (ii) real topography, prescribed vegetation (iii) flat topography, dynamic vegetation and (iv) real topography, dynamic vegetation. The simulations have been performed in a semi arid region in the South Western United States with the domain centered on a well-instrumented test basin - the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Energy balance as well as soil moisture measurements from the test basin are used to evaluate the simulations. We also use MODIS NDVI observations to evaluate the simulated vegetation spatio-temporal dynamics.

Bisht, G.; Narayan, U.; Bras, R. L.

2008-12-01

64

The Modified Newtonian Dynamics Predicts an Absolute Maximum to the Acceleration Produced by ``Dark Halos''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently discovered that the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) implies some universal upper bound on the acceleration that can be produced by a ``dark halo,'' which, in a Newtonian analysis, is assumed to account for the effects of MOND. Not surprisingly, the limit is on the order of the acceleration constant of the theory. This can be contrasted directly with the results of structure-formation simulations. The new limit is substantial and different from earlier MOND acceleration limits (discussed in connection with the MOND explanation of the Freeman law for galaxy disks and the Fish law for elliptical galaxies): it pertains to the ``halo'' and not to the observed galaxy; it is absolute and independent of further physical assumptions on the nature of the galactic system; and it applies at all radii, whereas the other limits apply only to the mean acceleration in the system.

Brada, Rafael; Milgrom, Mordehai

1999-02-01

65

The Development of a Degree 360 Expansion of the Dynamic Ocean Topography of the POCM_4B Global Circulation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the development of a degree 360 expansion of the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) of the POCM_4B ocean circulation model. The principles and software used that led to the final model are described. A key principle was the development of interpolated DOT values into land areas to avoid discontinuities at or near the land/ocean interface. The power spectrum of the POCM_4B is also presented with comparisons made between orthonormal (ON) and spherical harmonic magnitudes to degree 24. A merged file of ON and SH computed degree variances is proposed for applications where the DOT power spectrum from low to high (360) degrees is needed.

Rapp, Richard H.

1998-01-01

66

BOLD correlates of EEG topography reveal rapid resting-state network dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting-state functional connectivity studies with fMRI showed that the brain is intrinsically organized into large-scale functional networks for which the hemodynamic signature is stable for about 10s. Spatial analyses of the topography of the spontaneous EEG also show discrete epochs of stable global brain states (so-called microstates), but they remain quasi-stationary for only about 100ms. In order to test the

Juliane Britz; Dimitri Van De Ville; Christoph M. Michel

2010-01-01

67

BOLD correlates of EEG topography reveal rapid resting-state network dynamics.  

PubMed

Resting-state functional connectivity studies with fMRI showed that the brain is intrinsically organized into large-scale functional networks for which the hemodynamic signature is stable for about 10s. Spatial analyses of the topography of the spontaneous EEG also show discrete epochs of stable global brain states (so-called microstates), but they remain quasi-stationary for only about 100 ms. In order to test the relationship between the rapidly fluctuating EEG-defined microstates and the slowly oscillating fMRI-defined resting states, we recorded 64-channel EEG in the scanner while subjects were at rest with their eyes closed. Conventional EEG-microstate analysis determined the typical four EEG topographies that dominated across all subjects. The convolution of the time course of these maps with the hemodynamic response function allowed to fit a linear model to the fMRI BOLD responses and revealed four distinct distributed networks. These networks were spatially correlated with four of the resting-state networks (RSNs) that were found by the conventional fMRI group-level independent component analysis (ICA). These RSNs have previously been attributed to phonological processing, visual imagery, attention reorientation, and subjective interoceptive-autonomic processing. We found no EEG-correlate of the default mode network. Thus, the four typical microstates of the spontaneous EEG seem to represent the neurophysiological correlate of four of the RSNs and show that they are fluctuating much more rapidly than fMRI alone suggests. PMID:20188188

Britz, Juliane; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Michel, Christoph M

2010-10-01

68

(Photo-)thermally induced formation of dynamic surface topographies in polymer hydrogel networks.  

PubMed

In this Article, we report on our approaches to creating responsive hydrogel coatings with surfaces that can be switched between a close to flat state and a state with a predesigned topographic pattern. The trigger is either temperature or, indirectly, light. The hydrogel coatings are based on the known thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) utilizing its solubility change at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at around 32 °C. Using this material in combination with controlled cross-linking, we developed three fabrication strategies. Thermally switching symmetric surface topographies were created by careful and spatial control of the cross-link density. Sensitivity to light was created by patterns of tin oxide converting absorbed light into local heat. And to broaden the application range, we introduced a method based on volumetric effects created by a corrugated substrate. The latter method allows for the formation of asymmetric or slanted surface structures. PMID:23573907

Liu, Danqing; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Broer, Dirk J

2013-05-01

69

Finite elements using absolute nodal coordinates for large-deformation flexible multibody dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of structural finite elements using a modern absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) is discussed in the paper with many applicationsE This approach has been initiated in 1996 by A. Shabana. It introduces large displacements of 2D/3D finite elements relative to the global reference frame without using any local frame. The elements employ finite slopes as nodal variables and can be considered as generalizations of ordinary finite elements that use infinitesimal slopes. In contrast to other large deformation formulations, the equations of motion contain constant mass matrices and generalized gravity forces as well as zero centrifugal and Coriolis inertia forces. The only nonlinear term is a vector of elastic forces. This approach allows applying known abstractions of real elastic bodies: Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams and more general models as well as Kirchhoff and Mindlin plate theories. Shabana et al. proposed a sub-family of thick beam and plate finite elements with large deformations and employ the 3D theory of continuum mechanics. Despite the universality of such approach it has to use extra degrees of freedom when simulating thin beams and plates, which case is most important. In our research, we propose another sub-family of thin beams as well as rectangular and triangle plates. We use Kirchhoff plate theory with nonlinear strain-displacement relationships to obtain elastic forces. A number of static and dynamic simulation examples of problems with 2D/3D very elastic beams and plate underwent large displacements and/or deformations will be shown in the presentation.

Dmitrochenko, Oleg

2008-06-01

70

Linking catchment structure to hydrologic function: Implications of catchment topography for patterns of landscape hydrologic connectivity and stream flow dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between catchment structure (topography and topology), stream network hydrologic connectivity, and runoff response remains poorly understood. Hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) water table connectivity serves as the hydrologic linkage between a catchment’s uplands and the channel network and facilitates the transmission of water and solutes to streams. While there has been tremendous interest in the concept of hydrological connectivity to characterize catchments, there are relatively few studies that have quantified hydrologic connectivity at the stream network and catchment scales. Here, we examine how catchment topography influenced patterns of stream network HRS connectivity and resultant runoff dynamics across 11 nested headwater catchments in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), MT. This study extends the empirical findings of Jencso et al. (2009) who found a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.92) between the upslope accumulated area (UAA) and annual duration of shallow ground water table connectivity observed across 24 HRS transects (146 groundwater recording wells) within the TCEF. We applied this relationship to the entire stream network to quantify the frequency distribution of stream network connectivity through time (as a function of UAA) and ascertain its relationship to catchment-scale runoff dynamics. Each catchment’s estimated connectivity duration curve (CDC) was highly related to its flow duration curve (FDC); albeit the rate of change of runoff with respect to stream network connectedness varied significantly across catchments. To ascertain potential reasons for these differences we compared the slope of each catchment’s CDC-FDC relationship (annual, peak, transition and baseflow periods) in multiple linear models against median values of common terrain indices and land cover-vegetation characteristics. Significant predictors (p<0.05) included the flow path distance to the creek (DFC), the flow path gradient to the creek (GTC), and their ratios DFC/GTC. Our results suggest that spatio-temporal distributions of upland-riparian-stream hydrologic connectivity can provide insight into runoff source area dynamics, runoff implications of catchment morphology and topology, and a direct and quantifiable link between catchment structure and hydrologic dynamics.

Jencso, K. G.; McGlynn, B. L.; Marshall, L. A.

2010-12-01

71

Large Eddy Simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over multi-scale topographies with a dynamic surface drag model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many flows especially in geophysical land surface-atmosphere coupling processes involve turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces. Often these surfaces have multi-scale height distributions. For large eddy simulation (LES), when the filter scale is such that only the large-scale portion of the roughness elements of the surface can be resolved explicitly on the computational grid, new techniques need to be developed. Here we consider LES of flows over rough surfaces with power-law height spectra, as often encountered in natural terrains. In LES, the surface is decomposed into resolved and subgrid-scale height contributions. The effects of the unresolved small-scale height fluctuations are modeled using a local equilibrium wall model (log-law or Monin-Obukhov similarity), but specification of the required aerodynamic roughness length involves an ad-hoc parameter called the roughness parameter. A novel dynamic methodology is proposed based on test-filtering the surface forces and requiring that the total drag force be independent of filter scale or resolution. This dynamic surface roughness model is inspired by the Germano identity traditionally used to determine model parameters for closing subgrid-scale stresses in the bulk of a turbulent flow. A series of LES of fully developed flow over rough surfaces are performed. We firstly consider isotropic stochastic surfaces built using random-phase Fourier modes with prescribed power-law spectra. Results show that the approach yields well-defined, rapidly converging, values of the roughness parameter. Effects of spatial resolution and landscape spectral exponent are investigated. We also consider the case of two fluvial-like anisotropic landscapes. The first is a fluvial-like topography built through numerical solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. The second is rescaled topography (Texas) from the U.S. National Elevation Dataset. These landscapes are dominated by anisotropic modes that have emerged through geomorphological erosion processes. We find that the dynamic approach finds stable solutions also for surfaces with such anisotropies: results are most accurate for cases where the LES grid- and test-filter width are within the landscape 'self-similar' range. Weaknesses are reported for cases where spectral exponent changes with wavenumber, i.e. for cases with scale-dependence where the underlying assumption of the dynamic approach (scale-invariance) breaks down. Supported by NSF (AGS-1045189). We also acknowledge Profs. P. Passalacqua and F. Porte-Agel for providing the authors with KPZ solution fields for fluvial landscape applications.

Meneveau, C. V.; Anderson, W.

2011-12-01

72

Sea level change since the Pliocene - a new formalism for predicting sea level in the presence of dynamic topography and isostasy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic topography (DT), as reflected in local sea level change, provides a unique lens for studying the imprint of deep Earth dynamics on the Earth's surface. The elevation of paleo-shorelines over long time scales is, however, not only perturbed by DT but also by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and eustatic changes in sea level. Isolating these contributions is essential for efforts to constrain past changes in ice volume or mantle convection models. Previous studies have performed this separation by modeling dynamic topography and superimposing the signal on the elevation of a GIA-corrected paleo-shoreline. However, this approach neglects deformation of the Earth in response to changes in the ocean load and geometry driven by DT. We describe a generalized, gravitationally self-consistent framework for computing sea-level changes that incorporates DT and GIA. The formalism is based on a sea-level theory developed within the GIA community that takes accurate account of viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, perturbations in the gravity field, migration of shorelines and the feedback into sea-level of contemporaneous (load-induced) changes in Earth rotation. Specifically, dynamic topography is introduced as a perturbation to the elevation of the solid surface that does not load the Earth because it is dynamically supported. However, water that is displaced by DT is allowed to redistribute, perturb the gravitational field and load (or unload) the ocean floor wherever the water column is increased (or decreased). The problem is complicated by plate tectonics, which (in a tectonic reference frame) leaves changes in topography and DT undefined in areas of the ocean floor where plates have been subducted. We interpolate these regions by imposing mass conservation of both the solid Earth and water on the reconstructed topography. We use the new formalism to calculate sea level change since the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma) using recent global simulations of dynamic topography that are constrained to fit a large suite of modern geophysical observables. We demonstrate that the results differ significantly from calculations in which dynamic topography is simply added to the elevation of GIA-corrected paleo-shorelines. Moreover, we apply these results to new paleo-shoreline data of Pliocene age from the US east coast, South Africa and southwest Australia to estimate peak eustatic sea level (and, thus, minimum ice volume) during the Mid Pliocene Warm Period.

Austermann, Jacqueline; Rovere, Alessio; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Raymo, Maureen E.

2014-05-01

73

Dynamics of large-amplitude internal waves in stratified flows over topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first problem, the flow of a Boussinesq density- stratified fluid of large depth past the algebraic mountain ('Witch of Agnesi') is studied in the hydrostatic limit using the asymptotic theory of Kantzios & Akylas. The upstream conditions are those of constant velocity and Brunt-Vaisala frequency. On the further assumptions that the flow is steady and there is no permanent alteration of the upstream flow conditions (no upstream influence), Long's model predicts a critical amplitude of the mountain (/epsilon=0.85) above which local density inversions occur, leading to convective overturning. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that Long's steady flow is in fact unstable to infinitesimal modulations at topography amplitudes below this critical value, 0.65/ ~topography of weakly three-dimensional internal waves in a fluid with a linearly varying density distribution. The flow is shown to be governed by an integro-differential equation, which is capable of describing finite-amplitude waves and is valid until incipient density inversions take place. In addition to the nonlinearity caused by the presence of a topographic forcing, it is found that three-dimensional effects are also manifested as nonlinear terms in this evolution equation. The theory is observed to break down in the far-field, owing to the formation of an infinite downstream shelf. As in the two-dimensional problem, matched asymptotic expansions are used to resolve the difficulties caused by the shelf. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear evolution equation for waves in a channel are presented; the parameter space consists of a resonance detuning and a relative blockage, which measures three-dimensional effects. Wave breaking is found to occur over a finite range of detuning for a given relative blockage. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139- 4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Prasad, Dilip

1997-10-01

74

Future Antarctic bed topography and its implications for ice sheet dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has been generally losing its mass since the last glacial maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves. We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS. We find that the past loading is relatively less important than future loading on the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years 2100 and 2500 AD, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector of WAIS in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay approaches roughly 45 mm/yr in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is associated with the flattening of reverse bed, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote the stability to marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.

Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie

2014-05-01

75

An analysis of the error budget for a GOCE-based estimate of the ocean's mean dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and, more recently, the Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission, have lead to a dramatic improvement in our ability to measure the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) from space. To fully exploit this improvement and make further improvements in the observational system, however, knowledge of the MDT's error characteristics is required. Here we assess the error budget for an MDT based on a GOCE geoid and an altimetric mean sea surface (MSS). We find that for spatial scales of 250 km and greater the global mean MDT error is 3 cm, with the MSS making the greater contribution to the total error. For spatial scales within the range 133--250 km the error is 4 cm, with the MSS and geoid contributing almost equally to this. For spatial scales less than 133 km it is 17 cm, with geoid error accounting for almost all of this. Our approach also allows an assessment of the formal errors for the geoid and mean sea surface. For the former, we find that the formal error underestimates the true error by a factor of two for the medium wavelength component, but is reliable in terms of the global mean for the long and short-wavelength components. However, the formal geoid error does not accurately capture the regional variations in the true geoid error, which arise primarily where the sea floor topography is steep. For the MSS, we find that the formal errors capture the spatial variability but underestimate the error magnitude by approximately a factor of three.

Bingham, R. J.; haines, K.; Lea, D.

2013-12-01

76

Dynamic labeling strategy with 204Hg-isotopic methylmercurithiosalicylate for absolute peptide and protein quantification.  

PubMed

The methylmercury ion (CH(3)Hg(+)) demonstrated a high efficiency for directly labeling peptide/protein based on its specific and strong interaction with the sulfhydryl(s) in the peptide/protein and because of its smallest size among monofunctional organic mercurials studied, including methylmercury, ethylmercury, 4-(hydroxymercuric)benzoic acid, and 2,7-dibromo-4-hydroxymercurifluoresceine disodium. A simple 1:1 stoichiometry between CH(3)Hg(+) and sulfhydryl, confirmed with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) studies, made it easy to calibrate the stoichiometry of Hg in the peptide/protein. In order to avoid the direct use of the harmful CH(3)Hg(+), in this study a CH(3)Hg(+)-equivalent tag, methylmercurithiosalicylate (CH(3)Hg-THI), and its (204)Hg-enriched homologue (CH(3)(204)Hg-THI) were synthesized, and then CH(3)Hg(+) and/or CH(3)(204)Hg(+) released from CH(3)Hg-THI and/or CH(3)(204)Hg-THI in solution were utilized to demonstrate the dynamic labeling of glutathione (GSH) and two model proteins, beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and ovalbumin (OVA), for the first time. Furthermore, the CH(3)(204)Hg-THI isotopical labeled GSH, BLG, and OVA standards (CH(3)(204)Hg-GSH, CH(3)(204)Hg-BLG, and CH(3)(204)Hg-OVA) were used to demonstrate the feasibility of absolute peptide/protein quantification using label-specific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). On the basis of the accurate and sensitive determination of Hg using ICPMS, the detection limits of GSH, BLG, and OVA could reach 45.4, 45.4, and 15.1 pmol L(-1), respectively, suggesting the possibility for low-abundance peptide/protein quantification alongside the surefire quantification of moderate and highly abundant peptide/protein. PMID:20143794

Xu, Ming; Yan, Xiaowen; Xie, Qingqing; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

2010-03-01

77

New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Corneal Topography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and espec...

J. F. King M. B. Datiles R. R. Ansari

2000-01-01

78

Gravitational (dynamic) time dilation according to absolute space-time theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceeding from our absolute space-time conceptions, we obtain the formula for the gravitational frequency shift in an extremely simple way. Using our burst model for photons, we show that the different rates of clocks placed in spatial regions with different gravitational potentials appear as a direct result of the gravitational frequency shift and the axiomatic assumption that at any space

Stefan Marinov

1976-01-01

79

Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the “ predator pit” topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.

Bakun, Andrew

2006-02-01

80

Corneal topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the many aspects of the nature and measurement of the corneal surface. Its structure and the factors that influence it are described. The traditional techniques of keratometry are summarized and there is an emphasis on new experimental methods of determining corneal topography including moiré, holographic interferometric and profile techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of these procedures are

Thomas W. Smith

1977-01-01

81

Forecasting spatial plant dynamics under future climate change in a semiarid savanna ecosystem with complex topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and time dynamics of savanna ecosystems in semiarid regions is tightly related to fluctuations and changes in the climate, and the competition strategies of individual plants for resources. In most parts of the southwest U.S., various General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict general warming trends with reduced annual precipitation amounts, and increased frequency of extreme droughts and wet periods in the 21st century. Despite the potential risks posed by climate change on vegetation patterns and hydrology, our ability to predict such changes at the catchment and regional scales is limited. In this study, we used a recently developed spatially explicit Cellular Automata Tree-Grass-Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics in a semiarid catchment (>3km2) located in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA. In the catchment north-facing slopes are characterized by a juniper-grass savanna, and south-facing slopes by creosote bush and grass species. Initialized by LIDAR-derived tree locations and simulated grass and shrub patterns obtained from model calibration, CATGraSS is forced by a weather generator, AWE-GEN, used to downscale an ensemble of eight different GCM outputs at the study basin, producing multiple stochastic realizations of a transient climate scenario for the next hundred years. The ensemble simulations are used to examine the uncertainty in vegetation response and develop probabilistic plant distribution maps in relation to landscape morphology. This study highlights the importance of understanding local scale plant-to-plant interactions and the role of climate variability in determining climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics at varying spatial scales.

Zhou, X.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

2011-12-01

82

Dinamica classica e quantica de uma teoria gravitacional com teleparalelismo absoluto. (Classical and quantum dynamics of a gravitational theory with absolute teleparallelism).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamics of an alternative theory of gravitation with absolute teleparallelism is sustied. In the Cauchy problem of this theory four constraint relations are obtained, as in general relativity, because of the existence of the manifold mapping group. P...

R. Azeredo Campos

1984-01-01

83

A New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Corneal Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered fight and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

2000-01-01

84

Who is in control? Competing influences of geology, land use and topography on soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can we identify distinct signatures of landscape elements in the event response of soil moisture and soil temperature? Moisture and temperature dynamics in soils are largely controlled by the climatic boundary conditions of rainfall, evapotranspiration and radiation. However, certain landscape features also leave characteristic finger prints on soil moisture and soil temperature time series. The extent of these influences and their time variable relative importance are important in a number of contexts, such as landscape scale prediction of soil moisture patterns or runoff generation, process predictions in ungauged basins or the improvement of hydrological model structures for the mesoscale. The competing influences of geology, land use and topography on temperature and moisture characteristics in the vadose zone are explored at the CAOS hydrological observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/) with a unique experimental setup of 45 sensor clusters. These sensor clusters cover three different geologies (schist, sandstone, marls), two land use classes (forest and grassland), five different landscape positions (plateau, top-, mid- and lower hillslope as well as near stream/floodplain locations), and contrasting expositions. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at depths from 10 to 70 cm, four soil temperature profiles as well as air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels were measured continuously. Time series of up to 2 years for the schist region and up to 6 months for the complete set of sites allow for a first intercomparison of characteristic event response behavior.

Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus

2014-05-01

85

On the effect of the Post-perovskite phase change on global mantle flow, geoid and dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the lowermost parts of mantle, the D" layer is a profoundly important layer as it involves the process of heat and mass transfer between core and mantle. However, the physical nature of this layer is an issue of active debate. The seismic data represent a rapid increase and decrease of the shear velocity, especially beneath Circum-Pacific margins, in the D" layer. Indeed, such abrupt velocity discontinuity is not expected for this hot layer. The discovery of the perovskite (pv) to Post-perovskite (pPv) phase transformation has led to dramatic increase in our understanding of the structure of the D" layer, since it is thought to produce such seismic discontinuity. Here, we have investigate the influence of the phase transformation of pv to pPv on the geoid undulation as one of the most important geophysical observable, using 3D spherical shell mantle circulation models based on a seismic tomography model (S40RTS) and strongly lateral viscosity variations in the D" layer and the mantle above. We demonstrate that the geoid anomalies are strongly affected by the presence of pPv in the lowermost mantle. While the geoid heights over subduction zones are increased by considering a strong pPv compared to then surrounding mantle, a weak pPv reduces the geoid height, and a better fit to the observed geoid is obtained. We show that, applying a weak pPv viscosity of at least three orders of magnitude any higher viscosity contrast does not affect the geoid any further. We also investigate the effects of weak pPv combined with a different tomography model, a different pPv density contrast, the presence or absence of a global thermal-boundary-layer (TBL) and the presence or absence of lateral viscosity variations in the lower mantle. Keywords: Post-perovskite, phase transitions, geoid, dynamic topography

Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Kaban, Mikhail; Petrunin, Alexei

2014-05-01

86

Mid Pliocene sea levels: A combined analysis of field data, models of glacial isostasy and dynamic topography, and eustasy. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the eustatic elevation of former sea levels (SL), or equivalently ice volumes, is a central goal of paleoclimate research. SL estimates for the Mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ˜3.3 to 2.9 Ma) are of particular interest as CO2 levels at that time (between 350 and 450 ppmv) were similar to today (> 400 ppmv as of May 2013). However, despite general agreement on other climate variables, SL estimates for the MPWP and the stability of polar ice sheets during this interval remain largely unconstrained. In this regard, inferring ice volumes from SL indicators of MPWP age is complicated by several factors. First, relatively few robust records of MPWP SL have been obtained from tectonically stable areas. Second, the potentially significant contaminating signals due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and dynamic topography associated with mantle convective flow (DT) have rarely, and only recently, been accounted for. Within the framework of PLIOMAX project, we are collecting accurate MPWP indicators at widely distributed sites using a combination of classic field methods, state of the art GPS and GIS techniques. Moreover, the analysis of the data involves the participation of both field geologists and geodynamic modelers. In this talk, we present data collected in three specific areas: Republic of South Africa, Western Australia and the southeastern United States. We will report on the present day elevation of MPWP shoreline indicators in each region. Moreover, we will combine this data set with a broad suite of numerical models of GIA and DT to establish current uncertainties on the estimate of eustatic SL during the MPWP, as well as comment on possible strategies for improving the accuracy of this estimate.

Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; Hearty, P. J.; Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Michael, O.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.

2013-12-01

87

Influence of bottom topography on dynamics of river plumes in semi-enclosed domains: Case study in Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the results of a Russian-Taiwan research project focused on the role of continental discharges into the Taiwan Strait, an important channel in the western Pacific Ocean transporting water between the South China Sea and the East China Sea. Another critically important hydrographic feature in the area is the discharge of freshwater from multiple rivers of the western coast of Taiwan. With its long-term average discharge rate of 210 m3/s, the Zhuoshui River is the biggest of the rivers bringing a large amount of pollutants and nutrients into the Strait. The northern extremity of Zhuoshui River's plume often merges with that of the Wu River (also known as Dudu River) whose average discharge rate is about 120 m3/s. Oceanic waters in the area experience significant anthropogenic pressures, traceable to the distance of a few km offshore and tens of km along the shore. This is manifested, in particular, in strongly elevated concentrations of copper, iron, and other trace metals. The corresponding quantitative estimates are obtained. The newly obtained in situ data from a field campaign were also used to implement 2 numerical models aimed at simulating the pathways of the continental waters in the study region. One of them, based on the Princeton Ocean Model, was coupled with a regional barotropic tidal model for the Taiwan Strait. The other one, a fully Lagrangian model STRiPE is based on applying a complete set of momentum equations to individual "particles" of river water released into the ocean. Both models demonstrated reasonable good agreement with the in situ data and each other. The bathymetry, tides and winds significantly affect the dynamics of the Wu and Zhuoshui river plumes, acting together in a complex interactive manner. The Zhuoshui River plume stretches in a narrow alongshore belt both to the south and north from the river mouth while the larger, round-shaped Wu River's plume elongates mostly north of its mouth. The difference is explained through the bottom topography: while near the Zhuoshui mouth the bottom is very flat and shallow, the terrain adjacent to the Wu mouth is much steeper and deeper. Bottom topography and tidal inundation also play an important role in the plume dissipation: due to enhanced mixing in shallow areas subject to tidal drying/flooding of the bottom, such as the area north of the Zhoushui mouth, the salinity anomaly is generally smaller and the plume is narrower and dissipates faster than in the deeper near-mouth areas like that of Wu River. Under the NE wind conditions, the Wu and Zhuoshui plume almost merge and form a unified low salinity belt. In contrast, action of SW wind causes effective separation of river plumes. In the case of NW winds, the plumes are pressed towards the shore and trapped at the mouths, while in the case of SE wind they stretch towards the ocean. The daily mean area of the plumes under the SE wind conditions is about 6 times larger than that under the NW wind.

Zavialov, Peter; Korotenko, Konstantin; Osadchiev, Alexander; Kao, Ruei-Chi; Ding, Chung-Feng

2014-05-01

88

Tracking the dynamics of translation and absolute orientation of a sphere in a turbulent flow.  

PubMed

We study the six-dimensional dynamics--position and orientation--of a large sphere advected by a turbulent flow. The movement of the sphere is recorded with two high-speed cameras. Its orientation is tracked using a novel, efficient algorithm; it is based on the identification of possible orientation "candidates" at each time step, with the dynamics later obtained from maximization of a likelihood function. Analysis of the resulting linear and angular velocities and accelerations reveal a surprising intermittency for an object whose size lies in the inertial range, close to the integral scale of the underlying turbulent flow. PMID:21456762

Zimmermann, Robert; Gasteuil, Yoann; Bourgoin, Mickael; Volk, Romain; Pumir, Alain; Pinton, Jean-François

2011-03-01

89

Introducing variable-step topography (VST) coordinates within dynamically constrained nonhydrostatic modeling system (NMS). Part 2: VST performance on orthodox obstacle flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this second part of a two-part sequence of papers, the performance metrics and quantitative advantages of a new VST surface coordinate system, implemented within a dynamically constrained, nonhydrostatic, cloud mesoscale atmospheric model, are evaluated in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems. [The first part presented a full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of the newly re-tooled nonhydrostatic modeling system (NMS) operating within integral constraints based on the conservation of the foremost quantities of mass, energy and circulation.] The intent behind VST is to create a vertical surface coordinate system boundary underpinning a nonhydrostatic atmosphere capable of reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Model simulation results are analyzed for six classical fluid dynamics problems involving flows relative to obstacles with known analytical or laboratory-simulated solutions, as well as for a seventh noteworthy mountain wave breaking problem that has well-studied numerical solutions. For cases when topography becomes excessively severe or poorly resolved numerically, atmospheric models using transform (terrain-following) coordinates produce noteworthy errors rendering a stable integration only if the topography is smoothed. For cases when topography is slowly varying (smooth or subtle), models using discrete-step coordinates also produce noteworthy errors relative to known solutions. Alternatively, the VST model demonstrates that both limitations of the two conventional approaches, for the entire range of slope severities, can be overcome. This means that VST is ideally suited for a scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.

Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.

2014-06-01

90

Influence of Topography and Land use Type on the Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Zala County, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) content is an important soil property for land, plant production and environment and ecosystem management. Soil fertility and many other physio-chemical and biological properties of soils are directly\\/indirectly linked with carbon content of the soil. We analyze the impact of topography and land use practice on the spatial variability of top soil SOC over a mixed

K. Adhikari; G. Toth; A. Guadagnini; A. Makó

2009-01-01

91

Coseismic temporal changes of slip direction: the effect of absolute stress on dynamic rupture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigate the dynamics of rupture at low-stress level. We show that one main difference between the dynamics of high- and low-stress events is the amount of coseismic temporal rake rotation occurring at given points on the fault. Curved stations on exposed fault surfaces and earthquake dislocation models derived from ground-motion inversion indicate that the slip direction may change with time at a pointon the fault during dynamic rupture. We use a 3D boundary integral method to model temporal rake variations during dynamic rupture propagation assuming a slip-weakening friction law and isotropic friction. The points at which the slip rotates most are characterized by an initial shear stress direction substantially different from the average stress direction over the fault plane. We show that for a given value of stress drop, the level of initial shear stress (i.e., the fractional stress drop) determines the amount of rotation in slip direction. We infer that seismic events that show evidence of temporal rake rorations are characterized by a low initial shear-stress level with spatially variable direction on the fault (possibly due to changes in fault surface geometry) and an almost complete stress drop. Our models motivate a new interpretation of curved and cross-cutting striations and put new constraints on their analysis. The initial rake is in general collinear with the initial stress at the hypocenter zone, supporting the assumptions made in stress-tensor inversion from first-motion analysis. At other points on the fualt, especially away from the hypocenter, the initial slip rake may not be collinear with the initial shear stress, contradicting a common assumption of structural geology. On the other hand, the later part of slip in our models is systematically more aligned withi the average stress direction than the early slip. Our modeling suggests that the length of the straight part of curved striations is usually an upper bound of the slip-weakening distance is this parameter is uniform over the fault plane, and the direction of the late part of slip of curved striations should have more weight in the estimate of initial stress direction.

Guatteri, M.; Spudich, P.

1998-01-01

92

New visualization strategy to study the dynamics of surgical coagulation devices in biological tissue using absolute subsurface thermal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualisation of the thermo dynamics of surgical coagulation devices like laser, diathermy and RFA devices in tissue are essential to get better understanding about the principles of operation of these devices. Thermo cameras have the ability to measure absolute temperatures. However, the visualization of temperature fields using thermal imaging has always been limited to the surface of a medium. We have developed a new strategy to look below the surface of biological tissue by viewing through a ZincSelenide window positioned alongside a block of tissue. When exposed from above with an energy source, the temperature distribution below the surface can be observed through the window. To obtain a close-up view, the thermo camera is enhanced with special macro optics. The thermo dynamics during tissue interaction of various electro surgery modes was studied in biological tissues to obtain a better understanding of the working mechanism. Simultaneously with thermal imaging, normal close-up video footage was obtained to support the interpretation of the thermal imaging. For comparison, temperature gradients were imaged inside a transparent tissue model using color Schlieren imaging. The new subsurface thermal imaging method gives a better understanding of interaction of thermal energy of surgical devices and contributes to the safety and the optimal settings for various medical applications. However, the technique has some limitations that have to be considered. The three imaging modalities showed to be both compatible and complementary showing the pro- and cons- of each modality.

Been, Stefan L.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.

2011-02-01

93

Free Energy Perturbation Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) for Absolute Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations  

PubMed Central

Free Energy Perturbation with Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP/REMD) offers a powerful strategy to improve the convergence of free energy computations. In particular, it has been shown previously that a FEP/REMD scheme allowing random moves within an extended replica ensemble of thermodynamic coupling parameters “lambda” can improve the statistical convergence in calculations of absolute binding free energy of ligands to proteins [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2583]. In the present study, FEP/REMD is extended and combined with an accelerated MD simulations method based on Hamiltonian replica-exchange MD (H-REMD) to overcome the additional problems arising from the existence of kinetically trapped conformations within the protein receptor. In the combined strategy, each system with a given thermodynamic coupling factor lambda in the extended ensemble is further coupled with a set of replicas evolving on a biased energy surface with boosting potentials used to accelerate the inter-conversion among different rotameric states of the side chains in the neighborhood of the binding site. Exchanges are allowed to occur alternatively along the axes corresponding to the thermodynamic coupling parameter lambda and the boosting potential, in an extended dual array of coupled lambda- and H-REMD simulations. The method is implemented on the basis of new extensions to the REPDSTR module of the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM. As an illustrative example, the absolute binding free energy of p-xylene to the nonpolar cavity of the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme was calculated. The tests demonstrate that the dual lambda-REMD and H-REMD simulation scheme greatly accelerates the configurational sampling of the rotameric states of the side chains around the binding pocket, thereby improving the convergence of the FEP computations.

Jiang, Wei; Roux, Benoit

2011-01-01

94

Absolute and dynamic position and shape measurement of fast moving objects employing novel laser Doppler techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution a novel laser Doppler distance (LDD) sensor is presented, which allows simultaneous measurement of axial position and tangential velocity and, thus, determination of the shape of moving and especially rotating objects with one single sensor. Conventional laser Doppler velocimeters measure only velocities. A concurrent position measurement can be realized by generating two fan-shaped interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients and evaluating the quotient of the two resulting Doppler frequencies. Alternatively, two tilted fringe systems in combination with phase evaluation can be employed. It will be shown that, in contrast to conventional distance sensors, high temporal resolution below 3 ?s and high position resolution of about 1 ?m can be achieved simultaneously, because the position uncertainty of the LDD sensor is in principle independent of the object velocity. This is advantageous especially for monitoring highly dynamic processes e.g. at turbo machines, where in-process measurements of tip clearance and rotor vibrations are reported for up to 600 m/s blade tip velocity.

Pfister, Thorsten; Günther, Philipp; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

2008-10-01

95

Absolutely relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light speed constancy is proved here and then it is not a principle suppose it is a proposition proved absolutely based on the Galilean transformation and simultaneity and this is a book full from new discoveries along the absolutely proof for Lorentz transformation. Even in a page I have proved Lorentz transformation by the brawer constant point based on the Galilean transformation until to show easily it is possible to generate absolutely relativity and this is not ether theorem suppose we are upon the new discoveries all mathematical and complete, not a theory.

Lutephy, Mohsen

2012-03-01

96

Counter-intuitive features of the dynamic topography unveiled by tectonically realistic 3D numerical models of mantle-lithosphere interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long assumed that the dynamic topography associated with mantle-lithosphere interactions should be characterized by long-wavelength features (> 1000 km) correlating with morphology of mantle flow and expanding beyond the scale of tectonic processes. For example, debates on the existence of mantle plumes largely originate from interpretations of expected signatures of plume-induced topography that are compared to the predictions of analytical and numerical models of plume- or mantle-lithosphere interactions (MLI). Yet, most of the large-scale models treat the lithosphere as a homogeneous stagnant layer. We show that in continents, the dynamic topography is strongly affected by rheological properties and layered structure of the lithosphere. For that we reconcile mantle- and tectonic-scale models by introducing a tectonically realistic continental plate model in 3D large-scale plume-mantle-lithosphere interaction context. This model accounts for stratified structure of continental lithosphere, ductile and frictional (Mohr-Coulomb) plastic properties and thermodynamically consistent density variations. The experiments reveal a number of important differences from the predictions of the conventional models. In particular, plate bending, mechanical decoupling of crustal and mantle layers and intra-plate tension-compression instabilities result in transient topographic signatures such as alternating small-scale surface features that could be misinterpreted in terms of regional tectonics. Actually thick ductile lower crustal layer absorbs most of the "direct" dynamic topography and the features produced at surface are mostly controlled by the mechanical instabilities in the upper and intermediate crustal layers produced by MLI-induced shear and bending at Moho and LAB. Moreover, the 3D models predict anisotropic response of the lithosphere even in case of isotropic solicitations by axisymmetric mantle upwellings such as plumes. In particular, in presence of small (i.e. insufficient to produce solely any significant deformation) uniaxial extensional tectonic stress field, the plume-produced surface and LAB features have anisotropic linear shapes perpendicular to the far-field tectonic forces, typical for continental rifts. Compressional field results in singular sub-linear folds above the plume head, perpendicular to the direction of compression. Small bi-axial tectonic stress fields (compression in one direction and extension in the orthogonal direction) result in oblique, almost linear segmented normal or inverse faults with strike-slip components (or visa verse , strike-slip faults with normal or inverse components)

Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

2013-04-01

97

Absolute cerebral blood flow measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI: a direct comparison with Xe-133 SPECT.  

PubMed

Absolute regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in ten healthy volunteers, using both dynamic susceptibility-contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Xe-133 SPECT within 4 h. After i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.), the bolus was monitored with a Simultaneous Dual FLASH pulse sequence (1.5 s/image), providing one slice through brain tissue and a second slice through the carotid artery. Concentration C(t) is proportional to -(1/TE) ln[S(t)/S(0)] was related to CBF as C(t) = CBF [AIF(t) x R(t)], where AIF is the arterial input function and R(t) is the residue function. A singular-value-decomposition-based deconvolution technique was used for retrieval of R(t). Absolute CBF was given by Zierler's area-to-height relation and the central volume principle. For elimination of large vessels (ELV), all MRI-based CBF values exceeding 2.5 times the mean CBF value of the slice were excluded. A correction for partial-volume effects (CPVE) in the artery used for AIF monitoring was based on registration of signal in a phantom with tubes of various diameters (1.5-6.5 mm), providing an individual concentration correction factor applied to AIF data registered in vivo. In the Xe-133 SPECT investigation, 3,000-4,000 MBq of Xe-133 was administered intravenously, and CBF was calculated using the Kanno Lassen algorithm. When ELV and CPVE were applied, DSC-MRI showed average CBF values from the entire slice of 43 +/- 10 ml/(min 100 g) (small-artery AIF) and 48 +/- 17 ml/(min 100 g) (carotid-artery AIF) (mean +/- S.D., n = 10). The corresponding Xe-133-SPECT-based CBF was 33 +/- 6 ml/(min 100 g) (n = 10). The relationships of CBF(MRI) versus CBF(SPECT) showed good linear correlation (r = 0.74-0.83). PMID:11154950

Wirestam, R; Ryding, E; Lindgren, A; Geijer, B; Holtås, S; Ståhlberg, F

2000-12-01

98

Seismic waveform inversion for core-mantle boundary topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is directly linked to the dynamics of both the mantle and the outer core, although it is poorly constrained and understood. Recent studies have produced topography models with mutual agreement up to degree 2. A broad-band waveform inversion strategy is introduced and applied here, with relatively low computational cost and based on a first-order Born approximation. Its performance is validated using synthetic waveforms calculated in theoretical earth models that include different topography patterns with varying lateral wavelengths, from 600 to 2500 km, and magnitudes (˜10 km peak-to-peak). The source-receiver geometry focuses mainly on the Pdiff, PKP, PcP and ScS phases. The results show that PKP branches, PcP and ScS generally perform well and in a similar fashion, while Pdiff yields unsatisfactory results. We investigate also how 3-D mantle correction influences the output models, and find that despite the disturbance introduced, the models recovered do not appear to be biased, provided that the 3-D model is correct. Using cross-correlated traveltimes, we derive new topography models from both P and S waves. The static corrections used to remove the mantle effect are likely to affect the inversion, compromising the agreement between models derived from P and S data. By modelling traveltime residuals starting from sensitivity kernels, we show how the simultaneous use of volumetric and boundary kernels can reduce the bias coming from mantle structures. The joint inversion approach should be the only reliable method to invert for CMB topography using absolute cross-correlation traveltimes.

Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

2014-07-01

99

Seismic waveform inversion for core-mantle boundary topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is directly linked to the dynamics of both the mantle and the outer core, although it is poorly constrained and understood. Recent studies have produced topography models with mutual agreement up to degree 2. A broad-band waveform inversion strategy is introduced and applied here, with relatively low computational cost and based on a first-order Born approximation. Its performance is validated using synthetic waveforms calculated in theoretical earth models that include different topography patterns with varying lateral wavelengths, from 600 to 2500 km, and magnitudes (˜10 km peak-to-peak). The source-receiver geometry focuses mainly on the Pdiff, PKP, PcP and ScS phases. The results show that PKP branches, PcP and ScS generally perform well and in a similar fashion, while Pdiff yields unsatisfactory results. We investigate also how 3-D mantle correction influences the output models, and find that despite the disturbance introduced, the models recovered do not appear to be biased, provided that the 3-D model is correct. Using cross-correlated traveltimes, we derive new topography models from both P and S waves. The static corrections used to remove the mantle effect are likely to affect the inversion, compromising the agreement between models derived from P and S data. By modelling traveltime residuals starting from sensitivity kernels, we show how the simultaneous use of volumetric and boundary kernels can reduce the bias coming from mantle structures. The joint inversion approach should be the only reliable method to invert for CMB topography using absolute cross-correlation traveltimes.

Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

2014-04-01

100

Application of the BEM approach for a determination of the regional marine geoid model and the mean dynamic topography in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a novel approach for the gravimetric marine geoid modelling which utilise the boundary element method (BEM). The direct BEM formulation for the Laplace equation is applied to obtain a numerical solution to the linearised fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem in points at the Earth's surface. The numerical scheme uses the collocation method with linear basis functions. It involves a discretisation of the Earth's surface which is considered as a fixed boundary. The surface gravity disturbances represent the oblique derivative boundary condition. The BEM approach is applied to determine the marine geoid model over the study area of the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea using DNSC08 marine gravity data. The comparison of the BEM-derived and EGM2008 geoid models reveals that the geoid height differences vary within -25 and 18 cm with the standard deviation of 6 cm. The DNSC08 sea surface topography data and the new marine geoid are then used for modelling of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) over the study area. The local vertical datum (LVD) offsets estimated at 15 tide-gauge stations in New Zealand are finally used for testing the coastal MDT. The average value of differences between the MDT and LVD offsets is 1 cm.

Tenzer, R.; ?underlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Abdalla, A.

2012-01-01

101

Effects of bottom topography on dynamics of river discharges in tidal regions: case study of twin plumes in Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighboring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are similar in many respects, and yet the two plumes exhibit significantly different behavior. We explain this through differences of the bottom topography in the areas adjacent to the two river mouths. The Zhuoshui River runs into a shallow area that is permanently exposed to strong tidal mixing, while the Wu River mouth is located in a deeper, stratified area outside the region of intense mixing. This destruction of the plume by tidal mixing is confirmed by the results of numerical modeling with POM. The spatial and temporal variability of turbulent kinetic energy and its production rate in the study region, as well as the horizontal diffusivity, are analyzed with the emphasis given to the dependence of the turbulence parameters on the bottom topography on the one hand and their influence on the river plumes on the other. Further, we use a Lagrangian particle tracking model in combination with POM to investigate the effect of the tidal wetting-and-drying (WAD) of land taking place near the Zhuoshui estuary, and demonstrate that WAD leads to significant reduction of the plume extent and surface salinity deficit near the river mouth. We use observational data from a short field campaign in the study area to tune and validate the model experiments.

Korotenko, K. A.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Kao, R.-C.; Ding, C.-F.

2014-04-01

102

Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

2011-01-01

103

On the absolute thermodynamics of water from computer simulations: a comparison of first-principles molecular dynamics, reactive and empirical force fields.  

PubMed

We present the absolute enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy of liquid water at ambient conditions calculated by the two-phase thermodynamic method applied to ab initio, reactive and classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the absolute entropy and heat capacity of liquid water from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) is underestimated, but falls within the range of the flexible empirical as well as the reactive force fields. The origin of the low absolute entropy of liquid water from AIMD simulations is due to an underestimation of the translational entropy by 20% and the rotational entropy by 40% compared to the TIP3P classical water model, consistent with previous studies that reports low diffusivity and increased ordering of liquid water from AIMD simulations. Classical MD simulations with rigid water models tend to be in better agreement with experiment (in particular TIP3P yielding the best agreement), although the TIP4P-ice water model, the only empirical force field that reproduces the experimental melting temperature, has the lowest entropy, perhaps expectedly. This reiterates the limitations of existing empirical water models in simultaneously capturing the thermodynamics of solid and liquid phases. We find that the quantum corrections to heat capacity of water can be as large as 60%. Although certain water models are computed to yield good absolute free energies of water compared to experiments, they are often due to the fortuitous enthalpy-entropy cancellation, but not necessarily due to the correct descriptions of enthalpy and entropy separately. PMID:23277945

Pascal, Tod A; Schärf, Daniel; Jung, Yousung; Kühne, Thomas D

2012-12-28

104

Density Isostasy and Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Density, Isostasy, and Topography Anne Egger, Stanford University The original activity Density, Isostasy, and Topography already exists within the SERC website. This page describes how this activity can be used ...

105

New CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry, and in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate knowledge of the ocean mean dynamic topography (MDT) is mandatory for the optimal use of altimetric data, including their assimilation into operational ocean forecasting systems. A new global 1/4° resolution MDT was computed for the 1993-1999 time period with improved data and methodology compared to the previous RIO05 MDT field. First, a large-scale MDT is obtained from the CLS01 altimetric Mean Sea Surface and a recent geoid model computed from 4.5 years of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data. Altimetric sea level anomalies and in situ measurements are then combined to compute synthetic estimates of the MDT and the corresponding mean currents. While the RIO05 MDT was based on 10 years of in situ dynamic heights and drifting buoy velocities, the new field benefits from an enlarged data set of in situ measurements ranging from 1993 to 2008 and includes all hydrological profiles from the Argo array. Moreover, the processing of the in situ data has been updated. A new Ekman model was developed to extract the geostrophic velocity component from the drifting buoy measurements. The handling of hydrologic measurements has also been revisited. Compared to the previous RIO05 solution, the new global MDT resolves much stronger gradients in western boundary currents, with mean velocities being doubled in some places. Moreover, in comparison to several other recent MDT estimates, we find that the new CNES-CLS09 MDT is in better agreement with independent in situ observations.

Rio, M. H.; Guinehut, S.; Larnicol, G.

2011-07-01

106

Introducing Variable-Step Topography (VST) coordinates within dynamically constrained Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS). Part 1: VST formulation within NMS host model framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Variable-Step Topography (VST) surface coordinate system is introduced into a dynamically constrained, scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Backgrounds of both terrain-following and step coordinate model developments are presented before justifying the turn to a VST approach within an appropriately configured host model. In this first part of a two-part sequence of papers, the full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of its apposite host, i.e., a re-tooled Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS), are presented. [The second part assesses the performance and benefits of the new VST coordinate system in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems.] The NMS is a 3-dimensional, nonhydrostatic cloud-mesoscale model, designed for integrations from plume-cloud scales out to regional-global scales. The derivative properties of VST in conjunction with the NMS's newly designed dynamically constrained core are capable of accurately capturing the deformations of flows by any type of terrain variability. Numerical differencing schemes needed to satisfy critical integral constraints, while also effectively enabling the VST lower boundary, are described. The host model constraints include mass, momentum, energy, vorticity and enstrophy conservation. A quasi-compressible closure cast on multiple-nest rotated spherical grids is the underlying framework used to study the advantages of the VST coordinate system. The principle objective behind the VST formulation is to combine the advantages of both terrain-following and step coordinate systems without suffering either of their disadvantages, while at the same time creating a vertical surface coordinate setting suitable for a scalable, nonhydrostatic model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.

Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.

2014-06-01

107

Topography of chance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model of multiplicative Langevin dynamics that is based on two foundations: the Langevin equation and the notion of multiplicative evolution. The model is a nonlinear mechanism transforming a white-noise input to a dynamic-equilibrium output, using a single control: an underlying convex U-shaped potential function. The output is quantified by a stationary density which can attain a given number of shapes and a given number of randomness categories. The model generates each admissible combination of the output's shape and randomness in a universal and robust fashion. Moreover, practically all the probability distributions that are supported on the positive half-line, and that are commonly encountered and applied across the sciences, can be reverse engineered by this model. Hence, this model is a universal equilibrium mechanism, in the context of multiplicative dynamics, for the robust generation of “chance”: the model's output. In turn, the properties of the produced “chance,” the output's shape and randomness, are determined with mathematical precision by the control's landscape, its topography. Thus, a topographic map of chance is established. As a particular application, probability distributions with power-law tails are shown to be universally and robustly generated by controls on the “edge of convexity”: convex U-shaped potential functions with asymptotically linear wings.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

2013-11-01

108

Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

Tal, B.; Labit, B.; Nagy, D.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B.; Veres, G.

2013-12-01

109

Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable.  

PubMed

We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak a? Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV. PMID:24387434

Tal, B; Labit, B; Nagy, D; Chavan, R; Duval, B; Veres, G

2013-12-01

110

Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable  

SciTech Connect

We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)] [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-12-15

111

Toward Improved Estimation of the Dynamic Topography and Ocean Circulation in the High Latitude and Arctic Ocean: The Importance of GOCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and shows significant sensitivity to anthropogenic climate forcing and the ongoing climate change. Accelerated changes in the Arctic are already observed, including elevated air and ocean temperatures, declines of the summer sea ice extent and sea ice thickness influencing the albedo and CO2 exchange, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and increased thawing of surrounding permafrost regions. In turn, the hydrological cycle in the high latitude and Arctic is expected to undergo changes although to date it is challenging to accurately quantify this. Moreover, changes in the temperature and salinity of surface waters in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas may also influence the flow of dense water through the Denmark Strait, which are found to be a precursor for changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a lead time of around 10 years (Hawkins and Sutton in Geophys Res Lett 35:L11603, 2008). Evidently changes in the Arctic and surrounding seas have far reaching influences on regional and global environment and climate variability, thus emphasizing the need for advanced quantitative understanding of the ocean circulation and transport variability in the high latitude and Arctic Ocean. In this respect, this study combines in situ hydrographical data, surface drifter data and direct current meter measurements, with coupled sea ice-ocean models, radar altimeter data and the latest GOCE-based geoid in order to estimate and assess the quality, usefulness and validity of the new GOCE-derived mean dynamic topography for studies of the ocean circulation and transport estimates in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean.

Johannessen, J. A.; Raj, R. P.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.; Pripp, T.; Knudsen, P.; Counillon, F.; Stammer, D.; Bertino, L.; Andersen, O. B.; Serra, N.; Koldunov, N.

2014-05-01

112

A first outlook of GOCE contribution to the determination of the dynamic ocean topography and ocean circulation in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of altimetric data sets from past and current satellite missions is crucial to both oceanographic and geodetic applications, since it allows the determination of sea level anomalies as deviations from a static mean sea level, while it is also fundamental for marine geoid determination. In this work, altimetric data sets from the satellite missions of JASON1 and ENVISAT have been used towards the determination of Mean Sea Surface (MSS) models in the Mediterranean Sea. The raw data used are Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) values and their total inverse barometer corrections from the respective altimetric missions. Along-track records of the SLA have been first used to derive linear trends of the SLA variation in the area under study and then determine empirical covariance functions to estimate single and multi-satellite models of the mean sea surface through least squares collocation. The latter is then employed along with the GOCE/GRACE GOCO02s GGM in order to estimate the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) in the Mediterranean Sea and consequently the steady-state circulation in the area. The resulting initial DOT estimates are treated through various filters in order to remove high-frequency information that results from computing the residuals between the high-resolution MSS and the lower resolution GOCE geoid heights (degree and order 250 corresponding to ~80 km). To this respect three types of filters are used, namely boxcar, Gaussian and Wiener ones employing various spatial wavelengths for the filter width to accommodate their cut-off frequency. The finally derived solutions presented refer to filters with spatial wavelengths set to 150 km and 200 km (75 km and 100 half-wavelength, respectively), which are used to determine the steady-state circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. The results are validated against the RioMed model for the DOT, the DTU2010 DOT and a solution based on the DTU2010 MSS and GOCO02s.

Vergos, G. S.; Tziavos, I. N.

2012-04-01

113

OpenTopography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.

Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

2012-04-01

114

Derivation of model topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fourth-Order model necessitates representation of the topography. The problem of the representation of the topography at grid points is addressed. The attempted was to derive an envelope topography. The TI is obtained by taking local mean plus one standard deviation at each grid point and sigma filtering it. The method was greatly influenced by large standard deviations at steep mountains. The O1 topography is the local mean. The S1 is obtained by Sigma filtering in both latitude and longitude the mean O1. The S2 is when the operation is applied twice and S3 thrice, the Q3 is the sigma filtered local mean of the upper third quantile of the source data.

Balgovind, R. C.

1985-01-01

115

The analysis of space-time structure in QCD vacuum II: Dynamics of polarization and absolute X-distribution  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > We propose a method to compute the polarization for a multi-dimensional random distribution. > We apply the method to the eigenemodes of the Dirac operator in pure glue QCD. > We compute the chiral polarization for these modes and study its scale dependence. > We find that in a finite volume there is a scale where the polarization tendency changes. > We study the continuum limit of this chiral polarization scale. - Abstract: We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of dynamical tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given dynamics to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the dynamics induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where dynamics enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of 'low' and 'high' Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.

Alexandru, Andrei, E-mail: aalexan@gwu.edu [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Draper, Terrence; Horvath, Ivan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Streuer, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

2011-08-15

116

PRK in patients with a keratoconic topography picture. The concept of a physiological 'displaced apex syndrome'  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUND: Keratoconus is generally held to be an absolute contraindication for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Corneas with inferior steepening on corneal topography are widely thought to have subclinical keratoconus. We were not convinced that this is always the case, as there seems to be a group of patients with a stable inferior steepening pattern on topography who show no other characteristics

S J Doyle; E Hynes; S Naroo; S Shah

1996-01-01

117

Topography-assisted photoablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topography assisted photoablation (TAP) is an important and logic step for future customized therapeutic photokeratectomy. Its goal is to reshape any irregular corneal surface in order to achieve an ideal sphere. Accuracy and reproducibility of the 2D and 3D topography data, strategies of data acquisition, data modification and transfer are essential elements. Accurate and appropriate subtraction methods for difference mapping are discussed. Furthermore, the properties and algorithms of the lasers' delivery systems, have to be taken into account. The overview paper describes and discusses some of the central elements of TAP.

Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas

1999-06-01

118

Absolute gravity measurements in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purposes of the calibration of the superconducting gravimeter in Bandung and the establishment of the absolute gravity points, we have carried out absolute gravity measurements for the first time in Indonesia in November, 2002. We have been conducting a superconducting gravimeter (SG TT-70 #08) observation in Bandung since December 1997, under the cooperation between Kyoto University and the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. It is one of the GGP observation points and the unique SG point near the equator. Hence the SG data are expected not only for the studies of solid earth dynamics but also for the studies of the fluid envelope (ocean, atmosphere, land water) in equatorial regions. However, the SG is a relative gravimeter and it inevitably requires calibration by means of an absolute gravimeter to ensure the scale factor and to determine instrumental drifts. Moreover, there was no absolute gravity point in Indonesia so far, therefore the realization of absolute gravity measurements in Indonesia had been strongly desired. We have carried out absolute gravity measurements in Bandung during Nov. 10 -19 by means of a FG5 (#210), and we obtained more than 29,000 effective drops. The gravity value newly determined at the gravity base point in Bandung is 977976701.9 uGal (1.e-8 m/s**2) and the scale factor for the SG is 52.281 uGal/V, although both values are still tentative and might be slightly revised in the future. We have also established another absolute gravity point in Yogyakarta near Merapi volcano. The absolute gravity measurements in Yogyakarta have been carried out during Nov. 22-26 and a tentative gravity value obtained is 978203091.9 uGal.

Fukuda, Y.; Higashi, T.; Takemoto, S.; Abe, M.; Sjafra, D.; Dendi, K.; Andan, A.; Doi, K.; Imanishi, Y.; Arguino, G.

2003-04-01

119

Resistivity modelling with topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major difficulty of electrical resistivity forward modelling is the singularity of the potential occurring at the source location. To avoid large numerical errors, the potential is split into a primary part containing the singularity and a secondary part. The primary potential is defined analytically for flat topography, and is classically computed numerically in the presence of topography: in that case, an accurate solution requires expensive computations. We propose to define the primary potential as the analytic solution valid for a homogeneous model and flat topography, and to modify accordingly the free surface boundary condition for the secondary potential, such that the overall potential still satisfies the Poisson equation. The modified singularity removal technique thus remains fully efficient for any acquisition geometries, without any additional numerical computation, and also applicable in the presence of a buried cavity. This approach is implemented with the generalized finite difference method developed on unstructured meshes and validated through the comparison with analytical solutions. Finally, we illustrate in simple 2-D and 3-D cases how the potential depends on the shape of the topography and on the electrode positions.

Penz, Sébastien; Chauris, Hervé; Donno, Daniela; Mehl, Caroline

2013-09-01

120

Flow Interaction with Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module explores the fundamental concepts used to determine how air flow interacts with topography. Using the simple analogy of a marble rolling over a hill, this module examines the relationship between wind speed and static stability of the atmosphere. These results are further extended to include three-dimensional terrain barriers as well as the evolution through time of the interaction.

Spangler, Tim

1999-05-01

121

Mars topography harmonics and geophysical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an improved model of Martian global topography which has been obtained by fitting a sixteenth-degree harmonic series to occultation, radar, spectral, and photogrammetric measurements. Empirical elevation data based on photographic data are used to supplement the observations in areas without data. Values for the mean radius, the mean density, and the displacement of the center of the figure from the center of mass are presented. The reported geometric flattening is too great and the reported dynamic flattening is too small for Mars to be homogeneous and hydrostatic. Maps of the data distribution, global topography, and Bouguer gravity anomaly are interpreted in terms of a crustal thickness map which is consistent with gravity, topography, and recent preliminary Viking seismic results.

Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.

1978-01-01

122

Stratified Quasi-geostrophic Flow Over Rough Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Averaged equations describing large-scale, quasi-geostrophic flow over small-scale, one-dimensional topography are derived, and some of their solutions are examined. In the scaling regime considered, the interior dynamics is governed by the usual lin- earized potential-vorticity equation, while a new bottom boundary condition is found as a result of the topography. This boundary condition is nonlinear and depends ex- plicitly on the topography height through a linear transform of its correlation function. Linear waves are easily found as solutions of the averaged equations. In the particular case of vanishing interior potential vorticity -- the case of surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics -- nonlinear waves (both periodic and solitary) can also be found explic- itly: they satisfy a nonlinear pseudo-differential equation which reduces to the Peierls­ Nabarro equation for sinusoidal topography. A modification of Eady's model of baro- clinic instability which takes into account small-scale topography is also discussed.

Vanneste, J.

123

Absolute Theory of Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We redo Einstein's thought experiment with atomic clocks from the Special Theory of Relativity. Herein we consider an absolute time and an absolute space but no ultimate speed, and we call it Absolute Theory of Relativity (ATR). Our ATR is free from time dilation, space contraction, relative simultaneity, and relativistic paradoxes.

Smarandache, Florentin

2012-03-01

124

Absolute compression test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for measuring the absolute compression of each cylinder in an internal combustion engine having known ideal performance parameters and consists of the following steps: sensing the absolute angular speed of the crankshaft of an engine during at least one noncombustive engine cycle; relating particular subcyclic absolute speed variations to particular cylinders; calculating the work of

Timmerman

1986-01-01

125

Topography of Earth's Inner Core Boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral variations in the structure and crystallization of the inner core will likely be associated with lateral variations in the topography of its boundary. Depending on liquid fraction and the ratio of solid over liquid viscosity, the process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at the solidifying boundary can be dynamically unstable, resulting in small-scale corrugations of the boundary of 0.1 to 5 km height with a horizontal scale on the order of 1 to 10 km. Evidence of such ICB topography has been inferred from waveforms of PKiKP doublets (1). An additional observation consistent ICB topography includes the seismic wave diffracted around the top of the inner core (PKP-Cdiff), whose travel time agrees with that predicted by the AK135 Earth model, but whose amplitude decays more rapidly into the inner core shadow than is predicted by AK135 (2). These observations are modeled by synthesizing seismic body waves with a pseudospectral method (3) having a densified grid in the vicinity of a rough ICB. Validation of the forward modeling includes a comparison of results obtained with a boundary element method. Modeled spectra of ICB topography are used to constrain the parameters and processes that produce the topography. These include compaction length (assuming freezing upward from below), the structure of precipitated piles (assuming metallic snow falling from above), the sedimentary processes due to flow in the overlying F-layer of the outer core, and the relaxation of topography from viscous deformation of the inner core. 1. Cao, A., Y. Masson, and B. Romanowicz, PNAS, 104, 31-35, 2007. 2. Zou, Z., K. Koper, and V.F. Cormier, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005316. 3. Furumura T., B.L.N. Kennett, and M. Furumura, Geophys. J. Int., 135, 845--860, 1998.

Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.

2011-12-01

126

Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-topography and tidal hydro-dynamics of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-topography of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-topography included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.

Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan

2009-12-01

127

Corneal topography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new corneal topography system is described which combines proven grid projection and stereo triangulation techniques with an innovative user interface which simplifies the data capture process. Principles of the imaging, measurement, and calibration processes used with the system are presented. The device generates a complete topographic model of the anterior corneal surface with spatial resolution of 0.2 millimeters and elevation accuracy of 2 microns. System applications include pre- and post-operative assessment of refractive surgery patients, contact lens fitting including specification of custom RGP lenses, and excimer surgery planning and simulation. The innovative features of the system are described along with preliminary results of accuracy evaluations.

Cambier, James L.; Gao, Yan

1998-03-01

128

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15

129

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOEpatents

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA) [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA) [Alamo, CA

2010-07-13

130

Ocean Surface Topography from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Flash Module about Ocean Surface Topography. Module includes sea surface observations and measurements as well as visuals explanations of the alimetry instruments used to detect surface changes.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA

131

Implications of MOLA Global Roughness, Statistics, and Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New insights are emerging as the ongoing high-quality measurements of the Martian surface topography by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft increase in coverage, resolution, and diversity. For the first time, a global characterization of the statistical properties of topography is possible. The data were collected during the aerobreaking hiatus, science phasing, and mapping orbits of MGS, and have a resolution of 300-400 m along track, a range resolution of 37.5 cm, a range precision of 1-10 m for surface slopes up to 30 deg., and an absolute accuracy of topography of 13 m. The spacecraft's orbit inclination dictates that nadir observations have latitude coverage of about 87.1S to 87.1N; the addition of observations obtained during a period of off-nadir pointing over the north pole extended coverage to 90N. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Aharonson, O.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.

1999-01-01

132

RADAR Reveals Titan Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

2005-01-01

133

Lake Topography and Wind Waves Determining Seasonal-Spatial Dynamics of Total Suspended Matter in Turbid Lake Taihu, China: Assessment Using Long-Term High-Resolution MERIS Data  

PubMed Central

Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r2?=?0.720, p<0.001, and n?=?73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake topography, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r2?=?0.685, p<0.001, and n?=?50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.

Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang

2014-01-01

134

Lake Topography and Wind Waves Determining Seasonal-Spatial Dynamics of Total Suspended Matter in Turbid Lake Taihu, China: Assessment Using Long-Term High-Resolution MERIS Data.  

PubMed

Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r2?=?0.720, p<0.001, and n?=?73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake topography, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r2?=?0.685, p<0.001, and n?=?50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206

Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang

2014-01-01

135

Absolute hardness: companion parameter to absolute electronegativity  

SciTech Connect

For neutral and charged species, atomic and molecular, a property called absolute hardness eta is defined. Let E(N) be a ground-state electronic energy as a function of the number of electrons N. As is well-known, the derivative of E(N) with respect to N, keeping nuclear charges Z fixed, is the chemical potential ..mu.. or the negative of the absolute electronegativity chi: ..mu.. = (deltaE/deltaN)/sub Z/ = /sup -/chi. The corresponding second derivative is hardness: 2eta = (delta..mu../deltaN)/sub Z/ = (deltachi/deltaN)/sub Z/ = (delta/sup 2/E/deltaN/sup 2/)/sub Z/. Operational definitions of chi and eta are provided by the finite difference formulas (the first due to Mulliken) chi = 1/2(I+A), eta = 1/2(I-A), where I and A are the ionization potential and electron affinity of the species in question. Softness is the opposite of hardness: a low value of eta means high softness. The principle of hard and soft acids and bases is derived theoretically by making use of the hypothesis that extra stability attends bonding of A to B when the ionization potentials of A and B in the molecule (after charge transfer) are the same. For bases B, hardness is identified as the hardness of the species B/sup +/. Tables of absolute hardness are given for a number of free atoms, Lewis acids, and Lewis bases, and the values are found to agree well with chemical facts. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Parr, R.G.; Pearson, R.G.

1983-12-28

136

Absolute biological needs.  

PubMed

Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

McLeod, Stephen

2014-07-01

137

Density, Isostasy, and Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Show caption HideA critical component of this activity involves sharing team data with the entire class, done the old-fashioned way on the chalkboard. Details This activity begins with an exploration of a topographic map of the earth, ending with the question: Why is the distribution of topography on the earth bimodal? The students then collect two forms of data. They measure the density of the most common rocks that make up oceanic crust (basalt), continental crust (granite), and the mantle (peridotite). They also measure the density of several different kinds of wood, and how high each kind floats in a tub of water. In each case, they work in teams of two or three and then the entire class shares their data. Based on the data from the wood, they derive an equation that relates the density of the wood to the height at which the block floats in the water - the isostasy equation. They then substitute density values for real rocks into their equation to derive thicknesses for average continental and oceanic crust, and apply their knowledge in order to draw a cross-section of the crust across South America. This activity gives students a real, hands-on and mathematical understanding of the principle of isostasy.

Egger, Anne

138

Topography of a wrinkled membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymerized vesicle membranes on cooling below the transition temperature, undergo a wrinkling transition and resemble a crumpled elastic sheet or a dried prune. We examine the topography of the surface of a wrinkled vesicle using SEM and AFM measurements.

Natrajan, Vinay; Chaieb, Sahraoui

2004-03-01

139

Global Topography and Tectonic Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to investigate global topographic and tectonic features, especially the tectonic plates and their boundaries. Using a double-page size digital topographic map of the Earth that includes both land and sea floor topography, students are asked to draw plate boundaries, deduce plate motions and interactions, and explore the connections between topography and tectonic processes at the global scale.

Greene, David

140

Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

2003-01-01

141

Absolute configuration of franganine.  

PubMed

The absolute configuration of franganine (1), a cyclopeptide alkaloid isolated from the methanol root bark extract of Discaria americana, was established on the basis of detailed NMR spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis of its salt (2). PMID:22680778

Caro, Miguel S B; de Oliveira, Leonardo H; Ilha, Vinicius; Burrow, Robert A; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

2012-06-22

142

Verifying Chandra Absolute Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibrating the absolute time accuracy of Chandra requires requires the efforts of many people. Here we present some attempts to verify this accuracy. HRC observations of the Crab indicated that the Chandra clock is within 0.2 msec of being correct. Checking ACIS requires correcting for the time delays caused by the continuous clocking readout. A method is presented to correct

Allyn Tennant

2001-01-01

143

Absolute Low Speed Anemometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absolute anemometer suitable for measurements in gases under a wide variety of conditions is described. The instrument, based on an idea first used by Kovasznay, utilizes the temperature fluctuations in the wake of a sinusoidally heated fine wire as tracer. A second hot-wire detects the fluctuations, and the phase change between two successive positions of this wire can be

R. E. Walker; A. A. Westenberg

1956-01-01

144

Absolute ultraviolet stellar fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study, made to calibrate the ultraviolet spectra of stars to within an absolute accuracy of 10%, is summarized. Data were taken by a 13 inch UVR telescope onboard several rocket flights. Calibrated and existing ground based data are in reasonable agreement. Calibrated results are presented in graphical form.

Evans, D. C.

1972-01-01

145

Simultaneous Topography and Recognition Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has developed into a key technique for the investigation of biological samples. In contrast to other microscopy methods, high lateral resolution down to the nanometer scale and measurements under physiological conditions are possible. Additionally, the piconewton force sensitivity allows accurate data collection for single-molecule interactions. This chapter describes the combination of high-resolution imaging and single-molecule interaction measurements. In the so-called topography and recognition imaging (TREC) mode, the scanning AFM tip is upgraded into a molecular sensor by anchoring a ligand to the tip. Enhanced electronics, including a recently developed feedback loop, allow measurement of the sample topography while simultaneously mapping ligand-binding sites. This results in topography images recorded alongside with recognition images, thereby allowing accurate allocation of the binding sites with a lateral resolution of one to a few nanometers. TREC has been successfully used for recognition imaging on isolated proteins, native and artificial membranes, and cells.

Ebner, A.; Chtcheglova, L. A.; Preiner, J.; Tang, J.; Wildling, L.; Gruber, H. J.; Hinterdorfer, P.

146

Absolute beam brightness detector  

SciTech Connect

In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

147

INFLUENCE OF THE BEDROCK TOPOGRAPHY ON OIL SHALE MINING IN NORTH-EAST ESTONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the zonation of the Estonian bedrock topography, presented on the basis of relative and absolute heights and taking into consideration the lithological composition of the bedrock, Estonian oil shale deposit is located in the Viru-Harju Plateau including the Pandivere Elevation and Ahtme Eminence. The plateau has a thin Quaternary cover, mainly a few metres in thickness. The oil

A. MIIDEL; A. RAUKAS; E. TAVAST; R. VAHERa

148

Hydrodynamical Model of Topography Elevations at Mid-Ocean Ridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridge crest depth variations recently have been recognized as an important features of spreading process. The goal of our investigation is an accounting the development of topography elevations at the ocean floor related to dynamical effect of mantle advection beneath the mid-ocean ridges. Hydrodynamical model is to be elaborated to calculate time-dependent behavior of ocean floor deformations. The mantle is

Vladimir M. Cherniavski; Elena I. Suetnova

1996-01-01

149

Measured and Estimated Seafloor Topography: Land Topography from GTOPO30  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site displays two "clickable" maps - one topographic, and the other a Ship Track Each of 16 regions on the maps displays measured and estimated seafloor topography. A poster of the images can be ordered for a fee. Links to related sites are also provided.

150

Simulation of absolute water surface elevations in a global river model: a case study in the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level dynamics in continental-scale rivers is an important factor for surface water studies and flood hazard management. However, most continental-scale river models have not focused on the reproduction of water level because the storage and movement of surface waters are regulated by smaller scale topography than their grid resolutions. Here we analyzed the water level dynamics simulated by a state- of-the-art global river model, CaMa-Flood, with sub-grid representation of floodplain topography. As a case study, hydrodynamics simulation in the Amazon River was accomplished, and the simulated water surface elevations along the mainstem were compared against Envisat altimetry. The seasonal cycle of the simulated water surface elevations are in agreement with the altimetry (correlation coefficient >0.69, annual amplitude error <1.6 m). The accuracy of absolute water surface elevations was also good (averaged RMSE of 1.83 m), and the associated errors were within the range of the model uncertainty due to channel cross-section parameters. Then, the ocean tide variation at river mouth was incorporated for simulating the tidal effect in the inland Amazon basin, which requires realistic representation of absolute water surface elevations. By applying power-spectra analysis to the simulated water level variations, the 15-day cycle due to spring and neap tides was detected at Obidos located 800 km upstream from the river mouth. The reproduction of the ocean tide propagation to the inland region suggests that CaMa-Flood includes the main physical processes needed to accurately simulate the water level dynamics in continental-scale rivers.

Yamazaki, Dai; Lee, Hyongki; Alsdorf, Doug; Dutra, Emanuel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan; Bates, Paul

2013-04-01

151

The relationship between Martian gravity and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between gravity and topography of various regions of Mars is used to estimate their effective elastic thicknesses Te using direct measurements of line of sight velocity, rather than spherical harmonic coefficients. Estimates of Te vary from 70 km for Tharsis, 29 km for Elysium, to 14.5 km for the southern hemisphere, and show that the thickness of the Martian lithosphere increases with age as the radioactive isotopes of K, Th, and U decay. A simple parameterised model of the convective thermal history is used to estimate the temperature structure of the lithosphere, and shows that the base of the elastic layer has a temperature of 300±50°C, or similar to the value for terrestrial continents. In both cases the rheology is probably affected by the presence of water. The short wavelength behaviour of the gravity field allows the density of the rocks that form the topography to be estimated, and gives values of about 3.0 Mg/m 3 for Tharsis and Elysium. This value is substantially greater than that of 2.7 Mg/m 3 obtained for Earth, and is in agreement with estimates from SNC (Shergottites-Nahklites-Chassigny) meteorites of 3.3 Mg/m 3. The density of the topography of Valles Marineris is only 2.35 Mg/m 3, and suggests that ice may be present below the surface. In the heavily bombarded southern hemisphere, isostatic compensation occurs at wavelengths as short as 700 km, which requires the effective compensation depth to be no more than 10 km. The gravity field with wavelengths greater than 1500 km may be supported dynamically, by a plume rising beneath the Tharsis region. The difference in temperature between the solidus and the present areotherm is less than 250°C, so melt generation can occur in rising plumes.

McKenzie, Dan; Barnett, David N.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

2002-01-01

152

Noninvasive measurement of corneal topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a brief overview of the surface to be measured (the cornea of the eye), review the current state of the technology designed to measure the corneal topography, and define the outstanding issues of current significance. The topics discussed include: eye movements; fundamental operating principles of new systems; videokeratographic systems; fundamental limitations of the operating principles; limitations of

R. A. Applegate; H. C. Howland

1995-01-01

153

Reactions of cells to topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though contact guidance has been known since the very early days of cell culture very little quantitative examination of the reaction of cells to topography has been made. Exceptions to this subjective approach are given prominence below. Yet if we are to understand how cells react and if we are to be able to design ideal substrata for particular cells

Adam S. G. Curtis; Chris D. W. Wilkinson

1998-01-01

154

Inner Shell Definition and Absolute Hydration Free Energy of K+(aq) on the Basis of Quasi-chemical Theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

K+(aq) ion is an integral component of many cellular processes, amongst which the most important, perhaps, is its role in transmitting electrical impulses along the nerve. Understanding its hydration structure and thermodynamics is crucial in dissecting its role in such processes. Her we address these questions using both the statistical mechanical quasi-chemical theory of solutions and ab initio molecular dynamics

Susan B. Rempe; D. Asthagiri; Lawrence R. Pratt

2003-01-01

155

Residual topography and lithospheric structure of the Antarctic continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica has been the subject of considerable interest in the past few years, following the International Polar Year. The structure of its crust at a continental scale is however still known with large uncertainty. A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (AntMoho), merging copious information from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data has been analyzed: mostly seismic experiments, as well as receiver functions and geological studies, ranging from DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent seismic receiver function studies. AntMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography. Residual topography is obtained by removing the isostatic contribution of the crust from the observed topography. Long-wavelength residual topography is interpreted as dynamic response to large scale mantle convection and density contrasts. Our calculations show that significantly different inferences on lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics may result from the variance in Moho depth recorded in the different models. A better knowledge of Moho depth and, more generally, crustal structure for Antarctica at a continent scale is a goal with likely consequences for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

Molinari, I.; Baranov, A.; Danesi, S.; Morelli, A.

2012-12-01

156

Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the mirror is slightly tilted. Hence, one can determine the amount and direction of tilt from the coordinates of the target image on the viewing plane.

Leviton, Douglas B.

2006-01-01

157

Comparison of Sum Absolute QRST Integral, and Temporal Variability in Depolarization and Repolarization, Measured by Dynamic Vectorcardiography Approach, in Healthy Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Recently we showed the predictive value of sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST) and repolarization lability for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to compare SAI QRST and metrics of depolarization and repolarization variability in healthy men and women. Methods Orthogonal ECGs were recorded at rest for 10 minutes in 160 healthy men and women (mean age 39.6±14.6, 80 men). Mean spatial TT? angle, and normalized variances of T loop area, of spatial T vector amplitude, of QT interval and Tpeak-Tend area were measured for assessment of repolarization lability. Normalized variances of spatial QRS vector and QRS loop area characterized variability of depolarization. In addition, variability indices (VI) were calculated to adjust for normalized heart rate variance. SAI QRST was measured as the averaged arithmetic sum of areas under the QRST curve. Results Men were characterized by shorter QTc (430.3±21.7 vs. 444.7±22.2 ms; P<0.0001) and larger SAI QRST (282.1±66.7 vs.204.9±58.5 mV*ms; P<0.0001). Repolarization lability negatively correlated with spatial T vector amplitude. Adjusted by normalized heart rate variance, QT variability index was significantly higher in women than in men (?1.54±0.38 vs. ?1.70±0.33; P?=?0.017). However, in multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for body surface area, QTc, and spatial T vector amplitude, healthy men had 1.5–3 fold higher probability of having larger repolarization lability, as compared to healthy women (T vector amplitude variability index odds ratio 3.88(95%CI 1.4–11.1; P?=?0.012). Conclusions Healthy men more likely than women have larger repolarization lability.

Tereshchenko, Larisa G.

2013-01-01

158

Mercury's Thermal Evolution, Dynamical Topography and Geoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the terrestrial planets Mercury is not only the smallest, but also the densest (after correction for self-compression). To explain Mercury's high density it is considered likely that the planet's mantle was removed during a giant impact event, when proto-Mercury was already differentiated into an iron core and a silicate mantle. Beside the damage to the planet's mantle the vaporization

Ruth Ziethe; Johannes Benkhoff

2010-01-01

159

Controls on (anomalous) topography in rifted margin settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrasting end members of volcanic and non-volcanic passive margin formation show a large variability in basin shape and structure, subsidence history, and associated topographic evolution of the onshore rifted margins. The large range of structural style and associated topography of these systems imply a strong variability in the underlying thermo-mechanical conditions at the time of rifting. Rift - passive margin styles ranging from narrow to ultra wide are explained using forward numerical models with varying rheological structure, with strong crust lithosphere leading to narrow rift formation associated with highly elevated rift shoulders and conversely weak crust lithosphere resulting in highly stretched wide rifted conjugate margins and little flank morphology. In some cases rifted margins appear to indicate the formation of anomalous post rift topography. A number of mechanisms including small-scale convective removal of the lower lithosphere, lithosphere counter-flow, and dynamic topography, have been invoked to explain the anomalous topography. Forward numerical models are used to predict the magnitude and characteristic topography associated with each of these mechanisms and to evaluate their potential for explaining these apparent anomalous characteristics of rifts and rifted margins.

Huismans, Ritske S.

2014-05-01

160

Linear baroclinic instability in the presence of large scale topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 topography on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the topography influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the topography and the forced wave influence the growth rates and the spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The latter are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the dynamical equations. Agreement is good between the two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 topography, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time-dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the topography, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.

Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton

1987-01-01

161

Inner Shell Definition and Absolute Hydration Free Energy of K+(aq) on the Basis of Quasi-chemical Theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

K+(aq) ion is an integral component of many cellular processes, amongst which\\u000athe most important, perhaps, is its role in transmitting electrical impulses\\u000aalong the nerve. Understanding its hydration structure and thermodynamics is\\u000acrucial in dissecting its role in such processes. Her we address these\\u000aquestions using both the statistical mechanical quasi-chemical theory of\\u000asolutions and ab initio molecular dynamics

Susan B. Rempe; D. Asthagiri; Lawrence R. Pratt

2003-01-01

162

ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

2007-09-10

163

NOVA: Absolute Zero  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a hot day, some might wish they could get the temperature down a bit. They might not wish it to be as cold as, say absolute zero, but there are many scientists who are interested in doing just that. For those who are curious, absolute zero clocks in at around minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit. This engaging website is meant to serve as a complementary resource to the two-part series that recently aired on NOVA on this engaging topic. Visitors can start by watching a short preview of the program, and then continuing on to look over some of the special interactive features on the site. All told, there are ten different features, including "A Sense of Scale", "How Low Can You Go?", and "Milestones in Cold Research". The "Milestones in Cold Research" is a great place to start, as it's an interactive timeline that chronicles the "netherworld of extraordinarily low temperatures" as investigated by everyone from Galileo to current researchers. Of course, there are also more playful features here, such as "The Ice Trade", which asks users to dispatch ships loaded with natural ice to Florida, Brazil, and India.

164

X-ray Topography in Protein Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray topography, especially synchrotron X-ray topography, provides a useful tool for the characterization of protein crystals in order to characterize the defects. We observed clear images of dislocations in hen-egg white lysozyme crystals. In this article we overviewed the research on crystal defects, especially dislocations of protein crystals by synchrotron X-ray topography.

Kojima, Kenichi; Tachibana, Masaru

165

Mars Gravity and Topography Interpretations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New models of the topography of Mars and its gravity field from the Mars Global Surveyor mission are shedding new light on the structure of the planet and the state of isostatic compensation. Gravity field observations over the flat northern hemisphere plains show a number of anomalies at the 100 to 200 mGal level that have no apparent manifestation in the surface topography. We believe that these anomalies are probably the result of ancient impacts and represent regions of denser material buried beneath the outer depositional crust. Similar anomalies are also found in the region of the north polar ice cap even though a gravity anomaly resulting from the 3 km high icecap has not been uniquely identified. This leads us to speculate that the ice cap is largely compensated and is older than the timescale of isostatic compensation, about 10(exp 15) years.

Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.

1999-01-01

166

Absolute Equilibrium Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

Shebalin, John V.

1997-01-01

167

Topography, Cell Response, and Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed topography can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to topography is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface topographies. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret topography remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of topography on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response.

Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

2010-01-01

168

Seismological Modeling of Inner Core Boundary Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's solid inner core is created by the slow freezing of a well-mixed, vigorously convecting, iron-rich outer core. The structure near inner core boundary (ICB) has a significant effect on core dynamics including the mechanisms behind the growth of inner core and the compositional convection driving the geodynamo. A dynamically unstable process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at a solidifying boundary can produce small-scale corrugations of the inner core boundary with heights on the order of 1km, consistent with a number of previous observations of body waves interacting with the ICB. We determine topographic models of a rough ICB that match the observed PKiKP and PKP-Cdiff waveforms. In order to constrain parameters of the modeled topography, the observations are compared with synthetic seismograms generated using a boundary element method that exploits a dense discretization along the surface of the ICB. This method of modeling is more computationally efficient and flexible than finite difference methods previously used in these studies, which in turn allows us to make our calculations more accurate. The implementation of the modeling procedure starts by setting up boundary element method for a two-layered homogeneous interior and exterior of ICB system and later adds the real Earth's radial inhomogeneity to the exterior where propagation of rays are calculated using ray theory. An initial test is carried out to identify the parametric limits of models where ICB topography begins to impose observable effects to the PKiKP coda at approximately 50° great circle distance.

de Silva, S. M.; Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.

2013-12-01

169

The Role of Topography in Glacial Inception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the influence of model topography on glacial inception using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean version of NCAR’s Community Climate System Model (CCSM3). Simulations employ a modern orbital configuration and greenhouse gas concentrations representing both recent (year 1990) and hypothetically lower present-day values in accordance with Ruddiman’s Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis (240 ppm CO2 and 450 ppb CH4). The model is run at two different resolutions: a relatively coarse horizontal configuration (T42, approximately 2.8 degrees) and comparatively fine resolution (T85, approximately 1.4 degrees). Although under contemporary greenhouse forcing the extent of permanent boreal snow cover in the two model configurations is similar, imposing lower concentrations of CO2 and CH4 generates much more extensive glacial inception in the T85 experiment (150% increase) than in the T42 version (80% increase). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of glacial inception differ considerably. Only the T85 resolution produces widespread permanent snow cover over the Rocky Mountains and on Baffin Island, consistent with geologic evidence for ice sheet nucleation in northeastern Canada. Although much of the enhanced sensitivity in the higher-resolution simulations is directly attributable to the colder and wetter conditions around elevated topography, some of the response also appears to be driven dynamically and remotely as a function of the simulated elevation of Greenland. The colder conditions over and downstream of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the modern T85 simulation promote a smaller cooling locally under lowered greenhouse forcing that seems to activate a wave-1 dynamical response in the atmospheric pressure field. The resulting circulation anomalies favor stronger upslope wind flow from the Pacific Ocean over the northern Rocky Mountains, enhancing the regional development of a permanent snow pack. Although these experiments are driven by greenhouse forcing rather than historical orbital variations, we believe that our findings apply to the general mechanisms of glacial inception.

Vavrus, S. J.; Philippon-Berthier, G.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Ruddiman, W. F.

2009-12-01

170

The Dynamical Distance to M15: Estimates of the Cluster's Age and Mass and of the Absolute Magnitude of Its RR Lyrae Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly determined high-precision relative proper motions determined from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 are used along with radial velocity measurements to determine the dynamical distance to the globular cluster M15. A comparison of the proper motion and radial velocity dispersions from a sample of 237 stars, located at an average radial distance of about 10" from the cluster center, yields a cluster distance of 9.98+/-0.47 kpc. This distance agrees to within the stated errors to other distance estimates but places this object about 5% closer than the currently adopted value of 10.4 kpc. Using this new distance, we estimate that RR Lyrae stars having [Fe/H]=-2.15 have a value of Mv(RR)=0.51+/-0.11. We also estimate that M15 has an age of about 13.2 Gyr, which places it among the oldest of the Galactic globular clusters. From a comparison of the observed velocity dispersion with results from recent N-body calculations, we derive a total cluster mass for M15 of MC=4.5×105Msolar.

McNamara, B. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Baumgardt, H.

2004-02-01

171

Absolute Norms on C n  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the absolute normalized norms on Cn. We show that the set of all absolute normalized norms on Cn is in one-to-one correspondence with the set ?n of all continuous convex functions on ?n with some suitable conditions, where ?n={(s1,…,sn?1)?Rn?1; s1+s2+···+sn?1?1, si?0 (1?i?n?1)}. As some applications, we show that an absolute norm on Cn is strictly

Kichi-Suke Saito; Mikio Kato; Yasuji Takahashi

2000-01-01

172

Absolute Zero: Science Educator's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides recommendations for curricular modules on low temperature physics. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide complements the Absolute Zero Community Education Outreach Guide. Suggestions on leading discussions, increasing student participation, and the use of inquiry are included. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, Absolute Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. Absolute Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold.

2008-09-18

173

Unraveling topography around subduction zones from laboratory models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relief around subduction zones results from the interplay of dynamic processes that may locally exceed the (iso)static contributions. The viscous dissipation of the energy in and around subduction zones is capable of generating kilometer scale vertical ground movements. In order to evaluate dynamic topography in a self-consistent subduction system, we carried out a set of laboratory experiments, wherein the lithosphere and mantle are simulated by means of Newtonian viscous materials, namely silicone putty and glucose syrup. Models are kept in their most simple form and are made of negative buoyancy plates, of variable width and thickness, freely plunging into the syrup. The surface of the model and the top of the slab are scanned in three dimensions. A forebulge systematically emerges from the bending of the viscous plate, adjacent to the trench. With a large wavelength, dynamic pressure offsets the foreside and backside of the slab by ~ 500 m on average. The suction, that accompanies the vertical descent of the slab depresses the surface on both sides. At a distance equal to the half-width of the slab, the topographic depression amounts to ~ 500 m on average and becomes negligible at a distance that equals the width of the slab. In order to explore the impact of slab rollback on the topography, the trailing edge of the plates is alternatively fixed to (fixed mode) and freed from (free mode) the end wall of the tank. Both the pressure and suction components of the topography are ~ 30% lower in the free mode, indicating that slab rollback fosters the dynamic subsidence of upper plates. Our models are compatible with first order observations of the topography around the East Scotia, Tonga, Kermadec and Banda subduction zones, which exhibit anomalous depths of nearly 1 km as compared to adjacent sea floor of comparable age.

Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin; Funiciello, Francesca; Faccenna, Claudio; Royden, Leigh H.

2012-03-01

174

Topography of Equatorial Mercury from MESSENGER Flybys 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first flyby of Mercury by the MESSENGER spacecraft on January 14, 2008, the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) obtained a 3200-kilometer-long profile that spanned approximately 20% of the near- equatorial region of the planet. Topography along that profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and approximately 1-kilometer root-mean-square roughness. Sampled craters are shallower than their counterparts on the

M. T. Zuber; D. E. Smith; S. C. Solomon; R. J. Phillips; S. J. Peale; J. W. Head; S. A. Hauck; R. L. McNutt; J. Oberst; G. A. Neumann; F. G. Lemoine; X. Sun; O. Barmouin-Jha; C. L. Johnson

2008-01-01

175

Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

2005-01-01

176

Ocean Surface Topography From Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on the many aspects of the study of the sea surface from space. Measuring the ocean surface topography provides information for studying global ocean circulation and the oceans heat budget. Regular scanning of the ocean surface to maintain a database of ocean surface topography can help predict short-term changes in weather and longer-term patterns of climate. Educational materials include a wide variety of games, puzzles, and facts; educational entertainment; on-line resources for educators; information about useful books; and links to lesson plans and classroom activities. There is information on obtaining a variety of visual materials on Oceanography and El Nino in both hardcopy form or PDF files. A class activities area presents plans for classroom activities in Oceans, Climate and Life from the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM in PDF format; shows how an El Nino works using common household items; and describes an El Nino Skit for primary grades. This area also lists on-line resources for educators, information about useful books, and links to lesson plans and classroom activities.

Kawasaki, Kristy

2002-12-13

177

Venus topography - A harmonic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of Venusian global topography has been obtained by fitting an eighteenth-degree harmonic series to Pioneer Venus orbiter radar altimeter data. The mean radius is (6051.45 + or - 0.04) km. The corresponding mean density is (5244.8 + or 0.5) kg/cu m. The center of figure is displaced from the center of mass by (0.339 + or - 0.088) km towards (6.6 + or 10.1) deg N, (148. 8 + or - 7.7) deg. The figure of Venus is distinctly triaxial, but the orientation and magnitudes of the principal topographic axes correlate rather poorly with the gravitational principal axes. However, the higher-degree harmonics of topography and gravity are significantly correlated. The topographic variance spectrum of Venus is very similar in form to those of the moon, Mars, and especially earth. It is suggested that this spectral similarity simply reflects a statistical balance between constructional and degradational geomorphic proceses. Venus and earth are particularly similar (and differ from the moon and Mars) in that the larger bodies both exhibit a significant low degree deficit (relative to the extrapolated trend of the higher harmonics).

Bills, B. G.; Kobrick, M.

1985-01-01

178

Plasma processing for nanostructured topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial topographies. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating topographies with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.

Riedel, Nicholas Alfred

179

Residual topography in the north-central Mediterranean: A product of underlying mantle flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north-central Mediterranean demonstrates an interesting history of horizontal and vertical tectonics, for which the responsible dynamical mechanisms are not well understood. Here we investigate the potential role of interpreted mantle flow in generating anomalous present-day elevation in the region. We inferred underlying mantle structure from regional seismic tomography. A tomography section cutting approximately perpendicular through the northern Apennines was translated into the temperature domain and the temperature anomalies were then superimposed into a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical model. The 2D thermo-mechanical model was then used to predict lithosphere-upper mantle deformation. Residual topography (i.e., non-isostatic topography) for the Mediterranean region was calculated from the global CRUST2.0 database and from independent estimates of crustal structure. The observed residual topography was then compared with the surface dynamic topography signal predicted by the computed mantle flow. A spatial correlation was found between the dynamic effects of underlying mantle structure and 1) the observed negative residual topography signal over the Adriatic Sea, 2) a positive residual topography signal in the Alpi Apuane region of Italy, and 3) a slight negative residual topography signal in the Liguro-Provencal basin. We also tested the response of the surface topography to various configurations of the surface plates, including variably strong lithosphere and the presence of a weak mantle wedge and weak zones in the crust. While it was found that the properties of the overlying plate heavily influence the degree of correlation, the results demonstrate that underlying mantle structure has the potential to play a significant role in supporting the observed residual topography anomalies along the investigated profile.

Shaw, M.; Pysklywec, R. N.

2005-12-01

180

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.

Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

2000-01-01

181

Venus - Global gravity and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of topography based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.

McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.

1993-05-01

182

Venus - Global gravity and topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisonsbetween this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of topography based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.

Mcnamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.

1993-01-01

183

In situ study of the self-accommodating process during the martensitic transformation of a Cu-Zn-Al single crystal by synchrotron x-ray topography. 2: Dynamics of the process and role of crystalline defects  

SciTech Connect

The martensitic transformation of Cu-Zn-Al single crystals has been followed in situ and in real time by synchrotron X-ray topography. The authors have shown that at the M{sub s} temperature, the transformation proceeds by nucleation and growth of transformation variants associated by self-accommodating pairs. The nucleation of these variants is triggered by the crystal substructure. When the martensitic transformation is multivariant the behavior of the crystal substructure and the development of elastic stresses inducing a reversible curvature of lattice planes has been displayed.

Jourdan, C.; Gastaldi, J.; Grange, G. [CRMC2-CNRS, Marseille (France)] [CRMC2-CNRS, Marseille (France); Belkahla, S.; Guenin, G. [INSA-GEMPPM, Villeurbanne (France)] [INSA-GEMPPM, Villeurbanne (France)

1995-12-01

184

Enhanced characterization of niobium surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are under way to both improve surface topography and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, power spectral density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how the process modifies topography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, niobium surfaces with different process histories are sampled with atomic force microscopy and stylus profilometry and analyzed to trace topography evolution at different scales. An optimized PSD analysis protocol to serve SRF needs is presented.

Xu, Chen; Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

2011-12-01

185

Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

186

Absoluteness of Velocity Produced by Accelerating Process and Absolute Space-time Theory with Variable Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proved by means of the dynamical effects of special relativity that velocity caused by accelerating process is not a relative concept. The influence of accelerating process should be considered in space-time theory. Besides the Newtonian absolute space-time theory with invariable space-time scales and the Einstein relative space-time theory with variable space-time scales, there exists the third space-time theory,

Mei Xiaochun

2006-01-01

187

Spatio-temporal monitoring of evolving topography using LIDAR, Real Time Kinematic GPS and sonar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management of highly dynamic coastal topography with fast moving sand dunes, eroding shore- line and anthropogenic changes to bathymetry and beaches represent significant challenges for coastal man- agement. Modern mapping technologies bring capabilities to monitor this dynamic environment with un- precedented spatial and temporal detail. The general research strategy for coastal areas (15) focuses on combination of field experiments

Helena Mitasova; Thomas Drake; Russell Harmon; Jaroslav Hofierka; Jessie McNinch

2002-01-01

188

Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding topography.  

PubMed

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea

2011-01-01

189

The Cortical Topography of Local Sleep  

PubMed Central

In a recent series of experiments, we demonstrated that a visuomotor adaptation task, 12 hours of left arm immobilization, and rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during waking can each induce local changes in the topography of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the poor spatial resolution of EEG and the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex limited the interpretation of these results. In order to better understand local cortical regulation of sleep, we used source modeling to show that plastic changes in specific cortical areas during waking produce correlated changes in SWA during sleep in those same areas. We found that implicit learning of a visuomotor adaptation task induced an increase in SWA in right premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to a motor control. These same areas have previously been shown to be selectively involved in the performance of this task. We also found that arm immobilization resulted in a decrease in SWA in sensorimotor cortex. Inducing cortical potentiation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an increase in SWA in the targeted area and a decrease in SWA in the contralateral cortex. Finally, we report the first evidence that these modulations in SWA may be related to the dynamics of individual slow waves. We conclude that there is a local, plasticity dependent component to sleep regulation and confirm previous inferences made from the scalp data.

Murphy, Michael; Huber, Reto; Esser, Steve; Riedner, Brady A.; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Tononi, Giulio

2011-01-01

190

Topography and Landforms of Ecuador  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of topography and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.

Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

2005-01-01

191

Maps of Mars Global Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps of Mars' global topography. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.

1999-01-01

192

Topography from shading and stereo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods exploiting photometric information in images that have been developed in machine vision can be applied to planetary imagery. Present techniques, however, focus on one visual cue, such as shading or binocular stereo, and produce results that are either not very accurate in an absolute sense or provide information only at few points on the surface. We plan to integrate shape from shading, binocular stereo and photometric stereo to yield a robust system for recovering detailed surface shape and surface reflectance information. Such a system will be useful in producing quantitative information from the vast volume of imagery being received, as well as in helping visualize the underlying surface. The work will be carried out on a popular computing platform so that it will be easily accessible to other workers.

Horn, Berthold P.; Caplinger, Michael

1992-01-01

193

Topography from shading and stereo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods exploiting photometric information in images that have been developed in machine vision can be applied to planetary imagery. Present techniques, however, focus on one visual cue, such as shading or binocular stereo, and produce results that are either not very accurate in an absolute sense or provide information only at few points on the surface. We plan to integrate shape from shading, binocular stereo and photometric stereo to yield a robust system for recovering detailed surface shape and surface reflectance information. Such a system will be useful in producing quantitative information from the vast volume of imagery being received, as well as in helping visualize the underlying surface. The work will be carried out on a popular computing platform so that it will be easily accessible to other workers.

Horn, Berthold P.; Caplinger, Michael

1993-01-01

194

JWST Absolute Flux Calibration Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plan for the absolute flux calibration of all JWST instruments will be described. The science goal is to be able to predict the absolute flux of stars for all JWST instruments to sub-1% accuracy. A set of A0V, solar, and hot stars have been picked as a preliminary calibration sample. This calibration sample has been chosen specifically to provide at least 5 stars of each type in all the observing modes of each JWST instrument. In addition to existing Hubble and Spitzer observations, ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy will be obtained to provide strong, independent constraints on the best fitting model stellar atmospheres for each star.

Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R.

2013-01-01

195

Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

1992-01-01

196

Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface Topography  

SciTech Connect

Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface topography, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace topography evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.

Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

2011-12-01

197

Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

Lewis, Nathan D.

198

Absolute pitch: Music and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Perfect pitch,” known in the scientific literature as “absolute pitch” (AP), is a rare phenomenon that has fascinated musicians and scientists alike for over a century. There has been a great deal of conflict in the literature between advocates of the two main theories on the etiology of AP: some believe that AP is learned early in life through intensive

David A. Ross; John C. Gore; Lawrence E. Marks

2005-01-01

199

Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

1971-01-01

200

Absolute focus lock for microscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism absolutely immobilizes microscope stage at a preset focus, preserving focus indefinitely. The lock is a second-class lever consisting of a straight body having a fulcrum with a cylindrical bearing surface at one end and a thumbscrew at the other end.

Cone, C. D., Jr.; Loop, R. W.; Tongier, M., Jr.

1970-01-01

201

Absolute Pitch and Planum Temporale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) in absolute-pitch (AP) musicians has been previously reported, with speculation that early exposure to music influences the degree of PT asymmetry. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether a larger left PT or a smaller right PT actually accounts for the increased overall PT asymmetry in AP musicians, anatomical magnetic

Julian Paul Keenan; Ven Thangaraj; Andrea R. Halpern; Gottfried Schlaug

2001-01-01

202

Topography of borosilicate glass reacting interface under aqueous corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate the structure of a Na-borosilicate glass. The topography of an initial flat surface of this glass caused by the instantaneous release of atoms weakly bonded to the silicate network was studied, giving the minimum roughness of the surface. The resulting profiles were compared to experimental data obtained by atom probe tomography on a complex nuclear glass, after having verified that simulations are valid for the complex glass. As experimental profiles are much thicker, these comparisons support the concept that interdiffusion is a key mechanism controlling the long-term corrosion rate of nuclear glasses.

Delaye, J. M.; Kerrache, A.; Gin, S.

2013-11-01

203

Absoluteness of Velocity Caused by Accelerating Process and Absolute Space-time Theory with Variable Scales —The third logically consistent and really rational space-time theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

s It is proved by means of the dynamical effects of special relativity that the velocity caused by accelerating process is not a relative concept. It is an absolute physical quantity that can be determined by experiments. Therefore, the influence of accelerating process must be considered in space-time theory. Be- sides the Newtonian absolute theory with invariable space-time scales and

Mei Xiaochun

204

Topography of inland deltas: Observations, modeling, and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of inland deltas is influenced by the water-sediment balance in distributary channels and local evaporation and seepage rates. In this letter a reduced complexity model is applied to simulate inland delta formation, and results are compared with the Okavango Delta, Botswana and with a laboratory experiment. We show that water loss in inland deltas produces fundamentally different dynamics of water and sediment transport than coastal deltas, especially deposition associated with expansion-contraction dynamics at the channel head. These dynamics lead to a systematic decrease in the mean topographic slope of the inland delta with distance from the apex following a power law with exponent ? = -0.69 ± 0.02 where the data for both simulation and experiment can be collapsed onto a single curve. In coastal deltas, on the contrary, the slope increases toward the end of the deposition zone.

Seybold, H. J.; Molnar, P.; Akca, D.; Doumi, M.; Cavalcanti Tavares, M.; Shinbrot, T.; Andrade, J. S.; Kinzelbach, W.; Herrmann, H. J.

2010-04-01

205

Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex topography on tornado genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007), Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010) and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011) have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4-T5 (Torro scale) and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a) 0% (actual topography) and (b) -100% (without topography). The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes - mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN), the energy helicity index (EHI), the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH) and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e). Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis absolute vorticity budget. Numerical simulations revealed that the complex topography was denoted as an important factor during 17 November 2007 and 12 February 2010 events, based on EHI and BRN analyses. Topography around 20 September 2011 event was characterized as the least factor based on EHI, SRH, BRN analyses.

Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.

2014-02-01

206

Absolute continuity of stable foliations for systems on Banach spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for C maps of Banach spaces satisfying a globally defined infinitesimal invariant cones condition. Proofs of regularity for center and stable manifolds needed for the main theorem are included. Our results are applicable to dynamical systems generated by ordinary, partial, or functional differential equations, including non-autonomous differential equations that are periodic in time.

Lian, Zeng; Young, Lai-Sang; Zeng, Chongchun

207

A quasi-linear theory for rotating flow over topography. I - Steady beta-plane channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady rotating flow over topography in a periodic channel is examined, with emphasis on the interaction of waves, topography and mean flow. A simple quasi-linear theory is presented that features an implicit equation relating the net zonal flow to the forcing and topography. A good description of the dynamics is obtained, even when resonant Rossby waves appear. Multiple solutions for given external parameters are predicted in some cases, and confirmed by comparison with a fully nonlinear numerical model. The nonlinear results also indicate that the zonally averaged shear can be important when topographic effects or Rossby numbers are large. With this factor taken into account the theory gives good agreement with the fully nonlinear model, as long as eddy-eddy interactions are minor. The theory is relevant to the dynamics of planetary waves in the atmosphere, and may also be applied to some oceanic problems.

Davey, M. K.

1980-07-01

208

Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal topography system.METHODS94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal topography system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the

Zuguo Liu; Andrew J Huang; Stephen C Pflugfelder

1999-01-01

209

Absolute-Gravity Workshop planned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new FG5 absolute gravimeter has a design goal accuracy of 1 ?Gal and represents the most recent of a series of gravimeters inspired by advances in gravimeter design by J. Faller at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colo. A 2-day workshop will be held in Boulder from March 22 to 23 to discuss current and future applications of absolute gravity (g). Details of the workshop appear at the end of this article. The instrument is based on the principle of interferometrically measuring the time and position of a weight falling in a vacuum, using a stabilized laser and an atomic clock [cf. Cook, 1967; Faller, 1963; Hammond, 1970; Zumberge, 1981; Niebauer, 1986].

Bilham, Roger; Sasagawa, Glenn

210

Absolute light output of scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute light outputs of BGO, CsI(Tl) and some new Ce-doped crystals have been measured to an accuracy of about ±5% using calibrated XP2020Q photomultipliers and standard S3590.03 and S2740.03 photodiodes. The use of small crystals, 9 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, reduces the corrections for imperfections in the light collection process and in the photoelectron collection by

M. Moszynski; M. Kapusta; M. Mayhugh; D. Wolski; S. O. Flyckt

1997-01-01

211

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of SERTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. We have recently carried out a complete end-to-end calibration of the instrument to determine its absolute radiometric response over the full bandpass of 300 -- 365 Angstroms. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibration of the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) experiment now flying aboard the SOHO spacecraft. For our SERTS project, the unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany was re-calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (1sigma ) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the SERTS aperture over a range of pitch and yaw angles were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to <= 25%, considering all sources of error. These results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted `insensitive' line ratios. The recent measurements at RAL also give information about the uniformity of illumination across the collimated source beam, as well as about polarization characteristics of both the instrument and radiation source, which may prove helpful in correctly interpreting the original CDS calibration data. We hope to repeat such calibration measurements and to provide future SERTS flights annually, at least throughout the duration of the SOHO mission. Coordinated observing programs would then allow these updated absolute calibrations to be transferred on a regular basis to several of the instruments onboard SOHO, including CDS, EIT, and CELIAS.

Thomas, R. J.; Condor, C. E.; Haas, J. P.; Linard, D. L., II; Swartz, M.; Kent, B. J.; Hollandt, J.

1997-12-01

212

Calculating the topography of a differentiated Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous examination of the topography of a homogenous Vesta revealed an immense, seemingly abnormal impact crater near the south pole of the asteroid. The crater appeared anomalously shallow, with an extremely tall central peak, suggesting an unusual formation or subsequent modification. Conversely, Vesta is almost certainly differentiated, and we incorporate this notion to reexamine its topography. We find that the central peak is well below the crater rim and that the overall depth of the crater increases, giving it a more ordinary profile. The large density contrast between the metallic core and the overlying silicate layers has the strongest control on the topography. As previously discussed, the location of the crater at the south pole suggests polar wander, necessitating a mechanical structure that allows reorientation of Vesta's large rotational bulge yet preserves the crater's shape, a possibly restrictive scenario. NASA's Dawn spacecraft may observe tectonics consistent with polar wander.

Kattoum, Yaser N.; Dombard, Andrew J.

2009-12-01

213

Noninterferometric topography measurements of fast moving surfaces.  

PubMed

The topography of moving surfaces is recovered by noninterferometric measurements. The phase reconstruction is derived by measuring the intensities of a backscattered pulsed laser light and solving the transport intensity equation (TIE). The TIE is solved by expanding the phase into a series of Zernike polynomials, leading to a set of appropriate algebraic equations. This technique, which enables us to make a direct connection between experiments and the TIE, has been successfully tested in gas gun experiments. In particular, the topographies of a moving projectile and the free surface of a shocked target were recovered. PMID:21811317

Pinhasi, Shirly Vinikman; Eliezer, Shalom; Glam, Benny; Appelbaum, Gabi; Bakshi, Lior

2011-08-01

214

Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned topography tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned topography is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Vasudevan, Ravikumar

215

CMB topography and electrical conductivity as additional constraints for the lowermost mantle thermo-chemical structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of seismic observations, including tomographic models, indicate that the lowermost mantle is strongly heterogeneous. Seismic observations further support a thermo-chemical origin for the large scale heterogeneities. In particular, the large low-shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP) observed by global tomographic images are better explained by a combination of thermal and chemical anomalies. Despite the accuracy of seismic information, uncertainties and trade-off still prevent the determination of a detailed lower mantle thermo-chemical structure. For instance, the nature of chemical heterogeneities and the exact role played by the post-perovskite phase transition are still debated. Additional constraints are needed to discriminate between the possible models of structure and dynamics of the lower mantle. Here, we consider two potential additional constraints, the electrical conductivity and the dynamic topography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Unlike density and seismic velocities, electrical conductivity increases with temperature. In addition, it strongly varies with the iron and silicate content. Using appropriate mineral physics data, we calculated a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity in lower mantle from the thermo-chemical structure inferred by probabilistic tomography, which maps iron and silicate excess in the LLSVP. In the lowermost mantle, we observe a belt of high conductivity, with maximum values around 20 S/m located in the LLSVP. Such a belt may trigger electric currents in the lowermost mantle and induce magnetic field variations with period of one year or more. It may thus be seen by global models of electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, such models do not sample yet regions deeper than 2000 km. A second, independent constraint we explored is the dynamic topography at the CMB. We used stagYY to calculate the dynamic topography associated with several models of thermo-chemical convection, and observe strong differences depending on the model. In models that include large thermo-chemical reservoirs, corresponding to the LLSVP seen by seismic tomography, the CMB dynamic topography is dominated by ridges about 5 km high along the borders of the reservoirs. The spherical harmonic power spectra is dominated by degrees 8 to 10. By contrast, in isochemical models, the dynamic topography focuses at the foot of plumes, where it reaches about 20 km, and is dominated by low (2 and 3) spherical harmonic degrees. Again, the CMB topography may have some implications for the dynamics of the outer core, and the details of the magnetic field. Further developments in seismology may also give a better image of the CMB topography.

Deschamps, F.; Yin, Y.; Tackley, P. J.

2013-12-01

216

Familial aggregation of absolute pitch.  

PubMed

Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as "AP-1." As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

Baharloo, S; Service, S K; Risch, N; Gitschier, J; Freimer, N B

2000-09-01

217

Absolute D hadronic branching fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 281 pb-1 of e^+e^- collisions recorded at the ?(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we determine absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons using a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D^0 and six D^+ modes, we measure reference branching fractions B(D^0 ->K^- +circ) and B(D^+ ->K^- +circ+circ). Using a determination of the integrated luminosity, we also extract the cross sections ?(e^+e^- ->D^0 D^0) and ?(e^+e^- ->D^+D^-).

Shi, Xin

2007-04-01

218

Overland Tsunami Flow through Complex Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As seen in numerous Japanese eyewitness videos that captured the tsunami inundation on March 11th 2011, flow interaction with the built environment is extremely complex. In addition to the entrainment of sediment and large discrete objects such as cars and ships, tsunami energy amplification due to topographic focusing was widely observed. In coastal towns and cities, this topographic focusing was due to large structures which channelled the flow to either side, often through roadways or other low-obstruction pathways. Structures in the "line-of-fire" of this channelized flow were often found to have been inflicted with relatively greater levels of damage, while the opposite was true for structures in the flow-shadow of large buildings. In this presentation, we attempt to quantify the hydrodynamic variability of flow through complex topography, such as a city layout. Understanding this variability is of particular relevance to on-going engineering efforts to develop standards for tsunami design of coastal structures. A novel set of large-scale experimental data will be introduced and used to validate a depth-integrated model. The experiment was performed in the Tsunami Wave Basin at Oregon State University. Transient long wave flooding in a 1/50 scale model of the town of Seaside, Oregon was tested. Data from the experiment, including water elevations and co-located flow speeds, are used to confirm the simulated dynamics in the numerical model. The model is shown to be capable of accurately reproducing the instantaneous wave elevation, velocity, and momentum flux of a long wave flooding a town. It is found that the numerical prediction is sensitive to the value of the bottom roughness coefficient. The model is then extended to look at the hydrodynamics in more detail and for other cases. Predicted momentum flux values from with structures resolved, with-out structures resolved, and with spatially variable bottom roughness will be discussed. It is found that localized maximum momentum flux values can be two orders of magnitude greater than the alongshore-transect mean. A method to calculate statistical variability of hydrodynamic flow properties, such as might be used in a risk-based analysis, will be discussed.

Lynett, P. J.; Cox, D. T.; Park, H.; Wiebe, D. M.

2012-12-01

219

On the tectonic origin of Iberian topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day topography of the Iberian peninsula can be considered as the result of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate (including rifting and basin formation during the Mesozoic and compression and mountain building processes at the borders and inner part of the plate, during the Tertiary, followed by Neogene rifting on the Mediterranean side) and surface processes acting

A. M. Casas-Sainz; G. de Vicente

2009-01-01

220

The relationship between Martian gravity and topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gravity and topography of various regions of Mars is used to estimate their effective elastic thicknesses Te using direct measurements of line of sight velocity, rather than spherical harmonic coefficients. Estimates of Te vary from 70 km for Tharsis, 29 km for Elysium, to 14.5 km for the southern hemisphere, and show that the thickness of the

Dan McKenzie; David N. Barnett; Dah-Ning Yuan

2002-01-01

221

Carpal tunnel topography during endoscopic decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of the endoscopic technique for carpal tunnel release remains a major concern. Serious complications such as division nerves, tendons or vessels may occur. In this study the topography of the carpal tunnel was studied in fresh cadaver hands after the introduction of the blade assembly of a one portal system. By using a plastination method, it was possible

J. Koebke; W. Schäfer; T. Aust

1999-01-01

222

EEG topography recognition by neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalography (EEG) pattern-recognition studies were carried out using EEG topography (readiness potential, or RP, spatiotemporal patterns) generated the moment before voluntary movements of muscles. RPs generated prior to pronouncing syllables and controlling a joystick were studied by experiments and simulation. The spatiotemporal patterns of RPs were measured by multichannel surface electrodes pasted on the subject's scalp. Backpropagation neural networks were

A. Hiraiwa; K. Shimohara; Y. Tokunaga

1990-01-01

223

Ocean Surface Topography from Space - Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, describes the scientific applications of ocean surface topography from missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1. Other topics include uses of the collected data, such as evaluations of ocean circulation, tides, weather and climate patterns, and other trends.

Laboratory, Jet P.; Nasa

224

Localized Gravity/Topography Admittances on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and topography yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.

McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

2000-01-01

225

Absolute Neutron Emission Measurement in Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The absolute measurement of neutron emission rate from the whole plasma is a very important diagnostics as a fusion power monitor in fusion experimental devices with D-T or D-T operations. Here measurement techniques of time-resolved and time-integrated absolute neutron emission on the present tokamaks and ITER are reviewed. In the present tokamaks, fission chamber installed outside the vacuum vessel are very popular in the absolute neutron emission rate measurement. As well as conventional neutron monitors installed outside the vacuum vessel, in-vessel neutron monitors using micro fission chamber are proposed for the absolute neutron emission rate measurement in ITER. The neutron activation system provides time-integrated measurements of the total neutron yield with high accuracy by using well known neutron reaction cross sections, which is useful to maintain a robust measure of fusion energy production with stability and wide dynamic range. The calibration of the relation between the neutron emission rate in the whole plasma and the output of neutron monitor is the most important issue in the absolute neutron emission rate measurements. The calibration of the neutron detectors has been performed by moving a neutron source such as a {sup 252}Cf neutron or a small accelerator-based neutron generator. For the calibration in ITER, the neutron generator with neutron emission rate of 10{sup 11} s{sup -1} or stronger is required to obtain high accuracy.

Nishitani, Takeo; Ishikawa, Masao; Kondoh, Takashi; Kusama, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, 311-0193 (Japan); Asai, Keisuke [Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Sasao, Mmamiko [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2008-03-12

226

Absolute Neutron Emission Measurement in Burning Plasma Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute measurement of neutron emission rate from the whole plasma is a very important diagnostics as a fusion power monitor in fusion experimental devices with D-T or D-T operations. Here measurement techniques of time-resolved and time-integrated absolute neutron emission on the present tokamaks and ITER are reviewed. In the present tokamaks, fission chamber installed outside the vacuum vessel are very popular in the absolute neutron emission rate measurement. As well as conventional neutron monitors installed outside the vacuum vessel, in-vessel neutron monitors using micro fission chamber are proposed for the absolute neutron emission rate measurement in ITER. The neutron activation system provides time-integrated measurements of the total neutron yield with high accuracy by using well known neutron reaction cross sections, which is useful to maintain a robust measure of fusion energy production with stability and wide dynamic range. The calibration of the relation between the neutron emission rate in the whole plasma and the output of neutron monitor is the most important issue in the absolute neutron emission rate measurements. The calibration of the neutron detectors has been performed by moving a neutron source such as a 252Cf neutron or a small accelerator-based neutron generator. For the calibration in ITER, the neutron generator with neutron emission rate of 1011 s-1 or stronger is required to obtain high accuracy.

Nishitani, Takeo; Ishikawa, Masao; Kondoh, Takashi; Kusama, Yoshinori; Asai, Keisuke; Sasao, Mmamiko

2008-03-01

227

Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

1992-01-01

228

Venus - Comparison of gravity and topography in the vicinity of Beta Regio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Doppler tracking data obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter when it passed near Beta Regio yielded a peak vertical anomaly of 150 mGal when analyzed by our two stage procedure. A comparison of maps of the gravity and topography at comparable resolution shows a striking correlation. A scatter plot shows that the observed gravity anomaly is approximately 0.4 of that expected from uncompensated topography of half the mean density of Venus. However, the spectral admittance shows that the gravity anomalies can not be explained either by Airy compensation at fixed depth or by a model comprising an elastic plate atop an inviscid fluid. The gravity and topography variations may signify deep compensation or dynamic support for Beta Regio and more shallow compensation for other features.

Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Shapiro, I. I.

1982-01-01

229

Wind Energy Forecasting Utilizing High Resolution Topography in the WRF Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local topography has considerable effects on the dynamics of low-level winds. Many wind farms take advantage of the local landscape when deciding where to place their turbines. In this study we attempt to better model these unique local features by representing them more accurately. The current default WRF topography has a maximum resolution of 30 arc seconds which at mid-latitudes is roughly 1 kilometer whereas the USGS database currently covers 95% of the United States at 30 meter resolution. In this study the 1/3 arc second national elevation database (NED13) is interfaced with the WRF model using a tool developed specifically to make this process simple and the effects of modeling with the updated topography are investigated.

Beechler, B. E.; Zupanski, D.

2012-12-01

230

Geoid and topography for infinite Prandtl number convection in a spherical shell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoid anomalies and surface and lower-boundary topographies are calculated for numerically generated thermal convection for an infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq, axisymmetric spherical fluid shell with constant gravity and viscosity, for heating both entirely from below and entirely from within. Convection solutions are obtained for Rayleigh numbers Ra up to 20 times the critical Ra in heating from below and 27 times critical for heating from within. Geoid parallels surface undulations, and boundary deformation generally increases with increasing cell wavelength. Dimensionless geoid and topography in heating from below are about 5 times greater than in heating from within. Values for heating from within correlate more closely with geophysical data than values from heating from below, suggesting a predominance of internal heating in the mantle. The study emphasizes that dynamically induced topography and geoid are sensitive to the mode of heating in the earth's mantle.

Bercovici, D.; Schubert, G.; Zebib, A.

1988-01-01

231

The influence of topography and vegetation self-organization over resource fluxes in wetland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is recognized that topography and vegetation self-organization (SO) are both first order controls over ecosystem dynamics, the discrete contributions that these two controls have over ecosystem functioning have not been studied in any rigorous way. This work is focused on systematically isolating the separate and combined impacts of topography and SO over vegetation dynamics. We simulate the steady state and transient dynamics of nitrogen-limited patterned peat vegetation observed in the bogs of northern Siberia. We do so across a realistic range of land slopes, nutrient limitation values, and rainfall amounts. Simulation results show that on relatively shallow slopes, vegetation SO is a primary control over the spatial arrangement of vegetation, and that such self-organized arrangements yield the most efficient capture of ecosystem resources. However, as slope increases, and or resource limitation is low, topography begins to exert its control over the temporal and spatial dynamics. As will be discussed, these results suggest a simple continuum framework, valid across biomes, for understanding the interplay between these two first order controls. Specifically, as resources (e.g., water, nutrients) increase, ecosystem dynamics shift towards topographic control, while when resources are reduced, ecosystem dynamics shift towards vegetation SO control.

Stieglitz, Marc; Cheng, Yiwei; Truk, Greg; Engel, Victor; Ross, Joshua

2014-05-01

232

Flow of evaporating, gravity-driven thin liquid films over topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of topography on the free surface and solvent concentration profiles of an evaporating thin film of liquid flowing down an inclined plane is considered. The liquid is assumed to be composed of a resin dissolved in a volatile solvent with the associated solvent concentration equation derived on the basis of the well-mixed approximation. The dynamics of the film is formulated as a lubrication approximation and the effect of a composition-dependent viscosity is included in the model. The resulting time-dependent, nonlinear, coupled set of governing equations is solved using a full approximation storage multigrid method. The approach is first validated against a closed-form analytical solution for the case of a gravity-driven, evaporating thin film flowing down a flat substrate. Analysis of the results for a range of topography shapes reveal that although a full-width, spanwise topography such as a step-up or a step-down does not affect the composition of the film, the same is no longer true for the case of localized topography, such as a peak or a trough, for which clear nonuniformities of the solvent concentration profile can be observed in the wake of the topography.

Gaskell, P. H.; Jimack, P. K.; Sellier, M.; Thompson, H. M.

2006-01-01

233

Pre-glacial topography of the European Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of the Alpine topography prior to Quaternary glaciation, based on the assumption that the pre-glacial topography of the Alps was a fluvial landscape in equilibrium with tectonic and isostatic rock uplift. Amongst the models that have been proposed, the stream-power law has been profitably used for modeling the dynamics of fluvial bedrock channel incision: dz-= U - KAmSn dt (1) where dz/dt (m a-1) is the time rate of change of channel elevation, U(m a-1) is rock-uplift rate, A(m) is upstream drainage area, S is local channel gradient, K is a dimensionless coefficient of erosion and m and n are positive constants related to basin hydrology and erosion process. Under steady-state conditions (dz/dt = 0), equation (1) can be solved to yield an expression for equilibrium channel gradient: 1 ( U-)n - (m) S = K A n (2) where the ratios U/K and m/n are generally referred to as the steepness and concavity index, respectively. Particular focus is put on the spatial variability of the steepness index over the Alpine mountain belt. Assuming a constant concavity index, the pre-glacial topography of the Alps is obtained through an inversion technique that resolves local slopes (as described in eq. 2) by minimizing the misfit between the elevations of the actual and modeled channel heads. Comparing the present-day and reconstructed pre-glacial topography, we infer patterns and magnitudes of exhumation and rock uplift produced by Quaternary glaciation in the Alps. We find a correspondence between rock type and pre-glacial channel steepness which may indicate that rock erodibility has a significant importance in determining the pre-glacial fluvial network elevation. Our results also provide insight into patterns of glacial erosion and associated isostatic adjustment, and provide estimates of the increase of valley-scale topographic relief and decrease of mean elevation that glaciation seems to have produced in the Alps.

Sternai, P.; Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.; Fox, M.; Salcher, B.; Willett, S. D.

2012-04-01

234

Continuum Statistics of the Bed Topography in a Sandy River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial variabilities in the bed geometry of sandy rivers contain information about processes of sediment transport that has not been fully appreciated. This is primarily due to a disparity between the dynamic nature of the sediment-fluid interface and the relatively static methods of surveying bed elevation, e.g. single profiles or point measurements. High resolution topographic data is paramount to understanding the dynamic behavior of sandy beds. We present and analyze a data set collected on a 2cm x 2cm grid at 1 minute intervals and with a vertical precision of ~1mm. This was accomplished by using Lambert-Beer's Law for attenuation of light to transform low-altitude aerial photographs into digital elevation models. Forty successive models were generated for a 20 m by 30 m section of channel bottom of the N. Loup River, Nebraska. To calculate the average, whole bed translation rate, or celerity, cross-correlations between a reference bed topography and its proceeding configurations were determined. Time differences between models were related to the shift lengths that produced correlation maxima for each model pair. The result is a celerity of ~3.8cm/s with a correlation coefficient of 0.992. Bed topography also deforms while it translates, and this can be seen as a secular decrease of correlation maxima. The form of this decrease in correlation is exponential, and from it an interface half-life is defined. In this case, the bed had become extensively reorganized within ~40 minutes, the time necessary to translate the bed one wavelength of the dominant roughness element. Although the bed is continuously deforming, its roughness is statistically stationary. Essentially, a mean roughness is maintained as the bed creates new realizations of itself. The dynamic nature of the whole bed and similarly transient behavior of individual elements suggests the utility of a holistic approach to studying the feedback between bed topography, fluid flow, and sediment transport. Furthermore, it raises questions about the usefulness of detailed analysis of flow and transport over individual forms.

McElroy, B.; Jerolmack, D.; Mohrig, D.

2005-12-01

235

A layout dependent full-chip copper electroplating topography model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a layout dependent full-chip electroplating (ECP) topography model is developed based on the additive nature of the physics of the EP process. Two layout attributes: layout density, and feature perimeter sum are used to compute the post-ECP topography. Under a unified mechanism, two output variables representing the final topography: the array height and the step height are

Jianfeng Luo; Qing Su; Charles Chiang; Jamil Kawa

2005-01-01

236

The Belize margin revisited. 2. Origin of Holocene antecedent topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of antecedent topography in dictating Holocene facies patterns has been generally recognized. There is, however, disagreement as to origin or lithology of the antecedent topography, particularly with respect to the siliciclastic or carbonate nature of the underlying topography and structural patterns. To help resolve these problems, published and unpublished information have been compiled to produce a structural fabric

Edward G. Purdy; Eberhard Gischler; Anthony J. Lomando

2003-01-01

237

New null screen design for corneal topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal topography. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the topography.

Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

2011-08-01

238

Diffraction imaging (topography) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (topography). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.

Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri

1988-01-01

239

Topography over South America from ERS altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

1997-01-01

240

Mercury and Vesta - Preliminary shape and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year two spacecraft, MESSENGER and Dawn, were placed into orbit around Mercury and the asteroid Vesta, respectively. We have been using stereophotoclinometry (SPC) to analyze MESSENGER and Dawn images both for navigation and to determine the precise shapes and topography of these bodies. Because SPC requires images at different local Sun elevations and azimuths to distinguish between albedo and topographic variations, Mercury presents the challenges of a slow spin rate and a long solar day. Vesta, on the other hand, rotates more than four times per Earth day, allowing a given area of surface to be viewed under rapidly changing illumination and topographic information to be built up rapidly. The essence of SPC is that small pieces of surface called maplets and modeled with digital elevation and albedo are illuminated and correlated with images. Hundreds of these maplets are found in each image, providing a valuable data type for spacecraft navigation. Hundreds of images go into the construction of each maplet, and the resulting multi-image stereo over a wide range of viewing conditions provides a precise determination of the maplet's body-fixed position. The construction of topography with SPC uses each pixel, allowing resolutions comparable to the images themselves. Mercury's topography varies by about 5 km above and below that of a sphere of radius 2440 km. We compare the SPC-derived shape and topography with data from MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). Vesta, although a tenth of Mercury's size, exhibits variations in elevation between 17 km below and 12 km above the equipotential that best matches its surface. The lowest areas lie on the floor of the south polar impact crater, and the highest points lie on the crater's rim.

Gaskell, R. W.; Palmer, E. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Barnouin, O. S.; Jorda, L.; Taylor, A. H.

2011-12-01

241

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the\\u000a particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual\\u000a smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects\\u000a smoking behavior. The

Deirdre Lawrence; Brie Cadman; Allison C Hoffman

2011-01-01

242

ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

243

ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface topography.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

244

Numerical studies on the structure of Venusian mantle convection constrained by the geoid and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus is a planet very similar to the Earth in terms of size, density and composition. However, different from the Earth which has active plate tectonics, Venus is a one-plate planet covered by a thick immobile lithosphere. Observations show that there may be nine hotspots on Venus and they may be still active. The topography and geoid of Venus have relatively long wavelength character with the degree 3 terms are the highest. Analysis about the geoid and topography of Venus shows that their correlation is high and the admittance ratio at lower degrees is large, suggesting a mainly dynamic origin for the topography and geoid at lower degrees. Using these results above as the main constraints, we systematically investigated the influence of phase transitions on the structure of Venusian mantle convection in 3D spherical shell. Both mantle phase transitions from olivine to spinel and from spinel to perovskite are included in our model. We employed an extended Boussinesq approximation, an infinite Prandtl number assumption and strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity in our model. Calculations are performed with the finite element code CitcomS. Numerical simulations show that convective structure is affected significantly by phase changes. The amplitude of the Clapeyron slops of phase changes and Rayleigh number control the dominant convective wavelength. When no phase changes are included in the model, a representative convective structure shows dominant short-wavelengths with numerous of plumes, typical of stagnant-lid convection. The geoid and the surface topography are highly correlated with large admittance at lower degrees and the powers of the topography and geoid spectra are significantly reduced at long-wavelengths compared with the observed. Phase changes could promote long-wavelength convective structures as previous findings. When other parameters are kept the same, increasing the Clapeyron slops of the phase changes will increase the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the lower degrees and decrease the number of plumes. The increase of Rayleigh number will also increase the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the lower degrees, but it will decrease the powers of the topography and geoid spectra at the relatively higher degrees. All these cases have Venus like large admittance ratio at lower degrees and high correlation for the topography and geoid. The model parameters that most satisfy Venus' observations are with a Rayleigh number of 2×10^8 and Clapeyron slops of +-3.5 MPa/K, which generally satisfy the number of plumes, the geoid amplitude spectra, and the admittance and correlation of Venus. The lithosphere is about 256 Km and the lower mantle viscosity is about 2×10^21 Pa.s.

Yang, A.; Huang, J.; Zhong, S.

2012-12-01

245

Simultaneous topography and recognition imaging on endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Determining the landscape of specific binding sites on biological samples with high spatial accuracy (in the order of several nanometres) is an important task in many fields of biological science. During the past five years, dynamic recognition imaging (e.g. simultaneous topography and recognition (TREC) imaging) has proven to be a powerful technique in biophysical research. This technique becomes an indispensable tool for high-resolution receptor mapping as it has been successfully demonstrated on different biomolecular model systems. In these studies, the topographical imaging of receptor molecules is combined with molecular recognition by their cognate ligands bound to the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip via a flexible and distensible tether. In this review, we describe the principles of TREC imaging and provide a flavour of its recent application on endothelial cells. PMID:21812052

Chtcheglova, L A; Hinterdorfer, P

2011-01-01

246

Long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that gravity and topography anomalies on the earth's surface may provide new information about deep processes occurring in the earth, such as those associated with mantle convection. Two main reasons are cited for this. The first is the steady improvement that has occurred in the resolution of the long wavelength gravity field, particularly in the wavelength range of a few hundred to a few thousand km, mainly due to increased coverage of terrestrial gravity measurements and the development of radar altimeters in orbiting satellites. The second reason is the large number of numerical and laboratory experiments of convection in the earth, including some with deformable upper and lower boundaries and temperature-dependent viscosity. The oceans are thought to hold the most promise for determining long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies, since their evolution has been relatively simple in comparison with that of the continents. It is also shown that good correlation between long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies exists over some portions of the ocean floor

Watts, A. B.; Daly, S. F.

1981-01-01

247

Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

Svitlov, S.

2012-12-01

248

OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the OpenTopography catalog, providing users a "one-stop shop" for such information. With several thousand active users, OpenTopography is an excellent example of a mature Spatial Data Infrastructure system that is enabling access to challenging data for research, education and outreach. Ongoing OpenTopography design and development work includes the archive and publication of datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); creation of a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; expanded support for satellite and terrestrial lidar; and creation of a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party programs and algorithms. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the project's next phase, we are working to enable equally easy and successful sharing of services for processing and analysis of these data.

Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

2013-04-01

249

An algorithm for generalizing topography to grids while preserving subscale morphologic characteristics—creating a glacier bed DEM for Jakobshavn trough as low-resolution input for dynamic ice-sheet models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm for preserving important subscale morphologic characteristics at grids of lower-resolution, in particular for linear features such as canyons and ridge lines. The development of such an algorithm is necessitated by applications that require reduced spatial resolution, as is common in cartographic generalization, GIS applications, and geophysical modeling. Since any algorithm that results in weighted averages, including optimum interpolation and ordinary kriging, cannot reproduce correct depths, a new algorithm is designed based on principles of mathematical morphology. The algorithm described here is applied to derive a subglacial bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet that includes the trough of Jakobshavn Isbræ as a continuous canyon at correct depth in a low-resolution (5-km) digital elevation model (DEM). Data from recent airborne radar measurements of the elevation of the subglacial bed as part of the CReSIS project are utilized. The morphologic algorithm is designed with geophysical ice-sheet modeling in mind, in the following context. Currently occurring changes in the Earth's climate and the cryosphere cause changes in sea level, and the societal relevance of these natural processes motivates estimation of maximal sea-level rise in the medium-term future. The fast-moving outlet glaciers are more sensitive to climatic change than other parts of the Greenland ice sheet. Jakobshavn Isbrae, the fastest-moving ice stream in Greenland, follows a subglacial geologic trough. Since the existence of the trough causes the acceleration of the slow-moving inland ice in the Jakobshavn region and the formation of the ice stream, correct representation of the trough in a DEM is essential to model changes in the dynamics of the ice sheet and resultant sea-level predictions, even if current ice-sheet models can typically be run only at 5-km resolution. The DEM resultant from this study helps to bridge the conceptual gap between data analysis and geophysical modeling approaches. It is available as SeaRISE Greenland bed data set dev1.2 at http://websrv.cs.umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

Herzfeld, Ute C.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Plummer, Joel

2011-11-01

250

Absolute interferometric test of Fresnel zone plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absolute interferometric test of two-level binary Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) is presented. Five measurements with a wavefront testing interferometer are required to fully separate interferometer errors from those of the FZP. The method provides both errors, pattern errors and surface figure errors of the zone plate absolutely. The test method is suitable for zone mirrors and zone lenses. Test

S. Reichelt; R. Freimann; H. J. Tiziani

2001-01-01

251

Macromolecular Topography Leaps into the Digital Age  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-cost, real-time digital topography system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the topography images. With this development macromolecular topography finally comes into the digital age.

Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

2003-01-01

252

Seismic waveform sensitivity to global boundary topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the implications of lateral variations in the topography of global seismic discontinuities, in the framework of high-resolution forward modelling and seismic imaging. We run 3-D wave-propagation simulations accurate at periods of 10 s and longer, with Earth models including core-mantle boundary topography anomalies of ˜1000 km spatial wavelength and up to 10 km height. We obtain very different waveform signatures for PcP (reflected) and Pdiff (diffracted) phases, supporting the theoretical expectation that the latter are sensitive primarily to large-scale structure, whereas the former only to small scale, where large and small are relative to the frequency. PcP at 10 s seems to be well suited to map such a small-scale perturbation, whereas Pdiff at the same frequency carries faint signatures that do not allow any tomographic reconstruction. Only at higher frequency, the signature becomes stronger. We present a new algorithm to compute sensitivity kernels relating seismic traveltimes (measured by cross-correlation of observed and theoretical seismograms) to the topography of seismic discontinuities at any depth in the Earth using full 3-D wave propagation. Calculation of accurate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is notoriously expensive, but we reduce computational costs drastically by limiting ourselves to spherically symmetric reference models, and exploiting the axial symmetry of the resulting propagating wavefield that collapses to a 2-D numerical domain. We compute and analyse a suite of kernels for upper and lower mantle discontinuities that can be used for finite-frequency waveform inversion. The PcP and Pdiff sensitivity footprints are in good agreement with the result obtained cross-correlating perturbed and unperturbed seismogram, validating our approach against full 3-D modelling to invert for such structures.

Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

2012-09-01

253

Topography and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the topography and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the topography, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of topography in this orogen depends strongly on the dynamics of subduction. Other factors that might affect the topography and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of topography near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the dynamics of subduction.

Gephart, John W.

1994-01-01

254

Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes.  

PubMed

During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

2014-01-01

255

Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

1987-01-01

256

Evaluation of entire-cornea topography measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively evaluated a technique for combining multiple videokeratograph views of different areas of cornea. To achieve this we first simulated target reflection from analytic descriptions of various shapes believed to mimic common corneal topographies. The splicing algorithm used the simulated reflections to achieve a good quality estimation of the shapes. Actual imagery was then acquired of manufactured models of the same shapes and the splicing algorithm was found to achieve a less perfect estimation. The cause was thought mainly to be image blur due to defocus. To investigate this, blur was introduced into the reflection simulation, and the results of the splicing algorithm compared to those found from the actual imagery.

Shevlin, Fergal P.; Klein, Stanley A.; Mandell, Robert B.; Carney, Thom

2000-06-01

257

Comparison of parameters describing stratified surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a lot of methods of two-process surface topography description. Some parameters can be computed from material ratio graph. There are included in ISO standards. The methods described in ISO standards 13565-2 (Pk, Ppk, Pvk, Pmr1 and Pmr2) and 13565-3 (Pmq, Pvq and Pmq) are compared in this paper. Profiles with given values of Pmq, Pvq and Pmq parameters and wavelengths were modelled. For these profiles, material ratio curve and Pk, Ppk, Pvk, Pmr1 and Pmr2 parameters were calculated. As a result, dependencies among parameters from ISO 13565-3 and ISO 13565-2 standard were found.

Pawlus, P.; Reizer, R.; Lenart, A.

2014-03-01

258

EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

259

Importance of Including Topography in Numerical Simulations of Venus' Atmospheric Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus' atmosphere is characterized by strong superrotation, in which the wind velocities at cloud heights are around 60 times faster than the surface rotation rate. The reasons for this strong superrotation are still not well understood. Since the surface of the planet is both a source and sink of atmospheric angular momentum it is important to understand and properly account for the interactions at the surface-atmosphere boundary. A key aspect of the surface-atmosphere interaction is the topography. Topography has been introduced into different general circulation models (GCMs) of Venus' atmosphere, producing significant, but widely varying effects on the atmospheric circulation. The reasons for the inconsistencies among model results are not well known, but our studies suggest they might be related to the influences of different dynamical cores. In our recent study, we have analyzed the angular momentum budget for two Venus GCMs, the Venus Community Atmosphere model (Venus CAM) and the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) Venus GCM. Because of Venus' low magnitude surface winds, surface friction alone supplies only a relatively weak angular momentum forcing to the atmosphere. We find that if surface friction is introduced without including surface topography, the angular momentum balance of the atmosphere may be dominated by effects such as numerical diffusion, a sponge layer, or other numerical residuals that are generally included in all GCMs, and can themselves be sources of angular momentum. However, we find the mountain torque associated with realistic Venus surface topography supplies a much larger source of angular momentum than the surface friction, and dominates nonphysical numerical terms. (A similar effect occurs for rapidly rotating planets like Earth, but in this case numerical errors in the angular momentum budget are relatively small even in the absence of mountain torque). Even if surface friction dominates numerical terms in the angular momentum budgets of simulations without realistic topography, it must be remembered that there are no observational constraints on model parameterizations of the real surface friction on Venus. It is essential for a planet such as Venus, for which surface friction alone supplies only weak angular momentum forcing, to include surface topography to generate realistic forcing of angular momentum and avoid the influences of numerical artifacts, which can be significant. Venus' topography, as mapped using measurements from the Magellan mission, shows significant hemispheric asymmetry. In this work we examine the impact of this asymmetry using simulations of Venus' circulation with and without topography, within the latest version of the Venus CAM GCM.

Parish, H. F.; Schubert, G.; Lebonnois, S.; Covey, C. C.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Grossman, A.

2012-12-01

260

Antarctic hypsometry and the source of East Antarctica's anomalous topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The re-examined hypsometry of Antarctica based on BEDMAP2 data reveals deglaciated modal elevations of ~-450 m and ~650 m for West and East Antarctica, respectively. Although the East Antarctic modal elevation is 300 m lower than the original measurement, it still renders the plateau topographically anomalous by ~400-600 m with respect to the existing global continental modal elevation estimates of 87 m and 250 m. Superimposed on the plateau are the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, the Dronning Maud Land Mountains and the Vostok Highlands with modal elevations ~400 m in excess of the East Antarctic mode. To ascertain whether East Antarctica's anomalous topography can be attributed to Airy-type crustal compensation, a continental-scale crustal thickness model is derived from the inversion of GOCO03S satellite gravity data constrained by seismic crustal thickness measurements. The average crustal thickness of East Antarctica is ~40 km (for West Antarctica ~24 km), a value typical of Archean shields. While crustal thickening to >50 km locally beneath the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and Dronning Maud Land can account for their differential modal elevation above the plateau, the evidently typical Archean crust elsewhere across East Antarctica offers no suggestion of crustal-level continental-scale support for the broader plateau. The plateau of southern Africa offers a tectonic analogue: Like East Antarctica, the lithosphere is largely Archean and cratonic, the crust is of typical shield thickness, there is no obvious Cenozoic tectonism and the upper mantle does not appear to be unduly perturbed. The relative accessibility of the African continent, meanwhile, has led to conclusive imaging of large-scale perturbations in the lower mantle beneath the southern African plateau pointing to dynamic, rather that isostatic, support of the associated long wavelength topography. While several global seismic tomography models infer somewhat anomalously slow lower mantle structure beneath Antarctica, the resolution presently offered by such models in this region is poor. That said, the apparent absence of crustal-level continental-scale support for the East Antarctic plateau coupled with the fact that the underlying upper mantle does not appear unduly anomalous suggest, by analogy with southern Africa, lower mantle generated epeirogeny as a likely explanation for the anomalous topography. The incorporation of data from the Antarctic seismic deployments of recent years in the next generation of global tomography models should resolve the issue.

O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.

2013-12-01

261

High-precision Ice Surface Topography Mapping Using Radar Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface topography was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year activities. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A): a 35.6 GHz single-pass interferometer. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. However, for this application the electromagnetic wave will penetrate an unknown amount into the snow cover thus producing an effective bias that must be calibrated. To evaluate this, GLISTIN-A flew a coordinated collection with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) on a transect from Greenland’s Summit to its West coast. Two field calibration sites were established at Colorado Institute for Research in Environmental Science’s Swiss Camp and the National Science Foundation’s Summit station. Additional collections entailed flying a mosaic over Jakobshavn glacier which was repeated after 6 days to reveal surface dynamics. Through detailed calibration and inter-sensor comparisons we were able to observe penetration biases and compare them with theoretical expectations. We also demonstrated GLISTIN-A’s capability to measure the topography of large glacier systems in a seamless fashion and accurately measuring volume changes with a high level of spatial detail. In particular, repeating the airborne campaigns to observe elevation changes over time will allow very accurate volume change measurements. Not only is this very important for mass balance studies to have a precise mass-loss estimate, but the spatial pattern can reveal ice dynamics effects and surface mass balance effects. In this manner a high resolution, high-precision topographic mapping capability is an ideal complement to the ICESat, ICESat II and Cryosat altimeters. Interpolating between the high-accuracy elevation profiles from altimeters such as the ATM or ICESat II with the high-resolution GLISTIN-A swath will enable detailed ice-surface topography maps and extended spatial coverage. The result is the potential for higher fidelity mass-balance estimates and improved observational coverage. Upgrades are currently underway to improve the performance and portability of GLISTIN-A such that, onboard a long-range aircraft this radar can map Greenland’s significant glaciers in a few days. The upgraded GLISTIN-A will be compatible with GlobalHawk installation making, Antarctica basin and coastal mapping feasible. GLISTIN will make more topographic products available to glaciologists, initially through dedicated airborne campaigns or ultimately, perhaps, as a satellite mission.

Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Michel, T.; Rignot, E. J.; Simard, M.; Krabill, W. B.; Sonntag, J. G.

2010-12-01

262

Topography and geoid induced by a convecting mantle beneath an elastic lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of seismological measurements, observations of the topography and gravity fields of solid planets are the primary constraints on their internal structure. To compute the synthetic geoid and topography induced by the dynamics of planetary interiors, we introduce a 3-D numerical tool describing mantle convection beneath an elastic lithosphere. Although the energy conservation is treated in the whole spherical domain, the deformation aspect is solved using a hybrid technique (finite volume method for the viscous flow, spectral method for elastic deformation). The mechanical coupling is achieved via the imposition of the traction at the surface of the viscous flow as a basal boundary condition for the elastic deformation. We present both response functions and full thermal convection cases computed with our new method for planetary bodies of varying dimensions: the filtering effect of the lithosphere on the dynamic topography and geoid is specific for each planetary body, justifying the importance of such a tool. Furthermore, since our approach specifically focuses on the mechanical coupling at the base of the lithosphere, it will permit future, more elaborate, rheological treatments. It also enables to discriminate between the radial and tangential components of the viscous traction. The latter is found to have a significant influence on the elastic deformation. The effect on geoid is prominent. More specifically, while a thin elastic lithosphere is usually considered to play little role on the dynamic topography and geoid of Venus, a ˜35 per cent reduction is obtained for geoid height in the numerical example we propose. On a planet with thicker elastic lithosphere such as Mars, the consequence of this filtering effect is to rule out the possibility of a dynamical support for the Tharsis Rise, even for the lowest admissible values of elastic thickness in this region.

Golle, O.; Dumoulin, C.; Choblet, G.; ?adek, O.

2012-04-01

263

Toward absolute density of states calculations for proteins.  

PubMed

The density of states (DOS), which gives the number of conformations with a particular energy E, is a prerequisite in computing most thermodynamic quantities and in elucidating important biological processes such as the mechanism of protein folding. However, current methods for computing DOS of large systems such as proteins generally yield only the ratios of microstate counts for different energies, which could yield absolute conformation counts if the total number of conformations in phase space is known, thus motivating this work. Here, the total number of energy minima of 50-mer polyalanine, whose size corresponds to naturally occurring small proteins, was estimated under an all-atom potential energy function based on the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of conformational differences to be approximately 10(38). This estimate can place any DOS function, such as the Gaussian DOS distribution in the random energy model, on an absolute scale. Comparing the absolute conformational counts from a Gaussian DOS function with those from the CDF derived from quenched molecular dynamics ensembles shows that the former are far greater than the latter, indicating far fewer low-energy minima actually exist. In addition to showing how CDF and relative DOS calculations can yield absolute DOS for a discrete system, we also show how they can yield absolute DOS for continuous variable systems to a specified atomic variance. In the context of protein folding, knowing this phase-space "volume" of conformations in a DOS function, as well as characteristic transition times, constrains the set of possible folding mechanisms. PMID:16800526

Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

2006-06-22

264

Measurement of the topography of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal topography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.

Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

2001-06-01

265

The adjustment of a shelfbreak jet to cross-shelf topography1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rigid-lid, finite-difference numerical model is used to study the adjustment of inviscid, along-shelf, barotropic shelfbreak jets to cross-shelf, channel topography. The channel is embedded in the shelf topography perpendicularly to the shelfbreak, the shelfbreak jet flows with the direction of propagation of long-wavelength, topographic Rossby waves, and the coast is sufficiently distant so as not to affect the flow. Three models are used that vary the strength of the channel topography S= f ?hD/Uh, where f is the Coriolis parameter, ? h is the difference between the shelf depth and the channel depth, D is the width of the slope into the channel, U is the maximum speed of the jet at the inflow, and h is the depth of the shelf. Estimation of the path of the jet from the inflow parameters and the geometry of the channel is possible in some cases. Generally, for large S the flow follows the topography of the channel and for small S the flow crosses the channel. The motivation for this study is the episodic flow of Scotian Shelf water from the Scotian Shelf across the Northeast Channel to Georges Bank. The steady, inviscid, non-linear, barotropic dynamics studied here do not allow such a flow for a channel of similar dimensions to the Northeast Channel and for flow speeds within the oceanographic range. Other factors such as stratification, wind stress and time variability need to be introduced to account for this phenomenon.

Williams, William J.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.; Beardsley, Robert C.

266

Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

2010-03-01

267

Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate facial nerve function, the visual assessment method proposed by the Japan Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

1991-08-01

268

Reduction of linewidth variation over reflective topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As device dimensions have shrunk well below the one micron level, linewidth control particularly over reflective topography has become a major problem in optical lithography. Other than reflective notching caused by light reflected into unwanted areas, thin-film interference is the major contributor to linewidth variations. Small changes in film thickness over steps cause significant changes in the amount of energy deposited into photoresist films. Various methods used to solve this problem are investigated to measure their relative effectiveness. Conventional photoresist, dyed-resist, bottom layer ARCs (antireflective coatings; both inorganic and organic), TAR (top-antireflective layer) and CEL (contrast enhancement layer) as a special case of TAR are compared for their relative effectiveness as well as their advantages and disadvantages for use in manufacturing. Simulations and functional evaluation of film thickness effects on exposure requirement and on linewidths as well as imaging over topography are used as a means of comparison. The use of TAR is a relatively new approach to solving this problem in a simple, effective manner. Material choice depends on film refractive index and ease of processing. Several TAR materials have been investigated and are discussed.

Miura, Steve S.; Lyons, Christopher F.; Brunner, Timothy A.

1992-06-01

269

Hydrothermal circulation in fault slots with topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous cases where the circulation of hydrothermal fluid is likely to be confined within a permeable fault slot. Examples are (1) the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) at 30 N in the Atlantic, which is likely to be controlled by large E-W faults related to the Atlantis transform fault and mass wasting on the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, and (2) large normal faults bounding the Hess Deep rift in the East Pacific, which contain intense hydrothermal metamorphic assemblages in lower crustal gabbros formed at 200-350 ° C. This type of circulation could occur anywhere where steep faults cut the oceanic crust, including large near-axis normal faults, transform faults and faults at subduction bend zones, and could be the major way in which the upper mantle and lower crust are hydrated. It is therefore important to constrain the controls on temperature conditions of alteration and hence mineral assemblages. Previous 2-D modelling of the LCHF shows that seafloor topography and permeability structure combine together to localise the field near the highest point of the Atlantis Massif. Our new models are 3-D, based on a 10km cube with seafloor topography of ~ 2km affecting both the fault slot and impermeable wall rocks. We have used Comsol multiphysics in this modelling, with a constant basal heatflow corresponding to the near conductive thermal gradient measured in IODP Hole 1309D, 5km north of the LCHF, and a constant temperature seafloor boundary condition. The wall rocks of the slot have a permeability of 10-17 m2 while permeability in the slot is varied between 10-14 and 10-15 m2. Initial conditions are a conductive thermal structure corresponding to the basal heatflow at steady state. Generic models not based on any particular known topography quickly stabilise a hydrothermal system in the fault slot with a single upflow zone close to the model edge with highest topography. In models with a depth of circulation in the fault slot of about 6 km, after an initial period of higher temperature venting which removes heat from the initial condition, venting temperature is approximately 200 ° C with a permeability of 3x10-15 m2. This falls to about 170 ° C with a permeability of 5x10-15 m2. Temperatures can be reduced by restricting the depth of hydrothermal circulation. These temperatures correspond to prehnite-chlorite assemblages seen in fault rocks at Hess Deep, but are higher than those observed at the LCHF. Work is continuing to vary permeability, fault slot geometry and topography to better match the conditions in the Atlantis Massif, and to model the effects of dyke intrusion into the fault zone as observed at Hess Deep.

Titarenko, Sofya; McCaig, Andrew

2014-05-01

270

Optic nerve head topography and static perimetry in glaucoma diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the optic nerve head topography and static perimetry, are important in glaucoma diagnostics. Topography of the optic nerve head by Topographic Scanning Systems, carries a lot of planimetric and volumetric values. In this paper, results of optic nerve head topography and static perimetry of 116 primary open angle glaucoma cases, are discussed. Estimating correlation between topographic and perimetric data, the most valuable parameter of the topographic method is carried out. Its values in different stages of glaucoma are given.

Rzendkowski, Marek; Janiec, Slawomir; Momot-Kawalska, Barbara; Blazejewska-Meller, Grazyna

1998-10-01

271

Surface topography evolution and fatigue fracture in polysilicon MEMS structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the micromechanisms of surface topography evolution and fatigue fracture in polysilicon MEMS structures. The initial stages of fatigue are shown to be associated with stress-assisted surface topography evolution and the thickening of SiO2 layers that form on the unpassivated polysilicon surfaces and crack\\/notch faces. The differences in surface topography and

Seyed M. Allameh; Pranav Shrotriya; Alex Butterwick; Stuart B. Brown; Wole O. Soboyejo

2003-01-01

272

Global relativity establishes absolute time and a universal frame of reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known for several decades that the rest energy of all matter in space is essentially equal to the total gravitational energy in space. The Dynamic Universe model introduced in this paper studies the equality as a dynamic zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation in spherically closed space. In such a solution time is absolute, the fourth dimension

Tuomo Suntola

273

STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Stability and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.

Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.

2001-01-01

274

Simulating forest dynamics in complex topography using gridded climatic data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of the forest gap model 'ForClim' was evaluated using climatic data along an altitudinal gradient in the European Alps defined by 12 grid points of a global database of 0.5 resolution. Forest succession was studied both under current climate ...

H. Bugmann A. Fischlin

1995-01-01

275

Verification of Geosat sea surface topography in the Gulf Stream extension with surface drifting buoys and hydrographic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altimeter data from Geosat have been analyzed in the Gulf Stream extension area. Horizontal maps of the sea surface height anomaly relative to an annual mean for various 17-day intervals were constructed using an objective mapping procedure. The mean sea level was approximated by the dynamic topography from climatological hydrographic data. Geostrophic surface velocities derived from the composite maps (mean

J. Willebrand; R. H. Käse; D. Stammer; H.-H. Hinrichsen; W. Krauss

1990-01-01

276

Use of Cholesky Coordinates and the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation in the Computer Simulation of Flexible Multibody Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous publication, procedures that can be used with the absolute nodal coordinate formulation to solve the dynamic problems of flexible multibody systems were proposed. One of these procedures is based on the Cholesky decomposition. By utilizing the fact that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation leads to a constant mass matrix, a Cholesky decomposition is used to obtain a

R. Y. Yakoub; A. A. Shabana

1999-01-01

277

The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

Mijuskovic, Ben

1975-01-01

278

The Parabola Test for Absolute Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In applying the Popov stability test, a certain straight line is drawn; the Popov locus must lie on one side of this line. Thus geometric considerations alone indicate that the interesting sectors of absolute stability for conditionally stable systems can...

A. R. Bergen M. A. Sapiro

1967-01-01

279

A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

Ayorinde, F. O.

1983-01-01

280

Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions  

SciTech Connect

We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-09-15

281

A note on exponential absolute stability.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new sufficient condition is formulated for the Lur'e type nonlinear continuous system to be exponentially absolutely stable. The condition relaxes the assumptions on the nonlinear characteristic by modifying the requirements on the linear part of the system.

Siljak, D. D.; Sun, C. K.

1972-01-01

282

A Method of Measuring Low Absolute Pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of measuring low absolute pressures by using a single-capillary compression manometer differs in that, to increase accuracy and exclude random errors, mercury flows to the measuring capillary entrance and gradually rises in the capillary withou...

A. V. Eryukhin

1964-01-01

283

A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption in 1979 of a new definition of the candela, which permitted a detector-based approach to the realization of the unit, has emphasized the importance of high-accuracy absolute radiation detectors. This paper describes a new electrical-substitution absolute radiometer operating at 5 K, based on a standard commercial helium cryostat, which has been developed at NPL for optical radiant-power measurements.

J E Martin; N P Fox; P J Key

1985-01-01

284

The absolute magnitudes of Type IA supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute magnitudes in the B, V, and I bands are derived for nine well-observed Type Ia supernovae, using host galaxy distances estimated via the surface brightness fluctuations or Tully-Fisher methods. These data indicate that there is a significant intrinsic dispersion in the absolute magnitudes at maximum light of Type Ia supernovae, amounting to +\\/- 0.8 mag in B, +\\/- 0.6

M. M. Phillips

1993-01-01

285

Assimilation of altimeter topography into oceanic models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goals of the authors are to build an intuition for assimilation techniques and to investigate the impact of variable altimeter topography on simple or complex oceanic models. In particular, applying various techniques and sensitivity studies to model and data constraints plays a key role. We are starting to use quasi-geostrophic, semigeostrophic, and primitive-equation (PE) models and to test the schemes in regions of interest to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), as well as in the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The impact of scatterometer wind forcing on the results is also investigated. The use of Geosat, European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1), and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry data is crucial in fine tuning the models and schemes to the selected areas of interest.

Demey, Pierre; Menard, Yves; Pinardi, Nadia; Schroeter, J.; Verron, J.

1991-01-01

286

Forecasting Hurricane Impact on Coastal Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme storms can have a profound impact on coastal topography and thus on ecosystems and human-built structures within coastal regions. For instance, landfalls of several recent major hurricanes have caused significant changes to the U.S. coastline, particularly along the Gulf of Mexico. Some of these hurricanes (e.g., Ivan in 2004, Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008) led to shoreline position changes of about 100 meters. Sand dunes, which protect the coast from waves and surge, eroded, losing several meters of elevation in the course of a single storm. Observations during these events raise the question of how storm-related changes affect the future vulnerability of a coast.

Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Turco, Michael J.; East, Jeffery W.; Taylor, Arthur A.; Shaffer, Wilson A.

2010-02-01

287

EAARL Submarine Topography - Biscayne National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Description This lidar-derived submarine topography map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd; Harris, Melanie S.; Mosher, Lance

2006-01-01

288

EAARL Topography - Dry Tortugas National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Description This lidar-derived submarine topography map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, ad event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

2008-01-01

289

Bedrock topography beneath the Red Lake peatlands  

SciTech Connect

Detailed hydrologic investigations of peat landforms in the Red Lake Peatlands have revealed that groundwater flow is significantly related to the type of landform and vegetation community present at a given site. Hydrogeologic modeling of shallow groundwater systems suggests that bedrock topography is an important, perhaps the vital, boundary condition controlling groundwater flow. Determination of depth to bedrock beneath different peat landforms is necessary to test the hydrogeologic models and obtain a better understanding of the processes which produce them. Direct determination of bedrock depth in peatlands is hampered by the difficult conditions and high costs of boring. In addition, environmental impacts from boring activities would probably be substantial in these sensitive ecosystems. Shallow seismic methods appear to be the most promising approach to obtain the necessary data. Unfortunately the 2+ meters of peat covering Lake Agassiz sediments overlying the bedrock is not only a poor substrate for geophone emplacement, but is a strong attenuator of seismic waves. These difficulties have been overcome by constructing a tool which allows the geophones to be emplaced beneath the peat and into the top of the sediments. The shotgun cartridge source is also located beneath the peat. This combination results in very good seismic records, far better than those possible with surface sources and geophones. The results from a preliminary survey along a 600m line show that there are significant variations in bedrock topography below the peat. In a distance of less than 500m, depth to bedrock changes by about 30%, from about 55m to about 40m. This is similar to variations indicated by the models.

Miller, P.; Shaw, G.H. (Union Coll., Schenectady, NY (United States). Geology Dept.); Glaser, P. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center); Siegel, D. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

290

Observation of Negative Absolute Resistance in a Josephson Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate the occurrence of negative absolute resistance (NAR) up to about -1? in response to an externally applied dc current for a shunted Nb-Al/AlOx-Nb Josephson junction, exposed to a microwave current at frequencies in the GHz range. The realization (or not) of NAR depends crucially on the amplitude of the applied microwave current. Theoretically, the system is described by means of the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model in terms of a moderately damped, classical Brownian particle dynamics in a one-dimensional potential. We find excellent agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulations of the model.

Nagel, J.; Speer, D.; Gaber, T.; Sterck, A.; Eichhorn, R.; Reimann, P.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

2008-05-01

291

Destabilization of barotropic flows small-scale topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a barotropic zonal jet aligned with zonal topography on the beta-plane is investigated. The topography is assumed to be spatially periodic, with a period much smaller than the width of the jet. The problem is examined both by linear normal-mode analysis and by direct numerical simulations.

Benilov, E. S.; Nycander, J.; Dritschel, D. G.

2004-10-01

292

Bottom Topography as a Control Variable in an Ocean Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using topography in a state estimation context as a control parameter is explored in a linear barotropic shallow water model. Along with its adjoint, the model is used to systematically assess the influence of the depth field on the modeled circulation in a steady state. Sensitivity of the flow field to the topography is greater in a

Martin Losch; Carl Wunsch

2003-01-01

293

Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the accuracy and resolution of topography data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) through spectral comparisons with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a high-resolution laser data set of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake rupture. We find that SRTM and the NED are coherent for wavelengths greater than 200 m, however the spatial resolution of the

Bridget Smith; David Sandwell

2003-01-01

294

Numerical wind analysis on complex topography using multiscale simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the wind flow around the complex terrain to examine the environmental flow by the topography effect around the urban area. In Japan, comparatively many cities face the mountain and\\/or the ocean. In such cities, cold air may blow from the mountain and\\/or the ocean, and the wind from the mountainous topography affects the cities environment. To examine the

Takeshi Sugimura; Keiko Takahashi; Makoto Iida

2009-01-01

295

Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice dynamics models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock topography most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent on the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e., the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock topography for ice stream dynamics on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface topography at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.

De Rydt, Jan; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Corr, Hugh F. G.; Christoffersen, Poul

2013-04-01

296

20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 ...Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute...

2013-04-01

297

Modeling the shallow gravity-driven flows as saturated binary mixtures over temporally varying topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the "shallow water models over arbitrary topography" by Bouchut and Westdickenberg [2004], and the "Coulomb-mixture theory" by Iversion and Denlinger [2001], we propose a saturated binary mixture model over temporally varying topography, where the effects of the entrainment and deposition are considered. Due to the deposition or erosion processes, the interface between the moving material and the stagnant base is a non-material singular surface that moves with its own velocity. Its motion is thus determined by the mass exchange between the flowing layer and the ground. Through the introduction of the unified coordinate method (e.g. Hui [2004, 2007]) and dimension analysis, the leading-order depth-integrated mass and momentum equations are presented in the time-dependent and topography-fitted curvilinear coordinate system, where the evolving curvature effect is neatly included in the total derivative operator of the variable topography-fitted coordinates. The motion of the basal interface is postulated by function of basal friction coefficient, sliding velocity, local thickness of the flowing layer and a threshold kinetic energy. A shock-capturing numerical scheme is implemented to solve the derived equation system (e.g. Tai and Kuo [2008] or Tai and Lin [2008]). And the key features are investigated and illustrated by the numerical results. References: [1] F. Bouchut and M. Westdickenberg, "Gravity driven shallow water models for arbitrary topography." Commun. Math. Sci. 2, 359-389 (2004). [2] R.M. Iverson and R.P. Denlinger, "Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain. Part 1 Coulomb mixture theory." J. Geophysical Research, 106, 537-552 (2001). [3] W.H. Hui, "A unified coordinates approach to computational Fluid dynamics." J. Comput. and Applied Math., 163, 15-28 (2004). [4] W.H. Hui. "The unified coordinate system in computational fluid dynamics." Commun. Comput. Phys., 2(4), 577-610 (2007). [5] Y.C. Tai and C.Y. Kuo, "A new model of granular flows over general topography with erosion and deposition." Acta Mechanica, 199, 71-96 (2008). [6] Y.C. Tai and Y.C. Lin, "A focused view of the behavior of granular flows down a confined inclined chute into horizontal run-out zone." Phys. Fluids, 20, 123302 (2008).

Tai, Yih-Chin; Kuo, Chih-Yu

2010-05-01

298

Influence of planetary-scale topography on the diurnal thermal tide during the 1971 Martian dust storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained with the Mariner 9 infrared spectroscopy experiment during the Martian Dust Storm of 1971 to 1972 are examined for evidence of topographic influence on the atmospheric thermal structure. Temperature perturbations which are well correlated with the planetary scale topography are found superposed on the large amplitude diurnal thermal tide. Applications of tidal theory to the data indicate that the observed perturbations result from the kinematic interaction of the westward traveling diurnal wave with the large scale components of topography. The dominant mode is excited by the wave-number two topography component and is a vertically evanescent eastward traveling wave with an equivalent depth comparable to the atmospheric scale height. The principle dynamic effect of this mode is the enhancement of the amplitude of the near-surface diurnal wind to over 40m/sec in limited areas near 30 deg south latitude. It appears likely that dust was injected into the atmosphere in these regions during the storm.

Conrath, B. J.

1976-01-01

299

Stereo Pair: Inverted Topography, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow-, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.

Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, and drainage ends up in salty lakes (blue if shallow, black if deep). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lakebeds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.

This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1,4,7 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

2000-01-01

300

New absolute magnitude calibrations for detached binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lutz-Kelker bias corrected absolute magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The absolute magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% (??/??0.15). The calibration equations which provide the corrected absolute magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and absolute magnitudes: -0.18<(B-V)0<0.91, -1.6absolute magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.

Bilir, S.; Ak, T.; Soydugan, E.; Soydugan, F.; Yaz, E.; Filiz Ak, N.; Eker, Z.; Demircan, O.; Helvaci, M.

2008-10-01

301

Absolute magnitude calibration for red clump stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined the ( K s , J- K s ) data in Laney et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 419:1637, 2012) with the V apparent magnitudes and trigonometric parallaxes taken from the Hipparcos catalogue and used them to fit the M_{Ks} absolute magnitude to a linear polynomial in terms of V- K s colour. The mean and standard deviation of the absolute magnitude residuals, -0.001 and 0.195 mag, respectively, estimated for 224 red clump stars in Laney et al. (2012) are (absolutely) smaller than the corresponding ones estimated by the procedure which adopts a mean M_{Ks}=-1.613 {mag} absolute magnitude for all red clump stars, -0.053 and 0.218 mag, respectively. The statistics estimated by applying the linear equation to the data of 282 red clump stars in Alves (Astrophys. J. 539:732, 2000) are larger, ? M_{Ks}=0.209 and ?=0.524 mag, which can be explained by a different absolute magnitude trend, i.e. condensation along a horizontal distribution.

Karaali, S.; Bilir, S.; Yaz Gökçe, E.

2013-07-01

302

Surface topography effects in protein adsorption on nanostructured carbon allotropes.  

PubMed

We report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of protein adsorption on the surface of nanosized carbon allotropes, namely single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) considering both the convex outer surface and the concave inner surface, together with a graphene sheet for comparison. These systems are chosen to investigate the effect of the surface curvature on protein adsorption at the same surface chemistry, given by sp(2) carbon atoms in all cases. The simulations show that proteins do favorably interact with these hydrophobic surfaces, as previously found on graphite which has the same chemical nature. However, the main finding of the present study is that the adsorption strength does depend on the surface topography: in particular, it is slightly weaker on the outer convex surfaces of SWNT and is conversely enhanced on the inner concave SWNT surface, being therefore intermediate for flat graphene. We additionally find that oligopeptides may enter the cavity of common SWNT, provided their size is small enough and the tube diameter is large enough for both entropic and energetic reasons. Therefore, we suggest that proteins can effectively be used to solubilize in water single-walled (and by analogy also multiwalled) carbon nanotubes through adsorption on the outer surface, as indeed experimentally found, and to functionalize them after insertion of oligopeptides within the cavity of nanotubes of appropriate size. PMID:23517008

Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

2013-04-16

303

Topography and Volcanoes on Io (color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The images used to create this enhanced color composite of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. Low sun angles near the terminator (day-night boundary near the left side of the image) offer lighting conditions which emphasize the topography or relief on the volcanic satellite. The topography appears very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horse-shoe shaped feature near the terminator) while a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere. The big reddish-orange ring in the lower right is formed by material deposited from the eruption of Pele, Io's largest volcanic plume.

North is to the top of this picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The resolution is 6.1 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a range of 600,000 kilometers.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Concurrent results from Galileo's exploration of Io appear in the October 15th, 1997 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers are: Temperature and Area Constraints of the South Volund Volcano on Io from the NIMS and SSI Instruments during the Galileo G1 Orbit, by A.G. Davies, A.S. McEwen, R. Lopes-Gautier, L. Keszthelyi, R.W. Carlson and W.D. Smythe. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment, by A. McEwen, D. Simonelli, D. Senske, K. Klassen, L. Keszthelyi, T. Johnson, P. Geissler, M. Carr, and M. Belton. Io: Galileo evidence for major variations in regolith properties, by D. Simonelli, J. Veverka, and A. McEwen.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

304

New Global Bathymetry and Topography Model Grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine topography model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land topography data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data. GEBCO has agreed to adopt this model and begin updating it in 2009. Ongoing tasks include building an uncertainty model and including information from the latest IBCAO map of the Arctic Ocean.

Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.

2008-12-01

305

Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

2006-12-01

306

Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1985-03-01

307

Absolute Photoacoustic Thermometry in Deep Tissue  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic (PA) thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here, we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28 °C to 46 °C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6 °C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

2013-01-01

308

Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.  

PubMed

Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy. PMID:24322224

Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

2013-12-15

309

Absolute Zero: Community Education Outreach Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides curricular resources for study of the history and science of the quest for ever colder temperature. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide offers hands-on demonstrations, questions to encourage student participation, suggestions for class activities, and ways to encourage students to continue studying the science. Topics include low-temperature physics and the impact of technologies such as air conditioning, refrigeration and liquefied gases. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, Absolute Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. Absolute Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold.

2008-09-18

310

Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

1991-02-01

311

Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.  

PubMed

Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods-frequentist and Bayesian-and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification. PMID:24117660

Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

2014-05-01

312

Absolute Continuity in Noncommutative Measure Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results on absolute continuity of Banach space valued operators and convergence theorems on operator algebras are deepened and summarized. It is shown that absolute continuity of an operator T on a von Neumann algebra M with respect to a positive normal functional ? on M is not implied by the fact that the null projections of ? are the null projections of T. However, it is proved that the implication above is true whenever M is finite or T is weak*-continuous. Further it is shown that the absolute value preserves the Vitali-Hahn-Saks property if, and only if, the underlying algebra is finite. This result improves classical results on weak compactness of sets of noncommutative measures.

Hamhalter, Jan

2010-12-01

313

Basins of attraction on random topography.  

PubMed

We investigate the consequences of fluid flowing on a continuous surface upon the geometric and statistical distribution of the flow. We find that the ability of a surface to collect water by its mere geometrical shape is proportional to the curvature of the contour line divided by the local slope. Consequently, rivers tend to lie in locations of high curvature and flat slopes. Gaussian surfaces are introduced as a model of random topography. For Gaussian surfaces the relation between convergence and slope is obtained analytically. The convergence of flow lines correlates positively with drainage area, so that lower slopes are associated with larger basins. As a consequence, we explain the observed relation between the local slope of a landscape and the area of the drainage basin geometrically. To some extent, the slope-area relation comes about not because of fluvial erosion of the landscape, but because of the way rivers choose their path. Our results are supported by numerically generated surfaces as well as by real landscapes. PMID:11308547

Schorghofer, N; Rothman, D H

2001-02-01

314

Basal topography of Kronebreen, NW Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kronebreen is a tidewater outlet glacier draining the icefield Holtedahlfonna, in the Kongsfjord area of NW Svalbard. Like most glaciers in Svalbard, Kronebreen has been in retreat since the first front positions were recorded, with the exception of a brief advance during the surge of the neighboring glacier Kongsvegen around 1948. Kronebreen is one of the fastest non-surging glaciers in Svalbard, with average annual velocities near the calving front of around 450 m/yr. It has not been possible until recently to calculate ice fluxes, however, since the bottom topography of Kronebreen has been unknown. In 2009, ice thickness data were obtained using low frequency radar from helicopter over the heavily crevassed Kronebreen. These new thickness data are combined with surface elevation maps, older ice depth data, and fjord bathymetry data to create an expanded bed map of the Kongsfjord area. Velocity data of Kronebreen derived from feature tracking of high-res visible imagery is also combined with thickness data to calculate estimates of flux throughout the glacier. Analysis of this new data will give a better understanding of Kronebreen's retreat history, its mass balance and flux into Kongsfjord, and help in making predictions of when and how quickly further glacier retreat may occur.

O'Sadnick, M.; Kohler, J.; Langley, K.; Kehrl, L. M.; Berthier, E.

2010-12-01

315

Inversion of topography in Martian highland terrains  

SciTech Connect

Ring furrows are flat-floored trenches, circulate in plan view, forming rings 7 to 50 km in diameter. Typically, ring furrows, which are 0.5 km deep and 2 to 10 km wide, surround a central, flat-topped, circular mesa or plateau. The central plateau is about the same elevation or lower than the plain outside the ring. Ring furrows are unique features of the dissected martian uplands. Related landforms range from ring furrows with fractured central plateaus to circular mesas without encircling moats. Ring furrows are superposed on many types of materials, but they are most common cratered plateau-type materials that are interpreted as volcanic flow material overlying ancient cratered terrain. The ring shape and size suggest that they are related to craters partially buried by lava flows. Ring furrows were formed by preferential removal of exposed rims of partially buried craters. Evidence of overland flow of water is lacking except within the channels. Ground ice decay and sapping followed by fluvial erosion are responsible for removal of the less resistant rim materials. Thus, differential erosion has caused a reversal of topography in which the originally elevated rim is reduced to negative relief.

De Hon, R.A.

1985-01-01

316

Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

2003-01-01

317

The Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global topography compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic/). Local data sources include high-resolution bathymetry swaths and grids from over 210 research cruises, submersible dives, and related compilations to date. GMRT is accessible via a OGC Web Map Service (WMS) which offers dynamic resolution and on-the-fly map re- projection. A growing number of commercial and open-source clients support OGC protocols, including recent versions of Google Earth and Google Maps which now support WMS natively. GMRT is incorporated as a primary basemap in science Web portals and geobrowsers including EarthChem (www.earthchem.org) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org), which also serves the underlying elevation values. Future development work will include extension of GMRT to higher resolutions; addition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO; www.ibcso.org) and the improved SRTM V2; and deployment of new OGC services including a Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Terrain Service (WTS).

Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.

2007-12-01

318

Shape, topography, gravity anomalies and tidal deformation of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity measurements and elevation data from the Cassini mission have been used to create shape, global topography and gravity anomaly models of Titan that enable an improved understanding of its outer ice I shell structure. We provide constraints on the averaged ice shell thickness and its long-wavelength lateral variations, as well as the density of the subsurface ocean using gravity anomalies, the tidal Love number k2 measurement and long-wavelength topography. We found that Titan’s surface topography is consistent with an approximate isostatically compensated ice shell of variable thickness, likely in a thermally conductive or in a subcritical convective state, overlying a relatively dense subsurface ocean.

Mitri, Giuseppe; Meriggiola, Rachele; Hayes, Alex; Lefevre, Axel; Tobie, Gabriel; Genova, Antonio; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Zebker, Howard

2014-07-01

319

Pyroclastic density currents and local topography as seen with the conveyer model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are multiphase flows generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and they move down the volcano, and over the surrounding topography. The flow-topography interaction can play a fundamental role in the sedimentary processes, and in the resulting deposit facies architecture, as well as can play a dramatic role in the flow behavior, and in the associated volcanic hazard. This paper aims at discussing the PDC-topography interaction theme from the viewpoint of both deposits and flow structure, by accounting for appropriate literature, and revising the concepts in light of the theoretical conveyer model of Doronzo and Dellino (2013) on sedimentation and deposition in particulate density currents. First the effects, then the causes of the flow-topography interaction are discussed, in order to follow the historical development of theme concepts. The discussion is relative in terms of inertial and forced currents, which are defined on the basis of a dimensionless quantity (SD) representing the conservation of mass. Momentum equation relating depositional unit thickness, flow shear velocity, and density contrast shows that the flow is the cause of PDC motion, whereas the density contrast sustains the momentum, and the deposits are the process effect. In particular, the flow structure is described into three parts, flow-substrate boundary zone, boundary layer (lower part), and wake region (upper part) of the current. The facies architecture of PDC deposits, and the volcanic hazard depend on fluid dynamic and hydraulic behavior represented, in light of the conveyer model, by the balance of sedimentation and deposition rates through transport and erosion (“sedimentation-deposition” ratio, SD). This balance acts between flow-substrate boundary zone and boundary layer. The paper discussion mainly applies to small-to-intermediate volume eruptions. Field and modeling examples of Vulcano tuff cone and Colli Albani maar (Italy) constrain the conveyer model, whereas the literature of very large, ignimbrite-forming eruptions, and stratovolcanism is accounted for theme completeness. The main findings are some relative guidelines on PDC-topography interaction that can be used when modeling the flow, and interpreting the pyroclastic deposits: low SD is typical of inertial currents, whereas high SD is typical of forced currents, which can vary depending on topography.

Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

2014-05-01

320

Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor

Aleksandra M. Walczak; José N. Onuchic; Peter G. Wolynes

2005-01-01

321

Absolute Measurement of exp 152 Eu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of the absolute measurement for exp 152 Eu was established based on the 4 pi beta - gamma spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4 pi beta -counter and a Ge(Li) gamma -ray detector, in which...

H. Baba S. Baba S. Ichikawa T. Sekine I. Ishikawa

1981-01-01

322

Absolute versus relative time in process algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timed process algebras are useful tools for the specification and verification of real time systems. We study the relationships between two of these algebras, cIpa ('Closed Interval Process Algebra') and TCCS ('Temporal CCS') which deal with temporal aspects of concurrent systems by following very different interpretations: durational actions versus durationless actions, absolute time versus relative time, timed functional behavior versus

Flavio Corradini

1997-01-01

323

Absolute versus Relative Time in Process Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timed process algebras are useful tools for the specification and verification of real-time systems. We study the relationships between two of these algebras, cIpa (closed interval process Algebra) and TCCS (temporal CCS), which deal with temporal aspects of concurrent systems by following very different interpretations: durational actions versus durationless actions, absolute time versus relative time, timed functional behavior versus time

Flavio Corradini

2000-01-01

324

Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

2011-01-01

325

Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

2006-01-01

326

Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.  

PubMed

We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 ?m in position and ±20 ?rad in angle. PMID:23669658

Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

2013-04-20

327

Resonance absolute quantum reflection at selected energies.  

PubMed

We present one-dimensional local potentials with an absolute reflection at a given energy value which can be above barriers. The corresponding energy dependence of a reflection coefficient exhibits resonance behavior. The inversion technique provides the potentials with specified widths of reflection resonances, their number and positions. The multichannel systems (exact models) with a complete reflection are also given. PMID:11690195

Chabanov, V M; Zakhariev, B N

2001-10-15

328

Absolutely Uniform Illumination of Laser Fusion Pellets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 3 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this...

A. J. Schmitt

1984-01-01

329

An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

2009-01-01

330

Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full Stokes flow-line models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock topography most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent of the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e. the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock topography for ice stream dynamics on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface topography at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.

De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Corr, H. F. J.; Christoffersen, P.

2013-03-01

331

Surface undulations of Antarctic ice streams tightly controlled by bedrock topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full Stokes models predict that fast-flowing ice streams transmit information about their bedrock topography most efficiently to the surface for basal undulations with length scales between 1 and 20 times the mean ice thickness. This typical behaviour is independent on the precise values of the flow law and sliding law exponents, and should be universally observable. However, no experimental evidence for this important theoretical prediction has been obtained so far, hence ignoring an important test for the physical validity of current-day ice flow models. In our work we use recently acquired airborne radar data for the Rutford Ice Stream and Evans Ice Stream, and we show that the surface response of fast-flowing ice is highly sensitive to bedrock irregularities with wavelengths of several ice thicknesses. The sensitivity depends on the slip ratio, i.e. the ratio between mean basal sliding velocity and mean deformational velocity. We find that higher values of the slip ratio generally lead to a more efficient transfer, whereas the transfer is significantly dampened for ice that attains most of its surface velocity by creep. Our findings underline the importance of bedrock topography for ice stream dynamics on spatial scales up to 20 times the mean ice thickness. Our results also suggest that local variations in the flow regime and surface topography at this spatial scale cannot be explained by variations in basal slipperiness.

De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Corr, H. F. J.; Christoffersen, P.

2012-10-01

332

SRTM Anaglyph: Inverted Topography, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued, and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.

Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, but instead the drainage ends up in salty lakes (dark water, some with bright shores). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lake beds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.

This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat band 7 (short infrared) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

2000-01-01

333

Science in Motion: Isolated Araneiform Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

Have you ever found that to describe something you had to go to the dictionary and search for just the right word?

The south polar terrain is so full of unearthly features that we had to visit Mr. Webster to find a suitable term. 'Araneiform' means 'spider-like'. These are channels that are carved in the surface by carbon dioxide gas. We do not have this process on Earth.

The channels are somewhat radially organized (figure 1) and widen and deepen as they converge. In the past we've just refered to them as 'spiders.' 'Isolated araneiform topography' means that our features look like spiders that are not in contact with each other.

Observation Geometry Image PSP_003087_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 24-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -87.1 degrees latitude, 126.3 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.4 km (152.8 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.5 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 73 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 08:22 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 81 degrees, thus the sun was about 9 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 206.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

2007-01-01

334

X-ray topography of a lysozyme crystal  

SciTech Connect

X-ray topography methods were employed to identify defects in lysozyme crystals. White-beam and monochromatic topographs of lysozyme crystals obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source are presented.

Stojanoff,V.; Siddons, D.

1996-01-01

335

EAARL coastal topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal topography GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.

Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.

2012-01-01

336

Calculation of irrotational wind pattern with application to Cleveland topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small perturbation theory is applied to compute the deflection of the wind blowing across land that has an irregular topography. As an illustration, the method is applied first to the flow around a single hill of Gaussian profile. Then calculations are made for the irregular topography on the east side of Cleveland where the elevation changes by several hundred feet. It was found that the topography produced small wind deflections that would not be of practical importance in air pollution dispersion studies. The calculations were for a neutrally stable atmosphere. Although they are not investigated here, other factors such as thermal stratification of the atmosphere, diurnal variations, and convection currents resulting from the proximity of Lake Erie and the city heat island effect are expected to be more significant than the influence of topography.

Siegel, R.

1972-01-01

337

Role of Topography in Geodetic Gravity Field Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the...

R. Forsberg M. G. Sideris

1989-01-01

338

Stereo Topography and Subsurface Thermal Profiles on Icy Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stereo topography is used in combination with numerical modeling to study the subsurface structure and thermal history of icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, with important implications for past and perhaps current habitability.

Phillips, C. B.

2014-02-01

339

Engineering microscale topographies to control the cell-substrate interface  

PubMed Central

Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including topography and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale topographies to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cell–substrate interface. Topographies of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar topographies to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application.

Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

340

Effect of topography on deposition from dilute pyroclastic density currents simulated by Ansys Fluent software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroclastic density currents are volcanic gas-particle flows that move along volcano flanks and over the neighboring topography. Flow particle concentration can vary between two end members, concentrated and dilute. When a pyroclastic density current interacts with an uneven topography, the flow-field variables (velocity, pressure, particle concentration) are drastically changed at the flow-substrate boundary. These changes may significantly affect the sedimentation rate and the resulting deposits can record such effects in their sedimentological features. Here we show, by means of numerical simulations, how a dilute pyroclastic density current interacts with four different types of topographies, namely: flat, one hill, one valley and two hills. The simulations are carried out by Ansys Fluent commercial software for applications in fluid dynamic engineering. Our numerical scheme treats the very fine particles as being in full thermo-mechanical equilibrium with the volcanic gas (pseudo-fluid phase), and the trajectories of the coarser particles are tracked by means of the pseudo-fluid solution (Lagrangian particles). There is a two-way coupling between the pseudo-fluid phase and Lagrangian particles, which accounts for the reciprocal mechanical effects of the two phases. Numerical results are then used to analyze the local effects of topography on the deposition of the Lagrangian particles, by monitoring with time and space the local changes at the boundary between the dilute pyroclastic density current and substrate. We use the sedimentation rate and grain-size distribution of the Lagrangian particles as proxies of the deposit features, and by these parameters we compare qualitatively the numerical results with the deposits of known eruptions: Mount St. Helens blast, Taupo ignimbrite and Vulcano surge deposits. The results reproduce qualitatively the natural deposits very well, and we conclude that Ansys Fluent software could be used in volcanology with success.

Doronzo, Domenico Maria; Valentine, Greg A.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; de Tullio, Marco D.

2010-05-01

341

Osteoblast Mechanoresponses on Ti with Different Surface Topographies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During implant healing, mechanical force is transmitted to osteogenic cells via implant surfaces with various topographies. This study tested a hypothesis that osteoblasts respond to mechanical stimulation differently on titanium with different surface topographies. Rat bone-marrow-derived osteoblastic cells were cultured on titanium disks with machined or acid-etched surfaces. A loading session consisted of a 3-minute application of a 10- or

N. Sato; K. Kubo; M. Yamada; N. Hori; T. Suzuki; H. Maeda; T. Ogawa

2009-01-01

342

Three-dimensional inversion of CSAMT data including topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CSAMT is widely used in geothermal prospecting, mineral and petroleum exploration, environmental geophysics and geological engineering. However, few data are collected on the flat surface in the field CSAMT work. Most of CSAMT data are collected in the presence of strong topography either at the source position or in the survey area. Large interpretation errors may occur in CSAMT surveys if field distortions caused by the surface topography are not considered. Therefore, the CSAMT inversion should consider the topographic effect. In this work we develop a 3D inversion algorithm for inverting CSAMT data with topography using conjugate gradient inversion method. In the 3D forward problem, the total electric and magnetic fields is separated into their primary and secondary components to calculate the response from the 3D model with irregular topography. 3D rectangular grid with stair-stepped ground-air interface is used to approximate topography. The primary electric and magnetic field can be calculated by one-dimensional modeling, using the altitude of the highest point of the topography as the altitude of the flat surface. The secondary electric and magnetic field can be calculated using the staggered-grid finite difference method. Then, the apparent resistivity and phase response can be obtained by Cagniard equation. In the 3D inversion problem, conjugate gradient method is used to invert the CSAMT apparent resistivity and phase data including topography. The background resistivity is a constant value and the anomalous resistivity is used as the inversion parameter. Only the anomalous resistivity under the surface topography is updated in the inversion. Results from the synthetic tests show the validity and stability of the inversion algorithm.

Lin, C.; Tan, H.; Tong, T.; Zeng, W.

2013-12-01

343

Influence of surface topography on elastically backscattered electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account of the detailed surface roughness of a realistic solid sample, has been performed to study the surface topography influence on elastic peak intensity. To describe quantitatively the surface topography effect, here we introduce surface roughness parameter (SRP) according to the ratio of elastic peak intensities between a rough surface and an ideal planar surface. Simulation results for Al sample have shown that SRP varies with surface roughness particularly at large incidence/emission angles.

Ding, X.; Da, B.; Gong, J. B.; Mao, S. F.; Ding, Z. J.

2014-04-01

344

Phase contrast in Simultaneous Topography and Recognition imaging.  

PubMed

The operation of a force microscope in Simultaneous Topography and Recognition (TREC) imaging mode is analyzed by means of numerical simulations. Both topography and recognition signals are analyzed by using a worm-like chain force as the specific interaction between the functionalized tip probe and the sample. The special feedback mechanism in this mode is shown to couple the phase signal to the presence of molecular recognition interactions even in absence of dissipation. PMID:19523768

Fuss, M C; Sahagún, E; Köber, M; Briones, F; Luna, M; Sáenz, J J

2009-08-01

345

X ray topography study of gallium phosphate crystals and resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the synchrotron radiation delivered by the DCI storage ring at LURE (Orsay, France), the X-ray topography technique was used to study the crystalline perfection of GaPO4 samples grown under different conditions. The growth of gallium phosphate on a berlinite seed is analyzed by X-ray section topography. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of gallium phosphate epitaxy on large berlinite

B. Capelle; A. Zarka; J. Schwartzel; J. Detaint; Y. Zheng; A. Ibanez; E. Philippot

1993-01-01

346

Impact of the rheological layering of the lithosphere on the topography generated by sublithospheric density anomalies: Insights from analog modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density anomalies located beneath the lithosphere are thought to generate dynamic topography at the surface of the Earth. Tomographic models are often used to infer the later variations of the density field in the mantle. Surface topography can then be computed using analytical solutions or numerical simulations of mantle convection. It has been shown that the viscosity profile of the upper mantle has a strong influence on the magnitude and spectral signature of surface topography and uplift rate. Here we present results from analogue modeling of the interaction between a rising ball-shaped density anomaly and the lithosphere in an isoviscous, isothermal Newtonian mantle system. Preliminary data show that surface topography is strongly influenced not only by mantle viscosity but also by density and viscosity profiles of the lithosphere. Our apparatus consists of a plexiglass square box (40x40x50 cm3) filled with glucose syrup. From the bottom a silicon ball was free to rise up until impinging a silicon plate floating on top of the syrup, mimicking the lithosphere. In order to investigate the role of lithospheric thickness and layered continental crust on stress partitioning, maximum dynamic topography, uplift rate and signal wavelength, two different configurations were tested: homogeneous lithosphere and stratified lithosphere including a low-viscosity lower crust. The topographic evolution of the surface was tracked using a laser scanning the top of the apparatus. The rise of the density anomaly was recorded by a side camera. We observe that a thick and then more resistant lithosphere makes up to 2 times lower and laterally wider topographic signatures. Layered lithospheres including a decoupling lower crust decrease the equilibrium topography and its lateral extend by ~30% to 40%. Most importantly, the uplift rate is strongly affected by the choice of lithosphere model. Both lithosphere width and the presence of a decoupling lower crust may modify the uplift rate by a factor 3. Thus, depending on the lithosphere rheology, we show that uplift rate may vary by one order of magnitude, for the same density anomaly and mantle viscosity. This result shows that surface uplift rate can be used to infer the viscosity of the upper mantle in specific Earth regions only if the rheology of the lithosphere is well constrained. With respect to previous approaches, whether numerical or analog modeling of dynamic topography, our experiments represent a new attempt to investigate the propagation of normal stresses generated by mantle flow through a rheologically stratified lithosphere and its resulting topographic signal.

Sembroni, A.; Globig, J.; Rozel, A.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Fernandez, M.

2013-12-01

347

Dynamic space converts relativity into absolute time and dis- tance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass cen- ter is delayed compared to a signal

Tuomo Suntola

348

Multifractal absolute galactic luminosity distributions and the multifractal Hubble 3\\/2 law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale-invariant intergalactic dynamics governed by a statistically homogeneous cascade process generically yields multifractal luminosity distributions with highly inhomogeneous realizations (the standard nonfractal and fractal models are special limiting cases). The main obstacles for extending scaling analyses to the spatial distribution of galactic absolute luminosities are the large “Malmquist” catalogue biases which – for multifractal galaxy distributions – we here show

S. Lovejoy; P. Garrido; D. Schertzer

2000-01-01

349

Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

Aizenman, Michael [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Warzel, Simone [Zentrum Mathematik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2012-09-15

350

Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated landscapes are quite distinct from their fluvial counterparts in both landforms and processes. Given the scarcity of purely fluvial, active mountain ranges, it is essential that glacial erosion be considered amongst the processes sculpting active orogenic belts.

Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2002-01-01

351

First order sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems using absolute nodal coordinate formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design sensitivity analysis of flexible multibody systems is important in optimizing the performance of mechanical systems.\\u000a The choice of coordinates to describe the motion of multibody systems has a great influence on the efficiency and accuracy\\u000a of both the dynamic and sensitivity analysis. In the flexible multibody system dynamics, both the floating frame of reference\\u000a formulation (FFRF) and absolute nodal

Ting Pi; Yunqing Zhang; Liping Chen

352

Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED  

SciTech Connect

The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

2013-07-26

353

Absolute effective areas of the HETGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XRCF measurements of the flight AXAF High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer throughput were used to determine absolute effective areas. The result are compared with component models of the HRMA, HETG and the ACIS-S. The comparison provides an independent view on HETG efficiencies as well as the detector efficiencies along the dispersion direction. Using the XRCF double crystal monochromator measurements in the range from 0.9 to 8.7 keV, the effective areas in the 1st order MEG were determined with an accuracy of better than 10 percent, in the 1st order HEG better than 15 percent throughout most of the energy range. This is within the goal set for the XRCF measurements to refine state of the art composite component model predictions, which in the future will allow us to draw conclusions on the in-flight HETGS absolute effective area.

Schulz, Norbert S.; Dewey, Daniel; Marshall, Herman L.

1998-11-01

354

Absolute plate motions by boundary velocity minimizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main interaction of the earth's interior with the lithosphere is as a material source and sink. An absolute reference frame defined by minimizing the translational motion of tectonic plate boundaries differs by 0.6 cm/year from a frame defined by hot spot traces and by 0.4 cm/year from the frame defined by the most plausible model of drag forces on the plates. The rms absolute translational velocities are about 2 cm/year for ocean-ocean plate boundaries and 1.5 cm/year for ocean-continent plate boundaries. The close agreement between the source and sink and the drag-dependent definitions suggests that the lithosphere, as a stress guide, to some extent controls the locations of its sources and sinks.

Kaula, W. M.

1975-01-01

355

Absolute Proper Motions Outside the Plane (APOP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the discovered exoplanets are close to our sun. Usually their host star is with large proper motions, which is an important parameter for exoplanet searching. The first version of absolute proper motions catalog achieved based on Digitized Sky Survey Schmidt plate where outside the galactic plane |b|>=27° is presented, resulting in a zero point error less than +/- 0.3 mas/yr, and the overall accuracy better than +/- 4.5 mas/yr for objects brighter than R F =18.5, and ranging from 4.5 to 9.0 mas/yr for objects with magnitude 18.5absolute proper motions related to the position, magnitude and color are practically all removed. The sky cover of this catalog is 22,525 degree 2, the mean density is 6444 objects/degree 2 and the magnitude limit is around R F =20.5.

Qi, Zhaoxiang; Yu, Yong; Smart, Richard L.; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Tang, Zhenghong; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Vecchiato, Alberto; Spagna, Alessandro; McLean, Brian J.

2014-04-01

356

Absolute-magnitude Distributions of Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (MB < -21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (MB > -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

Richardson, Dean; Jenkins, Robert L., III; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry

2014-05-01

357

Dynamo action by turbulence in absolute equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the generation of a large-scale magnetic field by a turbulent flow driven by a small-scale helical forcing in a low magnetic Prandtl number fluid. We provide an estimate of the dynamo threshold that takes into account the presence of large-scale turbulent fluctuations by considering that the scales of the flow that mostly contribute to the dynamo process are roughly in absolute equilibrium. We show that turbulent flows in absolute equilibrium do generate dynamos and we compare their growth rates to their laminar counterparts. Finally, we show that the back reaction of the growing magnetic field modifies the statistical properties of turbulent flow by suppressing its kinetic helicity at large magnetic Reynolds number.

Gopalakrishnan Ganga Prasath, Srinivasa; Fauve, Stéphan; Brachet, Marc

2014-04-01

358

An absolute measure for a key currency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

359

From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

2012-01-01

360

Absolute orientation of molecules at interfaces.  

PubMed

A method to determine the absolute orientation of molecules at liquid interfaces by sum frequency generation (SFG) is reported. It is based on measurements of the orientations of two nonparallel vibrationally active chromophores in the molecule of interest combined with a rotation matrix formulation to obtain the absolute molecular orientation. We chose m-tolunitrile, a planar molecule adsorbed to the air/water interface, as a proof-of-method experiment. Quantitative analysis of different polarization sum frequency intensities facilitate unique peak assignments of the methyl and nitrile groups of m-tolunitrile. The SFG analysis of the measurement yields a nitrile group tilting at 53 degrees to the surface normal, and the C3 axis of the methyl group is almost upright at 23 degrees with respect to the surface normal. Using a rotation matrix formulation, we found that the angle between the surface plane and the m-tolunitrile molecular plane is 70 degrees. PMID:16471739

Rao, Yi; Comstock, Matthew; Eisenthal, Kenneth B

2006-02-01

361

Absolute Plate Motions by Boundary Velocity Minimizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main interaction of the interior with the lithosphere is as a material source and sink. An absolute reference frame defined by minimizing the translational motion of tectonic plate boundaries differs by 0.6 cm\\/yr from a frame defined by hot spo_t traces and by 0.4 cm\\/yr from the frame defined by the most plausible model of drag forces on the

William M. Kaula

1975-01-01

362

On absolute CM-periods, II  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a CM-fieldK, Shimura defined the period symbolpK by factorizing periods of abelian varieties with complex multiplication. We define the absolute period symbolgK using division values of the multiple gamma function and conjecture that pK coincides with gK up to the multiplication by algebraic numbers. Taking the action of Gal(Q Q) into account, we present a refined version of this

Hiroyuki Yoshida

1998-01-01

363

Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

1985-01-01

364

Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

1982-01-01

365

Absolute negative mobility in a vibrational motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An anomalous transport phenomenon termed absolute negative mobility (ANM) was observed in a vibrational motor, where an additional time-periodic signal filled the role usually played by noise in a Brownian motor. Within a tailored parameter regime, the ANM behavior is maximized at two regimes upon variation of the bias. The observed ANM still survives at a wide range of the driving strength and angular frequency of the additional signal.

Du, Luchun; Mei, Dongcheng

2012-01-01

366

Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR Topography in Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earth’s surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The OpenTopography Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. OpenTopography hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR topography into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, OpenTopography currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the OpenTopography Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. OpenTopography also provides dynamically generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the OpenTopography point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the OpenTopography results page and viewed directly in the browser.

Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.

2009-12-01

367

Destabilization of barotropic flows by small-scale topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the stability of a zonal jet aligned with zonal topography, on the barotropic beta-plane. The topography is assumed to be spatially periodic, with the period being much smaller than the width of the jet. The problem is examined by means of linear normal-mode analysis and direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear governing equation. The following results have been obtained: If topography is sufficiently weak, the growth rate of the most unstable normal mode has two maxima. The long-wave maximum occurs at wavelengths comparable to the width of the jet and is described by Benilov's (2000) asymptotic theory. The short-wave maximum is associated with topography. Each short-wave mode has two localisation points, which coincide with topographic crests located on opposite slopes of the jet. The mode localised near the lines of maximum shear of the jet, has the largest growth rate. For strong topography, only the short-wave maximum is present, and long-wave disturbances are stable. The long-term evolution of unstable jets has been examined through direct numerical simulation. Three scenarios have been found: (i) If topography is weak and does not stabilise long-wave normal modes, the evolution of the flow is similar to that in the case of a flat bottom, i.e. the jet begins to meander and breaks up into separate vortices. (ii) For strong topography, long-wave disturbances are stable, and short-wave disturbances are confined to two narrow strips near the lines of maximum shear. This comes as a surprise, as there are plenty of normal modes localised elsewhere, with growth rates only marginally smaller than that of the fastest growing mode. The strips rapidly become nonlinear and turbulent, and the potential vorticity within them homogenises. Eventually, after a long period of "quasistability", the strips widen, begin to interact, and meander, and the jet breaks up into turbulence-filled vortices.

Benilov, E.; Nycander, J.; Dritschel, D. G.

2003-04-01

368

Evidence for a gradual decrease of geoid to topography ratio along the Hawaiian island chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the seafloor around the Hawaiian island chain is unusually shallow. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: the thermal lithospheric thinning and the dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the apparent compensation depth; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess the swell support. This is why the topography and geoid anomalies over the Hawaiian swell have been the subject of many investigations. The observed GTR has been reported to lie between 4 and 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to the volcanic edifice and lithospheric flexure, and this biases the resulting GTR. Consequently, we propose a new method based on continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to obtain the GTR in the space and in the frequency domains. We show that the GTR varies along the swell, from 8 m/km on Big Island to 3-4 m/km 2000 km to the northwest, for the scales ranging between 1100 and 1600 km. This reflects a decay of the apparent compensation depth moving along the islands chain. Our results are consistent with the recent seismic study from Li et al. [Nature 427 (2004) 827-829], where the authors evidence that the lithosphere gradually thins along the islands chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. These results together converge to a hybrid model for the origin of the Hawaiian swell: the swell as a whole is supported dynamically, but it is also partly due to heating and thinning of the lithosphere in its central portions.

Diament, M.; Cadio, C.; Panet, I.

2010-12-01

369

Responses of microbial biomass and respiration of soil to topography, burning, and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal dynamics of microbial biomass and respiration of soil and their responses to topography, burning, N fertilization,\\u000a and their interactions were determined in a temperate steppe in northern China. Soil microbial indices showed strong temporal\\u000a variability over the growing season. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) were 14.8 and 11.5% greater in the lower than\\u000a upper slope, respectively.

Weixing Liu; Wenhua Xu; Yi Han; Changhui Wang; Shiqiang Wan

2007-01-01

370

Absolute metrology by phase and frequency modulation for multiwavelength interferometry.  

PubMed

A fiber interferometer for absolute distance measurements is presented whereby wavelength variation is achieved via a sinusoidal strain modulation of a fiber Bragg grating to generate a series of beat wavelengths. The interferometer employs fiber laser sources where the design is based on the use of narrow-bandwidth fiber Bragg gratings. The accuracy of the beat wavelengths is improved compared to the use of multiple wavelengths measured with conventional optical spectrum analyzers or available wavemeters. Initial measurements are presented for beat wavelengths of 254.74 mm and 27.4 m over an optical path difference of 200 mm and 3.8 m, respectively. Combined with a two (or three) wavelength interferometer, this technique has the potential for ultrahigh dynamic range metrology ranging over several meters while preserving subfringe resolution and a low system complexity. PMID:21808361

Falaggis, Konstantinos; Towers, Catherine E

2011-08-01

371

The Absolute Calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

2014-07-01

372

Gravity, topography, and magnetic field of Mercury from MESSENGER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a ˜12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60°N, and apoapsis at ˜15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68°N, 33° E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR^2 = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M=3.30 × 10 ^{23} kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C_m/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe-rich outer core of radius 2030 ± 37 km, and an assumed solid inner core. Magnetic field measurements indicate a northward offset of Mercury's axial magnetic dipole from the geographic equator by 479 ± 3 km and provide evidence for a regional-scale magnetic field approximately collocated with the northern volcanic plains of possible crustal origin. These results from MESSENGER indicate a complex and asymmetric evolution of internal structure and dynamics in this end-member inner planet.

Neumann, Gregory

2012-07-01

373

Exploring the Saturation Levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Absolute Regime  

SciTech Connect

This Letter reports new experimental results that evidence the transition between the absolute and convective growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Significant reflectivities were observed only when the instability grows in the absolute regime. In this case, saturation processes efficiently limit the SRS reflectivity that is shown to scale linearly with the laser intensity, and the electron density and temperature. Such a scaling agrees with the one established by T. Kolber et al.[Phys. Fluids B 5, 138 (1993)] and B Bezzerides et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2569 (1993)], from numerical simulations where the Raman saturation is due to the coupling of electron plasma waves with ion waves dynamics.

Michel, D. T. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-CEA-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); CEA DAM DIF, F- 91297 Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S.; Tassin, V. [CEA DAM DIF, F- 91297 Arpajon (France); Stenz, C. [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Labaune, C. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-CEA-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)

2010-06-25

374

Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)  

PubMed Central

We present a method to obtain accurate corneal topography from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface topography measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface topography (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal topography instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT topographies without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements.

Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana

2011-01-01

375

Gravity, Topography and the Early Evolution of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early evolution of terrestrial planets was characterized processes that shaped interiors and surfaces such as differentiation, magmatism, tectonism and impact bombardment. The Moon preserves well the record of these early processes, and due to proximity to Earth this record can be studied in unprecedented detail. Observations of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), an instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has collected over 5.6 billion measurements of lunar topography and has yielded the most accurate global topography model for any planet. LOLA topography enables significant advances in the quantitative characterization of planetary surfaces. Topography combined with high-resolution gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, provides the opportunity to map the lunar interior from crust to core. Spherical harmonic models of topography to degree 720 and gravity to degree 420 allow estimates of crustal thickness, density and porosity, as well as insights into the structure of the lithosphere and in particular the compensation states of major impact basins and their relationships to mare volcanism. Of great interest is the role of impact bombardment in early evolution, from the size-frequency distribution to refine relative ages, to the role of impacts in melting and re-distributing the crust. Understanding gained from the Moon can analyzed in the context of observations from other terrestrial planets to provide a holistic view of early planetary evolution.

Zuber, M. T.

2012-12-01

376

Toroidal vortices over isolated topography in geophysical flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with a model of a topographically trapped vortex appearing over isolated topography in a geophysical flow. The main feature of the study is that we pay special attention to the vertical structure of a topographically trapped vortex. The model considered allows one to study the vertical motion which is known not to be negligible in many cases. Given topography in the form of an isolated cylinder, and radial symmetry and stationarity of a uniform flow, in the linear approximation, we formulate a boundary value problem that determines all the components of the velocity field through a six-order differential operator, and nonincreasing boundary conditions at the center of the topography, and at infinity. The eigenvalues of the boundary value problem correspond to bifurcation points, in which the flow becomes unstable, hence non-negligible vertical velocities occur. We formulate a condition for the boundary value problem to have a discrete spectrum of these bifurcation points, and hence to be solvable. Conducting a series of test calculations, we show that the resulting vortex lies in the vicinity of topography, and can attain the distance up to half of the topography characteristic radius.

Koshel, Konstantin V.; Ryzhov, Evgeny A.; Zyryanov, Valery N.

2014-06-01

377

The influence of surface topography on Kelvin probe force microscopy.  

PubMed

Long-range electrostatic forces govern the imaging mechanism in electrostatic force microscopy as well as in Kelvin probe force microscopy. To improve the analysis of such images, simulations of the electrostatic field distribution have been performed in the past using a flat surface and a cone-shaped tip. However, the electrostatic field distribution between a tip and a sample depends strongly on the surface topography, which has been neglected in previous studies. It is therefore of general importance to study the influence of sample topography features on Kelvin probe force microscopy images, which we address here by performing finite element simulations. We show how the surface potential measurement is influenced by surface steps and surface grooves, considering potential variations in the form of a potential peak and a potential step. The influence of the topography on the measurement of the surface potential is found to be rather small compared to a typical experimental resolution. Surprisingly, in the case of a coinciding topography and potential step an improvement of the potential profile due to the inclusion of the topography is observed. Finally, based on the obtained results, suggestions for the realization of KPFM measurement are given. PMID:19934483

Sadewasser, S; Leendertz, C; Streicher, F; Lux-Steiner, M Ch

2009-12-16

378

Efficient simulation and optimization of wafer topographies in double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the technology marches towards the 32nm node and beyond in semiconductor manufacturing, double patterning and double exposure techniques are currently regarded as the potential candidates to produce lines and spaces (L&S) and contact holes (C/H), respectively. In this paper, the Waveguide method, a rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) solver, is employed to investigate the impact of wafer topographies on two specific double patterning techniques. At first, the topography effects induced by the first patterning on the second lithography process in a lithography-etch-lithographyetch (LELE) process are demonstrated. A new methodology of the bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) optimization is proposed to reduce the impact of wafer topography on resist profiles. Additionally, an optical proximity correction (OPC) of the second lithography mask is demonstrated to compensate the wafer topography induced asymmetric deformations of line ends. Rigorous EMF simulations of lithographic exposures are also applied to investigate wafer topography effects in a freezing process. The difference between the optical properties of the frozen (first) resist and the second resist potentially causes linewidth variations. Quantitative criteria for tolerable refractive index and extinction differences between the two resist materials are given. The described studies can be used for the optimizations of topographic waferstacks, the OPC of the second litho mask, and for the development of resist materials with appropriate optical properties.

Shao, Feng; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

2009-03-01

379

Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood dynamics but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved topography, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived topography. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated peak flow, we can examine the flow behavior at the site of the apparent subaqueous dunes and, in particular, assess whether the flow in this area is uniquely conducive to the formation of such bedforms [e.g., 9]. [1] Berman D. C. and Hartmann W. K. (2002) Icarus 159, 1-17. [2] Burr D. M. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 53-73. [3] Jaeger W. L. et al. (2010) Icarus 205, 230-243. [4] Keszthelyi L. P. et al. (2007) GRL 34, L21206. [5] McIntyre et al. (2012) JGR 117, E03009. [6] Burr D. (2005) Geomorphology 69, 242-252. [7] Burr D. M. et al. (2004) Icarus 171, 68-83. [8] Denlinger R. P. and O'Connell D. R. H. (2008) J. Hyd. Eng. 134, 1590-1602. [9] Kleinhans M. G. (2005) JGR 110, E12003.

Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.

2012-12-01

380

Neotectonics and intraplate continental topography of the northern Alpine Foreland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on neotectonics and related seismicity has hitherto been mostly focused on active plate boundaries that are characterized by generally high levels of earthquake activity. Current seismic hazard estimates for intraplate domains are mainly based on probabilistic analyses of historical and instrumental earthquake catalogues. The accuracy of such hazard estimates is limited by the fact that available catalogues are restricted to a few hundred years, which, on geological time scales, is insignificant and not suitable for the assessment of tectonic processes controlling the observed earthquake activity. More reliable hazard prediction requires access to high quality data sets covering a geologically significant time span in order to obtain a better understanding of processes controlling on-going intraplate deformation. The Alpine Orogen and the intraplate sedimentary basins and rifts in its northern foreland are associated with a much higher level of neotectonic activity than hitherto assumed. Seismicity and stress indicator data, combined with geodetic and geomorphologic observations, demonstrate that deformation of the Northern Alpine foreland is still on-going and will continue in the future. This has major implications for the assessment of natural hazards and the environmental degradation potential of this densely populated area. We examine relationships between deeper lithospheric processes, neotectonics and surface processes in the northern Alpine Foreland, and their implications for tectonically induced topography. For the Environmental Tectonics Project (ENTEC), the Upper and Lower Rhine Graben (URG and LRG) and the Vienna Basin (VB) were selected as natural laboratories. The Vienna Basin developed during the middle Miocene as a sinistral pull-apart structure on top of the East Alpine nappe stack, whereas the Upper and Lower Rhine grabens are typical intracontinental rifts. The Upper Rhine Graben opened during its Late Eocene and Oligocene initial rifting phase by nearly orthogonal crustal extension, whereas its Neogene evolution was controlled by oblique extension. Seismic tomography suggests that during extension the mantle-lithosphere was partially decoupled from the upper crust at the level of the lower crust. However, whole lithospheric folding controlled the mid-Miocene to Pliocene uplift of the Vosges-Black Forest Arch, whereas thermal thinning of the mantle-lithosphere above a mantle plume contributed substantially to the past and present uplift of the Rhenish Massif. By contrast, oblique crustal extension, controlling the late Oligocene initial subsidence stage of the Lower Rhine Graben, gave way to orthogonal extension at the transition to the Neogene. The ENTEC Project integrated geological, geophysical, geomorphologic, geodetic and seismological data and developed dynamic models to quantify the societal impact of neotectonics in areas hosting major urban and industrial activity concentrations. The response of Europe's intraplate lithosphere to Late Neogene compressional stresses depends largely on its thermo-mechanical structure, which, in turn, controls vertical motions, topography evolution and related surface processes.

Cloetingh, S.; Cornu, T.; Ziegler, P. A.; Beekman, F.; Environmental Tectonics (Entec) Working Group

381

Wf/pc SV Observation: Absolute Flux Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this calibration is to obtain data on flux standards through WF/PC. These stars are about 14 magnitude. This proposal replaces previous proposals ABSOLUTE UV CALIBRATION (1322) and ABSOLUTE FLUX STANDARDS (1331).

Westphal, J.

1990-07-01

382

Surface topography-connections between lubrication and failure initiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the initial surface topography is intimately connected to the machining process by which it is produced. Both processes create a near surface region of residual stresses, microstructure and hardness that is different from the bulk. The material properties in this rather undefined region can significantly influence the mode of failure, such as wear, scuffing or fatigue, as well as the degree of failure resistance for a given material. Under full film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions, where shear is accomodated within a relatively thick lubricant film, the normal and shear stresses are distributed uniformly over the near surface region, and the surface topography has little influence on the lubrication or failure process. Under more typical conditions where surface roughness and lubricant film thickness are of the same order of magnitude, the surface topography not only emerges as an important parameter in failure initiation, but it also becomes intimately involved in the lubrication process itself.

Wedeven, L. D.

1983-01-01

383

SPC Shape and Topography of Vesta from DAWN Imaging Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DAWN spacecraft has now left Vesta, leaving a legacy of more than 16000 clear filter images of the asteroid. During the last month of Dawn's stay at Vesta, the sun slowly crept northward, enabling the spacecraft to view topography closer to the north pole. We have used these images with our stereophotoclinometry (SPC) software to construct topography for most of Vesta's surface to 50 meter resolution, and below about 60 degrees south to 20 meter resolution. We present this topography as a 1/64 degree gridded map (about 70 m resolution), as a stereographic projection of the south polar region at 25 m resolution and as a global shape model with 1.57 million vectors. In addition, we present solutions for the s/c position and camera pointing at all imaging times during DAWN's entire stay at Vesta.

Gaskell, Robert W.

2012-10-01

384

Direct measurement of carbon contamination topography on patterned EUV masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous work, various techniques were used to confirm the contamination deposits on the sidewall of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask absorbers [1-2]. In order to further understand the effects of contamination topography on mask absorbing features, direct measurements of contaminated features is needed. In this work, we investigated the contamination topography using cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) image analysis on four different masks. TEM specimens of contaminated features from silicon and ruthenium capped EUV masks were prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB). We conducted the contamination experiment with three different exposure sources including EUV, out-of-band, and electron induced processes. Thickness measurements from each contamination experiment were provided. Shadowing effect and geometric analysis on the contamination topography is also discussed.

Fan, Yu-Jen; Murray, Thomas; Goodwin, Frank; Ashworth, Dominic; Denbeaux, Gregory

2014-04-01

385

Influence of nanophase titania topography on bacterial attachment and metabolism  

PubMed Central

Surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional (or nanometer smooth) topographies are known to have different properties of area, charge, and reactivity. Previously published research indicates that the attachment of certain bacteria (such as Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL) is higher on surfaces with nanophase compared to conventional topographies, however, their effect on bacterial metabolism is unclear. Results presented here show that the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL and Pseudomonas putida TVA8 was higher on nanophase than conventional titania. Importantly, in terms of metabolism, bacteria attached to the nanophase surfaces had higher bioluminescence rates than on the conventional surfaces under all nutrient conditions. Thus, the results from this study show greater select bacterial metabolism on nanometer than conventional topographies, critical results with strong consequences for the design of improved biosensors for bacteria detection.

Park, Margaret R; Banks, Michelle K; Applegate, Bruce; Webster, Thomas J

2008-01-01

386

The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province, and the Hellas impact basin. The northern hemisphere depression is primarily a long-wavelength effect that has been shaped by an internal mechanism. The topography of Tharsis consists of two broad rises. Material excavated from Hellas contributes to the high elevation of the southern hemisphere and to the scarp along the hemispheric boundary. The present topography has three major drainage centers, with the northern lowlands being the largest. The two polar cap volumes yield an upper limit of the present surface water inventory of 3.2 to 4.7 million cubic kilometers.

Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Head, J. W.; Garvin, J. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Muhleman, D. O.; Pettengill, G. H.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Abshire, J. B.; Aharonson, O.; Brown, C. D.; Hauck, S. A.; Ivanov, A. B.; McGovern, P. J.; Zwally, H. J.; Duxbury, T. C.

1999-01-01

387

Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

2013-01-01

388

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

2007-01-01

389

Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors  

SciTech Connect

Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

2005-07-01

390

Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

391

Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

Zhu, Jian-Zhou

2012-06-01

392

Note: Real-time absolute air refractometer.  

PubMed

We present a real-time absolute air refractometer benefiting from the synthetic pseudo-wavelength (SPW) method. Based on laser heterodyne interferometry, the SPW method uses three vacuum cells with specific lengths to synthesize a set of synthetic pseudo-wavelengths, by combination of which the refractive index can be determined directly without ambiguity. In addition, owing to the parallel arrangement of the vacuum cells in the optical path, the measured data can be collected simultaneously so that one measurement process can be less than 2 ms. The real-time feature makes it possible for instantaneous compensation for laser interferometers. PMID:24880432

Huang, Pei; Zhang, Jitao; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun

2014-05-01

393

Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F