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1

Dynamic Topography of Oceans and Continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large contrasts in surface topography are one of the most striking features of our planet. Contributions to topography range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal thickness and density structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle dynamics. Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle can elevate or depress the earth's surface even if the sources of buoyancy are deep in the mantle. However, direct observation of this ``dynamic topography'' has been elusive, because it is obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. Any potential confirmation of the role of dynamic topography, sheds light not only on the impact of mantle dynamics on surface processes, but also on the nature of mantle dynamics itself. For example, we expect dramatically different topographic signals from layered vs. whole mantle convection. We have learned a great deal about the consequences of dynamic topography for continental flooding and the formation of large sedimentary basins since the pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. [1989] and Gurnis [1990]. Recently, unequivocal signals of dynamically supported topography have been found in both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). In all three cases, the identifiable dynamic topography signal results from upwelling mantle. In regions associated with downwellings considerable controversy remains [e.g. Wheeler and White, 2002]. There is a hint in this result that relates to the ability of slabs to penetrate into the lower mantle and of upwellings to reach the surface from great depth. We review in this talk the evidence for dynamic topography in continents and oceans, and present some speculations related to the nature of layering in mantle convection.

Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Conrad, C. P.

2004-05-01

2

Predicting dynamic topography from mantle circulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic topography is anomalous vertical motions of Earth's surface associated with viscous flow in the mantle. Deformable boundaries, such as the surface, CMB and phase transition boundaries, within a fluid (Earth's mantle) are deflected by viscous flow. Denser than average, sinking mantle creates inward deflections of Earth's surface. Equally, upwelling flow creates bulges in the surface; large plumes are commonly thought to produce superswells, such as the anomalously high elevation of Southern Africa. Dynamic topography appears to operate on a number of length scales. Mantle density anomalies estimated from seismic tomography indicate long wavelength dynamic topography at present day of around 2 km amplitude (e.g. Conrand & Husson, 2009) whilst continental scale studies suggest vertical motions of a few hundred metres. Furthermore, time scales must be an important factor to consider when assessing dynamic topography. Stable, dense lower mantle 'piles' may contribute to dynamic surface topography; as they appear stable over reasonably long time scales, long wavelength dynamic topography may be a fairly constant feature over the recent geological past. Shorter wavelength, smaller amplitude dynamic topography may be due to more transient features of mantle convection. Studies on a continental scale reveal shorter term changes in dynamic topography of the order of a few hundred metres (e.g. Roberts & White, 2010; Heine et al., 2010). Understanding dynamic topography is complicated by the fact it is difficult to observe as the signal is often masked by isostatic effects. We use forward mantle convection models with 300 million years of recent plate motion history as the surface boundary condition to generate a present day distribution of density anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere. From the modelled temperature and density fields we calculate the normal stress at or near the surface of the model. As the models generally have a free slip surface where no vertical motion is allowed, an excess or deficit of stress exists near the surface. A pointwise force balance between this stress excess and the weight of rock above is used to calculate the anomalous elevation associated with the stress. Here we present some of the results obtained from mantle circulation models. We look at different ways of predicting dynamic topography, including the depth at which the stress field is calculated and by removing lithospheric density anomalies from the calculation. We also assess the impact of crustal thickness and isostasy on the predictions of dynamic topography.

Webb, Peter; Davies, J. Huw

2013-04-01

3

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

4

Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

2013-04-01

5

The effects of abrupt topography on plankton dynamics.  

PubMed

Plankton population dynamics in the upper layer of the ocean depends on upwelling processes that bring nutrients from deeper waters. In turn, these depend on the structure of the vertical velocity field. In coastal areas and in oceanic regions characterized by the presence of strong submarine topographic features, the variable bottom topography induces significant effects on vertical velocities and upwelling/downwelling patterns. As a consequence, large plankton and fish abundances are frequently observed above seamounts, canyons and steep continental shelves. In this work, the dynamics of an NPZ (nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton) system is numerically studied by coupling the ecosystem model with a quasi two-dimensional (2D) fluid model with topography. At variance with classical 2D approaches, this formulation allows for an explicit expression of the vertical motions produced when fluid columns are squeezed and stretched as they experience changes of depth. Thus, input or output of nutrients at the surface are associated with fluid motion over the bottom topography. We examine the dynamics of a cyclonic vortex over two basic topographies: a steep escarpment and a submarine mountain. We show that plankton abundance over the escarpment is modulated by the passing of topographic Rossby waves, generated by the vortex-topography interaction. In such configuration, advection effects driven by the flow over the escarpment are of limited relevance for the dynamics of biological fields. By contrast, we find that the flow resulting from the interaction of a vortex with a seamount is sufficiently strong and persistent to allow for a remarkable increase of nutrients, and a corresponding enhancement of phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations. Over the seamount, advection effects associated with trapped flow perturbations around the summit play an essential role. PMID:19737575

Zavala Sansón, L; Provenzale, A

2009-12-01

6

Effects of dynamic topography on Australian Paleogeography in the Cenozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effects of dynamic topography combined with eustatic sea level variations on Australian paleogeography for the Late Cretaceous to present. Using an analytical flow model (Steinberger et al., 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00229-1 with the surface plate velocity field as boundary condition, we advect density anomalies converted from tomographic velocity anomalies (SMEAN tomographic model; Becker &Boschi, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000168) back through time. For each time step, we compute dynamic topography with a free upper boundary. This approach allows us to evaluate the spatio-temporal effects of large scale mantle convection patterns on surface processes like continental flooding and sediment deposition. The Australian continent, especially the southern Australian margin, provides a unique example for an extensive region that has been stable and fairly isolated from plate boundary processes like flexure or rift shoulder uplift for the time between 70 Ma to the present. This makes it ideal to investigate the effects of dynamic topography. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary deposits along the southern Australian margin indicate transgressive/regressive phases of limited extent, which can not be explained by eustatic sea level fluctuations alone. By using common estimates for the eustatic sea level in conjunction with our dynamic topography model, we have been able to reconstruct the position of the Australian paleo-shorelines, flooding patterns and water depths. We find a good agreement of our computed paleogeography with published stratigraphic data for Tertiary brown coal deposits along the southern Australian seabord (Gippsland, Murray, Otway and Bremer Basins) and stratigraphic sequences in the Murray Basin region, along the NW Australian margin and in the Eromanga Basin. Despite minor spatial discrepancies between the current model output and geological data which yet remain unresolved, our approach and modular workflow set up provides an important stepping stone to understand the influence of deep Earth processes and their impact on sediment deposition and other geomorphological processes. Due to the usage of non-proprietary data formats and open-source software it is possible to easily change the dynamic topography model input and extend the computations to incorporate the effects of sedimentation history and isostasy. We expect a further convergence of predicted paleogeography from dynamic topography models with increasing accuracy and resolution of tomographic models.

Heine, C.; M{Ü}Ller, R.; Steinberger, B.

2006-12-01

7

Spatial and Temporal variability in Dynamic Topography in East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent aerogeophysical exploration has provided novel views of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and the Wilkes and Aurora subglacial basins in East Antarctica. Reconstructing the evolution of East Antarctic topography through time is a critical next step for developing new coupled climate and ice sheet models (e.g. http://www.antscape.org/). Insights into tectonic and isostatic components driving the uplift of the Gamburtsevs have emerged from geophysical investigations and modeling (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). However, our knowledge of the larger-scale consequences of dynamic topography in East Antarctica remains poor compared to other continents. Seismic tomographic models provide a tool to derive large-scale models of convection in the Earth's mantle, which can then be used to reconstruct dynamic topography through time. By analyzing grids of global dynamic topography from present-day to 100 Ma based on the tomographic models S40RTS & S20RTS (Ritsema et al. 1999, 2011) we assess for the first time the potential space-time variability in dynamic topography in East Antarctica. We acknowledge that there are significant limitations when compared to similar studies over other continents, such as the relatively poor seismic resolution of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath East Antarctica and the lack of geological and geophysical data to constrain surface movements through time. However, currently available global datasets do reveal several new insights. Our models reveal that at ca 65 Ma the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land regions were elevated. This was followed by at least 500 m of subsidence throughout the Cenozoic. The increased regional elevation likely facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic, which was followed by ice cap coalescence to form the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ca 34 Ma. In contrast, a major and more rapid increase in elevation (up to 1,000 m) is observed over the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes Subglacial Basin, in particular over the last 15 Ma. Neogene dynamic topography in the TAM region may be related to the flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System and/or the Balleny plume.

Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B.; Ritsema, J.

2012-04-01

8

The dynamics of the Mississippi River plume: Impact of topography, wind and offshore forcing  

E-print Network

The dynamics of the Mississippi River plume: Impact of topography, wind and offshore forcing), The dynamics of the Mississippi River plume: Impact of topography, wind and offshore forcing on the fate of topography, winddriven and eddydriven circulation on the offshore removal of plume waters. A realistically

Miami, University of

9

Towards a stratigraphic record of dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of mountainous terrain and contemporaneous deposition of sediment within the adjacent basins modifies the applied load upon the surface of the Earth. A simple argument can then be made that an increase in rainfall would lead to increased erosion and deposition, and would therefore directly impact the dynamics and evolution of the linked mountain-basin system. Key to the exploration of this argument is an understanding of how efficient erosion is and the acceptable way to model long-term (> million years) Earth surface processes at relatively large spatial scales (100's of kilometres). Surface processes are complex and chaotic, and up-scaling from individual bed-load processes to the scale of a single river system has yet to be achieved. To overcome this we attempt to find the laws that describe sediment transport on a gross scale. We develop a general and simple length dependent diffusive sediment transport law to model both erosion and deposition that includes the concentrative effects of river systems. This allows us to collapse sediment transport onto a line and couple erosion and deposition with plate flexure. We use this model to interogate the impact of long-term (millions of years) change in rainfall and uplift rate on the stratigraphic archive of continental interior basins. Tilting of the interior of the North American continent due mantle flow, be it lithosphere instability or remnant subducting slabs, has been invoked to be the driver of change in rates and magnitude of river incision observed within the Great Plains. But, an increase in rainfall would also lead to an increase in river incision. Assuming that grains are deposited selectively by size we explore the signals recorded in the stratigraphic record by change in long-wavelength uplift and long-term rainfall. We find that under simple forcing conditions the modelled landscape is highly responsive to change in climate. Increase in rainfall causes incision of previously deposited materialand the pro-gradation of coarse grains down system. Increase in uplift within the catchment and subsidence within the basin, however, has a delayed effect as the landscape takes time to respond to the increase in slope. Furthermore, an increase in uplift causes pro-gradation of the depositional system, and subsequent incision if uplift rates reduce. The degree of incision is crucially dependent on the prescribed boundary condition at the depositional edge of the model domain. Fixed elevation increases the degree of incision, yet fixed slope reduces incision. The model predictions are supported by landscape development of the Rocky Mountain - Great Plains region from the late Miocene to Pleistocene, where: (1) incision was initiated in the Late Miocene due to tectonic tilting (without a significant change in grain-size); (2) deposition of a thick succession of conglomerate (coarser than underlying Miocene succession) ensued from ca. 3.5 to 2.6 Ma, associated with extreme sediment loads and a wetter mid-Pliocene climate; and (3) a period of incision from 2.6 Ma onwards that was climatically-driven, and coincides with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

Armitage, J. J.; Duller, R. A.

2012-12-01

10

Dynamic evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire topography, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the dynamic evaluation by recording the dynamic changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.

Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu

1994-02-01

11

Solitary wave dynamics in shallow water over periodic topography.  

PubMed

The problem of long-wave scattering by piecewise-constant periodic topography is studied both for a linear solitary-like wave pulse, and for a weakly nonlinear solitary wave [Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton]. If the characteristic length of the topographic irregularities is larger than the pulse length, the solution of the scattering problem is obtained analytically for a leading wave in the framework of linear shallow-water theory. The wave decrement in the case of the small height of the topographic irregularities is proportional to delta2, where delta is the relative height of the topographic obstacles. An analytical approximate solution is also obtained for the weakly nonlinear problem when the length of the irregularities is larger than the characteristic nonlinear length scale. In this case, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is solved for each piece of constant depth by using the inverse scattering technique; the solutions are matched at each step by using linear shallow-water theory. The weakly nonlinear solitary wave decays more significantly than the linear solitary pulse. Solitary wave dynamics above a random seabed is also discussed, and the results obtained for random topography (including experimental data) are in reasonable agreement with the calculations for piecewise topography. PMID:16253002

Nakoulima, Ousseynou; Zahibo, Narcisse; Pelinovsky, Efim; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkin, Andrey

2005-09-01

12

Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage  

PubMed Central

Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

2014-01-01

13

Global dynamic topography at very-high resolution for Geohazards, Climate Change and Vulnerability mapping  

E-print Network

the mission life-time > Monitor seasonnal 3D topography dynamics > Instrument · Combination of activeZ-Earth Global dynamic topography at very-high resolution for Geohazards, Climate Change and Vulnerability mapping Thomas Dewez (PI of Z-Earth consortium) t.dewez@brgm.fr Proposal to ESA's Earth Explorer 8

Berthier, Etienne

14

Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage  

E-print Network

trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate-protein coupled receptors (3), and redox proteins (4). Bacteria, fungi, plants, and animal cells dynamically regulate voltage in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. Resting potentials range from

Cohen, Adam E.

15

Downhole dynamic sealing under differential and absolute pressure conditions  

SciTech Connect

The move towards higher production pressures and temperatures means that seal design for downhole usage may become a limiting factor for the exploitation of future wells. To determine factors associated with seal behavior under severe (HP/HT) conditions, a dynamic seal test facility has been built to simulate downhole conditions up to 15,000 psi and 250 C. A number of novel seal designs have been developed and tested for HP/HT service in downhole completions using this test facility. An important aspect of test procedure is whether the test is performed under absolute or differential pressure conditions. Previous work has emphasized absolute pressure conditions. This paper compares absolute and differential conditions and investigates which of these represents the more severe case.

Shepherd, R.; Stevenson, A. [Materials Engineering Research Lab. Ltd., Hertford (United Kingdom); Abrams, P.I. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

16

Freeboard, sea level and dynamic topography during aggregation of a supercontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution of sea level is a combination of eustatic mechanisms (tectono-eustatism, distribution of continental masses through orogenesis and sedimentation) and non-uniform processes (dynamic topography, geoid, wander of the Earth rotation pole). Given the potentially similar amplitude of both factors, there is a bias in the observation of absolute sea level. Moreover, over large time-scales, and more specifically over the Wilson cycle time-scale, plate aggregation and separation are associated both with (i) variations of the flow pattern and (ii) thermal state in the mantle, which in turn may induce specific vertical motions of the surface. By changing the size of the oceanic and continental water reservoirs, large-scale dynamic topography associated with subduction or the presence of mantle plumes controls rises or drops of sea level, which in turn controls part of the stratigraphic record. The Earth has known periods of continental aggregation and fragmentation that redistribute the location of plate boundaries, especially the location and the length of subduction zones, that could potentially affect sea level. The distribution of mass anomalies in the mantle with respect to continents may therefore have a significant impact. To test the possible correlation between sea level changes and the Wilson cycle, we decide to first focus on the Pangea, which is known to be a period during which most subductions took place beneath continents. We run a set of Earth-like instantaneous flow model using the OEDIPUS (Origin, Evolution and Dynamics of the Interiors of Planets Using Simulation) tool, which allows spherical geometries with lateral viscosity variations. In these models, Pangea is modeled by a spherical continental cap, covering 29% of the planet surface, and floating above a two-layered viscous mantle. We vary parameters such as the dip of the subducting panel, the depth reached by the slab, the viscosity structure and the plate thickness within reasonable ranges to evaluate the volume of water reservoirs created by dynamic topography and its impact on the variations of sea level. In addition, we evaluate analytically the effect of an increase in temperature at the base of the lithosphere, as can be produced by thermal insulation above the convecting mantle during supercontinent aggregation, on the isostatic response of the continent, which modifies the continental reservoir shape and can produce sea level variations.

Guillaume, B.; Husson, L.; Choblet, G.

2012-04-01

17

Assessing Gravity Estimates to Improve Dynamic Ocean Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic ocean topography (DOT), which defines the streamlines of ocean circulation, can be computed from the difference between mean sea surface (MSS) measurements (e.g. from satellite altimetry) and the Earth's geoid (from gravity observations). Uncertainties in the geoid translate into uncertainties in DOT, and this is particularly an issue for smaller length-scales. We estimate these uncertainties at various length-scales by comparing GRACE and GOCE-based geoid products with MSS and DOT products. Geoid and mean sea surface height fields are then combined to constrain the DOT in an assimilating ocean model, the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE). Uncertainties in the small-scale geoid are accounted for with a prescribed error variance. The large-scale geoid errors are accounted for by solving for a smooth error field representing misfit to geoid model estimates. This error field minimizes the impact of correlated errors in the geoid on the optimization, while providing a metric for evaluating the consistency estimate of SOSE relative to the geoid products. For the EGM08 and TIMR3 geoid fields, our analysis for the Southern Ocean shows that error variances tend to be largest in small-scale regions associated with large topographic features. Error covariance magnitudes imply regional differences between the two products.

Gille, S. T.; Krzemien, T.; Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.

2013-12-01

18

Isostasy, dynamic topography, and the elevation of the Apennines of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elevation of an orogenic belt is commonly related to crustal/lithosphere thickening. Here, we discuss the Apennines as an example to show that topography at a plate margin may be controlled not only by isostatic adjustment but also by dynamic, mantle-driven processes. Using recent structural constraints for the crust and mantle we find that the expected crustal isostatic component explains only a fraction of the topography of the belt, indicating positive residual topography in the central Apennines and negative residual topography in the northern Apennines and Calabria. The trend of the residual topography matches the mantle flow induced dynamic topography estimated from regional tomography models. We infer that a large fraction of the Apennines topography is related to mantle dynamics, producing relative upwellings in the central Apennines and downwellings in the northern Apennines and Calabria where subduction is still ongoing. Comparison between geodetic and geological data on vertical motions indicates that this dynamic process started in the early Pleistocene and the resulting uplift appears related to the formation and enlargement of a slab window below the central Apennines. The case of the Apennines shows that at convergent margins the elevation of a mountain belt may be significantly different from that predicted solely by crustal isostasy and that a large fraction of the elevation and its rate of change are dynamically controlled by mantle convection.

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Serpelloni, Enrico; Willett, Sean D.

2014-12-01

19

A Tailored Computation of the Mean Dynamic Topography for a Consistent Integration into Ocean Circulation Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostrophic surface velocities can be derived from the gradients of the mean dynamic topography—the difference between the mean sea surface and the geoid. Therefore, independently observed mean dynamic topography data are valuable input parameters and constraints for ocean circulation models. For a successful fit to observational dynamic topography data, not only the mean dynamic topography on the particular ocean model grid is required, but also information about its inverse covariance matrix. The calculation of the mean dynamic topography from satellite-based gravity field models and altimetric sea surface height measurements, however, is not straightforward. For this purpose, we previously developed an integrated approach to combining these two different observation groups in a consistent way without using the common filter approaches (Becker et al. in J Geodyn 59(60):99-110, 2012; Becker in Konsistente Kombination von Schwerefeld, Altimetrie und hydrographischen Daten zur Modellierung der dynamischen Ozeantopographie 2012). Within this combination method, the full spectral range of the observations is considered. Further, it allows the direct determination of the normal equations (i.e., the inverse of the error covariance matrix) of the mean dynamic topography on arbitrary grids, which is one of the requirements for ocean data assimilation. In this paper, we report progress through selection and improved processing of altimetric data sets. We focus on the preprocessing steps of along-track altimetry data from Jason-1 and Envisat to obtain a mean sea surface profile. During this procedure, a rigorous variance propagation is accomplished, so that, for the first time, the full covariance matrix of the mean sea surface is available. The combination of the mean profile and a combined GRACE/GOCE gravity field model yields a mean dynamic topography model for the North Atlantic Ocean that is characterized by a defined set of assumptions. We show that including the geodetically derived mean dynamic topography with the full error structure in a 3D stationary inverse ocean model improves modeled oceanographic features over previous estimates.

Becker, S.; Losch, M.; Brockmann, J. M.; Freiwald, G.; Schuh, W.-D.

2014-11-01

20

Rheology of continents and counterintuitive 3D features of the dynamic topography. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic topography is a key observable signature of the Earth's mantle convection, which is a major driving force of plate tectonics. In general view, it reflects mantle flow patterns, and hence is supposed to correlate at different extents with seismic tomography, SKS fast orientations, geodetic velocity fields and geoid anomalies. However, identification of dynamic topography had no systematic success, specifically in continents. Hence, it has been argued that lithosphere rheology, in particular, rheological stratification of continents, results in modulation of dynamic topography, converting commonly expected long-wavelength/small amplitude undulations into short-wavelength surface undulations with wide amplitude spectrum, superimposed onto 'tectonic' topography. These ideas had to be explored in 3D, which has been so far an impossible challenge due to the limited resolution and simplified representation of the lithosphere in the existing 3D models. We here present new unprecedentedly high resolution 3D experiments incorporating realistic stratified lithosphere. The results reveal strikingly disconcordant, counterintuitive features of the dynamic topography, going far beyond the inferences from previous models. In particular, weak anisotropic tectonic stress field may result both in large-scale small-amplitude dynamic topography and in strongly anisotropic short-wavelength (at least in one direction) dynamic topography with wide amplitude range (from 100 to 2000-3000 m), including basins and ranges and large-scale linear normal and strike-slip faults. These results shed new light on the importance of lithosphere rheology and active role of lithosphere in mantle-lithosphere interactions as well as on the role of mantle flow in tectonic-scale deformation.

Burov, E. B.; Gerya, T.

2013-12-01

21

How to approximate viscoelastic dynamic topographies of stagnant lid planetary bodies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning dynamic topography of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the topography. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic dynamic topography induced by an internal load to topographies generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface topography and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic topography with an elastic filtering of the IVF topography. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These results naturally depend on the ratio between the mantle and the lithospheric thicknesses. We show that, in the case of Mars, it is not possible to approximate viscoelastic topographies generated by a stable plume using the elastic filtering of viscous dynamic topographies.

Dumoulin, Caroline; ?adek, Ond?ej; Choblet, Gaël

2013-04-01

22

The Approach of Dynamic Topography Maps Reconstruction By Local Spline-approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a lot of methods to process dynamic topography maps based on satellite altimetry data. In general, these methods are using Topex\\/Poseidon data, because of high accuracy of it. Some methods are used to enhance ERS altimetry data by data from Topex\\/Poseidon. These methods are based on global minimization of Topex- Poseidon - ERS dual crossover differences. However, in

V. Kunitsyn; A. Romanov

2002-01-01

23

Influence of wet tropospheric correction on mesoscale dynamic topography as derived from satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the influence of the wet tropospheric correction on mesoscale dynamic topography as derived from satellite altimetry. For this purpose, we use Geosat altimeter data in the northeast Atlantic, and we process separately the tropospheric correction derived from the PERIDOT model following the technique for analyzing altimeter height profiles. We show that the humidity spatial scales are larger than

D. Jourdan; C. Boissier; A. Braun; J. F. Minster

1990-01-01

24

Using Dynamic Ocean Topography To Probe Southern Ocean Circulation Alexa Griesel, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew Mazloff  

E-print Network

-temperature-depth, Southern Elephant Seals as Ocean Samplers, expendable bathythermographs, altimetric anomaly observationsIT45K-10 Using Dynamic Ocean Topography To Probe Southern Ocean Circulation Alexa Griesel, Sarah T of the DOT is difficult in the Southern Ocean, because in situ observations are sparse. Nonetheless eddy

Griesel, Alexa

25

Mantle Flow, Dynamic Topography and Rift-Flank Uplift of Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea is flanked by highlands. To the east, the Arabian platform is broadly tilted along an axis that runs parallel to the sea, and the long tail of high topography has been described as a classic example of `rift-flank uplift' [Wernicke, 1985]. A suite of thermal and mechanical effects have been invoked to derive generic mechanisms for flank uplift and these have been applied, with varying levels of success, to the Arabian case. We propose that dynamic topography supported by large scale mantle flow beneath the Africa-Arabia system contributes significantly to the observed pattern of Arabian rift-flank uplift. Seismic tomographic images indicate the existence of large scale (anomalously slow) heterogeneity originating from the deep mantle under southern Africa and, apparently, connecting to more shallow structure beneath the East African Rift system and the Arabian plate. We predict Arabian topography driven by viscous stresses associated with this buoyant megastructure. We first convert velocity anomalies given by the seismic S-wave model S20RTS [Ritsema et al., 1999] to density anomalies using standard scaling profiles, and then input these into a 2-D mantle convection model. Normal stresses derived from the flow models are then used to compute associated profiles of surface (`dynamic') topography. These profiles reconcile the observed topography of the Arabian platform and they provide an explanation for the distinct geometry of rift-flank uplift across the two sides of the Red Sea. Our calculations do not preclude a contribution to topography from previously described thermal and/or mechanical effects; however, they indicate that future analyses of rift-flank uplift should consider the potential contribution from large scale mantle flow.

Daradich, A. L.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Willett, S. D.

2002-12-01

26

Exploiting Oceanic Residual Depth to Quantify Present-day Dynamic Topography at the Earth's Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective circulation within the mantle causes vertical motions at the Earth's surface. This dynamic topography is time dependent and occurs on wavelengths of 1000s km with maximum amplitudes of ±2 km. Convective simulation models have been used extensively to make predictions of dynamic topography and have thus far out-paced observational constraints. Here, the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age is used to produce a global map of residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. Care is taken to remove other causes of topography, including an isostatic correction for sedimentary loading that takes compaction into account, a correction for variable oceanic crustal thickness, and lithospheric thickening with age away from mid-ocean ridge spreading centres. A dataset including over 1000 seismic reflection profiles and 300 modern wide-angle refraction experiments has been amassed, primarily on old ocean floor adjacent to the continents. Calculation of residual depth yields a map of present-day dynamic topography with amplitudes significantly larger than the errors associated with the corrections. One of the most interesting results occurs along the west coast of Africa, where two full 2000 km wavelengths of dynamic topography have been captured with amplitudes ±1 km that correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. Comparison with predictive models reveal poor to moderate correlations. This is a direct result of the limited resolution of the mantle tomography models used to set-up convection simulations and also the currently poor understanding of viscosity structure within the Earth. It is hoped that this residual depth dataset should provide an excellent surface boundary constraint for future convective simulation.

Hoggard, Mark; White, Nicky

2014-05-01

27

Dynamic topography change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago.  

PubMed

Sedimentary rocks from Virginia through Florida record marine flooding during the mid-Pliocene. Several wave-cut scarps that at the time of deposition would have been horizontal are now draped over a warped surface with a maximum variation of 60 meters. We modeled dynamic topography by using mantle convection simulations that predict the amplitude and broad spatial distribution of this distortion. The results imply that dynamic topography and, to a lesser extent, glacial isostatic adjustment account for the current architecture of the coastal plain and proximal shelf. This confounds attempts to use regional stratigraphic relations as references for longer-term sea-level determinations. Inferences of Pliocene global sea-level heights or stability of Antarctic ice sheets therefore cannot be deciphered in the absence of an appropriate mantle dynamic reference frame. PMID:23686342

Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Simmons, Nathan A; Grand, Stephen P

2013-06-28

28

Infrasound wavefield modeled by coupling conduit dynamics and topography by 3D-FDTD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasound signal on active volcanoes has become an important tool for monitoring and understanding the explosive source dynamics. Volcano infrasound is the direct measure of pressure oscillations near open-vent and it can provide important constraints on the intensity of the eruption as well as on the source parameters including the variations of volumetric flux and exit velocity. At present, infrasonic signals recorded close to the volcano (<5 Km) have been used to model the acoustic source of volcanic explosions considering that at this distance the acoustic wavefield is relatively less affected by atmospheric structure. On the contrary, recent 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical modelling of infrasound propagation indicates a strong effect on the wavefield induced by the diffraction of the crater rim [Kim and Lees 2011] and by the near-source topography [Lacanna and Ripepe 2013]. However, the full three-dimensional interaction of acoustic source with conduit geometry and the topography of the volcano edifice have not been fully investigated. In order to evaluate these effects, we have developed a 3D-FDTD modelling to simulate infrasound propagation taking in account conduit dynamics and topography of the volcano. In linear acoustics, the pressure perturbations in a duct propagates as a plane wave front, which become spherical outside the vent. The radiation impedance at the vent depends on the pressure wavelength and the vent radius. In addition, the diffraction and reflection of topography contaminate the acoustic wave field and have a strong effect in reducing the amplitude and changing the waveform of the infrasonic signal also at short (<2 km) distances. Besides, the 3D numerical model allows to define in terms of Green's function the scattering effects on the acoustic wavefield caused by topography along the source-receiver path. Only by removing topographic effects from the infrasonic record and by considering the propagation inside the conduit we can quantify the source parameters with a strong impact on our understanding of the explosive dynamics.

lacanna, giorgio; ripepe, maurizio

2014-05-01

29

Topographies and dynamics on multidimensional potential energy surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stochastic master equation is a valuable tool for elucidating potential energy surface (PES) details that govern structural relaxation in clusters, bulk systems, and protein folding. This work develops a comprehensive framework for studying non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics using the master equation. Since our master equations depend upon accurate partition function models for use in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRK(M) transition state theory, this

Keith Douglas Ball

1998-01-01

30

Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids  

E-print Network

Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids for calculating the absolute entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte energy evaluation is a central issue in atomistic modeling.1­5 When the free energy is known, equilibrium

Meirovitch, Hagai

31

Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric dynamics, surface topography at convergent mountain belts, and gravity anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface topography and associated gravity anomalies above a layer resembling continental lithosphere, whose mantle part is gravitationally unstable, depend strongly on the ratio of viscosities of the lower-density crustal part to that of the mantle part. For linear stability analysis, growth rates of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities depend largely on the wave number, or wavelength, of the perturbation to the base of the lithosphere and weakly on this viscosity ratio, on plausible density differences among crust, mantle lithosphere, and asthenosphere, and on ratios of crustal to total lithospheric thicknesses. For all likely densities, viscosities, and thicknesses, the Moho is drawn down (pushed up) where the base of the lithosphere subsides (rises). For large viscosities of crust compared to mantle lithosphere (ratios > ~30), a sinking and thickening mantle lithosphere also pulls the surface down. For smaller viscosity ratios, crustal thickening overwhelms the descent of the Moho, and the surface rises (subsides) above regions where mantle lithosphere thickens and descends (thins and rises). Ignoring vertical variations of viscosity within the crust and mantle lithosphere, we find that the maximum surface height occurs for approximately equal viscosities of crust and mantle lithosphere. For large crust/mantle lithosphere viscosity ratios, gravity anomalies follow those of surface topography, with negative (positive) free-air anomalies over regions of descent (ascent). In this case, topography anomalies are smaller than those that would occur if the lithosphere were in isostatic equilibrium. Hence, flow-induced stresses—dynamic pressure and deviatoric stress—create smaller topography than that expected for an isostatic state. For small crust/mantle viscosity ratios (< ~10), however, calculated surface topography at long wavelengths is greater than it would be if the lithospheric column were in isostatic equilibrium, and at short wavelengths local isostasy predicts surface deflections of the wrong sign. For the range of wavelengths appropriate for convergent mountain belts (~150-600 km), calculated gravity anomalies are negative over regions of lithospheric thickening, especially when allowance for flexural rigidity of a surface layer is included. Correspondingly, calculated values of admittance, the ratio of Fourier transforms of surface topography and free-air gravity anomalies, are also negative for wave numbers relevant to mountain belts. For essentially all mountain belts, however, measured free-air anomalies and admittance are positive. Whether gravitational instability of the lithosphere affects the structure of convergent belts or not, its contribution to the topography of mountain belts seems to be small compared to that predicted for isostatic balance of crustal thickness variations.

Molnar, Peter; Houseman, Gregory A.

2013-05-01

32

Inversion for mantle viscosity profiles constrained by dynamic topography and the geoid, and their estimated errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a joint inversion of Earth's geoid and dynamic topography for radial mantle viscosity structure using a number of models of interior density heterogeneities, including an assessment of the error budget. We identify three classes of errors: those related to the density perturbations used as input, those due to insufficiently constrained observables, and those due to the limitations of our analytical model. We estimate the amplitudes of these errors in the spectral domain. Our minimization function weights the squared deviations of the compared quantities with the corresponding errors, so that the components with more reliability contribute to the solution more strongly than less certain ones. We develop a quasi-analytical solution for mantle flow in a compressible, spherical shell with Newtonian rheology, allowing for continuous radial variations of viscosity, together with a possible reduction of viscosity within the phase change regions due to the effects of transformational superplasticity. The inversion reveals three distinct families of viscosity profiles, all of which have an order of magnitude stiffening within the lower mantle, with a soft D'' layer below. The main distinction among the families is the location of the lowest-viscosity region-directly beneath the lithosphere, just above 400km depth or just above 670km depth. All profiles have a reduction of viscosity within one or more of the major phase transformations, leading to reduced dynamic topography, so that whole-mantle convection is consistent with small surface topography.

Panasyuk, Svetlana V.; Hager, Bradford H.

2000-12-01

33

Absolute ball bearing wear measurements from SSME turbopump dynamic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how absolute ball bearing wear is measured in an operating turbopump from heavily loaded ball bearing vibration signatures. This technique was developed during testing of the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). A linear correlation was established between the cage frequency harmonic amplitudes on internal strain gages and the measured ball wear from pump disassembly. In a manner similar to that used by Sunnersjö [1] for lightly loaded roller bearings, the dominant cage harmonics in the vibration spectra were shown to correspond to those of a Fourier series representation of the circumferential ball diameter variation or wear pattern. Strain gages and accelerometers on the external pump casing also show similar wear symptoms. These external measurements allow convenient wear monitoring for pre-flight testing of the SSME.

Hine, M. J.

1989-01-01

34

Formation of the Maturín Foreland Basin, eastern Venezuela: Thrust sheet loading or subduction dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maturín Basin in eastern Venezuela is considered a good example of a peripheral foreland basin. Earthquake and tomographic data indicate that eastern Venezuela is affected by the oblique subduction of the South American Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. New forward flexural isostatic modeling of eastern Venezuela has been carried out in order to determine whether the Maturín Basin was generated purely by thrust sheet loading from the Serranía and Monagas Foreland Thrust Belts. A sequence of forward models from middle Miocene to Present was generated for 3 profiles across the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt, the Monagas Foreland Thrust Belt, and the Maturín Foreland Basin. The predictions of these models are constrained using seismic reflection and well data. The flexural isostatic modeling shows that thrust sheet loading associated with the Serranía del Interior and Monagas Foreland thrust belts is insufficient to generate the observed subsidence within the Maturín Basin. Dynamic fluid flow modeling of subduction related dynamic topography of eastern Venezuela has been used to investigate the influence of South American Plate subduction on the generation of the accommodation space observed in the Maturín Basin. Fluid flow modeling of subduction related dynamic topography suggests that the subduction of the South American lithospheric mantle caused downward deflection of the South American crust affecting the Maturín Basin and the Serranía Thrust Belt. This modeling suggests that the Maturín Basin subsidence has two components: 55% related to thrust sheet loading and 45% driven by continental subduction.

JáCome, Maria I.; Kusznir, Nick; Audemard, Felipe; Flint, Steve

2003-10-01

35

Modelling and Estimation of Dynamic Ocean Topography Within Global Geopotential Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this poster, we will present a report on the ongoing investigation "Improved Gravitational and Dynamic Height Models Through the use of Oceanographic Data." we have used a two year mean (1993-1994) of the Dynamic ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the Semtner and Chervin POCM_4B model, and developed normal equations in surface spherical harmonics to degree and order 30. These normal equations, were combined with normal equations derived from TOPEX and ERS-1 altimeter data over the same time period. Combination solutions (based on satellite tracking data, altimeter data, surface gravity data and OCM data) were were developed Test solutions were obtained estimating the DOT field to 2Ox2O and 3ox3O. These solutions were tested with independent DOT values computed over 38 WOCE hydrographic sections, which contained a total of 3072 stations and represented 216000 km of travelled lines. The weighted standard deviation of the differences between the DOT obtained from the hydrographic data and and the field estimated from the joint combination solutions was computed for each of the test models, the weighted standard deviation for the baseline combination solution excluding the POCM4_B data was 9.7 cm for a DOT solution to 30x30, where introducing the POCM4_B data into the combination model reduced the standard deviation to 9.2 cm, indicating the the introduction of oceanographic information benefits the solution for the dynamic ocean topography. We will discuss the weighting schemes applied and the method of solution. Another aspect of our investigation involves testing alternate parametric representations of the dynamic height field. We looked at the alternative representations in terms of the Proudman functions (PF), and compared these to the use of spherical harmonics (SH) to represent the dynamic ocean topography, using once again the 1993 and 1994 output of the POCM4_B OCM as the reference model. A significant advantage of PF's over SH's is that the former require no "fill-in" values over areas where the DOT is undefined. We show that the PF and SH results using equal number of parameters agree quite well in overall content. In addition, PFs appear better suited for representation of high frequency signals close to the signal boundary. The development of the PF solutions for the DOT will be described and the statistics of the comparisons will be presented.

Lemoine, Frank G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos; Wang, Y. M.; Cox, C. M.

1998-01-01

36

Dynamic topography of continents and rotational stability of planets with lithospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines two distinct topics related to the long-term evolution of terrestrial planets. The first, dynamic topography, is the vertical motion of the Earth's tectonic plates in response to viscous stresses in the mantle driven by convective processes. Using mantle flow modelling, I show how dynamic topography linked to plate subduction can explain a long-wavelength component of sediment deposition in the Silurian Baltic Basin. Simulations constrain the paleo-dip angle of subduction to 40°-60° and show that the slab-induced mantle flow mechanism provides 40-85% of the near-field sediment deposition. In another regional study, I use convection simulations constrained by seismic tomography to reconcile the observed broad tilting of the present-day Arabian platform that extends from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. This area has been cited as a classic example of rift-flank uplift; however the influence of rift- flank processes is largely limited to uplift within a few hundred kilometers of the margin. Density heterogeneities linked to a megaplume, which are responsible for high topography in Southern Africa and rifting in East Africa, can reconcile the anomalous topography seen in Arabia. The second topic in this thesis deals with the rotational stability of planets with lithospheres. Using an equilibrium rotational theory suitable for a planet with a lithosphere characterized by long-term elastic strength, along with observational constraints on the figure of Mars, I show that the current rotation axis of Mars is stable. I also find that development of the massive Tharsis volcanic province caused a re-orientation of the planet that was likely less than 15° and that the thickness of the elastic lithosphere at the time of Tharsis formation was at least ~ 50 km. Finally, I extend the equilibrium theory for a planet with an elastic lithosphere to consider the effect of a viscoelastic lithosphere on rotational stability. I find that for sufficiently high lithospheric viscosities (5×10 24 Pa-s or greater) a viscoelastic lithosphere can have a significant impact on reducing rates of true polar wander induced by an uncompensated load. These rates depend on the viscosity of the lithosphere and the size of the load.

Daradich, Amy Louise

37

The eustatic chimera: isn't the Cenomanian maximum flood a dynamic topography puzzle?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more, dynamic topography is predicted to seriously control sea level, which challenges the concept of eustasy, but field evidence are sparse. In order to evaluate the space and time evolution of relative sea level variations, we made paleogeographic reconstructions for three consecutive stages around the presumed Cenomanian maximum flood. For that purpose, we compiled stratigraphic charts and existing paleogeographic maps to reconstruct shorelines at a global scale and infer transgressive and regressive phases. The Cenomanian transgressive phase is essentially present around the Tethys, whereas regression prevails at higher latitudes. Furthermore, diachronicity accompanies the presumed sea level high, for the trend reverses between the three stages in the northern hemisphere while it further subsides in the southern one. These reconstructions therefore suggest that an evolving degree two structure of uplift and subsidence may be more endemic of this period than uniform sea level change and thus, they better recall internal dynamics than eustasy. Indeed, flooding accompanies the Tethyan subduction zone, while regressions are located above spreading oceans. We interpret relative sea level change during the late Cretaceous as the traces of the negative dynamic subsidence above the Tehyan slab in the one hand, and in the other hand of the superplumes (African in particular) that lead to the breakup of the Atlantic. We further confront our results to the predictions of Steinberger, who provides estimates of dynamic topography since the latest Albian. We conformably observe, for instance, positive anomalies in North America, in the Baltic area, or in South Africa, but the model mostly fails to predict the observe diachronicity in vertical ground motion.

Ostanciaux, E.; Robin, C.; Guillocheau, F.; Trotin, G.; Husson, L.

2012-04-01

38

The Time Dependance of Dynamic Topography: Mantle Dynamic Contributions to Local and Global Sea-Level Histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's topography plays an important role in many surface processes, particularly through its influence on the water cycle and erosional processes. Our ability to predict weather patterns and surface/subsurface hydrological processes depends upon our knowledge of this field. Similarly, understanding the evolution of topography through time (paleo-topography) is critically important for the accurate modeling of past climate states such as that of the last glacial maximum. Whilst the present day topographic field can be accurately inferred over the entire globe using satellite based sensors and geodetic techniques, no equivalently comprehensive tools exist that enable access to paleo-topography. The rock record allows for limited, local estimations of deposition elevation with respect to sea level using appropriate fossils combined with sedimentological analyses. However, this method is not available in most locations as a consequence of poor-preservation of the requisite sea level indicators and in any event the accuracy of the relative sea level record is often compromised. Furthermore, just as topography itself consists of distinct dynamic and isostatic contributions, relatives sea level also consists of two contributions, respectively that due to the vertical motion of the surface of the solid Earth and that due to the changing volume of water in the global oceans. In this paper we study the time dependence of Earth's dynamic topography that has occurred over the recent past due to the action of the mantle convection process. We use a modern model of mantle mixing, an extension to three dimensions of the recently published control volume based convection model of Shahnas and Peltier (2010, JGR, vol 115, B11408). This is initialized using a mantle temperature field inferred on the basis of modern seismic tomographic imaging analysis, which enables the model to simulate the present day dynamical state of Earth's mantle. The use of this methodology enables the model to be employed to study the present state of the mantle and its evolution in the recent geological past. The predictions of the model that interest us are those of the rate of uplift and depression of the crust that contribute to records of relative sea level history over timescales sufficiently long to encompass several Late Quaternary glacial cycles. We employ a number of available local records of the time dependence of dynamical topography such as the coral based Barbados record of Peltier and Fairbanks (2006, QSR 25, pp. 3322-3337) to first demonstrate the accuracy with which the convection model is able to reconcile such observational constraints. Although several of the best available constraint data sets derive from regions in the near vicinity of active subduction zones, we proceed to apply the model's predictions to a number of (assumed to be) passive continental margins from which data have been derived that have been assumed to represent variations in eustatic sea level due to the variation of continental land ice volume such as those recently discussed by Miller et al. (2012, Geology 20, pp. 407-410). We assess the extent to which the passive continental margin assumption may have led to significant errors in the inference of global sea level rise for the mid-Pliocene interval of time centered upon 3 Ma.

Durbin, C. J.; Shahnas, M.; Peltier, W. R.

2012-12-01

39

Contribution of Subduction Dynamic Topography to the Formation of the Maturin Foreland Basin Eastern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maturín Basin in Eastern Venezuela, which formed during the Neogene adjacent to the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt, is considered a good example of a peripheral foreland basin. Earthquake and tomographic data indicate that Eastern Venezuela is underthrust by the oblique subduction of the South American Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. Our objectives are to understand the processes responsible for the formation of the Maturin Basin, and to quantitatively determine the contribution of thrust sheet loading and continental subduction. A sequence of new forward flexural isostatic models was generated from Middle Miocene to Present for 3 profiles across the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt and Maturín Foreland Basin in order to determine the contribution of thrust sheet loading to foreland basin subsidence. The predictions of these models are constrained using seismic reflection and well data. The flexural isostatic modelling shows that thrust-sheet loading associated with the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt is insufficient to generate the observed subsidence within the Maturín Basin. The modelled basin depth is shallower than observed by 2 km in the west and 6 km in the east. A topography and basin mass balance study, and comparison with free air gravity anomalies for other foreland basin and mountain belt systems, confirms that the mass deficiency in the Monagas Basin is too large to be regionally compensated by the mass excess in the Serranía Thrust Belt. Dynamic fluid flow modelling of subduction related dynamic topography of Eastern Venezuela has been used to investigate the influence of South American subduction on the generation of the accommodation space observed in the Maturín Basin. Fluid flow modelling of subduction related dynamic topography suggests that the subduction of the South American lithospheric mantle caused downward deflection of the South American crust affecting the Maturín Basin and the Serranía Thrust Belt. This result is consistent with earthquake and tomographic evidence. The total subsidence predicted using preferred thrust sheet loading and fluid flow models is comparable with the wavelength and amplitude of the subsidence observed in the eastern part of the Maturín Basin. This modelling suggests that the Maturín Basin subsidence has two components: 55% in amplitude related to thrust sheet loading and 45% driven by continental subduction. The subduction-related subsidence is greater in the eastern than in the western parts of the basin, consistent with the South American subduction decreasing to the west.

Jacome, M.; Kusznir, N.; Audemard, F.; Flint, S.

2001-12-01

40

Video Animation of Ocean Topography From TOPEX/POSEIDON  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three video loops showing various aspects of the dynamic ocean topography obtained from the TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry data will be presented. The first shows the temporal change of the global ocean topography during the first year of the mission. The time-averaged mean is removed to reveal the temporal variabilities. Temporal interpolation is performed to create daily maps for the animation. A spatial smoothing is also performed to retain only the large-sale features. Gyre-scale seasonal changes are the main features. The second shows the temporal evolution of the Gulf Stream. The high resolution gravimetric geoid of Rapp is used to obtain the absolute ocean topography. Simulated drifters are used to visualize the flow pattern of the current. Meanders and rings of the current are the main features. The third is an animation of the global ocean topography on a spherical earth. The JGM-2 geoid is used to obtain the ocean topography...

Fu, Lee-Lueng; Leconte, Denis; Pihos, Greg; Davidson, Roger; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Tapley, Byron

1993-01-01

41

Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution.  

PubMed

A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution. PMID:25430103

Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

2014-11-01

42

Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

2014-11-01

43

Advances in large-scale ocean dynamics from a decade of satellite altimetric measurement of ocean surface topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface topography from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean dynamics since October 1992.

Fu, L. L.; Menard, Y.

2002-01-01

44

Using Dynamic Ocean Topography To Probe Southern Ocean Circulation Alexa Griesel, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew R. Mazloff, Bruce Cornuelle  

E-print Network

, conductivity-temperature-depth, Southern Elephant Seals as Ocean Samplers, altimetric anomaly observationsXY617 Using Dynamic Ocean Topography To Probe Southern Ocean Circulation Alexa Griesel, Sarah T. Accurate knowledge of the DOT is difficult in the Southern Ocean, because in situ observations are sparse

Griesel, Alexa

45

Frequency-scanning interferometry for dynamic absolute distance measurement using Kalman filter.  

PubMed

We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for dynamic absolute distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The absolute distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity dynamic measurements. Experimental results of dynamic measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented. PMID:25503050

Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli

2014-12-15

46

Deployment dynamics of a simplified spinning IKAROS solar sail via absolute coordinate based method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinning solar sail of large scale has been well developed in recent years. Such a solar sail can be considered as a rigid-flexible multibody system mainly composed of a spinning central rigid hub, a number of flexible thin tethers, sail membranes, and tip masses. A simplified interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the Sun (IKAROS) model is established in this study by using the absolute-coordinate-based (ACB) method that combines the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) describing the central rigid hub and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) describing flexible parts. The initial configuration of the system in the second-stage deployment is determined through both dynamic and static analyses. The huge set of stiff equations of system dynamics is solved by using the generalized-alpha method, and thus the deployment dynamics of the system can be well understood.

Zhao, Jiang; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Hai-Yan

2013-02-01

47

The Effect of Surface Topography on the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rossby Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boussinesq convection in rotating systems attracts a sustained attention of the fluid dynamics community, because it has intricate non-linear dynamics (Cross & Hohenberg 1993) and plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical applications, such as the motion of the liquid outer core of Earth, the Red Spot in Jupiter, the giant cells in the Sun etc. (Alridge et al. 1990). A fundamental distinction between the real geo- and astrophysical problems and the idealized laboratory studies is that natural systems are inhomogeneous (Alridge et al. 1990). Heterogeneities modulate the flow and influence significantly the dynamics of convective patterns (Alridge et al. 1990; Hide 1971). The effect of modulations on pattern formation and transition to turbulence in Boussinesq convection is far from being completely understood (Cross & Hohenberg 1993; Aranson & Kramer 2002). It is generally accepted that in the liquid outer core of the Earth the transport of the angular momentum and internal heat occurs via thermal Rossby waves (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). These waves been visualized in laboratory experiments in rotating liquid-filled spheres and concentric spherical shells (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). The basic dynamical features of Rossby waves have been reproduced in a cylindrical annulus, a system much simpler than the spherical ones (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). For convection in a cylindrical annulus, the fluid motion is two-dimensional, and gravity is replaced by a centrifugal force, (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). Hide (1971) has suggested that the momentum and heat transport in the core might be influenced significantly by so-called bumps, which are heterogeneities on the mantle-core boundary. To model the effect of surface topography on the transport of momentum and energy in the liquid outer core of the Earth, Bell & Soward (1996), Herrmann & Busse (1998) and Westerburg & Busse (2001) have studied the nonlinear dynamics of thermal Rossby waves in a cylindrical annulus with azimuthally modulated height.

Abarzhi, S. I.; Desjardins, O.; Pitsch, H.

2003-01-01

48

Evaluation of a Novel Spine and Surface Topography System for Dynamic Spinal Curvature Analysis during Gait  

PubMed Central

Introduction The assessment of spinal deformities with rasterstereography can enhance the understanding, as well as can reduce the number of x-rays needed. However, to date this technique only allows measurements under static conditions. Since it would be of great value to be able to also analyze the spine in dynamic conditions, the present study evaluated a novel rasterstereographic system. Materials and Methods A new rasterstereographic device was evaluated in a comparison with the gold standard in motion analysis, the VICON system. After initial testing using 12 flat infrared markers adhered to a solid plate, the two systems were evaluated with the markers adhered onto the backs of 8 test subjects. Four triangles were defined using the markers, and the sides of each triangle were measured under static and dynamic conditions. Results On the solid plate, the sides of the 4 triangles were measured with a measuring tape and then by the two optical systems. Rasterstereography showed a high accuracy in marker detection on the solid plate. Under dynamic conditions, with the subjects walking on a treadmill, the rasterstereographically-measured side lengths were compared with the lengths measured by the VICON system as an assessment of marker detection. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the systems, differing only 0.07–1.1% for all sides of the four triangles with both systems. Discussion A novel rasterstereographic measurement device that allows surface and spine topography under dynamic conditions was assessed. The accuracy of this system was with one millimeter on a solid plate and during dynamic measurements, to the gold standard for motion detection. The advantage of rasterstereography is that it can be used to determine a three-dimensional surface map and also allows the analysis of the underlying spine. PMID:23894674

Betsch, Marcel; Wild, Michael; Johnstone, Brian; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Kühlmann, Britta; Rapp, Walter

2013-01-01

49

Impacts of topography on aspen and black spruce successional dynamics in the boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forest contains over 30 percent of Earth's terrestrial carbon, stored mainly as organic matter in soils underlain by discontinuous permafrost. In interior Alaska, black spruce trees dominate these nutrient-depleted soils where the combination of cold temperatures and nutrient-poor black spruce detritus results in an accumulation of a thick layer of organic matter that is not easily decomposed. However, warming temperatures have decreased fire return intervals and resulted in permafrost recession, opening more boreal forest space to early-successional hardwoods such aspen. Because aspen and black spruce stands have a much different capacity for near-surface carbon storage, shifts in vegetation type have important implications for carbon storage in boreal forests. Yet, existing global climate models that run at resolutions of 50-100 square kilometers cannot capture vegetation dynamics that result from fire and topographic variation, where significant heterogeneity is present on scales of 1 square kilometer or less. In this study we use the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 to examine the growth and mortality dynamics of black spruce and aspen trees. Employing meteorological forcing data from the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (BNZ-LTER) weather station (64.70°N, 148.25°W) we investigate the interdependence of permafrost depth, soil temperature, soil moisture content and plant functional type on topography. Modeled plant densities are corroborated with observed aspen and black spruce distributions at the BNZ-LTER and nearby Delta Junction, AK. We then show how an accurate spatial parameterization of aspen and black spruce trees can be used to better simulate boreal zone carbon dynamics with receding permafrost and increased fire frequency.

Trugman, A. T.; Medvigy, D.

2013-12-01

50

LES of atmospheric boundary layer flow over fluvial-like anisotropic topography with a dynamic surface drag model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic surface drag model (A. & M. 2011, JFM 679, 288 - 314) is applied in LES of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow over fractal-like topography where the height field exhibits power-law energy spectrum. Initially, the dynamic drag model was applied in LES of ABL flow over isotropic synthetic fractal-like roughness. Here we consider fluvial-like anisotropic landscapes. Two main cases are considered. The first is a fluvial-like topography built through numerical solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.ootnotetextThanks also to Profs. P. Passalacqua and F. Porte-Agel for providing KPZ solution fields. The second is a rescaled topography (Texas) map from the U.S. National Elevation Dataset. These landscapes are dominated by anisotropic modes that have emerged through geomorphological erosion processes. The dynamic model yields stable solutions even in these highly anisotropic cases: performance is strongest for cases where the LES grid- and test-filter width are within the landscape ``self-similar'' range. Weaknesses are reported for cases where spectral exponent changes with wavenumber, motivating the development of a scale-dependent version of the dynamic approach using two test-filters.

Anderson, William; Meneveau, Charles

2011-11-01

51

New clinical instrument for the early detection of cataract using dynamic light scattering and corneal topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered light and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

2000-06-01

52

GOCE studies of mean dynamic topography and ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) derived Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) and altimetric sea level anomalies (SLA) with hydrographic data an estimate of the mean and variables transport of Atlantic Water entering the Nordic seas is obtained for the period 1993 - 2010 at a spatial resolution of 100 km. The mean inflow of Atlantic Water (Salinity >35) through the Faroe-Shetland Channel is estimated to approximately 4.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m^3s^-1). Across the Iceland Faroe Ridge the mean volume transport of Atlantic Water is 3.5 Sv. In comparison, the mean transport of the two branches of Atlantic Water crossing the Svinøy section the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current and the Norwegian Atlantic Front Current is respectively 3.8 Sv and 3.0 Sv. This is in close agreement with previous estimates. Taking benefit of the temporal variability observed in the SLA and hydrography data the seasonal cycle in the transport of the inflowing Atlantic Water reveals a consistent pattern with a maximum of 9.3 Sv during the winter months (Des - Feb), and a minimum of 5.4 Sv during the summer months (Jun - Aug). The winter maximum was almost twice as large as the summer minimum, and a preliminary analysis suggests that the strength of Atlantic flow toward the Arctic reflect the strength of the regional wind forcing (NAO).

Pripp, Trond; Johannessen, Johnny; Eldevik, Tor

2013-04-01

53

Future Evolution of Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently concluded Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project (Bindschadler et al., 2013; Nowicki et al., 2013) provides some clues regarding the future evolution of Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in a warming climate. Using the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we combine the relevant SeaRISE results with possibly the best available GIA ice loading history for the past 21 kyr (Ivins et al., 2013), and provide first-order estimates of future uplift of AIS. While the model predicts minor subsidence in the interior of the east AIS and along the Wilkes Land, we find that the west AIS (Amundsen sea sector, in particular) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters over the next 100 and 500 years, respectively. Such uneven changes in topography imply that the bed slope will be modulated in the future, thereby potentially controlling the grounding line migration and eventually the ice sheet dynamics. Using hydrostatic equilibrium criterion and through high-order modeling of AIS, we demonstrate that proper treatment of GIA response is crucial on centennial timescale, as it promotes systematic, although mild, stability to marine portions of the ice sheet.

Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.

2013-12-01

54

Geopotential Model Improvement Using POCM_4B Dynamic Ocean Topography Information: PGM2000A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-year mean (1993-1994) Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the POCM_4B circulation model was used to develop normal equations for DOT, in a surface spherical harmonic representation. These normal equations were combined with normal equations from satellite tracking data, surface gravity data, and altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1. Several least-squares combination solutions were developed in this fashion, by varying parameters such as the maximum degree of the estimated DOT and the relative weights of the different data. The solutions were evaluated in terms of orbit fit residuals, GPS/Leveling-derived undulations, and independent DOT information from in situ WOCE hydrographic data. An optimal solution was developed in this fashion which was originally presented at the 1998 EGS meeting in Nice, France. This model, designated here PGM2000A, maintains the orbit and land geoid modeling performance of EGM96, while improving its marine geoid modeling capability. In addition, PGM2000A's error spectrum is considerably more realistic than those of other contemporary gravitational models and agrees well with the error spectrum of EGM96. We will present the development and evaluation of PGM2000A, with particular emphasis on the weighting of the DOT information implied by POCM_4B. We will also present an inter-comparison of PGM2000A with the GRIM5-C1 and TEG-4 models. Directions for future work and problematic areas will be identified.

Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

55

Multiscale Reactive Molecular Dynamics for Absolute pK a Predictions and Amino Acid Deprotonation.  

PubMed

Accurately calculating a weak acid's pK a from simulations remains a challenging task. We report a multiscale theoretical approach to calculate the free energy profile for acid ionization, resulting in accurate absolute pK a values in addition to insights into the underlying mechanism. Importantly, our approach minimizes empiricism by mapping electronic structure data (QM/MM forces) into a reactive molecular dynamics model capable of extensive sampling. Consequently, the bulk property of interest (the absolute pK a) is the natural consequence of the model, not a parameter used to fit it. This approach is applied to create reactive models of aspartic and glutamic acids. We show that these models predict the correct pK a values and provide ample statistics to probe the molecular mechanism of dissociation. This analysis shows changes in the solvation structure and Zundel-dominated transitions between the protonated acid, contact ion pair, and bulk solvated excess proton. PMID:25061442

Nelson, J Gard; Peng, Yuxing; Silverstein, Daniel W; Swanson, Jessica M J

2014-07-01

56

Mantle dynamics models for Venus - comparison of spatial and spectral characteristics of inferred gravity anomalies and topography with observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus and Earth have similar size and probably also core radius, such that many results that have been obtained for Earth's mantle could apply to Venus as well. Yet a fundamental difference between the two planets is that Earth features plate tectonics, whereas Venus appears to be in the rigid lid regime. From a variety of constraints, a substantial increase of viscosity with depth in the Earth's mantle, reaching around 10**23 Pas in the lower mantle above D'', can be inferred. Mantle convection models with a sufficiently high temperature as boundary condition at the core-mantle-boundary invariably yield thermal plumes. With a rigid lid as upper boundary and the high lower mantle viscosity, mantle dynamics models typically yield around 10 plumes, which are long-lived (hundreds of Myr lifespan) and slowly moving (typically < 1cm/yr). These modelling results appear to match well with the distribution of volcanism in space and time as inferred from observations. Besides volcanism, topography and gravity anomalies can yield further insights towards the internal dynamics of Venus: If we assume the same spectrum (in terms of spherical harmonic expansion) of thermal density anomalies, as inferred from tomography models on Earth, and a similar radial viscosity structure, except without viscosity jump at the spinel-perovskite transition on Venus, we find that we can match most of both the gravity and topography spectrum on Venus up to about degree 40. This probably implies that - in contrast to Earth - topography on Venus is mostly dynamically supported from within. The main exception is degree two gravity on Venus, which is much less than predicted, implying that the mantle on Venus has much less degree-two structure, and therefore probably no features corresponding to the Earth's Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). Here we focus on predictions from dynamic models: We compare model predictions of mantle density anomaly spectra for both Earth (where we prescribe subduction zone locations for the past 300 Myrs, and a chemically different basal layer, corresponding to the LLSVPs) and Venus (no subduction or chemical anomalies) with each other and with tomography. We compare predicted gravity and topography spectra for these models, and typical modeled gravity and topography profiles across plumes, with observations. This allows us to further constrain viscosity structure and elastic lithosphere thickness, and address the question whether all observations can be explained by thermal convection only, or compositional anomalies play a role on Venus as well.

Steinberger, Bernhard; Werner, Stephanie C.

2013-04-01

57

Dynamics of thermo-chemical mantle plumes and their influence on surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to widely recognised models, large igneous provinces (LIPs) develop as a result of plumes ascending from the core-mantle boundary and the associated massive melting when the plume head reaches the base of the lithosphere. Most of these models include kilometer-scale topographic uplift before and during the eruption of flood basalts. On the contrary several paleogeographic and paleotectonic field studies indicate significantly smaller surface uplift during the development of many LIPs. Recent geodynamic models show that the interaction of thermo-chemical, rather than purely thermal, plumes with the lithosphere explains observations for LIPs much better. This includes small premagmatic uplift and enormous magmatic activity even at thick cratonic lithosphere. Such thermo-chemical plumes are formed by the entrainment of dense material derived from recycled oceanic crust while the plume ascends from the D''-layer. Presence of this material reduces plume buoyancy and thus generates smaller surface uplift. However, previous studies considered neither the interaction of the thermo-chemical plume with transition zone phase boundaries nor its motion in the lower mantle. They also assume a constant density difference between peridotite and eclogite, or neglect phase transformations. In this work we present a systematic study of the dynamics of thermo-chemical plumes in the whole mantle and their influence on dynamic topography. For that we use a two-dimensional axisymmetric finite-element model that includes 410 km and 660 km phase boundaries as well as depth-dependent density difference between pyrolite and the MORB material. We employ a modified version of the Citcom code that includes mantle compressibility, a tracer-ratio method to incorporate the two chemical components and strongly temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity. Our study shows that thermo-chemical plumes cause a surface uplift on a scale of 150 - 1000 m during their ascent and spreading below the lithosphere. This is significantly smaller than predicted for purely thermal plumes. We show that a plume containing a too high fraction of recycled oceanic crust to rise to the lithosphere more likely ponds at a depth of 300 - 400 km than at the 660-km phase boundary. This barrier is caused by the high density contrast between eclogite and pyrolite in this region. In addition, we show that neglecting phase transformations and the depth-dependence of MORB density leads to substantial different results.

Dannberg, J.; Sobolev, S. V.

2012-04-01

58

Relationship between topography, rates of extension and mantle dynamics in the actively-extending Italian Apennines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the mechanism driving active extension in the central and southern Italian Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard, we compare spatial variations in upper crustal strain-rate measured across exposed fault scarps since 15 ± 3 ka with data on cumulative upper-crustal strain and topographic elevation, and free-air gravity, P-wave tomography and SKS splitting delay times that are a proxy for strain in the mantle. High extensional strain-rates across the Apennines since 15 ± 3 ka (0.4-3.1 mm/yr along 90 km transects) occur in two areas (Lazio-Abruzzo; SE Campania and Basilicata) where values for finite extensional strains that have developed since 2-3 Ma are highest (2-7 km cumulative throw), and where mean elevation in 5 × 90 km NE-SW boxes is > 600 m; the intervening area (NW Campania and Molise) with < 600 m mean elevation in 5 × 90 km boxes has extension-rates < 0.4 mm/yr and lower values for finite extensional strains (< 2 km cumulative throw). These two areas with high upper-crustal strain-rates overlie mantle that has relatively-long spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (1.2-1.8 s) indicating relatively-high mantle strains and free-air gravity values (140-160 mGals); the intervening area of lower extension-rate has shorter spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (0.8-1.2 s) and lower free-air gravity values (120 mGals). The two areas with high upper crustal strain-rates and strain, mean elevation, and mantle strain, coincide with the northern and southern edges of a slab window in the Tyrrhenian-Apennines subducting plate that has been inferred from published P-wave tomography. Together these correlations suggest that dynamic support of the topography by mantle flow through the slab window may control the present day upper crustal strain-rate field in the Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard in the region.

Faure Walker, J. P.; Roberts, G. P.; Cowie, P. A.; Papanikolaou, I.; Michetti, A. M.; Sammonds, P.; Wilkinson, M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Phillips, R. J.

2012-04-01

59

Forecasting the absolute and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system dynamics model approach  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future dynamic changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system dynamics modeling to estimate future absolute and relative numbers of physicians. Method We constructed a forecasting model using a system dynamics approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis. Result & conclusion As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 2008–2030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians. PMID:23981198

2013-01-01

60

Comment on "Dynamic topography in South America" by Federico M. Dávila & Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their article Dávila and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2013) propose that the Andes have been isostatically uncompensated throughout the Cenozoic and that additional forces induced by mantle flow were required to explain the observed topographies. Although this hypothesis seems plausible, they provide a regional model of "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" which implies that the deposition of the Los Llanos Formation (in La Rioja, NW Argentina) occurred during Miocene. However, this age is incongruent with the presence of a neosauropod nesting site at Sanagasta and a Cretaceous faunal assemblage in Tama both in Los Llanos Formation and well documented in recent publications. Therefore, the proposed model for "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" appears incorrect. Moreover, the Cretaceous exposures at Sanagasta and Tama foster the need of revising the alleged Cenozoic age of the Los Llanos Formation in La Rioja and neighboring provinces, and the tectonic models associated with this formation.

Hechenleitner, E. Martín; Fiorelli, Lucas E.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Carignano, Ana P.

2014-03-01

61

(Photo-)thermally induced formation of dynamic surface topographies in polymer hydrogel networks.  

PubMed

In this Article, we report on our approaches to creating responsive hydrogel coatings with surfaces that can be switched between a close to flat state and a state with a predesigned topographic pattern. The trigger is either temperature or, indirectly, light. The hydrogel coatings are based on the known thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) utilizing its solubility change at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at around 32 °C. Using this material in combination with controlled cross-linking, we developed three fabrication strategies. Thermally switching symmetric surface topographies were created by careful and spatial control of the cross-link density. Sensitivity to light was created by patterns of tin oxide converting absorbed light into local heat. And to broaden the application range, we introduced a method based on volumetric effects created by a corrugated substrate. The latter method allows for the formation of asymmetric or slanted surface structures. PMID:23573907

Liu, Danqing; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Broer, Dirk J

2013-05-01

62

Large Eddy Simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over multi-scale topographies with a dynamic surface drag model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many flows especially in geophysical land surface-atmosphere coupling processes involve turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces. Often these surfaces have multi-scale height distributions. For large eddy simulation (LES), when the filter scale is such that only the large-scale portion of the roughness elements of the surface can be resolved explicitly on the computational grid, new techniques need to be developed. Here we consider LES of flows over rough surfaces with power-law height spectra, as often encountered in natural terrains. In LES, the surface is decomposed into resolved and subgrid-scale height contributions. The effects of the unresolved small-scale height fluctuations are modeled using a local equilibrium wall model (log-law or Monin-Obukhov similarity), but specification of the required aerodynamic roughness length involves an ad-hoc parameter called the roughness parameter. A novel dynamic methodology is proposed based on test-filtering the surface forces and requiring that the total drag force be independent of filter scale or resolution. This dynamic surface roughness model is inspired by the Germano identity traditionally used to determine model parameters for closing subgrid-scale stresses in the bulk of a turbulent flow. A series of LES of fully developed flow over rough surfaces are performed. We firstly consider isotropic stochastic surfaces built using random-phase Fourier modes with prescribed power-law spectra. Results show that the approach yields well-defined, rapidly converging, values of the roughness parameter. Effects of spatial resolution and landscape spectral exponent are investigated. We also consider the case of two fluvial-like anisotropic landscapes. The first is a fluvial-like topography built through numerical solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. The second is rescaled topography (Texas) from the U.S. National Elevation Dataset. These landscapes are dominated by anisotropic modes that have emerged through geomorphological erosion processes. We find that the dynamic approach finds stable solutions also for surfaces with such anisotropies: results are most accurate for cases where the LES grid- and test-filter width are within the landscape 'self-similar' range. Weaknesses are reported for cases where spectral exponent changes with wavenumber, i.e. for cases with scale-dependence where the underlying assumption of the dynamic approach (scale-invariance) breaks down. Supported by NSF (AGS-1045189). We also acknowledge Profs. P. Passalacqua and F. Porte-Agel for providing the authors with KPZ solution fields for fluvial landscape applications.

Meneveau, C. V.; Anderson, W.

2011-12-01

63

Effects of bottom topography on dynamics of river discharges in tidal regions: case study of twin plumes in Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighbouring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are similar in many respects, and yet the two plumes exhibit significantly different behaviour. We explain this through differences of the bottom topography in the areas adjacent to the two river mouths. The Zhuoshui River runs into a shallow area that is permanently exposed to strong tidal mixing, while the Wu River mouth is located in a deeper, stratified area outside the region of intense mixing. This destruction of the plume by tidal mixing is confirmed by the results of numerical modeling with POM. The spatial and temporal variability of turbulent kinetic energy, the rates of its production by shear and destruction rate by buoyancy in the study, as well as the horizontal diffusivity, are analysed with the emphasis given to the dependence of the turbulence parameters on the bottom topography on the one hand and their influence on the river plumes on the other. The results of the study support the central hypothesis of this paper: the dynamic behaviours of the Zhuoshui and Wu plumes are different because their evolution occurs under different regimes of bottom-generated turbulent mixing. Further, we use a Lagrangian particle tracking model in combination with POM to investigate the effect of the tidal wetting-and-drying (WAD) near the Zhuoshui River estuary, and demonstrate that WAD leads to significant reduction of the plume extent and surface salinity deficit near the river mouth. We use observational data from a short field campaign in the study area to tune and validate the model experiments.

Korotenko, K. A.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Kao, R.-C.; Ding, C.-F.

2014-10-01

64

Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

We have studied plasma formation and relaxation dynamics along with the corresponding topography modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final topography of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The evolution of the crater depth as a function of fluence can be described taking into account the individual bandgap of each material.

Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Ehrentraut, L. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und-pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

2010-05-15

65

Flattening of the oceanic topography and geoid: thermal versus dynamic origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the flattening of the seafloor bathymetry and geoid at old ages is still a matter of debate. Is this departure from the square-root-of-age law induced by dynamic uplift of the lithosphere linked to the flow in the mantle or by cooling of the lithosphere different from that predicted for an infinite half-space? The amplitude of the dynamic uplift should strongly decrease at short wavelengths and should not be correlated with the seafloor age on a local scale. Therefore, in order to eliminate the `dynamic signal', the cooling of the lithosphere is studied here by means of depth-age and geoid-age relationships computed from high-pass filtered bathymetric, geoid and age fields, or from local dtopography/d and dgeoid/dage slopes. The geoid-age and depth-age relationships obtained here are in good agreement with those previously deduced from global non-filtered data. At all observation scales, a significant departure from the half-space solution is found. However, the data are not sufficiently accurate to discriminate between the Plate and CHABLIS (Constant Heat flow At the Base of the Lithospheric ISotherm) models. Our results support the existence of small-scale convection supplying heat at the base of the old oceanic lithosphere.

Doin, Marie-Pierre; Fleitout, Luce

2000-12-01

66

A New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Corneal Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered fight and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal topography during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.

2000-01-01

67

Combining a Global GOCE Derived MDT with In-situ Observation for Regional Enhancement of the Mean Dynamic Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's major current systems. Furthermore, finer scale features, such as meanders and branches of the current system have become visible. In this study, a global mean dynamic topography (MDT) derived using a gravity models from GOCE combined with the DTU13MSS mean sea surface is used as a reference model. Then regional analyses are carried out using in-situ observations of the gravity field as well as of the geostrophic surface currents. The aim of those analyses is to evaluate the GOCE derived MDT in detail at regional scales. Subsequently, the in-situ observations are used in a regional enhancement of the estimated MDT and its associated currents. The data are combined using an optimal estimation technique such as least squares collocation, that is based on the functional relationship between the gravity field and the MDT as well as their a-priori statistical characteristics. The methodology and preliminary results will be presented.

Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole; Benveniste, Jerome

2014-05-01

68

Determination of some dominant parameters of the global dynamic sea surface topography from GEOS-3 altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1977 altimetry data bank is analyzed for the geometrical shape of the sea surface expressed as surface spherical harmonics after referral to the higher reference model defined by GEM 9. The resulting determination is expressed as quasi-stationary dynamic SST. Solutions are obtained from different sets of long arcs in the GEOS-3 altimeter data bank as well as from sub-sets related to the September 1975 and March 1976 equinoxes assembled with a view to minimizing seasonal effects. The results are compared with equivalent parameters obtained from the hydrostatic analysis of sporadic temperature, pressure and salinity measurements of the oceans and the known major steady state current systems with comparable wavelengths. The most clearly defined parameter (the zonal harmonic of degree 2) is obtained with an uncertainty of + or - 6 cm. The preferred numerical value is smaller than the oceanographic value due to the effect of the correction for the permanent earth tide. Similar precision is achieved for the zonal harmonic of degree 3. The precision obtained for the fourth degree zonal harmonic reflects more closely the accuracy expected from the level of noise in the orbital solutions.

Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.

1978-01-01

69

Mid Pliocene sea levels: A combined analysis of field data, models of glacial isostasy and dynamic topography, and eustasy. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the eustatic elevation of former sea levels (SL), or equivalently ice volumes, is a central goal of paleoclimate research. SL estimates for the Mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ˜3.3 to 2.9 Ma) are of particular interest as CO2 levels at that time (between 350 and 450 ppmv) were similar to today (> 400 ppmv as of May 2013). However, despite general agreement on other climate variables, SL estimates for the MPWP and the stability of polar ice sheets during this interval remain largely unconstrained. In this regard, inferring ice volumes from SL indicators of MPWP age is complicated by several factors. First, relatively few robust records of MPWP SL have been obtained from tectonically stable areas. Second, the potentially significant contaminating signals due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and dynamic topography associated with mantle convective flow (DT) have rarely, and only recently, been accounted for. Within the framework of PLIOMAX project, we are collecting accurate MPWP indicators at widely distributed sites using a combination of classic field methods, state of the art GPS and GIS techniques. Moreover, the analysis of the data involves the participation of both field geologists and geodynamic modelers. In this talk, we present data collected in three specific areas: Republic of South Africa, Western Australia and the southeastern United States. We will report on the present day elevation of MPWP shoreline indicators in each region. Moreover, we will combine this data set with a broad suite of numerical models of GIA and DT to establish current uncertainties on the estimate of eustatic SL during the MPWP, as well as comment on possible strategies for improving the accuracy of this estimate.

Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; Hearty, P. J.; Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Michael, O.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.

2013-12-01

70

Who is in control? Competing influences of geology, land use and topography on soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can we identify distinct signatures of landscape elements in the event response of soil moisture and soil temperature? Moisture and temperature dynamics in soils are largely controlled by the climatic boundary conditions of rainfall, evapotranspiration and radiation. However, certain landscape features also leave characteristic finger prints on soil moisture and soil temperature time series. The extent of these influences and their time variable relative importance are important in a number of contexts, such as landscape scale prediction of soil moisture patterns or runoff generation, process predictions in ungauged basins or the improvement of hydrological model structures for the mesoscale. The competing influences of geology, land use and topography on temperature and moisture characteristics in the vadose zone are explored at the CAOS hydrological observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/) with a unique experimental setup of 45 sensor clusters. These sensor clusters cover three different geologies (schist, sandstone, marls), two land use classes (forest and grassland), five different landscape positions (plateau, top-, mid- and lower hillslope as well as near stream/floodplain locations), and contrasting expositions. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at depths from 10 to 70 cm, four soil temperature profiles as well as air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels were measured continuously. Time series of up to 2 years for the schist region and up to 6 months for the complete set of sites allow for a first intercomparison of characteristic event response behavior.

Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus

2014-05-01

71

Introducing variable-step topography (VST) coordinates within dynamically constrained nonhydrostatic modeling system (NMS). Part 2: VST performance on orthodox obstacle flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this second part of a two-part sequence of papers, the performance metrics and quantitative advantages of a new VST surface coordinate system, implemented within a dynamically constrained, nonhydrostatic, cloud mesoscale atmospheric model, are evaluated in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems. [The first part presented a full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of the newly re-tooled nonhydrostatic modeling system (NMS) operating within integral constraints based on the conservation of the foremost quantities of mass, energy and circulation.] The intent behind VST is to create a vertical surface coordinate system boundary underpinning a nonhydrostatic atmosphere capable of reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Model simulation results are analyzed for six classical fluid dynamics problems involving flows relative to obstacles with known analytical or laboratory-simulated solutions, as well as for a seventh noteworthy mountain wave breaking problem that has well-studied numerical solutions. For cases when topography becomes excessively severe or poorly resolved numerically, atmospheric models using transform (terrain-following) coordinates produce noteworthy errors rendering a stable integration only if the topography is smoothed. For cases when topography is slowly varying (smooth or subtle), models using discrete-step coordinates also produce noteworthy errors relative to known solutions. Alternatively, the VST model demonstrates that both limitations of the two conventional approaches, for the entire range of slope severities, can be overcome. This means that VST is ideally suited for a scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.

Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.

2014-06-01

72

The relationships between topography, rates of extension, subduction and mantle dynamics in the actively-extending Italian Apennines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the mechanism driving active extension in the central and southern Italian Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard, we compare spatial variations in upper crustal strain-rate measured across exposed fault scarps since 15 ±3 ka with data on cumulative upper-crustal strain and topographic elevation, and free-air gravity, P-wave tomography and SKS splitting delay times that are a proxy for strain in the mantle. High extensional strain-rates across the Apennines since 15 ±3 ka (0.4-3.1 mm/yr along 90 km transects) occur in two areas (Lazio-Abruzzo; SE Campania and Basilicata) where values for finite extensional strains that have developed since 2-3 Ma are highest (2-7 km cumulative throw), and where mean elevation in 5 x 90 km NE-SW boxes is > 600 m; the intervening area (NW Campania and Molise) with < 600 m mean elevation in 5 x 90 km boxes has extension-rates < 0.4 mm/yr and lower values for finite extensional strains (< 2 km cumulative throw). These two areas with high upper-crustal strain-rates overlie mantle that has relatively-long spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (1.2-1.8 seconds), that have been interpreted as evidence for relatively-high mantle strains. These areas also exhibit free-air gravity values of 140-160 mGals. The intervening area of lower extension-rate has shorter spatially-interpolated SKS delay times (0.8-1.2 seconds) and lower free-air gravity values (120 mGals). The two areas with high upper crustal strain-rates and strain, mean elevation, and mantle strain, coincide with the northern and southern edges of a slab window in the Tyrrhenian-Apennines subducting plate that has been inferred from P-wave tomography. Together these correlations suggest that dynamic support of the topography by mantle flow through the slab window may control the present day upper crustal strain-rate field in the Apennines and the geography of seismic hazard in the region - thus, there is a clear surface expression of flow in the mantle.;

Roberts, G.; Faure Walker, J.; Cowie, P. A.; Papanikolaou, I.; Michetti, A.; Sammonds, P.; Wilkinson, M. W.; McCaffrey, K. J.; Phillips, R. J.

2012-12-01

73

The impact of the dynamic sea surface topography on the quasi-geoid in shallow coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine the impact of instantaneous dynamic sea surface topography (DT) corrections to be applied to altimeter-derived sea surface slopes on the quasi-geoid in the shallow and coastal waters of the North Sea. In particular, we investigate the added value of DT corrections obtained from a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. These corrections comprise the contributions of ocean tides, wind- and pressure-driven (surge), and density-driven (baroclinic) water-level variations including the interactions between them. As a reference, we used tidal corrections derived from the global ocean tide model GOT4.7, surge corrections derived from the MOG2D model, and corrections for the time-averaged baroclinic contribution computed as differences between the DTU10 mean sea surface model and the EGG08 quasi-geoid. From a spectral analysis, we found that the baroclinic and surge parts of the DT mainly contribute to improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at longer wavelengths down to and that the improvements increase towards the southern North Sea. We also found that the shallow-water hydrodynamic model provides better tidal corrections compared to the GOT4.7 global ocean tide model, which are most pronounced in the southern North Sea and affect almost the entire spectrum. Very small differences (mostly below ) are observed between the quasi-geoid solutions obtained using the different sets of DT corrections. We showed that the variance component estimation provides too optimistic variance factors for the shipboard data set relative to the altimeter-derived quasi-geoid slopes. Hence, the limited impact of DT corrections is due to the fact that altimeter-derived quasi-geoid slopes hardly contribute to the estimated quasi-geoid if shipboard gravity data are included. When computing quasi-geoid solutions without shipboard gravity data, we found that less accurate or incomplete DT corrections may cause errors in the quasi-geoid with systematic spatial patterns. These systematic patterns disappear or are reduced significantly when using the DT corrections provided by the shallow-water hydrodynamic model. The main contributor to this improvement is the better tidal correction provided by the shallow-water hydrodynamic model compared to the GOT4.7 global ocean tide model. Seen the improvements of the global ocean tide models over the last two decades, we expect that in the near future global ocean tide models perform as well as dedicated regional models such as DCSM. Critical issue is, however, access to high-quality local bathymetric data.

Slobbe, D. C.; Klees, R.

2014-03-01

74

A method of error adjustment for marine gravity with application to Mean Dynamic Topography in the northern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International compilations of marine gravity, such as the International Gravity Bureau (BGI) contain tens of millions of point data. Lemoine et al. (The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96, NASA/TP-1998-206861) chose not to include any marine gravity in the construction of the global gravity model EGM96. Instead they used synthetic anomalies derived from altimetry, so that no independent information about Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) can be deduced. Software has been developed not only to identify and correct those aspects of marine gravity data that are unreliable, but to do so in a way that can be applied to very large, ocean-wide data sets. First, we select only straight-line parts of ship-tracks and fit each one with a high-degree series of Chebyshev polynomials, whose misfit standard deviation is ? line and measures the random error associated with point gravity data. Then, network adjustment determines how the gravity datum is offset for each survey. A free least squares adjustment minimises the gravity anomaly mismatch at line-crossing points, using ? line to weight the estimate for each line. For a long, well crossed survey, the instrumental drift rate is also adjusted. For some 42,000 cross-over points in the northern Atlantic Ocean, network adjustment reduces the unweighted standard deviation of the cross-over errors from 4.03 to 1.58 mGal; when quality weighted, the statistic reduces from 1.32 to 0.39 mGal. The geodetic MDT is calculated combining the adjusted gravity anomalies and satellite altimetry, and a priori global ocean model through a new algorithm called the Iterative Combination Method. This paper reports a first demonstration that geodetic oceanography can characterise the details of basin wide ocean circulation with a resolution better than global ocean circulation models. The result matches regional models of ocean circulation from hydrography measurements (Geophys Res Lett 29:1896, 2002; J Geophys Res 108:3251, 2003).

Hunegnaw, A.; Hipkin, R. G.; Edwards, J.

2009-02-01

75

Flow-topography interactions, particle transport and plankton dynamics at the Flower Garden Banks: a modeling study  

E-print Network

their trajectories are most strongly influenced by the topography of the continental shelf. Modeled dispersal patterns suggest that there is an ample supply of larvae from the Flower Garden Banks to nearby oil and gas platforms, which can provide suitable benthic...

Francis, Simone

2006-04-12

76

Absolute Single-Molecule Entropies from Quasi-Harmonic Analysis of Microsecond Molecular Dynamics: Correction Terms and Convergence Properties  

PubMed Central

The convergence properties of the absolute single-molecule configurational entropy and the correction terms used to estimate it are investigated using microsecond molecular dynamics simulation of a peptide test system and an improved methodology. The results are compared with previous applications for systems of diverse chemical nature. It is shown that (i) the effect of anharmonicity is small, (ii) the effect of pairwise correlation is typically large, and (iii) the latter affects to a larger extent the entropy estimate of thermodynamic states characterized by a higher motional correlation. The causes of such deviations from a quasi-harmonic behavior are explained. This improved approach provides entropies also for molecular systems undergoing conformational transitions and characterized by highly frustrated energy surfaces, thus not limited to systems sampling a single quasi-harmonic basin. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for extensive phase-space sampling in order to obtain a reliable estimation of entropic contributions. PMID:20011626

2009-01-01

77

Seismic waveform inversion for core-mantle boundary topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is directly linked to the dynamics of both the mantle and the outer core, although it is poorly constrained and understood. Recent studies have produced topography models with mutual agreement up to degree 2. A broad-band waveform inversion strategy is introduced and applied here, with relatively low computational cost and based on a first-order Born approximation. Its performance is validated using synthetic waveforms calculated in theoretical earth models that include different topography patterns with varying lateral wavelengths, from 600 to 2500 km, and magnitudes (˜10 km peak-to-peak). The source-receiver geometry focuses mainly on the Pdiff, PKP, PcP and ScS phases. The results show that PKP branches, PcP and ScS generally perform well and in a similar fashion, while Pdiff yields unsatisfactory results. We investigate also how 3-D mantle correction influences the output models, and find that despite the disturbance introduced, the models recovered do not appear to be biased, provided that the 3-D model is correct. Using cross-correlated traveltimes, we derive new topography models from both P and S waves. The static corrections used to remove the mantle effect are likely to affect the inversion, compromising the agreement between models derived from P and S data. By modelling traveltime residuals starting from sensitivity kernels, we show how the simultaneous use of volumetric and boundary kernels can reduce the bias coming from mantle structures. The joint inversion approach should be the only reliable method to invert for CMB topography using absolute cross-correlation traveltimes.

Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico

2014-07-01

78

Computation of a new mean dynamic topography for the Mediterranean Sea from model outputs, altimeter measurements and oceanographic in situ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate knowledge of the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and, in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new MDT that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It profits from improvements made possible by the use of extended data sets and refined processing. The updated data set spans the 1993-2012 period and consists of drifter velocities, altimetry data, hydrological profiles and model data. The methodology is similar to the previous MDT by Rio et al. (2007). However, in Rio et al. (2007) no hydrological profiles had been taken into account. This required the development of dedicated processing. A number of sensitivity studies have been carried out to obtain the most accurate MDT as possible. The main results from these sensitivity studies are the following: moderate impact to the choice of correlation scales but almost negligible sensitivity to the choice of the first guess (model solution). A systematic external validation to independent data has been made to evaluate the performance of the new MDT. Compared to previous versions, SMDT-MED-2014 (Synthetic Mean Dynamic Topography of the MEDiterranean sea) features shorter-scale structures, which results in an altimeter velocity variance closer to the observed velocity variance and, at the same time, gives better Taylor skills.

Rio, M.-H.; Pascual, A.; Poulain, P.-M.; Menna, M.; Barceló, B.; Tintoré, J.

2014-08-01

79

Free Energy Perturbation Hamiltonian Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) for Absolute Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations  

PubMed Central

Free Energy Perturbation with Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (FEP/REMD) offers a powerful strategy to improve the convergence of free energy computations. In particular, it has been shown previously that a FEP/REMD scheme allowing random moves within an extended replica ensemble of thermodynamic coupling parameters “lambda” can improve the statistical convergence in calculations of absolute binding free energy of ligands to proteins [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5, 2583]. In the present study, FEP/REMD is extended and combined with an accelerated MD simulations method based on Hamiltonian replica-exchange MD (H-REMD) to overcome the additional problems arising from the existence of kinetically trapped conformations within the protein receptor. In the combined strategy, each system with a given thermodynamic coupling factor lambda in the extended ensemble is further coupled with a set of replicas evolving on a biased energy surface with boosting potentials used to accelerate the inter-conversion among different rotameric states of the side chains in the neighborhood of the binding site. Exchanges are allowed to occur alternatively along the axes corresponding to the thermodynamic coupling parameter lambda and the boosting potential, in an extended dual array of coupled lambda- and H-REMD simulations. The method is implemented on the basis of new extensions to the REPDSTR module of the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM. As an illustrative example, the absolute binding free energy of p-xylene to the nonpolar cavity of the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme was calculated. The tests demonstrate that the dual lambda-REMD and H-REMD simulation scheme greatly accelerates the configurational sampling of the rotameric states of the side chains around the binding pocket, thereby improving the convergence of the FEP computations. PMID:21857813

Jiang, Wei; Roux, Benoît

2011-01-01

80

Does Dynamical Downscaling Introduce Novel Information in Climate Model Simulations of Recipitation Change over a Complex Topography Region?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current climate and future climate-warming runs with the RegCM Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 50 and 11 km-resolutions forced by the ECHAM GCM are used to examine whether the increased resolution of the RCM introduces novel information in the precipitation field when the models are run for the mountainous region of the Hellenic peninsula. The model results are inter-compared with the resolution of the RCM output degraded to match that of the GCM, and it is found that in both the present and future climate runs the regional models produce more precipitation than the forcing GCM. At the same time, the RCM runs produce increases in precipitation with climate warming even though they are forced with a GCM that shows no precipitation change in the region. The additional precipitation is mostly concentrated over the mountain ranges, where orographic precipitation formation is expected to be a dominant mechanism. It is found that, when examined at the same resolution, the elevation heights of the GCM are lower than those of the averaged RCM in the areas of the main mountain ranges. It is also found that the majority of the difference in precipitation between the RCM and the GCM can be explained by their difference in topographic height. The study results indicate that, in complex topography regions, GCM predictions of precipitation change with climate warming may be dry biased due to the GCM smoothing of the regional topography.

Tselioudis, George; Douvis, Costas; Zerefos, Christos

2012-01-01

81

Density Isostasy and Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Density, Isostasy, and Topography Anne Egger, Stanford University The original activity Density, Isostasy, and Topography already exists within the SERC website. This page describes how this activity can be used ...

82

Effects of bottom topography on dynamics of river discharges in tidal regions: case study of twin plumes in Taiwan Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighboring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are similar in many respects, and yet the two plumes exhibit significantly different behavior. We explain this through differences of the bottom topography in the areas adjacent to the two river mouths. The Zhuoshui River runs into a shallow area that is permanently exposed to strong tidal mixing, while the Wu River mouth is located in a deeper, stratified area outside the region of intense mixing. This destruction of the plume by tidal mixing is confirmed by the results of numerical modeling with POM. The spatial and temporal variability of turbulent kinetic energy and its production rate in the study region, as well as the horizontal diffusivity, are analyzed with the emphasis given to the dependence of the turbulence parameters on the bottom topography on the one hand and their influence on the river plumes on the other. Further, we use a Lagrangian particle tracking model in combination with POM to investigate the effect of the tidal wetting-and-drying (WAD) of land taking place near the Zhuoshui estuary, and demonstrate that WAD leads to significant reduction of the plume extent and surface salinity deficit near the river mouth. We use observational data from a short field campaign in the study area to tune and validate the model experiments.

Korotenko, K. A.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Kao, R.-C.; Ding, C.-F.

2014-04-01

83

Absolute Zero  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

2006-12-01

84

Determination of Absolute Configuration in Chiral Solvents with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. A Combined Molecular Dynamics/Quantum Chemical Study.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is omnipresent in chemical analysis. However, chirality of a molecule can only be detected indirectly by NMR, e.g., by monitoring its interaction with another chiral object. In the present study, we investigate the spectroscopic behavior of chiral molecules placed into a chiral solvent. In this case, the solvent-solute interaction is much weaker, but the application range of such NMR analysis is wider than for a specific chemical shift agent. Two alcohols and an amine were used as model systems, and differences in NMR chemical shifts dependent on the solute-solvent chirality combination were experimentally detected. Combined quantum mechanic/molecular mechanic (QM/MM) computations were applied to reveal the underlying solute-solvent interactions. NMR shielding was calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). While the experimental observations could not be reproduced quantitatively, the modeling provided a qualitative agreement and detailed insight into the essence of solvent-solute chiral interactions. The potentials of mean force (PMF) obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) indicate that the chiral interaction brings about differences in conformer ratios, which are to a large extent responsible for the NMR shifts. The MD results also predicted slight changes in the solvent structure, including the radial distribution function (RDF), to depend on the solvent/solute chirality combination. Apart from the conformer distribution, an effective average solvent electrostatic field was tested as another major factor contributing to the chiral NMR effect. The possibility to simulate spectral effects of chiral solvents from the first-principles opens up the way to NMR spectroscopic determination of the absolute configuration for a larger scale of compounds, including those not forming specific complexes. PMID:25411905

Kessler, Ji?í; Dra?ínský, Martin; Bou?, Petr

2014-12-01

85

Introducing Variable-Step Topography (VST) coordinates within dynamically constrained Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS). Part 1: VST formulation within NMS host model framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Variable-Step Topography (VST) surface coordinate system is introduced into a dynamically constrained, scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Backgrounds of both terrain-following and step coordinate model developments are presented before justifying the turn to a VST approach within an appropriately configured host model. In this first part of a two-part sequence of papers, the full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of its apposite host, i.e., a re-tooled Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS), are presented. [The second part assesses the performance and benefits of the new VST coordinate system in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems.] The NMS is a 3-dimensional, nonhydrostatic cloud-mesoscale model, designed for integrations from plume-cloud scales out to regional-global scales. The derivative properties of VST in conjunction with the NMS's newly designed dynamically constrained core are capable of accurately capturing the deformations of flows by any type of terrain variability. Numerical differencing schemes needed to satisfy critical integral constraints, while also effectively enabling the VST lower boundary, are described. The host model constraints include mass, momentum, energy, vorticity and enstrophy conservation. A quasi-compressible closure cast on multiple-nest rotated spherical grids is the underlying framework used to study the advantages of the VST coordinate system. The principle objective behind the VST formulation is to combine the advantages of both terrain-following and step coordinate systems without suffering either of their disadvantages, while at the same time creating a vertical surface coordinate setting suitable for a scalable, nonhydrostatic model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.

Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.

2014-06-01

86

Constraining the absolute orientation of ? Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in ? Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of ? Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA ? that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i? 130° to 145°, ??-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ? 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ?B, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>? is the same as the angle ? defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52667532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the <span class="hlt">topography</span> signature of LIDAR-derived vegetation types and geomorphic processes as preliminary steps in integrating landscape evolution with vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Italian Alps, dominated by a high altitude climate and characterized by extreme slope movement processes, <span class="hlt">topography</span> plays a key role in the redistribution of vegetation over the landscape. There is significant evidence that vegetation distribution on the Alpine basins influences the frequency and magnitude of sediment yields. In this study we investigate the links between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Tarolli; E. Istanbulluoglu; G. Dalla Fontana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6280E..1TS"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> measurements and applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or <span class="hlt">topography</span>) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D <span class="hlt">topographies</span> must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, ?c, is proposed for <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25200251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Membrane related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the formation of actin in cells growing on micro-<span class="hlt">topographies</span>: a spatial computational model.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundIntra-cellular processes of cells at the interface to an implant surface are influenced significantly by their extra-cellular surrounding. Specifically, when growing osteoblasts on titanium surfaces with regular micro-ranged geometry, filaments are shorter, less aligned and they concentrate at the top of the geometric structures. Changes to the cytoskeleton network, i. e., its localization, alignment, orientation, and lengths of the filaments, as well as the overall concentration and distribution of key-actors are induced. For example, integrin is distributed homogeneously, whereas integrin in activated state and vinculin, both components of focal adhesions, have been found clustered on the micro-ranged geometries. Also, the concentration of Rho, an intracellular signaling protein related to focal adhesion regulation, was significantly lower.ResultsTo explore whether regulations associated with the focal adhesion complex can be responsible for the changed actin filament patterns, a spatial computational model has been developed using ML-Space, a rule-based model description language, and its associated Brownian-motion-based simulator. The focus has been on the deactivation of cofilin in the vicinity of the focal adhesion complex. The results underline the importance of sensing mechanisms to support a clustering of actin filament nucleations on the micro-ranged geometries, and of intracellular diffusion processes, which lead to spatially heterogeneous distributions of active (dephosphorylated) cofilin, which in turn influences the organization of the actin network. We find, for example, that the spatial heterogeneity of key molecular actors can explain the difference in filament lengths in cells on different micro-geometries partly, but to explain the full extent, further model assumptions need to be added and experimentally validated. In particular, our findings and hypothesis referring to the role, distribution, and amount of active cofilin have still to be verified in wet-lab experiments.ConclusionLetting cells grow on surface structures is a possibility to shed new light on the intricate mechanisms that relate membrane and actin related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the cell. Our results demonstrate the need for declarative expressive spatial modeling approaches that allow probing different hypotheses, and the central role of the focal adhesion complex not only for nucleating actin filaments, but also for regulating possible severing agents locally. PMID:25200251</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bittig, Arne T; Matschegewski, Claudia; Nebe, J; Stählke, Susanne; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phasing by confocal imaging of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> grating and 27-step phase-cycling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a novel experimental scheme for two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy (2D-FDCS) using a non-collinear beam geometry with the aid of “confocal imaging” of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (population) grating and 27-step phase-cycling to extract the signal. This arrangement obviates the need for distinct experimental designs for previously developed transmission detected non-collinear two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (2D-CS) and collinear 2D-FDCS. We also describe a novel method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phasing of the 2D spectrum. We apply this method to record 2D spectra of a fluorescent dye in solution at room temperature and observe “spectral diffusion.”.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De, Arijit K., E-mail: akde@lbl.gov; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States); Monahan, Daniele; Dawlaty, Jahan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52131402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Shallow Isotherms Under <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> 3D <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Sampling Strategies for U-Th\\/He Dating: Examples From the Appalachian Blue Ridge and Southeastern Tibet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of erosion on temperatures in the crust and the way this can complicate interpretation of cooling ages has been a venerable subject explored many times in both one and two dimensions. Unlike other thermochronological systems, the ~70 °C closure isotherm pertinent to the U-Th\\/He system will be quite sensitive to <span class="hlt">topography</span> at scale lengths that would seem to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. K. Zeitler; A. L. Ault; B. D. Idleman; F. J. Pazzaglia; P. O. Koons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUES&pg=2&id=EJ1000865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wade, Angela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.meted.ucar.edu/training_module.php?id=57"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow Interaction with <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a foundation module in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. Topics covered include an overview of factors that control whether air will go up and over a mountain or be forced around it, the role of potential and kinetic energy, the Froude number and what it tells you, and air flow blocked by <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780061113&hterms=ferrari&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dferrari"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mars <span class="hlt">topography</span> harmonics and geophysical implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper describes an improved model of Martian global <span class="hlt">topography</span> which has been obtained by fitting a sixteenth-degree harmonic series to occultation, radar, spectral, and photogrammetric measurements. Empirical elevation data based on photographic data are used to supplement the observations in areas without data. Values for the mean radius, the mean density, and the displacement of the center of the figure from the center of mass are presented. The reported geometric flattening is too great and the reported <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flattening is too small for Mars to be homogeneous and hydrostatic. Maps of the data distribution, global <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and Bouguer gravity anomaly are interpreted in terms of a crustal thickness map which is consistent with gravity, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and recent preliminary Viking seismic results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://reynolds.asu.edu/topo_gallery/topo_home.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gallery of Virtual <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gallery of Virtual <span class="hlt">Topography</span> features virtual depictions of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of <span class="hlt">topography</span> (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen Reynolds</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140010845&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dawn <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the Dawn <span class="hlt">topography</span> investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4848..455B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Database applicaton for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H13A1349T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the <span class="hlt">topography</span> signature of LIDAR-derived vegetation types and geomorphic processes as preliminary steps in integrating landscape evolution with vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Italian Alps, dominated by a high altitude climate and characterized by extreme slope movement processes, <span class="hlt">topography</span> plays a key role in the redistribution of vegetation over the landscape. There is significant evidence that vegetation distribution on the Alpine basins influences the frequency and magnitude of sediment yields. In this study we investigate the links between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation species in a small Alpine catchment with an elevation range of 1500 to 2000 m a.s.l., with cold snowy winters, and wet summers, in order to decipher the influence of biota on geomorphic processes in atypical high-latitude Alpine headwater setting. In the study area vegetation is mostly represented by grass species (high altitude grassland), but also shrubs (Alnus viridis), and high tree forest (Picea abies) are common. We evaluate the distribution of vegetation canopies using LIDAR-derived vegetation data. We analyzed the vertical elevation of different vegetation canopy surface layers, and we derived the spatial variation of vegetation species following their heights as surveyed in the field. Then we use a high resolution DTM (Digital Terrain Model), evaluated from filtered bare ground LIDAR points, to derive some mathematical attributes of landscape morphology including slope gradient, drainage area, aspect, convergence and topographic wetness index, slope area diagrams and power-law distribution of areas. We discussed the relationships between vegetation species distribution and landform properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarolli, P.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Dalla Fontana, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110271&hterms=Statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DStatistics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implications of MOLA Global Roughness, Statistics, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New insights are emerging as the ongoing high-quality measurements of the Martian surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft increase in coverage, resolution, and diversity. For the first time, a global characterization of the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is possible. The data were collected during the aerobreaking hiatus, science phasing, and mapping orbits of MGS, and have a resolution of 300-400 m along track, a range resolution of 37.5 cm, a range precision of 1-10 m for surface slopes up to 30 deg., and an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of <span class="hlt">topography</span> of 13 m. The spacecraft's orbit inclination dictates that nadir observations have latitude coverage of about 87.1S to 87.1N; the addition of observations obtained during a period of off-nadir pointing over the north pole extended coverage to 90N. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aharonson, O.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactive Flash Module about Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Module includes sea surface observations and measurements as well as visuals explanations of the alimetry instruments used to detect surface changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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<a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1042637"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050170605&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">RADAR Reveals Titan <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to <span class="hlt">topography</span> will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00740&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Io (color)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.<p/>North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26i2103L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spreading of droplet with insoluble surfactant on corrugated <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The flow of microscale fluid on a <span class="hlt">topography</span> surface is a key to further development of MEMS, nanoscience and technology. In the present paper, a theoretical model of the droplet spreading with insoluble surfactant over corrugated <span class="hlt">topography</span> is established with the lubrication theory, and the evolution equations of film thickness and surfactant concentration in base state and disturbance state are formulated. The droplet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the nonlinear stability based on nonmodal stability theory, and the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> structure and Marangoni stress are numerically simulated with PDECOL scheme. Results show that the impact of topographical surface is strengthened apparently while the Marangoni stress driven by surfactant concentration is weakened in the mid-late stages of the spreading. The droplet radius on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> advances faster and the lowest height of liquid/gas interface near the droplet edge reduces remarkably in the intermediate stage compared with those on the flat wall. The quantity of the wavelet similar to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> increases gradually, with the characteristics of wavelet crest height with time exhibiting a single-hump feature. The spreading stability is enhanced under the disturbance wavenumber of 4, however, is to deteriorate and even to transform into instability when wavenumber increases further. In addition, the reductive Marangoni number, enhancive capillary number, modest Peclet number, the low height of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as small wavenumber of <span class="hlt">topography</span> can make contributions to the evident stability of droplet spreading.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Chunxi; Pei, Jianjun; Ye, Xuemin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54307477"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> airborne gravimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henri Baumann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007593&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral analysis of the gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars place important constraints on the structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the interior. The gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/<span class="hlt">topography</span> admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The <span class="hlt">topography</span> model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9023E..0UG"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple but effective technique for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range. The estimated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lake <span class="hlt">topography</span> and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were controlled by the lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lake <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Wind Waves Determining Seasonal-Spatial <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Total Suspended Matter in Turbid Lake Taihu, China: Assessment Using Long-Term High-Resolution MERIS Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r2?=?0.720, p<0.001, and n?=?73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r2?=?0.685, p<0.001, and n?=?50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were controlled by the lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/activities/29358.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density, Isostasy, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Show caption HideA critical component of this activity involves sharing team data with the entire class, done the old-fashioned way on the chalkboard. Details This activity begins with an exploration of a topographic map of the earth, ending with the question: Why is the distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the earth bimodal? The students then collect two forms of data. They measure the density of the most common rocks that make up oceanic crust (basalt), continental crust (granite), and the mantle (peridotite). They also measure the density of several different kinds of wood, and how high each kind floats in a tub of water. In each case, they work in teams of two or three and then the entire class shares their data. Based on the data from the wood, they derive an equation that relates the density of the wood to the height at which the block floats in the water - the isostasy equation. They then substitute density values for real rocks into their equation to derive thicknesses for average continental and oceanic crust, and apply their knowledge in order to draw a cross-section of the crust across South America. This activity gives students a real, hands-on and mathematical understanding of the principle of isostasy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Egger, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048057&hterms=models+dems+digital&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmodels%2Bdems%2Bdigital"> <span id="translatedtitle">The length-scaling properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of <span class="hlt">topography</span> are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((<span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Malinverno, Alberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JChPh.112.5223F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coarsely resolved <span class="hlt">topography</span> along protein folding pathways</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinetic data from the coarse representation of polypeptide torsional <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> described in the preceding paper [Fernandez and Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5212 (2000), preceding paper] is inverted by using detailed balance to obtain a topographic description of the potential-energy surface (PES) along the dominant folding pathway of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The <span class="hlt">topography</span> is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway displays an overall monotonic decrease in energy with a large number of staircaselike steps, a clear signature of a good structure-seeker. The diversity and availability of alternative folding pathways is analyzed in terms of the Shannon entropy ?(t) associated with the time-dependent probability distribution over the kinetic ensemble of contact patterns. Several stages in the folding process are evident. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and exhibiting high Shannon entropy. Passage down a sequence of staircase steps then leads to the formation of a nativelike intermediate, for which ?(t) is much lower and fairly constant. Finally, the structure of the intermediate is refined to produce the native state of BPTI. We also examine how different levels of tolerance to mismatches of side chain contacts influence the folding kinetics, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the dominant folding pathway, and the Shannon entropy. This analysis yields upper and lower bounds of the frustration tolerance required for the expeditious and robust folding of BPTI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández, Ariel; Kostov, Konstantin S.; Berry, R. Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/structure/SGT2012/activities/63781.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Tectonic Plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this activity is to investigate global topographic and tectonic features, especially the tectonic plates and their boundaries. Using a double-page size digital topographic map of the Earth that includes both land and sea floor <span class="hlt">topography</span>, students are asked to draw plate boundaries, deduce plate motions and interactions, and explore the connections between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and tectonic processes at the global scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Greene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305691"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative blindsight.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight. PMID:25305691</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757308"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch may not be so <span class="hlt">absolute</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most people cannot name the musical note that corresponds to a particular pitch without being provided a reference note, but those people with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch (AP) can do this accurately. Early experience during a developmental period is often thought to convey identity and stability of the note categories in people with AP, but the plasticity of these categories has not been investigated. Here we provide the first evidence that the note categories of adults with AP can change with listening experience. Participants with AP showed shifts in perception in direct accord with prior exposure to music detuned by a fraction of a semitone. This suggests that the apparent stability of AP categories is conferred not by early experience but rather by the cultural norms adopted for tuning music. PMID:23757308</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://decadal.gsfc.nasa.gov/documents/SWOT_Technology_Investments.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SURFACE WATER & OCEAN <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">neighboring image pixels, which requires an increase in the intrinsic range resolution of the instrument-downlink requirements (for both ocean and inland waters) can be met with eight 300-Mbps X-band stations globally. Ref levels for ocean and inland water <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> · Key Instruments ­ Ka- or Ku-band radar ­ Ku-band altimeter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christian, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://classic.globe.gov/tctg/gps_la_part2.pdf?sectionId=50&lang=EN"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Directions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this resource is to learn about latitude and longitude while developing math skills. Students begin by asking the simple question: 'Where Am I?' Then they learn about the magnetic Earth and the use of compasses and angles. Students also learn about the difference between relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> locations. Throughout this activity, students practice using a variety of math skills.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043634&hterms=Biophysics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBiophysics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12420887"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tom G. Farr; Paul A. Rosen; Edward Caro; Robert Crippen; Riley Duren; Scott Hensley; Michael Kobrick; Mimi Paller; Ernesto Rodriguez; Ladislav Roth; David Seal; Scott Shaffer; Joanne Shimada; Jeffrey Umland; Marian Werner; Michael Oskin; Douglas Burbank; Douglas Alsdorf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56301026"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. G. Farr; M. Kobrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614214H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on (anomalous) <span class="hlt">topography</span> in rifted margin settings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contrasting end members of volcanic and non-volcanic passive margin formation show a large variability in basin shape and structure, subsidence history, and associated topographic evolution of the onshore rifted margins. The large range of structural style and associated <span class="hlt">topography</span> of these systems imply a strong variability in the underlying thermo-mechanical conditions at the time of rifting. Rift - passive margin styles ranging from narrow to ultra wide are explained using forward numerical models with varying rheological structure, with strong crust lithosphere leading to narrow rift formation associated with highly elevated rift shoulders and conversely weak crust lithosphere resulting in highly stretched wide rifted conjugate margins and little flank morphology. In some cases rifted margins appear to indicate the formation of anomalous post rift <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A number of mechanisms including small-scale convective removal of the lower lithosphere, lithosphere counter-flow, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, have been invoked to explain the anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Forward numerical models are used to predict the magnitude and characteristic <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with each of these mechanisms and to evaluate their potential for explaining these apparent anomalous characteristics of rifts and rifted margins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huismans, Ritske S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870011267&hterms=peixoto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpeixoto"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear baroclinic instability in the presence of large scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span> on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the forced wave influence the growth rates and the spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The latter are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations. Agreement is good between the two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span>, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time-dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMoSt.966...18J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of neostenine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heavy atoms bromine and iodine were incorporated into the neostenine ( 1) skeleton through reductive cleavage of the lactone ring, followed by acylation with 4-bromobenzoyl chloride, and salt formation with methyl iodide, respectively. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of the seven chiral centers C1, C9, C9a, C10, C11, C1 and C13 in 1 were assigned as S, S, R, R, R, R, and S, respectively, based on the Flack parameters in X-ray structure refinement, and results from the two heavy atom derivatives are consistent with each other. As many Stemona alkaloids share the same lactone and pyrrolo[1,2-?]azepine nucleus as those in 1, the facile method reported in this paper can be applied for the determination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of similar alkaloids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wencai; Shaw, Pang-Chui; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Mak, Thomas C. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5268545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stresses in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under ocean waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pore pressure and the combined static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stresses in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under ocean waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pore pressure and the combined static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effective stresses are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> airborne gravimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimetry is feasible and has a spatial resolution comparable to the one of the relative airborne gravimetry. For a wavelength on the order of 11 km the mean value of the resolution of the estimated gravity is 9.7 mGal. Finally some suggestions are formulated for the improvement of the system which should simplify its use, increase the accuracy and reduce its price.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baumann, Henri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110013051&hterms=bit+coin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbit%2Bcoin"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Cartesian Autocollimator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the mirror is slightly tilted. Hence, one can determine the amount and direction of tilt from the coordinates of the target image on the viewing plane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leviton, Douglas B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930043862&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. [of planet Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48197880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem Cell Interaction with <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate <span class="hlt">topography</span>, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> matching by iterative registration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Videokeratography is used for the measurement of corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> in overlapping portions (or maps) which must later be joined together to form the overall <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the cornea. The separate portions are measured from different viewpoints and therefore must be brought together by registration of measurement points in the regions of overlap. The central map is generally the most accurate, but all maps are measured with uncertainty that increases towards the periphery. It becomes the reference (or static) map, and the peripheral (or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>) maps must then be transformed by rotation and translation so that the overlapping portions are matched. The process known as registration, of determining the necessary transformation, is a well-understood procedure in image analysis and has been applied in several areas of science and engineering. In this article, direct search optimisation using the Nelder-Mead algorithm and several variants of the iterative closest/corresponding point routine are explained and applied to simulated and real clinical data. The measurement points on the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> maps are generally different so that it becomes necessary to interpolate, which is done using a truncated series of Zernike polynomials. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point variant has the advantage of releasing certain optimisation constraints that lead to persistent registration and alignment errors when other approaches are used. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point routine is found to be robust to measurement noise, insensitive to starting values of the transformation parameters and produces high-quality results when using real clinical data. PMID:25500860</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Junjie; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Davey, Pinakin G; Wang, Weizhuo; Bao, Fangjun; Mottershead, John E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI23A2284D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismological Modeling of Inner Core Boundary <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earth's solid inner core is created by the slow freezing of a well-mixed, vigorously convecting, iron-rich outer core. The structure near inner core boundary (ICB) has a significant effect on core <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> including the mechanisms behind the growth of inner core and the compositional convection driving the geodynamo. A <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> unstable process of compaction of solids and expulsion of fluids at a solidifying boundary can produce small-scale corrugations of the inner core boundary with heights on the order of 1km, consistent with a number of previous observations of body waves interacting with the ICB. We determine topographic models of a rough ICB that match the observed PKiKP and PKP-Cdiff waveforms. In order to constrain parameters of the modeled <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the observations are compared with synthetic seismograms generated using a boundary element method that exploits a dense discretization along the surface of the ICB. This method of modeling is more computationally efficient and flexible than finite difference methods previously used in these studies, which in turn allows us to make our calculations more accurate. The implementation of the modeling procedure starts by setting up boundary element method for a two-layered homogeneous interior and exterior of ICB system and later adds the real Earth's radial inhomogeneity to the exterior where propagation of rays are calculated using ray theory. An initial test is carried out to identify the parametric limits of models where ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> begins to impose observable effects to the PKiKP coda at approximately 50° great circle distance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Silva, S. M.; Cormier, V. F.; Zheng, Y.; Hernlund, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24243093"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real <span class="hlt">topography</span> conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real <span class="hlt">topography</span> give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %. PMID:24243093</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vujovi?, Dragana; Vu?kovi?, Vladan; Curi?, Mla?en</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SRL.....9..447E"> <span id="translatedtitle">VUV Photoelectron <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Pure Cesium Halide and Impurity (Tl and Na) Doped CsI; <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Photoemission Total Yield, Auger Free Luminescence, and STE Luminescence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoemission total yield (APTY) spectra and VUV-excited luminescence in cesium halides of CsCl, CsBr, and CsI, as well as in Tl-doped and Na-doped cesium iodide, were studied at several temperatures from 400 K to 80 K in the VUV region (5-30 eV). Although it is common that the intensities of APTY exceed unity in the photon energy region exciting Cs+5p core electron in all of these halides at room temperature, this is most in the cesium iodides and most less in CsCl. These phenomena are explained in terms of Auger enhancement due to the Auger effect associated with the decay process of the Cs+5p core hole. From the detailed analysis of temperature dependence of APTY and of Auger free luminescence (AFL) in CsCl and CsBr, a strong complementary relation between APTY and AFL was revealed, and the temperature-dependent energy level diagram of CsBr including the valence band and the Cs+5p core level was proposed. While in these CsI, APTY indicate as large as 1.5 or more at the high temperature and the decrease of APTY for decreasing temperature can be commonly explained in terms of the complementary relation with photoluminescence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ejiri, Arisato; Kubota, Shinzou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.3712v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">The information as <span class="hlt">Absolute</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents and grounds (i.e. presents proof of the existence, the truth, the self-consistence and the completeness of)the informational conception ("the Information as <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>" conception)in physics and philosophy. the conception defines the information as an ultimately common, real and fundamental concept/phenomenon - "<span class="hlt">Absolute</span>", which exists as anabsolutely infinite set ("Information" Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) linksbetween the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substence, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific - and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set - subset of the "Information" Set. The conception allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of the basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; in physics it allows to suggest reasonable model, which makes more clear basic phisical notions,such as space, time, matter, etc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sergey V. Shevchenko; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/zero/"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOVA: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On a hot day, some might wish they could get the temperature down a bit. They might not wish it to be as cold as, say <span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero, but there are many scientists who are interested in doing just that. For those who are curious, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero clocks in at around minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit. This engaging website is meant to serve as a complementary resource to the two-part series that recently aired on NOVA on this engaging topic. Visitors can start by watching a short preview of the program, and then continuing on to look over some of the special interactive features on the site. All told, there are ten different features, including "A Sense of Scale", "How Low Can You Go?", and "Milestones in Cold Research". The "Milestones in Cold Research" is a great place to start, as it's an interactive timeline that chronicles the "netherworld of extraordinarily low temperatures" as investigated by everyone from Galileo to current researchers. Of course, there are also more playful features here, such as "The Ice Trade", which asks users to dispatch ships loaded with natural ice to Florida, Brazil, and India.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cms.brookes.ac.uk/staff/PhilipTorr/Theses/Thesis_TML_SHANNON_26_OCT10_2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> And Its Application To</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">is for the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct the underlying deformity, so cosmetic concerns clinics continue to rely on qualitative methods to describe cosmetic deformity and ability. The aim results for a quantitative and reliable analysis of cosmetic defect and physical impairment. 172,650 data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torr, Philip H. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...10516971S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alongshore currents over variable beach <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of unstable alongshore currents in the nearshore surf zone over variable barred beach <span class="hlt">topography</span> are studied using numerical experiments. These experiments extend the recent studies of Allen et al. [1996] and Slinn et al. [1998], which utilized alongshore uniform beach <span class="hlt">topographies</span> by including sinusoidal alongshore variation to shore parallel sandbars. The model involves finite difference solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equations for forced, dissipative, initial value problems and employs periodic boundary conditions in the alongshore direction. Effects of dissipation are modeled by linear bottom friction. Forcing for the alongshore currents is provided by gradients in the radiation stress, which are specified using linear theory and the dissipation function for breaking waves formulated by Thornton and Guza [1983]. Distinct flows develop depending on the amplitude ? and wavelength ? of the topographic variability and the dimensionless parameter Q, the ratio of an advective to a frictional timescale. For Q greater than a critical value QC the flows are linearly stable. For ?Q = QC - Q>0 the flow can be unstable. For small values of ?Q the effect of increasing ?; is to stabilize or regularize the flows and to cause the mean flow to approximately follow contours of constant depth. Equilibrated shear waves develop that propagate along the mean current path at phase speeds and wavelengths that are close to predictions for the most unstable mode from linear theory applied to alongshore-averaged conditions. At intermediate values of ?Q, unsteady vortices form and exhibit nonlinear interactions as they propagate along the mean current path, occasionally merging, pairing, or being shed seaward of the sandbar. Eddies preferentially form in the mean current when approaching alongshore troughs of the sandbar and break free from the mean current when approaching alongshore crests of the sandbar. At the largest values of ?Q examined the resulting flow fields resemble a turbulent shear flow and are less strongly influenced by the alongshore variability in <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As the amplitude of the alongshore topographic variability increases, alongshore wavenumber-frequency spectra of the across-shore velocity show a corresponding increase in energy at both higher alongshore wavenumbers and over a broader frequency range with significant energy at wavenumbers of topographic variability and harmonics. Across-shore fluxes of mass and momentum generally increase with increasing topographic amplitude and increasing ?Q. Time- and space-lagged correlations of the across-shore velocity show that correlation length scales decrease as topographic perturbation amplitudes increase. Terms from the vorticity equation show that the alongshore variation of the radiation stresses and the value of ?Q are of importance to the flow behavior. Hybrid experiments separating effects of spatially variable forcing and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on time-averaged currents show that the effects are generally comparable with the relative importance of each effect a function of ?Q. The results show that topographic variability has a significant influence on nearshore circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slinn, Donald N.; Allen, J. S.; Holman, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........45R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma processing for nanostructured <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riedel, Nicholas Alfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2984085"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of isoeichlerialactone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title seco-dammarane triterpenoid, C27H42O4 (systematic name: 3-{(3S,3aR,5aR,6S,7S,9aR,9bR)-6,9a,9b-trimethyl-3-[(R)-2-methyl-5-oxotetra­hydro­furan-2-yl]-7-(prop-1-en-2-yl)dodeca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta­[a]naphthalen-6-yl}propanoic acid), has been isolated for the first time from the seeds of Aglaia forbesii. The mol­ecule has three fused rings and all rings are in trans-fused. The two cyclo­hexane rings are in standard chair conformations and the cyclo­pentane ring adopts an envelope conformation. Its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration was determined by the refinement of the Flack parameter to 0.26?(17). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains along [010] by O—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fun, Hoong-Kun; Joycharat, Nantiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0908.2562v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Relativity Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is a first presentation of a new approach of physics that we propose to refer as the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Relativity Theory (ART) since it refutes the idea of a pre-existing space-time. It includes an algebraic definition of particles, interactions and Lagrangians. It proposed also a purely algebraic explanation of the passing of time phenomenon that leads to see usual Euler-Lagrange equations as the continuous version of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov monodromy. The identification of this monodromy with the local ones of the Lorentzian manifolds gives the Einstein equation algebraically explained in a quantized context. A fact that could lead to the unification of physics. By giving an algebraic classification of particles and interactions, the ART also proposes a new branch of physics, namely the Mass Quantification Theory, that provides a general method to calculate the characteristics of particles and interactions. Some examples are provided. The MQT also predicts the existence of as of today not yet observed particles that could be part of the dark matter. By giving a new interpretation of the weak interaction, it also suggests an interpretation of the so-called dark energy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jean-Marc Oury; Bruno Heintz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7362877"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> induction angiometer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this method is the continuous recording of vascular diameters and their measurement in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms. This can be accomplished by percutaneously introduced intravascular sensors (IVS) or surgically implanted perivascular sensors (PVS). Both types of sensor are made of bifilar insulated wires forming a bifilar loop. One wire of the bifilar loop acts as a transformer primary inducing an electromotive force (EMF) in the secondary loop wire. The latter EMF is a measure of the vascular diameter. The IVS loop is made of resilient wire and is disposed across a vascular diameter in the central plane of a blood vessel. The sensitivity is such that phasic variations of a few micrometers in the diameter of a major blood vessel (such as the aorta or a coronary artery) can be measured and recorded. The surgically implanted perivascular loop sensor permits observation of vasomotion in a conscious, unrestrained animal. Both IVS and PVS permit observation of coronary vasomotion in the beating heart. Unlike the relative induction angiometer, the present device does not require an extracorporeal magnet. PMID:7362877</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolin, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/relief.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bathymetry, <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, and Relief Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This extensive site from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center provides a collection of bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and relief data from a variety of sources and environments including coastlines, the Great Lakes, and the seafloor. The site also features the National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic database. Some images and data can be downloaded at no charge, while others may be purchased on CD-ROM or DVD. The site can be searched for downloadable data using the GEODAS Data Search and Retrieval System. Data products from NOS surveys, including Descriptive Reports (DRs), smooth sheet images, survey data images, textual gridded data, and sidescan sonar mosaics, are available for download using the National Ocean Service Hydrographic Survey Data Map Service, an ArcIMS interactive map and data discovery tool.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center, National G.; Noaa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.9113M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus - Global gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010012851&hterms=15&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%252215%2BM%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS..103..299E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury's global shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> from MESSENGER limb images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive models for the global shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mercury from limb images obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft during flybys and from orbit. Crossover heights of 225 individual limb profiles were adjusted by least-squares techniques to establish a rigid global topographic network. Mercury is confirmed to possess an equatorial ellipticity and a polar oblateness. Several large impact basins and craters can be identified in the topographic model, including one basin that was earlier proposed but unconfirmed. Comparisons with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> height data from laser altimetry indicate that the limb model appears to overestimate planetary radius by ~900 m on average. Limb profiles and local digital terrain models derived from stereo-photogrammetry show good agreement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elgner, Stephan; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Perry, Mark E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1670891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transition to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Instability for (not so) Dummies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These notes are intended as an elementary introduction to the concept of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability. The transition from convective instability to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is an important issue when the stability of stationary flow solutions is investigated. The arguments here described were first developed in the framework of plasma physics and later applied to the hydrodynamics of mixing layers and shear flows. Far from being a comprehensive analysis of this complicated subject, the aim of these notes is just to sketch a rudimentary and quite elementary ground for physicists or engineers which have a familiarity with the basic features of linear stability in fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, but are new to the concept of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barletta, Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243778"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Cortical <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Local Sleep</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent series of experiments, we demonstrated that a visuomotor adaptation task, 12 hours of left arm immobilization, and rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during waking can each induce local changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the poor spatial resolution of EEG and the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex limited the interpretation of these results. In order to better understand local cortical regulation of sleep, we used source modeling to show that plastic changes in specific cortical areas during waking produce correlated changes in SWA during sleep in those same areas. We found that implicit learning of a visuomotor adaptation task induced an increase in SWA in right premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to a motor control. These same areas have previously been shown to be selectively involved in the performance of this task. We also found that arm immobilization resulted in a decrease in SWA in sensorimotor cortex. Inducing cortical potentiation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an increase in SWA in the targeted area and a decrease in SWA in the contralateral cortex. Finally, we report the first evidence that these modulations in SWA may be related to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of individual slow waves. We conclude that there is a local, plasticity dependent component to sleep regulation and confirm previous inferences made from the scalp data. PMID:21906021</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murphy, Michael; Huber, Reto; Esser, Steve; Riedner, Brady A.; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Tononi, Giulio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02031&hterms=tectonics+mars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtectonics%2Bmars"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maps of Mars Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><p/>Maps of Mars' global <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...102.1591S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Moon from the Clementine LIDAR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 101 - 102 km correlates with elevation and surface age.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980018849&hterms=moon+101&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2B101"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 10(exp 1) - 10(exp 2) km correlates with elevation and surface age.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.408..362H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Marie Byrd Land stability using an improved basal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prior understanding of the ice-sheet setting in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) was derived primarily from geologic and geochemical studies of the current nunataks, with very few geophysical surveys imaging the ice covered regions. The geologic context suggested that the ice rests on a broad regional high, in contrast to the deep basins and trenches that characterize the majority of West Antarctica. This assumed <span class="hlt">topography</span> would favor long-term stability for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in MBL. Airborne geophysical data collected in 2009 reveal a much deeper bed than previously estimated, including a significant trough underlying DeVicq Glacier and evidence for extensive glacial erosion. Using these data, we produce a new map of subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, with which we model the sensitivity of WAIS to a warming ocean using the ice-sheet model of Pollard and DeConto (2012b). We compare the results to estimates of ice loss during WAIS collapse using the previously defined subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, to determine the impact of the newly discovered subglacial features. Our results indicate that the topographic changes are not sufficient to destabilize the northern margin of MBL currently feeding the Getz Ice Shelf; the majority of ice loss occurs from flow toward the Siple Coast. However, despite only slight <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> differences, using the new bed as a boundary condition results in an additional 8 cm of sea-level rise during major glacial retreat, an increase of just over 2%. Precise estimation of past and future ice retreat, as well as a complete understanding of the geologic history of the region, will require a higher resolution picture of the bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> around the Executive Committee mountains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holschuh, N.; Pollard, D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3102902"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensory properties of menthol and smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> are inconsistent. Many of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DPP.K6S17L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability in a TWT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is renewed interest in the traveling wave tube (TWT) because of the recent advances in microwave power module (D. R. Whaley et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 912 (1998)) and of the significant growth in satellite communication. A serious threat to the operation of TWT is bandedge oscillation, occurring at the ?-mode of the slow wave circuit. A candidate for bandedge oscillation is the excitation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability. In this paper, we approximate the circuit mode by a parabola in the dispersion diagram (?-k plane). We use the Briggs-Bers criterion to determine the threshold value of C (C = Pierce parameter) for the onset of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability. The stabilizing effect of a distributed resistive loss, and of velocity detune, is included. The differences in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instabilities between fast wave and slow wave devices are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lau, Y. Y.; Ang, L. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20111160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> reflectances from reflectometer readings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Equations have been derived that allow differences in reflectometer readings of the same sample with various reflectometers to be minimized by placing all reflectances on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> basis. For pigmented vehicle films the Fresnel reflectances and transmittances at the air-vehicle interface can be calculated for an arbitrary incident angular light distribution. The form of the reflected and transmitted angular distributions can also be calculated. The equations have been used to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reflectances of titanium dioxide pigmented films from meter readings of two reflectometers-the General Electric Recording and the Colormaster. PMID:20111160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sullivan, W F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9509158v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classical Mechanics without <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A relative mechanics with no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space is shown to be equivalent to Newtonian mechanics applied in a universe of zero net angular momentum. Closed spaces in General Relativity have no angular momentum and shrivel to one point as the mass-energy contained tends to zero, so obeying Mach's principle on the origin of inertia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Lynden-Bell; J. Katz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24836179"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of amphidinin A.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations at six stereogenic centers in amphidinin A (1), a cytotoxic linear polyketide isolated from a symbiotic marine dinoflagellate, Amphidinium sp., were elucidated to be 2R, 4R, 6S, 9R 11R, and 12S by the combination of J-based configuration analysis, modified Mosher's method, and density-functional theory calculations. PMID:24836179</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iwai, Takahiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=Phosphorus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPhosphorus"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4803327"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Pitch and Planum Temporale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An increased leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) in <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-pitch (AP) musicians has been previously reported, with speculation that early exposure to music influences the degree of PT asymmetry. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether a larger left PT or a smaller right PT actually accounts for the increased overall PT asymmetry in AP musicians, anatomical magnetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julian Paul Keenan; Ven Thangaraj; Andrea R. Halpern; Gottfried Schlaug</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://berrygroup.uchicago.edu/papers/404.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">From residue matching patterns to protein folding <span class="hlt">topographies</span>: General model and bovine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From residue matching patterns to protein folding <span class="hlt">topographies</span>: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berry, R. Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a3001L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open questions in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement: a roadmap</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Control of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first principles for statistically stationary, random surfaces. For rougher surfaces, correlations can be found experimentally for specific manufacturing processes. Improvements in computational methods encourage us to revisit light scattering as a powerful and versatile tool to investigate surface and thin film <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, potentially providing information on both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and defects over large areas at high speed. Future scattering techniques will be applied for complex film systems and for sub-surface damage measurement, but more research is required to quantify and standardise such measurements. A fundamental limitation of all <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement systems is their finite spatial bandwidth, which limits the slopes that they can detect. The third section ‘Optical measurements of surfaces containing high slope angles’ discusses this limitation and potential methods to overcome it. In some cases, a rough surface can allow measurement of slopes outside the classical optics limit, but more research is needed to fully understand this process. The last section ‘What are the challenges for high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range surface measurement?’ presents the challenge facing metrologists by the use of surfaces that need measurement systems with very high spatial and temporal bandwidths, for example, those found in roll-to-roll manufacturing. High resolution, large areas and fast measurement times are needed, and these needs are unlikely to be fulfilled by developing a single all-purpose instrument. A toolbox of techniques needs to be developed which can be applied for any specific manufacturing scenario. The functional significance of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been known for centuries. Mirrors are smooth. Sliding behaviour depends on roughness. We have been measuring surfaces for centuries, but we still face many challenges. New manufacturing paradigms suggest that we need to make rapid measurements online that relate to the functional performance of the surface. This first ‘open questions’ collection addresses a subset of the challenges facing the surface metrology commun</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W.; O’Connor, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI51A2275D"> <span id="translatedtitle">CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span> and electrical conductivity as additional constraints for the lowermost mantle thermo-chemical structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of seismic observations, including tomographic models, indicate that the lowermost mantle is strongly heterogeneous. Seismic observations further support a thermo-chemical origin for the large scale heterogeneities. In particular, the large low-shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP) observed by global tomographic images are better explained by a combination of thermal and chemical anomalies. Despite the accuracy of seismic information, uncertainties and trade-off still prevent the determination of a detailed lower mantle thermo-chemical structure. For instance, the nature of chemical heterogeneities and the exact role played by the post-perovskite phase transition are still debated. Additional constraints are needed to discriminate between the possible models of structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the lower mantle. Here, we consider two potential additional constraints, the electrical conductivity and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Unlike density and seismic velocities, electrical conductivity increases with temperature. In addition, it strongly varies with the iron and silicate content. Using appropriate mineral physics data, we calculated a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity in lower mantle from the thermo-chemical structure inferred by probabilistic tomography, which maps iron and silicate excess in the LLSVP. In the lowermost mantle, we observe a belt of high conductivity, with maximum values around 20 S/m located in the LLSVP. Such a belt may trigger electric currents in the lowermost mantle and induce magnetic field variations with period of one year or more. It may thus be seen by global models of electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, such models do not sample yet regions deeper than 2000 km. A second, independent constraint we explored is the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the CMB. We used stagYY to calculate the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with several models of thermo-chemical convection, and observe strong differences depending on the model. In models that include large thermo-chemical reservoirs, corresponding to the LLSVP seen by seismic tomography, the CMB <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is dominated by ridges about 5 km high along the borders of the reservoirs. The spherical harmonic power spectra is dominated by degrees 8 to 10. By contrast, in isochemical models, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> focuses at the foot of plumes, where it reaches about 20 km, and is dominated by low (2 and 3) spherical harmonic degrees. Again, the CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span> may have some implications for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the outer core, and the details of the magnetic field. Further developments in seismology may also give a better image of the CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deschamps, F.; Yin, Y.; Tackley, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.T31C0860G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Central Andes: Effects from Above and Below</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the central Andes is the product of an interaction between solid earth and atmospheric processes -- tectonic processes tend to build <span class="hlt">topography</span> and climatic ones erode and redistribute it. Here we can assess the relative significance of these effects because tectonic and climate patterns have very different spatial characteristics relative to the high plateau. The stable Nazca-South America plate motions of the mid-Tertiary to present, and the consequent <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the modern Andes, have a high degree of spatial order -- principally a bilateral symmetry on a vertical-ENE trending plane across the plateau, parallel to particle motions of both plates. This pattern is strongly violated by climate -- wet in the north on the east side of the plateau, and dry in the south -- and consequent erosion. To resolve these effects on the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we consider vertical profiles across the mountain belt and subduction zone. Parallel sections equidistant from but on opposite sides of the symmetry plane experience similar kinematics but different climate effects. Although precipitation amounts vary considerably north to south along the eastern edge of the plateau, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> there is very similar on both sides of the symmetry plane. On the other hand, the geometry of the subducted Nazca plate varies north to south, though the plate kinematics do not vary. These and other observations suggest that the overriding and subducting plates are partially coupled by viscous stresses across a narrow asthenospheric wedge, such that the mountain belt and subduction zone <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> respond to variations in loading at the earth's surface (caused by erosion in the north versus the lack thereof in the south). Both the South America and Nazca plates deform as they slide past one another nearly face-to-face across the asthenospheric wedge. The incremental deformation of the overriding plate is probably less than that of the subducting plate; however, the former is stationary and accumulates deformation (to build the plateau) while the latter is constantly refreshed. Indeed the upper plate must be relatively strong (i.e., resists deformation) and the mantle beneath deforms owing to drag on its stable upper surface to accomodate the flow induced by subduction. Thus, minor climate effects, causing uneven erosion of the plateau, may affect the geometry and motion of the subducted slab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gephart, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=ASP&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DASP"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kogut, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000080640&hterms=alba&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalba"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localized Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Admittances on Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.montana.edu/hansen/documents/bio494/VirtualfieldtripEasternDeciduousForest.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Deciduous Forest <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Deciduous Forest #12;<span class="hlt">Topography</span> #12;Landform and Soils #12;Climate #12;Climate #12;Vegetation Structure #12;Vegetation Structure #12;Disturbance and Forest Growth Rates and Askins 1995 #12;Presettlement forest Clearing for homestead: 1740 Height of forest clearing: 1830 Farm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hansen, Andrew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting and quantifying <span class="hlt">topography</span> in neural maps.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topographic maps are an often-encountered feature in the brains of many species, yet there are no standard, objective procedures for quantifying <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Topographic maps are typically identified and described subjectively, but in cases where the scale of the map is close to the resolution limit of the measurement technique, identifying the presence of a topographic map can be a challenging subjective task. In such cases, an objective <span class="hlt">topography</span> detection test would be advantageous. To address these issues, we assessed seven measures (Pearson distance correlation, Spearman distance correlation, Zrehen's measure, topographic product, topological correlation, path length and wiring length) by quantifying <span class="hlt">topography</span> in three classes of cortical map model: linear, orientation-like, and clusters. We found that all but one of these measures were effective at detecting statistically significant <span class="hlt">topography</span> even in weakly-ordered maps, based on simulated noisy measurements of neuronal selectivity and sparse sampling of the maps. We demonstrate the practical applicability of these measures by using them to examine the arrangement of spatial cue selectivity in pallid bat A1. This analysis shows that significantly topographic arrangements of interaural intensity difference and azimuth selectivity exist at the scale of individual binaural clusters. PMID:24505279</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yarrow, Stuart; Razak, Khaleel A; Seitz, Aaron R; Seriès, Peggy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/science/science.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Space - Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, describes the scientific applications of ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1. Other topics include uses of the collected data, such as evaluations of ocean circulation, tides, weather and climate patterns, and other trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laboratory, Jet P.; Nasa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5051966"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between Martian gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of various regions of Mars is used to estimate their effective elastic thicknesses Te using direct measurements of line of sight velocity, rather than spherical harmonic coefficients. Estimates of Te vary from 70 km for Tharsis, 29 km for Elysium, to 14.5 km for the southern hemisphere, and show that the thickness of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dan McKenzie; David N. Barnett; Dah-Ning Yuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39902187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Moon and Planets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planetology serves the understanding on the one hand of the solar system and on the other hand, for investigating similarities and differences, of our own planet. While observational evidence about the outer planets is very limited, substantial datasets exist for the terrestrial planets. Radar and optical images and detailed models of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> give an impressive insight into the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Rummel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcMod..67...13A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Representation of <span class="hlt">topography</span> by porous barriers and objective interpolation of topographic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a porous medium approach to representing <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and a new algorithm for the objective interpolation of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, for use in ocean circulation models of fixed resolution. The representation and algorithm makes use of two concepts; impermeable thin walls and porous barriers. Impermeable thin walls allow the representation of knife-edge sub-grid-scale barriers that block lateral flow between model grid cells. Porous barriers permit the sub-grid scale geometry to modulate lateral transport as a function of elevation. We find that the porous representation and the resulting interpolated <span class="hlt">topography</span> retains key features, such as overflow sill depths, without compromising other <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> relevant aspects, such as mean ocean depth for a cell. The accurate representation of the ocean depth is illustrated in a simple model of a tsunami that has a cross-basin travel time very much less dependent on horizontal resolution than when using conventional topographic interpolation and representation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adcroft, Alistair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.4284v2"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Continuous Convolutions of Singular Measures and an Application to the Square Fibonacci Hamiltonian</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prove for the square Fibonacci Hamiltonian that the density of states measure is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous for almost all pairs of small coupling constants. This is obtained from a new result we establish about the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity of convolutions of measures arising in hyperbolic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with exact-dimensional measures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Damanik; Anton Gorodetski; Boris Solomyak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhFl...18a3601G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow of evaporating, gravity-driven thin liquid films over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the free surface and solvent concentration profiles of an evaporating thin film of liquid flowing down an inclined plane is considered. The liquid is assumed to be composed of a resin dissolved in a volatile solvent with the associated solvent concentration equation derived on the basis of the well-mixed approximation. The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the film is formulated as a lubrication approximation and the effect of a composition-dependent viscosity is included in the model. The resulting time-dependent, nonlinear, coupled set of governing equations is solved using a full approximation storage multigrid method. The approach is first validated against a closed-form analytical solution for the case of a gravity-driven, evaporating thin film flowing down a flat substrate. Analysis of the results for a range of <span class="hlt">topography</span> shapes reveal that although a full-width, spanwise <span class="hlt">topography</span> such as a step-up or a step-down does not affect the composition of the film, the same is no longer true for the case of localized <span class="hlt">topography</span>, such as a peak or a trough, for which clear nonuniformities of the solvent concentration profile can be observed in the wake of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaskell, P. H.; Jimack, P. K.; Sellier, M.; Thompson, H. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~tony/watts/downloads/West_etal_2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Links between climate, erosion, uplift, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> during intracontinental mountain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Links between climate, erosion, uplift, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> during intracontinental mountain building a window into understanding how climate influences the erosion and resulting geomorphic and sedimentary signatures of continental <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specifically, asymmetric erosion of the Hangay, associated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watts, A. B. "Tony"</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5966S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation self-organization over resource fluxes in wetland ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While it is recognized that <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation self-organization (SO) are both first order controls over ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the discrete contributions that these two controls have over ecosystem functioning have not been studied in any rigorous way. This work is focused on systematically isolating the separate and combined impacts of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and SO over vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We simulate the steady state and transient <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of nitrogen-limited patterned peat vegetation observed in the bogs of northern Siberia. We do so across a realistic range of land slopes, nutrient limitation values, and rainfall amounts. Simulation results show that on relatively shallow slopes, vegetation SO is a primary control over the spatial arrangement of vegetation, and that such self-organized arrangements yield the most efficient capture of ecosystem resources. However, as slope increases, and or resource limitation is low, <span class="hlt">topography</span> begins to exert its control over the temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. As will be discussed, these results suggest a simple continuum framework, valid across biomes, for understanding the interplay between these two first order controls. Specifically, as resources (e.g., water, nutrients) increase, ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> shift towards topographic control, while when resources are reduced, ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> shift towards vegetation SO control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stieglitz, Marc; Cheng, Yiwei; Truk, Greg; Engel, Victor; Ross, Joshua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19690408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retinal ganglion cell <span class="hlt">topography</span> in juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Retinal <span class="hlt">topography</span> in juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) was analyzed in retinal wholemounts stained with cresyl violet. A region of highest ganglion cell density, i.e., an area centralis, was identified in the temporal retina at a mean distance of 7.7 mm from the papilla (mean peak ganglion cell density 3,952 cells/mm(2)). With an estimated posterior nodal distance of 21 mm, this value corresponds to 531 cells/deg(2). Retinal resolution was calculated as 11.5 cycles/deg under water and 8.7 cycles/deg in air, which is better than the corresponding behaviorally assessed visual acuities. In the region of high ganglion cell density, the ganglion cell layer comprised 1-2 cell layers. From there a moderate visual streak with a ganglion cell density of approximately 1,000 cells/mm(2) extended into the nasal retina. The latter two features together with the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ganglion cell density render the harbor seal retina more similar to that of terrestrial carnivores than to that of other pinnipeds. PMID:19690408</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanke, Frederike D; Peichl, Leo; Dehnhardt, Guido</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..988..267N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Emission Measurement in Burning Plasma Experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of neutron emission rate from the whole plasma is a very important diagnostics as a fusion power monitor in fusion experimental devices with D-T or D-T operations. Here measurement techniques of time-resolved and time-integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission on the present tokamaks and ITER are reviewed. In the present tokamaks, fission chamber installed outside the vacuum vessel are very popular in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurement. As well as conventional neutron monitors installed outside the vacuum vessel, in-vessel neutron monitors using micro fission chamber are proposed for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurement in ITER. The neutron activation system provides time-integrated measurements of the total neutron yield with high accuracy by using well known neutron reaction cross sections, which is useful to maintain a robust measure of fusion energy production with stability and wide <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range. The calibration of the relation between the neutron emission rate in the whole plasma and the output of neutron monitor is the most important issue in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron emission rate measurements. The calibration of the neutron detectors has been performed by moving a neutron source such as a 252Cf neutron or a small accelerator-based neutron generator. For the calibration in ITER, the neutron generator with neutron emission rate of 1011 s-1 or stronger is required to obtain high accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishitani, Takeo; Ishikawa, Masao; Kondoh, Takashi; Kusama, Yoshinori; Asai, Keisuke; Sasao, Mmamiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56148164"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Glacial Inception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We test the influence of model <span class="hlt">topography</span> on glacial inception using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean version of NCAR's Community Climate System Model (CCSM3). Simulations employ a modern orbital configuration and greenhouse gas concentrations representing both recent (year 1990) and hypothetically lower present-day values in accordance with Ruddiman's Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis (240 ppm CO2 and 450 ppb CH4). The model is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Vavrus; G. Philippon-Berthier; J. E. Kutzbach; W. F. Ruddiman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7792E..1AS"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> measurement of specular and diffuse surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of lens by using a technique of diffuse reflection (fringe projection technique) and by a method based on specular reflection technique (similar to Placido disk system). The obtained results with both techniques are compared with those obtained with a spherometer. The retrieval of the three-dimensional shape of the lens is an issue of great interest for wide medical application, particularly in ophthalmology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serrano García, David Ignacio; Martínez García, Amalia; Rayas-Alvarez, Juan Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds450"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Mississippi, 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds418"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Alabama 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nist.gov/cnst/upload/poster_10-Nanoscale_Surface_Topography-Letter_Sized.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> to Guide Bone Growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental Association Foundation) C O L L A B O R A T O R S : Lei Chen, Sheng Lin-Gibson (NIST) G O A LNanoscale Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American tissues in order to improve dental implants and bone restoratives. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26349162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural network applications in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an industrial need for the measurement and classification of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of engineering surfaces - two-dimensional (2-D) analysis is fast, but limited in the usefulness of the results obtainable whilst the three-dimensional (3-D) approach offers greater scope. Unfortunately, the data analysis step for 3-D data characterisation can be time-consuming, and often requires a skilled metrologist. The approach has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Mainsah; D. T. Ndumu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880021047&hterms=niobate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dniobate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/cave/karst.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Karst <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Teacher's Guide and Paper Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson uses paper models to help students understand karst processes, why caves develop in limestone, and how karst <span class="hlt">topography</span> develops. Introductory materials explain how ground- or surface waters can dissolve limestone, some features of karst landscapes (sinkholes, disappearing streams), and some features of caves (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstone). A teacher's guide provides patterns and instructions for building the models, and a glossary and references are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071375"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Cape Cod National Seashore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 90 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Cape Cod National Seashore. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071176"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Assateague Island National Seashore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 58 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Assateague Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071422"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 33 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071377"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Mississippi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 30 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071177"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Thomas Stone National Historic Site</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for Thomas Stone National Historic Site in Maryland. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071178"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gateway National Recreation Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (bare earth) maps and GIS files for the Sandy Hook Unit within Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071431"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Padre Island National Seashore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071179"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: George Washington Birthplace National Monument</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513326C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data and Processing Tools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has become a hub for high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> catalog, providing users a "one-stop shop" for such information. With several thousand active users, Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is an excellent example of a mature Spatial Data Infrastructure system that is enabling access to challenging data for research, education and outreach. Ongoing Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> design and development work includes the archive and publication of datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); creation of a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; expanded support for satellite and terrestrial lidar; and creation of a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party programs and algorithms. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the project's next phase, we are working to enable equally easy and successful sharing of services for processing and analysis of these data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1221M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these <span class="hlt">topography</span>-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9.6683M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of a reduced Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse rate corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the NH flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the sensible heat flux (SHFLX). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHFLX. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHFLX and anomalous cold winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the NEEM ice core site, our model suggests that up to 3.2 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these <span class="hlt">topography</span>-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730021662&hterms=pressure+sensor+sensitivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpressure%2Bsensor%2Bsensitivity"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hecht, R. (inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56295167"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Rayleigh Intensity and Uniform Optical Conductivity in Carbon Nanotubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used a novel on-chip Rayleigh imaging technique to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of Rayleigh scattering of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The spatial distribution of the radiation scattered by the nanotubes is determined by their shape, but the intensity and spectrum of the scattered radiation are determined by exciton <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, quantum-dot-like optical resonances and other intrinsic properties. Moreover, the nanotubes display</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lihong Herman; Daniel Joh; Jesse Kinder; Sang-Yong Ju; Michael Segal; Jeffreys Johnson; Garnet Chan; Jiwoong Park</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9734S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mantle flow modeling of the anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the south-east Carpathians</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neotectonic evolution of the Carpathians is dominated by collisions of irregular continental fragments and accretion of nappe stacks due to the Alpine orogenic activity. The geological record indicates that the uplift of the Carpathian fold thrust belt and subsidence of the adjacent Focsani (foredeep) basin occurred coevally in the aftermath of Alpine collision. Recent seismological studies indicate a distinct high velocity body (Vrancea slab) beneath the Focsani basin (42 km thick crust) and low velocity upper mantle beneath the high Carpathians (35 km crustal thickness). A suite of models has been proposed to explain the pattern of anomalous surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the region; however no models have considered the role of underlying mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>/flow. Here we test that whether the observed anomalous uplift/subsidence in the southeastern corner of the Carpathians - with a > 1 km elevation- and adjacent 13 km deep Focsani basin may have been formed due to the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects of mantle flow. A conversion of seismic tomography velocity anomalies to temperature field was performed as an input into a series of 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical models. Based on the simple isostasy formula, we quantify the residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> calculations (non-isostatic component of <span class="hlt">topography</span>) to further reconcile them with our <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> modeling interpretations. Our results suggest that active mantle flow beneath the Carpathians may possibly explain the current topographic anomalies (e.g., <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift/subsidence) beneath this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">?engül Uluocak, Ebru; Gö?Ü?, O?uz H.; Komut, Tolga; Pysklywec, Russell N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eprints.esc.cam.ac.uk/2982/2/ggge20035-sup-0001-2012GC004392depth_1deg.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CZARNOTA ET AL.:<span class="hlt">DYNAMIC</span> <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AROUND AUSTRALIA Residual <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Estimates From Wide Angle Seismic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">maximum LSD57 Curray et al. (1977) 108.150 -14.950 -34 -87 -153 maximum LSD58 Curray et al. (1977) 115.550 -13.783 -472 -554 -651 maximum LSD59 Curray et al. (1977) 118.433 -13.517 -370 -451 -546 maximum MSN12</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cambridge, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057699&hterms=Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522Plate%2BTectonics%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in this orogen depends strongly on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction. Other factors that might affect the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gephart, John W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JMM%26M...5a3008B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and experimental investigation of bubble entrapment for flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span> during immersion lithography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In immersion lithography, the air gap that currently exists between the last lens element of the exposure system and the wafer is filled with a liquid that more closely matches the refractive index of the lens. There is a possibility that air bubbles, which represent a refractive index discontinuity, may be present in the liquid within the active exposure region and cause errors in imaging. One potential source of bubble generation is related to the flow of liquid over previously patterned features, or <span class="hlt">topography</span>, during scanning or filling. This microscale entrainment mechanism is investigated experimentally and analyzed using computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) modeling. The contact angle is a critical parameter that governs the behavior of the contact line and therefore the entrainment of air due to <span class="hlt">topography</span>; the same <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a hydrophobic surface is more likely to trap air than on a hydrophilic one. The contact angle can be a strong function of the flow velocity; a hydrophilic surface can exhibit hydrophobic behavior when the velocity of the free surface becomes large. Therefore, the contact angle was experimentally measured under static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions for a number of different surfaces, including resist-coated wafers. Finally, the flow of liquid across 500-nm-deep, straight-sidewall spaces of varying width was examined using both experimental visualization and CFD modeling. No air entrainment was observed or predicted over the velocity and contact angle conditions that are relevant to immersion lithography. The sharp-edged features studied here represent an extreme <span class="hlt">topography</span> relative to the smoother features that are expected on a planarized wafer; therefore, it is not likely that the microscale entrainment of bubbles due to flow over wafer-level <span class="hlt">topography</span> will be a serious problem in immersion lithography systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burnett, Holly B.; Wei, Alexander C.; El-Morsi, Mohamed S.; Shedd, Timothy A.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Van Peski, Chris K.; Grenville, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5567..829B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and experimental investigation of bubble entrainment for flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span> during immersion lithography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In immersion lithography, the air gap that currently exists between the last lens element of the exposure system and the wafer is filled with a liquid that more closely matches the refractive index of the lens. There is a possibility that air bubbles, which represent a refractive index discontinuity, may be present in the liquid within the active exposure region and cause errors in imaging. One potential source of bubble generation is related to the flow of liquid over previously patterned features, or <span class="hlt">topography</span>, during scanning or filling. This microscale entrainment mechanism is investigated experimentally and analyzed using computational fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (CFD) modeling. The contact angle is a critical parameter that governs the behavior of the contact line and therefore the entrainment of air due to <span class="hlt">topography</span>; the same <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a hydrophobic surface is more likely to trap air than on a hydrophilic one. The contact angle can be a strong function of the flow velocity; a hydrophilic surface can exhibit hydrophobic behavior when the velocity of the free surface becomes large. Therefore, the contact angle was experimentally measured under static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> conditions for a number of different surfaces, including resist-coated wafers. Finally, the flow of liquid across 500-nm deep, straight-sidewall spaces of varying width was examined using both experimental visualization and CFD modeling. No air entrainment was observed or predicted over the velocity and contact angle conditions that are relevant to immersion lithography. The sharp-edged features studies here represent an extreme <span class="hlt">topography</span> relative to the smoother features that are expected on a planarized wafer; therefore, it is not likely that the microscale entrainment of bubbles due to flow over wafer-level <span class="hlt">topography</span> will be a serious problem in immersion lithography systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burnett, Holly B.; Wei, Alexander C.; El-Morsi, Mohamed S.; Shedd, Timothy A.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Spike, Benjamin T.; Van Peski, Chris; Grenville, Andrew; Engelstad, Roxann L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ZPhyD..23..359R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near threshold <span class="hlt">absolute</span> TDCS: first results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known <span class="hlt">absolute</span> total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known <span class="hlt">absolute</span> double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rösel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Röder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking <span class="hlt">topography</span> of model membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E4507R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking <span class="hlt">topography</span> of model membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking <span class="hlt">topography</span> of model membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84h3906X"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23157837"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> of microgravity-grown ribonuclease S crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crystals of the enzyme RNase S were grown at micro and unit gravity using a dialysis-based <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> controlled device. Crystals were grown at 24°C on space shuttle flights STS 93 and STS 95. Control crystals were grown simultaneously in ground laboratories using identical equipment. Sizes, shapes, populations, and diffraction resolution have been compared and the crystals analyzed by X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Travis Gallagher; Carrie Stover; David Charlton; Leonard Arnowitz; David R. Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10978122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> dependent desorption of alkali halides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electron-stimulated desorption of the (100)KBr surface has been investigated in vacuum with noncontact atomic force microscopy and mass spectroscopy. It has been found that both desorption components (K and Br) show oscillatory dependence on the electron dose with the oscillation amplitude decaying gradually. These results correspond with periodically varying, as a result of a layer-by-layer desorption, surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. It is proposed that the surface terrace edges act as traps for excited F centers diffusing in the crystal. The oscillating density of terrace edges varies surface recombination/reflection rates for the F centers and modulates the balance between surface and bulk deexcitation of the crystal. PMID:10978122</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Such; Kolodziej; Czuba; Piatkowski; Struski; Krok; Szymonski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds393"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Sandy Hook 2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuTMP...1a0201L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Welcome to Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its <span class="hlt">topography</span> is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this field yields across an array of applications in the modern world. To this end, we have gathered leading experts from across our scope to form our inaugural editorial board. Their broad subject knowledge and experience will help to guide the journal and ensure we meet our goal of high-quality research, published quickly, across the breadth of the subject. We are committed to providing a rapid and yet rigorous peer review process. As a launch promotion, all STMP's published content will be free to readers during 2013. The editorial board and I hope you will be as excited by the possibilities of this new journal as we are, and that you will choose to both submit your research and read STMP in the months and years to come. We look forward to reading your papers!</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leach, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26470305"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM): a breakthrough in remote sensing of <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), flown on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on Flight STS-99 and launched on 11 February 2000, will produce digital elevation data of the Earth's land mass between 60 degrees north latitude and 54 degrees south latitude. This data will be at least one order of magnitude more precise in the elevation resolution, and will have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakob J. van Zyl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1642320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution and fatigue fracture in polysilicon MEMS structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the micromechanisms of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution and fatigue fracture in polysilicon MEMS structures. The initial stages of fatigue are shown to be associated with stress-assisted surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution and the thickening of SiO2 layers that form on the unpassivated polysilicon surfaces and crack\\/notch faces. The differences in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seyed M. Allameh; Pranav Shrotriya; Alex Butterwick; Stuart B. Brown; Wole O. Soboyejo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x2235224786x7417.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the cylindrical gear tooth flanks after machining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents an analysis of three-dimensional surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of side and side out in tooth space flanks of cylindrical\\u000a gear machined after hobbing and chiselling by Fellows method. The parameters and functions of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as\\u000a spectral analysis were used. Primary surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> after extraction of involute tooth profile was analysed. It was found\\u000a that contour maps</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacek Michalski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90d2110M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium equalities in <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We generalize nonequilibrium integral equalities to situations involving <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes for which the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges, rendering conventional integral fluctuation theorems inapplicable. We identify the mathematical origins of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility as the singularity of probability measure. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equalities for several models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murashita, Yûto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmetrology"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value: A Real World Application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value simply…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983SPIE..361..111T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis Of Scoliosis By Back Shape <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> for the assessment of scoliotic deformity in the clinic depends firstly on the quality of measures which reliably characterise deformity of the back, and secondly on the ease and speed with which these measures can be applied. A method of analysis of back shape measurements is presented which can be applied to any topographic measurement system. Measures presented are substantially independent of minor changes in the patient's posture in rotation and flexion from one clinic to the next, and yet sensitive enough to indicate significant improvement or degeneration of the disease. The presentation shows (1) horizontal cross-sections at ten levels up the back from sacrum to vertebra prominens, (2) angles of rotation of the surface over a small region about the spine, (3) three vertical profiles following the line of the spine, and (4) measures of maximum kyphosis and lordosis. Dependence on the operator has been reduced to a minimum. Extreme care in positioning the patient is unnecessary and those spinous processes which are easily palpable, the vertebra prominens and the two dimples over the posterior superior iliac spines are marked. Analysis proceeds entirely automatically once the basic shape data have been supplied. Applications of the technique to indirect moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> and a television topographic measurement system are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Harris, John D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20081326"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Colonial National Historical Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program, Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs, barrier islands, and various nearshore coastal environments for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Stevens, Sara; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS...92...65K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> from multispectral LROC images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique for retrieving information about the lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> from any individual multispectral LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) image has been developed. This technology is possible, since images acquired at different wavelengths correspond to different viewing angles and the influence of color differences between the images on the parallax assessments is small. This method provides the precision of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) comparable to the global lunar 100 m raster DTM retrieved from the LROC WAC stereo model (GLD100). It potentially allows one to obtain maps of the elevations with better horizontal resolution than those of the GLD100. An empirical model of the distortion for LROC WAC has been developed and used for correction of the initial WAC images. In contrast to the standard pre-flight model, our model allows for compensation of the radial distortion, decentering the optics, and tilt of the CCD array almost fully. The DEMs obtained using our approach exhibit real morphological details in some cases that are invisible in GLD100 maps. Thus, our method suggests additional independent information about the lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The fact that our elevation maps have the same projection as the initial images allows valid corrections of these images to account for topographic effects (i. e. orthorectification) in contrast to the use of the GLD100 that may have slightly different coordinates referencing in comparison to individual WAC images.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korokhin, Viktor V.; Velikodsky, Yuri I.; Shalygin, Eugene V.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Kaydash, Vadym G.; Videen, Gorden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a 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href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610934T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal circulation in fault slots with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are numerous cases where the circulation of hydrothermal fluid is likely to be confined within a permeable fault slot. Examples are (1) the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) at 30 N in the Atlantic, which is likely to be controlled by large E-W faults related to the Atlantis transform fault and mass wasting on the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, and (2) large normal faults bounding the Hess Deep rift in the East Pacific, which contain intense hydrothermal metamorphic assemblages in lower crustal gabbros formed at 200-350 ° C. This type of circulation could occur anywhere where steep faults cut the oceanic crust, including large near-axis normal faults, transform faults and faults at subduction bend zones, and could be the major way in which the upper mantle and lower crust are hydrated. It is therefore important to constrain the controls on temperature conditions of alteration and hence mineral assemblages. Previous 2-D modelling of the LCHF shows that seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span> and permeability structure combine together to localise the field near the highest point of the Atlantis Massif. Our new models are 3-D, based on a 10km cube with seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span> of ~ 2km affecting both the fault slot and impermeable wall rocks. We have used Comsol multiphysics in this modelling, with a constant basal heatflow corresponding to the near conductive thermal gradient measured in IODP Hole 1309D, 5km north of the LCHF, and a constant temperature seafloor boundary condition. The wall rocks of the slot have a permeability of 10-17 m2 while permeability in the slot is varied between 10-14 and 10-15 m2. Initial conditions are a conductive thermal structure corresponding to the basal heatflow at steady state. Generic models not based on any particular known <span class="hlt">topography</span> quickly stabilise a hydrothermal system in the fault slot with a single upflow zone close to the model edge with highest <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In models with a depth of circulation in the fault slot of about 6 km, after an initial period of higher temperature venting which removes heat from the initial condition, venting temperature is approximately 200 ° C with a permeability of 3x10-15 m2. This falls to about 170 ° C with a permeability of 5x10-15 m2. Temperatures can be reduced by restricting the depth of hydrothermal circulation. These temperatures correspond to prehnite-chlorite assemblages seen in fault rocks at Hess Deep, but are higher than those observed at the LCHF. Work is continuing to vary permeability, fault slot geometry and <span class="hlt">topography</span> to better match the conditions in the Atlantis Massif, and to model the effects of dyke intrusion into the fault zone as observed at Hess Deep.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titarenko, Sofya; McCaig, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds384"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Northern Gulf of Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system on September 19, 2004. The survey resulted in the acquisition of 3.2 gigabytes of data. The data were processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of 'last return' elevations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033697&hterms=Jung+Carl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Jung%2BCarl%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">STS-99 Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission Stability and Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DPS....4640108S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Volatile Transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> can exert important influences on volatile transport on bodies, such as Pluto and Triton, with global atmospheres supported by vapor pressure equilibrium with volatile frost on the surface. First, because local energy balance depends on the illumination angle, volatile frost will preferentially sublime from (condense on) areas tilted towards (away from) the Sun, as has been previously modelled at small spatial scales [e.g. 1]. Topographic features can also cause a completely different kind of vertical volatile transport resulting from the decrease in atmospheric pressure with altitude. On Pluto and Triton the sublimation flux from a topographic feature approximately one km high is comparable to the seasonal or inter-hemispheric sublimation flux (1 g/cm2^/year). To the extent that seasonal transport influences the distribution of volatile ices (and related characteristics such as albedo, emissivity, reflectance spectrum), <span class="hlt">topography</span>-driven transport will exert a comparable influence around features a km or more above (or below) the global mean altitude of the frost deposits. This implies that in addition to there being a global "frost temperature" (defined by the temperature at which the frost vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure), there is a "frost altitude" (defined by the globally-averaged altitude of all the volatile frost). The sense of <span class="hlt">topography</span>-driven volatile transport is to denude high areas. Consider two frost patches with equilibrium temperatures equal to the frost temperature, but at different altitudes. The high(low)-altitude patch is in contact with a lower(higher)-pressure atmosphere due to the e^(-z/H) dependence of atmospheric pressure. If the high(low)-altitude patch is above(below) the frost altitude, frost will sublime from (condense on) the high (low) frost patch, resulting in net downhill transport. We present models for the combined effects of illumination and altitude on frost transport rates for simple topographic features and discuss how these may influence the appearance of Pluto's surface as it will be seen by the New Horizons spacecraft in July 2015. [1] Yelle (1992) Science 255, 1553-1555.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stansberry, John A.; Grundy, Will; Young, Leslie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21425900"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch twin study and segregation analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch is a rare pitch-naming ability with unknown etiology. Some scientists maintain that its manifestation depends solely on environmental factors, while others suggest that genetic factors contribute to it. We sought to further investigate the hypothesis that genetic factors support the acquisition of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch and to better elucidate the inheritance pattern of this trait. To this end, we conducted a twin study and a segregation analysis using data collected from a large population of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch possessors. The casewise concordance rate of 14 monozygotic twin pairs, 78.6%, was significantly different from that of 31 dizygotic twin pairs, 45.2%, assuming single ascertainment (x(2) = 5.57, 1 df, p = .018), supporting a role for genetics in the development of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch. Segregation analysis of 1463 families, assuming single ascertainment, produced a segregation ratio p(D) = .089 with SEp(D) = 0.006. Unlike an earlier segregation analysis on a small number of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch probands from musically educated families, our study indicates that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch is not inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. Based on these data, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch is likely genetically heterogeneous, with environmental, epigenetic, and stochastic factors also perhaps contributing to its genesis. These findings are in agreement with the results of our recent linkage analysis. PMID:21425900</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theusch, Elizabeth; Gitschier, Jane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770054895&hterms=ferrari&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dferrari"> <span id="translatedtitle">A harmonic analysis of lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A global lunar topographic map has been derived from existing earth-based and orbital observations supplemented in areas without data by a linear autocovariance predictor. Of 2592 bins, each 5 deg square, 1380 (64.7% by area) contain at least one measurement. A spherical harmonic analysis to degree 12 yields a mean radius of 1737.53 plus or minus 0.03 km (formal standard error) and an offset of the center of figure of 1.98 plus or minus 0.06 km toward (19 plus or minus 2) deg S, (194 plus or minus 1) deg E. A Bouguer gravity map, derived from a 12-degree free-air gravity model and the present <span class="hlt">topography</span> data, is presented for an elevation of 100 km above the mean surface. It is confirmed that the low-degree gravity harmonics are determined primarily by surface height variations and only secondarily by lateral density variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071007"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Fire Island National Seashore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains 31 LIDAR-derived first return <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Fire Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20061118"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Biscayne National Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lidar-derived submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd; Harris, Melanie S.; Mosher, Lance</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005783&hterms=mecanique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmecanique"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assimilation of altimeter <span class="hlt">topography</span> into oceanic models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary goals of the authors are to build an intuition for assimilation techniques and to investigate the impact of variable altimeter <span class="hlt">topography</span> on simple or complex oceanic models. In particular, applying various techniques and sensitivity studies to model and data constraints plays a key role. We are starting to use quasi-geostrophic, semigeostrophic, and primitive-equation (PE) models and to test the schemes in regions of interest to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), as well as in the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The impact of scatterometer wind forcing on the results is also investigated. The use of Geosat, European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1), and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry data is crucial in fine tuning the models and schemes to the selected areas of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demey, Pierre; Menard, Yves; Pinardi, Nadia; Schroeter, J.; Verron, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DFD.JG010P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrified viscous thin film flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the gravity-driven flow of a liquid film down an inclined wall with periodic indentations in the presence of a normal electric field. The film is assumed to be a perfect conductor and the bounding air region above is a perfect dielectric. We study the interaction between the electric field and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at steady state conditions. Using a long-wave analysis we derive a nonlinear, non-local evolution equation for the thickness of the liquid film and compute steady solutions for flow into a rectangular trench and over a rectangular mound, for example. We demonstrate that the electric field can be used to reduce or completely remove the familiar ridge features seen ahead of a downward step. Boundary integral computations of the full problem are also presented and compared with the long-wave theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Tseluiko, Dmitri; Blyth, Mark; vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ccbb.pitt.edu/PDFs/Hagai6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation of transition probabilities from local grand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy and free energy from a Boltzmann sample generated by Monte Carlo, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for the free energy. We demonstrate that very good results for the entropy and the free energy can be obtained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meirovitch, Hagai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870008216&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the mode of compensation of Venus <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Venus gravity data derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter indicates a strong correlation of gravity to <span class="hlt">topography</span> at all resolvable wavelengths. Focus was on an analysis in the spatial domain, using a geophysical model of topographic compensation together with the <span class="hlt">topography</span> data to compute gravity vectors corresponding to the observed data and comparison of the calculated and observed gravity vectors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/15114252/journal.pone.0087178.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edinburgh Research Explorer Detecting and Quantifying <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Neural Maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">for published version: Yarrow, S, Seitz, AR, Seriès, P & Razak, K 2014, 'Detecting and Quantifying <span class="hlt">Topography</span> date: 14. Jun. 2014 #12;Detecting and Quantifying <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Neural Maps Stuart Yarrow1 *, Khaleel A at the scale of individual binaural clusters. Citation: Yarrow S, Razak KA, Seitz AR, Serie`s P (2014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Millar, Andrew J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/80/40/47/PDF/rough_hal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASYMPTOTIC SHALLOW WATER MODELS WITH NON SMOOTH <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ASYMPTOTIC SHALLOW WATER MODELS WITH NON SMOOTH <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHIES</span> MATHIEU CATHALA Abstract. We present new models to describe shallow water flows over non smooth <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. The water waves problem with respect to the surface and the bottom parametrizations, we derive a nonlocal shallow water model which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2005/1276/pdf/Breakout_SessionIII.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Breakout SessionIII,Bed-Materialand Bed-<span class="hlt">Topography</span>Measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breakout SessionIII,Bed-Materialand Bed-<span class="hlt">Topography</span>Measurement: DataNeeds,Uncertainty by each of the represented agencies and uncertainties associated with these data were also discussed measurement methods used in bathymetric surveys of underwater bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These sources of error include</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8533E..0GN"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface Water and Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JFM...597..449T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrified viscous thin film flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gravity-driven flow of a liquid film down an inclined wall with periodic indentations in the presence of a normal electric field is investigated. The film is assumed to be a perfect conductor, and the bounding region of air above the film is taken to be a perfect dielectric. In particular, the interaction between the electric field and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is examined by predicting the shape of the film surface under steady conditions. A nonlinear, non-local evolution equation for the thickness of the liquid film is derived using a long-wave asymptotic analysis. Steady solutions are computed for flow into a rectangular trench and over a rectangular mound, whose shapes are approximated with smooth functions. The limiting behaviour of the film profile as the steepness of the wall geometry is increased is discussed. Using substantial numerical evidence, it is established that as the <span class="hlt">topography</span> steepness increases towards rectangular steps, trenches, or mounds, the interfacial slope remains bounded, and the film does not touch the wall. In the absence of an electric field, the film develops a capillary ridge above a downward step and a slight depression in front of an upward step. It is demonstrated how an electric field may be used to completely eliminate the capillary ridge at a downward step. In contrast, imposing an electric field leads to the creation of a free-surface ridge at an upward step. The effect of the electric field on film flow into relatively narrow trenches, over relatively narrow mounds, and down slightly inclined substrates is also considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseluiko, D.; Blyth, M. G.; Papageorgiou, D. T.; vanden-Broeck, J.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23185573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silk film <span class="hlt">topography</span> directs collective epithelial cell migration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The following study provides new insight into how surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge <span class="hlt">topography</span> guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge <span class="hlt">topography</span> where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>'s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence, Brian D; Pan, Zhi; Rosenblatt, Mark I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ApOpt..35..201E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, high-resolution optical position encoder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modern computer-controlled manufacturing machinery requires the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and highly accurate measurement of the linear position. Such an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, optical linear position encoder is described here. It is based on the transilluminance of a glass scale with an inexpensive light-emitting diode. The scale has two code tracks, one based on a pseudo-random binary sequence for the coarse determination of position and another periodic code for accurate fine-position measurement. A single-lens telecentric optical system images the code tracks in a mechanically insensitive way onto a custom photodetector. This special detector IC is capable of determining the components of the (complex) Fourier transform for the spatial frequency of the periodic code. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical position encoder shows a resolution of 10 nm andan <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of better than 100 nm over short distances, verified with a commercial laser interferometer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engelhardt, Kai; Seitz, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21069000"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, high-resolution optical position encoder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modern computer-controlled manufacturing machinery requires the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and highly accurate measurement of the linear position. Such an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, optical linear position encoder is described here. It is based on the transilluminance of a glass scale with an inexpensive light-emitting diode. The scale has two code tracks, one based on a pseudo-random binary sequence for the coarse determination of position and another periodic code for accurate fine-position measurement. A single-lens telecentric optical system images the code tracks in a mechanically insensitive way onto a custom photodetector. This special detector IC is capable of determining the components of the (complex) Fourier transform for the spatial frequency of the periodic code. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical position encoder shows a resolution of 10 nm and an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of better than 100 nm over short distances, verified with a commercial laser interferometer. PMID:21069000</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engelhardt, K; Seitz, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instruments for optically homogeneous regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a class of magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://home.iitk.ac.in/~kundu/abcontbvge-asta-rev-2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Continuous Bivariate Generalized Exponential Distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Continuous Bivariate Generalized Exponential Distribution Debasis Kundu and Rameshwar D. Gupta Abstract Generalized exponential distribution has been used quite effectively to model posi- tively skewed lifetime data as an alternative to the well known Weibull or gamma distributions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kundu, Debasis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/85796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission trading with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and intensity caps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have <span class="hlt">absolute</span> caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Jaemin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4225138"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of Type IA supernovae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes in the B, V, and I bands are derived for nine well-observed Type Ia supernovae, using host galaxy distances estimated via the surface brightness fluctuations or Tully-Fisher methods. These data indicate that there is a significant intrinsic dispersion in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes at maximum light of Type Ia supernovae, amounting to +\\/- 0.8 mag in B, +\\/- 0.6</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. M. Phillips</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00738&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Volcanoes on Io (color)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The images used to create this enhanced color composite of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. Low sun angles near the terminator (day-night boundary near the left side of the image) offer lighting conditions which emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on the volcanic satellite. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> appears very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horse-shoe shaped feature near the terminator) while a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere. The big reddish-orange ring in the lower right is formed by material deposited from the eruption of Pele, Io's largest volcanic plume.<p/>North is to the top of this picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The resolution is 6.1 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a range of 600,000 kilometers.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>Concurrent results from Galileo's exploration of Io appear in the October 15th, 1997 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers are: Temperature and Area Constraints of the South Volund Volcano on Io from the NIMS and SSI Instruments during the Galileo G1 Orbit, by A.G. Davies, A.S. McEwen, R. Lopes-Gautier, L. Keszthelyi, R.W. Carlson and W.D. Smythe. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment, by A. McEwen, D. Simonelli, D. Senske, K. Klassen, L. Keszthelyi, T. Johnson, P. Geissler, M. Carr, and M. Belton. Io: Galileo evidence for major variations in regolith properties, by D. Simonelli, J. Veverka, and A. McEwen.<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G13B0659S"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Global Bathymetry and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model Grids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine <span class="hlt">topography</span> model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land <span class="hlt">topography</span> data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data. GEBCO has agreed to adopt this model and begin updating it in 2009. Ongoing tasks include building an uncertainty model and including information from the latest IBCAO map of the Arctic Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span> from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS51A..01T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quasi Two-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Over Discontinuous <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decaying turbulent flows with <span class="hlt">topography</span> are studied by means of laboratory experiments in a rotating tank and by numerical simulations based on a quasi-two-dimensional model. The basic configuration is a step-like <span class="hlt">topography</span> dividing the flow domain in deep and shallow regions. The main objectives are: to prove that different domain geometries influence the long-term flow evolution; to show the generation of a final flow configuration; and to examine the physical mechanisms behind the main interactions of simple structures with the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, like dipoles, in order to explain the final flow distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tenreiro, M.; Zavala Sansón, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..236..169M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shape, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity anomalies and tidal deformation of Titan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gravity measurements and elevation data from the Cassini mission have been used to create shape, global <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity anomaly models of Titan that enable an improved understanding of its outer ice I shell structure. We provide constraints on the averaged ice shell thickness and its long-wavelength lateral variations, as well as the density of the subsurface ocean using gravity anomalies, the tidal Love number k2 measurement and long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We found that Titan’s surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is consistent with an approximate isostatically compensated ice shell of variable thickness, likely in a thermally conductive or in a subcritical convective state, overlying a relatively dense subsurface ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitri, Giuseppe; Meriggiola, Rachele; Hayes, Alex; Lefevre, Axel; Tobie, Gabriel; Genova, Antonio; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Zebker, Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90a2409A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dewetting of evaporating thin films over nanometer-scale <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lubrication model is used to study dewetting of an evaporating thin film layer over a solid substrate with a nanometer-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The effects of the geometry of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the contact angle, the film thickness, and the slippage on the dewetting have been studied. Our results reveal that the evaporation enhances the dewetting process and reduces the depinning time over the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Also it is shown that the depinning time is inversely proportional to the slippage and increasing the contact angle may considerably reduce the depinning time, while the film thickness increases the depinning time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akbarzadeh, A. M.; Moosavi, A.; Moghimi Kheirabadi, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25122317"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dewetting of evaporating thin films over nanometer-scale <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lubrication model is used to study dewetting of an evaporating thin film layer over a solid substrate with a nanometer-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The effects of the geometry of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the contact angle, the film thickness, and the slippage on the dewetting have been studied. Our results reveal that the evaporation enhances the dewetting process and reduces the depinning time over the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Also it is shown that the depinning time is inversely proportional to the slippage and increasing the contact angle may considerably reduce the depinning time, while the film thickness increases the depinning time. PMID:25122317</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akbarzadeh, A M; Moosavi, A; Moghimi Kheirabadi, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..278...25D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyroclastic density currents and local <span class="hlt">topography</span> as seen with the conveyer model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are multiphase flows generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and they move down the volcano, and over the surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction can play a fundamental role in the sedimentary processes, and in the resulting deposit facies architecture, as well as can play a dramatic role in the flow behavior, and in the associated volcanic hazard. This paper aims at discussing the PDC-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction theme from the viewpoint of both deposits and flow structure, by accounting for appropriate literature, and revising the concepts in light of the theoretical conveyer model of Doronzo and Dellino (2013) on sedimentation and deposition in particulate density currents. First the effects, then the causes of the flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction are discussed, in order to follow the historical development of theme concepts. The discussion is relative in terms of inertial and forced currents, which are defined on the basis of a dimensionless quantity (SD) representing the conservation of mass. Momentum equation relating depositional unit thickness, flow shear velocity, and density contrast shows that the flow is the cause of PDC motion, whereas the density contrast sustains the momentum, and the deposits are the process effect. In particular, the flow structure is described into three parts, flow-substrate boundary zone, boundary layer (lower part), and wake region (upper part) of the current. The facies architecture of PDC deposits, and the volcanic hazard depend on fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and hydraulic behavior represented, in light of the conveyer model, by the balance of sedimentation and deposition rates through transport and erosion (“sedimentation-deposition” ratio, SD). This balance acts between flow-substrate boundary zone and boundary layer. The paper discussion mainly applies to small-to-intermediate volume eruptions. Field and modeling examples of Vulcano tuff cone and Colli Albani maar (Italy) constrain the conveyer model, whereas the literature of very large, ignimbrite-forming eruptions, and stratovolcanism is accounted for theme completeness. The main findings are some relative guidelines on PDC-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction that can be used when modeling the flow, and interpreting the pyroclastic deposits: low SD is typical of inertial currents, whereas high SD is typical of forced currents, which can vary depending on <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0602O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basal <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Kronebreen, NW Svalbard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kronebreen is a tidewater outlet glacier draining the icefield Holtedahlfonna, in the Kongsfjord area of NW Svalbard. Like most glaciers in Svalbard, Kronebreen has been in retreat since the first front positions were recorded, with the exception of a brief advance during the surge of the neighboring glacier Kongsvegen around 1948. Kronebreen is one of the fastest non-surging glaciers in Svalbard, with average annual velocities near the calving front of around 450 m/yr. It has not been possible until recently to calculate ice fluxes, however, since the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Kronebreen has been unknown. In 2009, ice thickness data were obtained using low frequency radar from helicopter over the heavily crevassed Kronebreen. These new thickness data are combined with surface elevation maps, older ice depth data, and fjord bathymetry data to create an expanded bed map of the Kongsfjord area. Velocity data of Kronebreen derived from feature tracking of high-res visible imagery is also combined with thickness data to calculate estimates of flux throughout the glacier. Analysis of this new data will give a better understanding of Kronebreen's retreat history, its mass balance and flux into Kongsfjord, and help in making predictions of when and how quickly further glacier retreat may occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Sadnick, M.; Kohler, J.; Langley, K.; Kehrl, L. M.; Berthier, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN51B0405A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (GMRT) Synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global <span class="hlt">topography</span> compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic/). Local data sources include high-resolution bathymetry swaths and grids from over 210 research cruises, submersible dives, and related compilations to date. GMRT is accessible via a OGC Web Map Service (WMS) which offers <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> resolution and on-the-fly map re- projection. A growing number of commercial and open-source clients support OGC protocols, including recent versions of Google Earth and Google Maps which now support WMS natively. GMRT is incorporated as a primary basemap in science Web portals and geobrowsers including EarthChem (www.earthchem.org) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org), which also serves the underlying elevation values. Future development work will include extension of GMRT to higher resolutions; addition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO; www.ibcso.org) and the improved SRTM V2; and deployment of new OGC services including a Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Terrain Service (WTS).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AN....329..835B"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for detached binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lutz-Kelker bias corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% (??/??0.15). The calibration equations which provide the corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes: -0.18<(B-V)0<0.91, -1.6<MV<5.5 and -0.15<(J-H)0<0.50, -0.02<(H-K_s)0<0.13, 0<MJ<4, respectively. The distances computed using the luminosity-colours (LCs) relation with optical (BV) and near-infrared (JHK_s) observations were compared to the distances found from various other methods. The results show that new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bilir, S.; Ak, T.; Soydugan, E.; Soydugan, F.; Yaz, E.; Filiz Ak, N.; Eker, Z.; Demircan, O.; Helvaci, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1290v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for detached binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lutz-Kelker bias corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% ($\\sigma_{\\pi}/\\pi\\leq0.15$). The calibration equations which provide the corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes: $-0.18<(B-V)_{0}<0.91$, $-1.6<M_{V}<5.5$ and $-0.15<(J-H)_{0}<0.50$, $-0.02<(H-K_{s})_{0}<0.13$, $0<M_{J}<4$, respectively. The distances computed using the luminosity-colours (LCs) relation with optical (BV) and near-infrared ($JHK_{s}$) observations were compared to the distances found from various other methods. The results show that new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Bilir; T. Ak; E. Soydugan; F. Soydugan; E. Yaz; N. Filiz Ak; Z. Eker; O. Demircan; M. Helvaci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910006329&hterms=modified+Newtonian+dynamics+applications&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmodified%2BNewtonian%2Bdynamics%2Bapplications"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and geodesy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both completed work and work that is still in progress are presented. The completed work presented includes: (1) core-mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value for mantle viscosity; (3) code development; (4) lateral heterogeneity of subduction zone rheology; and (5) planning for the Coolfront meeting. The work presented that is still in progress includes: (1) geoid anomalies for a chemically stratified mantle; and (2) geoid anomalies with lateral variations in viscosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albee, Arden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=8053&DocID=718"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero: Community Education Outreach Guide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This guide provides curricular resources for study of the history and science of the quest for ever colder temperature. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide offers hands-on demonstrations, questions to encourage student participation, suggestions for class activities, and ways to encourage students to continue studying the science. Topics include low-temperature physics and the impact of technologies such as air conditioning, refrigeration and liquefied gases. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GApFD..98..175H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Potential Vorticity Forcing on Solitary Rossby Waves in Zonally Varying Flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theory is developed that describes the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and potential vorticity (PV) forcing on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of solitary Rossby waves (SRWs) in zonally varying background flow. The cornerstone of the theory is the background flow, which is systematically derived rather than simply being specified as in previous theories. The evolution of the disturbance field is governed by a forced, variable coefficient Korteweg-deVries equation, which possesses SRW, low-frequency wave packet, and multiple equilibrium solutions. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> and PV forcing structures affect the evolution of the disturbance in fundamentally different ways. For example, if the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is meridionally symmetric, it does not affect the translation speed of a meridionally antisymmetric disturbance. If the PV forcing is sufficiently weak or meridionally symmetric, it does not affect the local growth/decay of the disturbance. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy are derived. For locally parallel background flow, the mass and momentum equations show that the background meridional wind and local topographic slope enter as source/sink terms. In the mass equation these terms can be combined and written solely in terms of the PV forcing. Additionally, weak or meridionally symmetric PV forcing allows the evolution equation to be written in terms of a Hamiltonian, which conserves both mass and energy. Numerical solutions of the amplitude equation reveal a richness of behaviors not found in previous studies of SRWs. These behaviors include transmission, reflection, and trapping, which may combine to produce regional confinement and local spawning of new disturbances. The regional confinement and spawning behavior only occurs when the zonally varying background flow and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are considered in combination and displaced with respect to each other, a configuration reminiscent of observed flows in the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hodyss, Daniel; Nathan, Terrence R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2402D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on deposition from dilute pyroclastic density currents simulated by Ansys Fluent software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyroclastic density currents are volcanic gas-particle flows that move along volcano flanks and over the neighboring <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Flow particle concentration can vary between two end members, concentrated and dilute. When a pyroclastic density current interacts with an uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the flow-field variables (velocity, pressure, particle concentration) are drastically changed at the flow-substrate boundary. These changes may significantly affect the sedimentation rate and the resulting deposits can record such effects in their sedimentological features. Here we show, by means of numerical simulations, how a dilute pyroclastic density current interacts with four different types of <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, namely: flat, one hill, one valley and two hills. The simulations are carried out by Ansys Fluent commercial software for applications in fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> engineering. Our numerical scheme treats the very fine particles as being in full thermo-mechanical equilibrium with the volcanic gas (pseudo-fluid phase), and the trajectories of the coarser particles are tracked by means of the pseudo-fluid solution (Lagrangian particles). There is a two-way coupling between the pseudo-fluid phase and Lagrangian particles, which accounts for the reciprocal mechanical effects of the two phases. Numerical results are then used to analyze the local effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the deposition of the Lagrangian particles, by monitoring with time and space the local changes at the boundary between the dilute pyroclastic density current and substrate. We use the sedimentation rate and grain-size distribution of the Lagrangian particles as proxies of the deposit features, and by these parameters we compare qualitatively the numerical results with the deposits of known eruptions: Mount St. Helens blast, Taupo ignimbrite and Vulcano surge deposits. The results reproduce qualitatively the natural deposits very well, and we conclude that Ansys Fluent software could be used in volcanology with success.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doronzo, Domenico Maria; Valentine, Greg A.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; de Tullio, Marco D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineering microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to control the cell–substrate interface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including <span class="hlt">topography</span> and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cell–substrate interface. <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application. PMID:22521491</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear and nonlinear stratified spindown over sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a stratified rotating fluid, frictionally driven circulations couple with the buoyancy field over sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Analytical and numerical methods are used to quantify the impact of this coupling on the vertical ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benthuysen, Jessica A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890056768&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid height versus <span class="hlt">topography</span> for oceanic plateaus and swells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and <span class="hlt">topography</span> is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to <span class="hlt">topography</span> between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds674"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span>--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=306874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of local <span class="hlt">topography</span> on precision irrigation management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local <span class="hlt">topography</span>, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2731455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence theory: Foundations and extensions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:22478402</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gablab.mit.edu/downloads/ImagingLibrary/friston.funct_topography.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Multidimensional scaling and functional connectivity in the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Functional <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Multidimensional scaling and functional connectivity in the brain. Friston connectivity, Multidimensional scaling, Schizophrenia, PET, Singular Value Decomposition, Eigenimages, Spatial into an anatomical space, for example using statistical parametric mapping to identify activation foci</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabrieli, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.5560B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture can be carried out considering the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (original) soil moisture values or relative values, such as the percent of saturation or temporal anomalies. Over large areas, soil moisture data measured at different sites can be characterized by large differences in their minimum, mean, and maximum <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, even though in relative terms their temporal patterns are very similar. In these cases, the analysis considering <span class="hlt">absolute</span> compared with percent of saturation or temporal anomaly soil moisture values can provide very different results with significant consequences for their use in hydrological applications and climate science. In this study, in situ observations from six soil moisture networks in Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Australia, and United States are collected and analyzed to investigate the spatial soil moisture variability over large areas (250-150,000 km2). Specifically, the statistical and temporal stability analyses of soil moisture have been carried out for <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, temporal anomaly, and percent of saturation values (using two different formulations for temporal anomalies). The results highlight that the spatial variability of the soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (i.e., temporal anomalies) is significantly lower than that of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture values. The spatial variance of the time-invariant component (temporal mean of each site) is the predominant contribution to the total spatial variance of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture data. Moreover, half of the networks show a minimum in the spatial variability for intermediate conditions when the temporal anomalies are considered, in contrast with the widely recognized behavior of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture data. The analyses with percent saturation data show qualitatively similar results as those for the temporal anomalies because of the applied normalization which reduces spatial variability induced by differences in mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture only. Overall, we find that the analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture does not apply to temporal anomalies or percent of saturation values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brocca, L.; Zucco, G.; Mittelbach, H.; Moramarco, T.; Seneviratne, S. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intlpress.com/CMS/issue2-3/CMS_2_359_389.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity driven shallow water models for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We derive new models for gravity driven shallow water flows\\u000ain several space dimensions over a general <span class="hlt">topography</span>.\\u000aA first model is valid for small slope variation, i.e. small curvature,\\u000aand a second model is valid for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span>.\\u000aIn both cases no particular assumption is made on the velocity profile in the material layer.\\u000aThe models are written for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francois Bouchut; Michael Westdickenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precise Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluorescence Yield</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present preliminary results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources - the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ave, M.; Daumiller, K.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Salamida, F.; Smida, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Ridky, J.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Di Carlo, P.; Iarlori, M.; Petrera, S.; Rizi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita de l'Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C.; Verzi, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); San Luis, P. Facal; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T41B2579S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the rheological layering of the lithosphere on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> generated by sublithospheric density anomalies: Insights from analog modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Density anomalies located beneath the lithosphere are thought to generate <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the surface of the Earth. Tomographic models are often used to infer the later variations of the density field in the mantle. Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> can then be computed using analytical solutions or numerical simulations of mantle convection. It has been shown that the viscosity profile of the upper mantle has a strong influence on the magnitude and spectral signature of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and uplift rate. Here we present results from analogue modeling of the interaction between a rising ball-shaped density anomaly and the lithosphere in an isoviscous, isothermal Newtonian mantle system. Preliminary data show that surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is strongly influenced not only by mantle viscosity but also by density and viscosity profiles of the lithosphere. Our apparatus consists of a plexiglass square box (40x40x50 cm3) filled with glucose syrup. From the bottom a silicon ball was free to rise up until impinging a silicon plate floating on top of the syrup, mimicking the lithosphere. In order to investigate the role of lithospheric thickness and layered continental crust on stress partitioning, maximum <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, uplift rate and signal wavelength, two different configurations were tested: homogeneous lithosphere and stratified lithosphere including a low-viscosity lower crust. The topographic evolution of the surface was tracked using a laser scanning the top of the apparatus. The rise of the density anomaly was recorded by a side camera. We observe that a thick and then more resistant lithosphere makes up to 2 times lower and laterally wider topographic signatures. Layered lithospheres including a decoupling lower crust decrease the equilibrium <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its lateral extend by ~30% to 40%. Most importantly, the uplift rate is strongly affected by the choice of lithosphere model. Both lithosphere width and the presence of a decoupling lower crust may modify the uplift rate by a factor 3. Thus, depending on the lithosphere rheology, we show that uplift rate may vary by one order of magnitude, for the same density anomaly and mantle viscosity. This result shows that surface uplift rate can be used to infer the viscosity of the upper mantle in specific Earth regions only if the rheology of the lithosphere is well constrained. With respect to previous approaches, whether numerical or analog modeling of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, our experiments represent a new attempt to investigate the propagation of normal stresses generated by mantle flow through a rheologically stratified lithosphere and its resulting topographic signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sembroni, A.; Globig, J.; Rozel, A.; Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.; Fernandez, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1290.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for detached binaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lutz-Kelker bias corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% ($\\sigma_{\\pi}/\\pi\\leq0.15$). The calibration equations which provide the corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes: $-0.18<(B-V)_{0}<0.91$, $-1.6<M_{V}<5.5$ and $-0.15<(J-H)_{0}<0.50$, $-0.02<(H-K_{s})_{0}<0.13$, $0<M_{J}<4$, respectively. The distances computed using the luminosity-colours (LCs) relation with optical (BV) and near-infrared ($JHK_{s}$) observations were compared to the distances found from various other methods. The results show th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bilir, S; Soydugan, E; Soydugan, F; Yaz, E; Ak, N Filiz; Eker, Z; Demircan, O; Helvaci, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53276851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> rate theories of epigenetic stability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aleksandra M. Walczak; José N. Onuchic; Peter G. Wolynes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tnw.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/TNW/Over_de_faculteit/Afdelingen/Imaging_Science_and_Technology/Research/Research_Groups/Optics/Publications/Per_Year/doc/Thesis_Swinkels.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance metrology Proefschrift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance metrology Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan and controls the formation with high accuracy is an essential component to enable the science measurement with high accuracy. For Darwin, the required accuracy would be 70 micrometers over a distance of up to 250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927741"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the current concerns about ozone, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+cost&pg=6&id=EJ848934"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low-cost, easy-to-use <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation on Effect of Optical Stimulation to Human Using Optical <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have observed the time course features of cerebral response while a subject is performing the visual tracking task or visual tracking plus finger tapping task using Optiocal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (OT). The distribution maps of both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins are demonstrated in contrast with the time course diagram. The response of the cerebrum differs, depending on whether the optical stimulation is static or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, even when the overall nature of the pattern and intensity of the stimulation is the same. The cerebral response to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulation is very rapid and clear, and greater in magnitude than that to static optical stimulation, but it is suppressed when an auxiliary finger tapping task is also performed. From these results, it was confirmed that OT is sensitive to both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yanai, Hiro-Fumi; Yorimoto, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Toshio; Fujii, Kan-ichi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ichikawa, Noriyoshi; Koshino, Yoshihumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9281E..2KY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of big aspheric fabrication by ultra-precision diamond turning based on tool swing feeding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the respect of ultra-precision manufacturing of axisymmetric surface, the machine tool with tool swing feeding which has less interpolation error sources compared to the conventional ultra-precision diamond turning machine tool with T-structureis worth studying.Therefore,based on the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation modeling and multi-body <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> theory,in this paper, we establish the control model,and tool path for Ultra-precision machine.Then we got the model for surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with differentinput parameters like spindle speed, feedrate, tool parameters and so on. Taking the spherical optics part with diameter of 300 mm, for example, we input the process parameters and get its surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, then evaluate its surface quality by surface roughness value (Ra) and surface shape accuracy(PV) .</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yao, Honghui; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040073468&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Glaciated Mountain Ranges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated landscapes are quite distinct from their fluvial counterparts in both landforms and processes. Given the scarcity of purely fluvial, active mountain ranges, it is essential that glacial erosion be considered amongst the processes sculpting active orogenic belts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brocklehurst, Simon H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7889S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Circum-Arctic mantle structure and long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the Jurassic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">circum-Arctic is one of the most tectonically complex regions of the world, shaped by a history of ocean basin opening and closure since the Early Jurassic. The region is characterized by contemporaneous large-scale Cenozoic exhumation extending from Alaska to the Atlantic, but its driving force is unknown. We show that the mantle flow associated with subducted slabs of the South Anuyi, Mongol-Okhotsk, and Panthalassa oceans have imparted long-wavelength deflection on overriding plates. We identify the Jurassic-Cretaceous South Anuyi slab under present-day Greenland in seismic tomography and numerical mantle flow models. Under North America, we propose the "Farallon" slab results from Andean-style ocean-continent convergence around ~30°N and from a combination of ocean-continent and intraoceanic subduction north of 50°N. We compute circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time from subduction-driven convection models and find that slabs have imparted on average <1-16 m/Myr of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence across the region from at least 170 Ma to ~50 Ma. With the exception of Siberia, the main phase of circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence has been followed either by slowed subsidence or by uplift of <1-6 m/Myr on average to present day. Comparing these results to geological inferences suggest that subduction-driven <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> can account for rapid Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence in the Slave Craton and North Slope (respectively, <15 and 21 m/Myr, between 170 and 130 Ma) and for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence (<7 m/Myr, ~170-50 Ma) followed by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift (<6 m/Myr since 50 Ma) of the Barents Sea region. Combining detailed kinematic reconstructions with geodynamic modeling and key geological observations constitutes a powerful tool to investigate the origin of vertical motion in remote regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shephard, G. E.; Flament, N.; Williams, S.; Seton, M.; Gurnis, M.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aizenman, Michael [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Warzel, Simone [Zentrum Mathematik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17481354"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties. PMID:17481354</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44Q.191C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphology and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Magnitudes of the SDSS DR7 QSOs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ESA mission Gaia will furnish a complete census of the Milky Way, delivering astrometrics, <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and astrophysics information for 1 billion stars. Operating in all-sky repeated survey mode, Gaia will also provide measurements of extra-galactic objects. Among the later there will be at least 500,000 QSOs that will be used to build the reference frame upon which the several independent observations will be combined and interpreted. Not all the QSOs are equally suited to fulfill this role of fundamental, fiducial grid-points. Brightness, morphology, and variability define the astrometric error budget for each object. We made use of 3 morphological parameters based on the PSF sharpness, circularity and gaussianity, which enable us to distinguish the "real point-like" QSOs. These parameters are being explored on the spectroscopically certified QSOs of the SDSS DR7, to compare the performance against other morphology classification schemes, as well as to derive properties of the host galaxy. We present a new method, based on the Gaia quasar database, to derive <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes, on the SDSS filters domain. The method can be extrapolated all over the optical window, including the Gaia filters. We discuss colors derived from SDSS apparent magnitudes and colors based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes that we obtained tanking into account corrections for dust extinction, either intergalactic or from the QSO host, and for the Lyman ? forest. In the future we want to further discuss properties of the host galaxies, comparing for e.g. the obtained morphological classification with the color, the apparent and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes, and the redshift distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coelho, B.; Andrei, A. H.; Antón, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=233512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a method to obtain accurate corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT <span class="hlt">topographies</span> without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements. PMID:22162814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129236"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC-MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding (13)C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations<2% during a 12-week period, and a linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thüring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18239886"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and functional information of plasma membrane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using atomic force microscope (AFM), the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and function of the plasmalemma surface of the isolated protoplasts from winter wheat mesophyll cells were observed, and compared with dead protoplasts induced by dehydrating stress. The observational results revealed that the plasma membrane of living protoplasts was in a state of polarization. Lipid layers of different cells and membrane areas exhibited distinct active states. The surfaces of plasma membranes were unequal, and were characterized of regionalisation. In addition, lattice structures were visualized in some regions of the membrane surface. These typical structures were assumed to be lipid molecular complexes, which were measured to be 15.8+/-0.09 nm in diameter and 1.9+/-0.3 nm in height. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging showed that the plasmalemma surfaces of winter wheat protoplasts were covered with numerous protruding particles. In order to determine the chemical nature of the protruding particles, living protoplasts were treated by proteolytic enzyme. Under the effect of enzyme, large particles became relatively looser, resulting that their width was increased and their height decreased. The results demonstrated that these particles were likely to be of protein nature. These protein particles at plasmalemma surface were different in size and unequal in distribution. The diameter of large protein particles ranged from 200 to 440 nm, with a central micropore, and the apparent height of them was found to vary from 12 to 40 nm. The diameter of mid-sized protein particles was between 40-60 nm, and a range of 1.8-5 nm was given for the apparent height of them. As for small protein particles, obtained values were 12-40 nm for their diameter and 0.7-2.2 nm for height. Some invaginated pits were also observed at the plasma membrane. They were formed by the endocytosis of protoplast. Distribution density of them at plasmalemma was about 16 pits per 15 microm(2). According to their size, we classified the invaginated pits into two types--larger pits measuring 139 nm in diameter and 7.2 nm in depth, and smaller pits measuring 96 nm in diameter and 2.3 nm in depth. On dehydration-induced dead protoplasts, the degree of polarization of plasma membranes decreased. Lipid molecular layers appeared relatively smooth, and the quantity of integral proteins reduced a lot. Invaginated pits were still detectable at the membrane surface, but due to dehydration-induced protoplast contraction, the orifice diameter of pits reduced, and their depth increased. Larger pits averagely measuring 47.4 nm in diameter and 31.9 nm in depth, and smaller pits measuring 26.5 nm in diameter and 43 nm in depth at average. The measured thickness of plasma membranes of mesophyll cells from winter wheat examined by AFM was 6.6-9.8 nm, thicker in regions covered with proteins. PMID:18239886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, DeLan; Chen, JianMin; Song, YanMei; Zhu, ChuanFeng; Pan, GeBo; Wan, LiJun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011123&hterms=https&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhttps"> <span id="translatedtitle">From Hubble's NGSL to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1546...70C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995RScI...66.1247S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of TFTR helium proportional countersa)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 and 50 ms depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strachan, J. D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; Loughlin, M.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spin polarization at the nanoscale.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P51E1767P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the near-surface dusty-plasma environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to interactions with the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation, the lunar surface develops a complex plasma environment, especially around features like craters and boulders. Various phenomena have been observed on the lunar surface, including dust levitation and horizontal dust transport. Dust levitation and transport could result in dust ponding, as has been observed on asteroid 433 Eros. To understand these phenomena a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code was ran using the high-performance code, VORPAL©. The plasma environment was modeled above various <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, including: (1) a flat surface; (2) a crater with a diameter of seven meters; (3) a 1x1x1 meter block; and (4) a system including a crater and a block. All four scenarios were modeled with changing solar angles to simulate a full days worth of plasma conditions. Dust <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were then modeled with a test particle approach, where individual dust grains are introduced into the PIC-modeled plasma environment. We simulated multiple lunar days of dust <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in order to detect net transport of the dust. To do this, we stepped through time while interpolating between solar angles to obtain plasma conditions and continuously eject charged grains off the surface to interact with the electric fields. A comparison of the effects of the various surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> on the dust and plasma environment will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piquette, M. R.; Horanyi, M.; Likhanskii, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29308287"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of caffeine in man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of orally administered caffeine was investigated in 10 healthy adult male volunteers, aged 18.8 to 30.0 years. The subjects were administered a 5 mg\\/kg dose of caffeine as either an aqueous oral solution or an intravenous infusion, on separate occasions about 1 week apart, in a randomized crossover fashion. Plasma samples were collected over the 24-h period</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Blanchard; S. J. A. Sawers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.illc.uva.nl/Research/Reports/PP-2006-12.text.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">PROJECTIVE <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTENESS</span> UNDER SACKS DAISUKE IKEGAMI</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">M), to construct the transitive model M[G] of ZFC (called a generic extension). M[G] is the smallest transitive model of ZFC such that M M[G] and G M[G]. Furthermore M[G] is a model on whose properties we-generic filter G over M, is true in M is true in M[G]. If a statement is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> under some forcing extension</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amsterdam, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991RScI...62.3114W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thermoelectric power by photoemission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is pointed out that a determination of the temperature dependence of the Fermi cutoff in the conduction band of a metal provides a means of measuring the thermal emf of a single metal, as well as the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thermoelectric power, without use of a reference substance. The energy of the Fermi cutoff is determined by photoemission. The method is illustrated by a crude determination of the thermal emfs of copper and constantan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wertheim, G. K.; Buchanan, D. N. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......307L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean and laboratory observations on waves over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis addresses the observation, analysis and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of waves as being trapped, generated and focused by sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span>. ---Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency off Greenland--- Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at 71 N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal tidal components and from the rotation sense of the tidal ellipses at different cross-slope locations, as calculated with simple two-dimensional models. The well organized cross-slope pattern of the velocity amplitudes is absent in observations further north near 75 N. These observations suggest that the local vanishing of the group velocity, which is caused by <span class="hlt">topography</span>, is of importance for the existence and local amplification of these continental shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency. ---Tidal and residual currents near the shelf break in Biscay--- Internal-wave energy in continuously stratified fluids propagates in the vertical plane, at an angle set by the wave, buoyancy and Coriolis frequencies. Repeated Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations on three transects, crossing the shelf edge, now directly reveal this beam-wise propagation of internal tides in the Bay of Biscay. This confirms previous suggestions based on observations sampled more sparsely in space. The present observation is made by bin-wise harmonic analysis of horizontal currents, leading to the spatial resolution of barotropic and baroclinic semi-diurnal tidal and (time-averaged) residual flows. The observed baroclinic tide compares favourably to that produced by a two-dimensional numerical model. The observations reveal details of the internal tidal beam, including its spatial amplitude distribution, presence of amphidromes and direction of phase propagation. The cross-isobath structure of the along-slope barotropic mean flow shows a localized maximum near the shelf break. Over two transects it agrees in sign and magnitude with a theoretical tidally-rectified flow. The baroclinic, cross-isobath mean flow shows a strong near-bottom downwelling flow, compensated by an on-shelf directed flow in the upper part. The along-shelf mean flow displays subsurface-intensification attributed here to frictional modification of a tidally-rectified flow that is bottom-trapped due to stratification. ---Internal wave focusing revisited--- An experiment which discussed the appearance of an internal wave attractor in a uniformly-stratified, free-surface fluid (Maas et al. 1997) is revisited. This is done in order to give a more detailed and more accurate description of the underlying focusing process. Evolution of the attractor can now be quantified. For the tank with one sloping sidewall, and for the parameter regime (density stratification, forcing frequency) studied, the inverse exponential growth rate determined at several locations in the fluid turns out to be 122 seconds always. Only the start and duration of the growth differs: away from the attractor region it appears later and is of shorter duration. Here, these features are interpreted by employing a new theoretical basis that incorporates an external forcing via a surface boundary condition (an infinitesimal barotropic seiche) and that describes the solution in terms of propagating waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lam, F. P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity acceleration in Firenze</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) ?Gal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) ?Gal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55522325"> <span id="translatedtitle">The mountain chain <span class="hlt">topography</span> as evidence of the linkage between deep and surface earth processes: the case of central Apennines (Italy)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the scale of a mountain chain, the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> results from the interaction of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle processes, crustal tectonics and surface processes. Through DEM-based topographic analysis, we examined the regional tectonic geomorphology of the Apennines, a growing mountain chain contemporary affected by extension on the Tyrrhenian side and by shortening on the Adriatic side. Beginning in the Early Pleistocene,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Molin; F. J. Pazzaglia; F. Dramis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhNan...9..159S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser-based nanoengineering of surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for biomedical applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study femtosecond laser systems were used for nanoengineering of special surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in silicon and titanium. Besides the control of feature sizes, we demonstrated that laser structuring caused changes in material wettability due to a reduced surface contact area. These laser-engineered <span class="hlt">topographies</span> were tested for their capability to control cellular behavior of human fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and MG-63 osteoblasts. We found that fibroblasts reduced cell growth on the structures, while the other cell types proliferated at the same rate. These findings make laser-surface structuring very attractive for biomedical applications. Finally, to explain the results the correlation between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the biophysics of cellular adhesion, which is the key step of selective cell control, is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koroleva, Anastasia; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1154940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sintered silver joints via controlled <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electronic packaging subcomponents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include <span class="hlt">topography</span> modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified <span class="hlt">topography</span> that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified <span class="hlt">topography</span>, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wereszczak, Andrew A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1431..583U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> prediction on laser processed tool steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser surface treatment the laser beam is used as energy source for surface modification improving aspects such as mechanical properties, tribology or surface texture. Modeling tools have special interest in processes with many variables, like laser surface processing, in order to minimize the tryout testing to find the optimal process parameters. The work presented here focuses on the prediction of the final <span class="hlt">topography</span> in laser polishing process. By FFT analysis of the surface profile it is possible to get the different frequency components of the initial <span class="hlt">topography</span>. On the other hand, thermal field simulation was carried out to evaluate the melt duration. Matching this with the spatial frequency damping during process, the reconstruction of the processed <span class="hlt">topography</span> was obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ukar, E.; Lamikiz, A.; Martínez, S.; López de Lacalle, L. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/970789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Topography</span> X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the <span class="hlt">topography</span> laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">topography</span> process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706140"> <span id="translatedtitle">The interaction of marine fouling organisms with <span class="hlt">topography</span> of varied scale and geometry: a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many studies have examined the effects of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the settlement behaviour of marine organisms and this article reviews these investigations with more emphasis on the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> scale. It has been observed that macro <span class="hlt">topographies</span> (1-100 mm) are generally favoured by marine fouling taxa and are unsuitable for antifouling applications. This is because macro <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are usually large enough to fit fouling organisms and provide refuge from dangers in the marine environment. Micro <span class="hlt">topographies</span> had only limited success at reducing fouling from a wide range of marine taxa. The antifouling performance of micro <span class="hlt">topographies</span> (1 to ? 1000 ?m) is dependent on the properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span> features in terms of symmetry, isotropy, width, length, height/depth, separation distance and average roughness. In terms of the antifouling performance of micro <span class="hlt">topography</span>, <span class="hlt">topography</span> geometry may only be of secondary importance in comparison to the size of features itself. It is also noted that hydrodynamic stresses also contribute to the settlement trends of foulers on textured surfaces. Future studies on antifouling <span class="hlt">topographies</span> should be directed to hierarchical <span class="hlt">topographies</span> because the mixed <span class="hlt">topography</span> scales might potentially reduce fouling by both micro and macro organisms. Patterned nano-<span class="hlt">topographies</span> (1- ? 1000 nm) should also be explored because the antifouling mechanisms of these <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are not yet clear. PMID:24706140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myan, Felicia Wong Yen; Walker, James; Paramor, Odette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......322S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like <span class="hlt">topography</span> to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. The role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to <span class="hlt">topographies</span> was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheats, Julian Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARP28003H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Rayleigh Intensity and Uniform Optical Conductivity in Carbon Nanotubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used a novel on-chip Rayleigh imaging technique to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of Rayleigh scattering of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The spatial distribution of the radiation scattered by the nanotubes is determined by their shape, but the intensity and spectrum of the scattered radiation are determined by exciton <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, quantum-dot-like optical resonances and other intrinsic properties. Moreover, the nanotubes display a uniform peak optical conductivity ˜8 ê2/ h, which we derive using an exciton model, suggesting universal behaviour similar to that observed in nanotube conductance. We further demonstrate a radiative coupling between two distant nanotubes, with potential applications in metamaterials and optical antennae. This is in contrast to the optical properties of metal nanostructures and show that nanotubes can form ideal optical wires.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Lihong; Joh, Daniel; Kinder, Jesse; Ju, Sang-Yong; Segal, Michael; Johnson, Jeffreys; Chan, Garnet; Park, Jiwoong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJS..213...11W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11396397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rigid gas permeable contact lens and corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effect of high Dk daily wear rigid gas permeable contact lenses on corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Eight young myopic subjects wore hard contact lenses for 21 days. Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> was monitored using the EyeSys system. It was measured every day during the next 21 days after the fitting. We recorded the corneal radius of curvature at 16 peripheral points approximately 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm along the four principal meridians (nasal, superior, inferior and temporal). Our study showed that daily wear RGP Forum 210 does not produce significant alterations of the corneal curvature as a function of time. PMID:11396397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yebra-Pimentel, E; Giráldez, M J; Arias, F L; González, J; González, J M; Parafita, M A; Febrero, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005188&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and convection-driven crustal deformation on Venus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution Magellan images and altimetry of Venus reveal a wide range of styles and scales of surface deformation that cannot readily be explained within the classical terrestrial plate tectonic paradigm. The high correlation of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity and the large apparent depths of compensation suggest that Venus lacks an upper-mantle low-viscosity zone. A key difference between Earth and Venus may be the degree of coupling between the convecting mantle and the overlying lithosphere. Mantle flow should then have recognizable signatures in the relationships between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, crustal deformation, and the observed gravity field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simons, Mark; Hager, Bradford H.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100019566&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (LIST) Mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..699K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Small Coronae on Venus: Preliminary Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We surveyed <span class="hlt">topography</span> of small coronae on Venus and created a data set of quantitative description of coronae topographic patterns. We failed to arrange all coronae profiles into an evolutionary sequences. We have not found prominent dependences between parameters of corona <span class="hlt">topography</span> except an obvious trend the smaller corona, the simplier its topographic pattern. There is weak correlation of widths of all ring-like topographic features against corona diameter. The facts evidence that wide diversity of topographic patterns are due to individual peculiarities of corona-forming sources rather than variations of geological settings and ages.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreslavsky, M.; Vdovichenko, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880005381&hterms=Soroka&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSoroka"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this research is to develop theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or that is no idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Zhou, Ji-Xun; Kearns, James A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ciese.org/pathways/rwlo/rwlos/2867/The%20impact%20of%20topography%20and%20weather%20on%20landslide%20development/overview.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Weather & <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Landslide Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Real World Learning Objects Resource Library has provided this activity to demonstrate the role of weather and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in environmental disasters. Students will use real GIS data to analyze the relationship between weather, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and landslides. Background materials and worksheets are provided in the âÂÂContent Materialsâ section, and the procedure for students to follow is clearly outlined. Additional materials that students may find helpful are located in the âÂÂSupplementary Resourcesâ section. This is an excellent resource for environmental science and earth science teachers that can be used in the classroom or as a homework assignment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimbler, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049180&hterms=gravity+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgravity%2Bmodel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>: 60th degree and order model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic <span class="hlt">topography</span> model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus <span class="hlt">topography</span> relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020006041&hterms=Hart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHart%2BK"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational Acceleration as a Cue for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Size and Distance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When an object's motion is influenced by gravity, such as the rise and fall of a thrown ball, the vertical component of acceleration is roughly constant at 9.8 m/sec2. In principle, an observer could use this information to estimate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> size and distance of the object (Saxberg, 1987a; Watson, Banks, von Hofsten, & Royden, 1992). In three experiments, we examined the ability to utilize the size and distance information provided by gravitational acceleration. Observers viewed computer simulations of an object rising and falling on a trajectory parallel to the gravitational vector. The simulated objects were three balls of different diameters presented across a wide range of simulated distances. Observers were asked to identify which ball was presented and the distance at which it was presented. The results of Experiment 1 showed that size and distance judgments were significantly better than chance, but not as accurate as expected if the information contained in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of free fall were used fully utilized. The results of Experiment 2 showed that acceleration information is used, but that observers can also make use of velocity information. Finally, the results of Experiment 3 showed that observers can use projected size information, but that their size and distance judgments are much more accurate when motion information is present as well. These results show that observers can use the information in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of free fall to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> size and distance, but their estimates are not as accurate as they could be if the information were used effectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hecht, Heiko; Kaiser, Mary K.; Banks, Martin S.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19690000209&hterms=Fizeau&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFizeau"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contours of optical flats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emersons procedure is used to determine true <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contours of optical flats. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Primak, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.223...96P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls of initial <span class="hlt">topography</span> on temporal and spatial patterns of glacial erosion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we investigate the influence of initial pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> on spatial and temporal patterns of glacial erosion using numerical surface process modelling, including a higher order ice sheet model. First, we consider glacier <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> when simulating glaciation in two real landscapes, representing plateau-type <span class="hlt">topography</span> (southeast Australia) and characteristic steady-state fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> (southern Taiwan). We find that the different initial landscape configurations result in distinctly different ice configurations and patterns of basal sliding. The sliding patterns are controlled by ice configuration and the resulting basal shear stresses and by the thermal properties at the base of the ice. We then investigate how these characteristic patterns of basal sliding control glacial erosion and long-term landscape evolution using synthetic representations of the two landscapes. The two landscape configurations result in markedly different spatial and temporal patterns of glacial erosion. However, the resulting landscapes may have similar morphology, irrespective of initial landscapes and glacial erosion patterns being significantly different. The numerical experiments also suggest that, in addition to basal temperature, basal shear stress is important in restricting long-term glacial erosion, which is relevant for the preservation of landforms during glaciations. Specifically, pre-glacial landforms may be eroded although they are initially protected by cold-based ice, when the ice configuration promotes significant basal shear stress (glacial erosion) at the edge of a plateau-like landscape. In contrast, pre-glacial landforms may be preserved irrespective of the ice being warm-based, when low gradients in the ice surface act to limit basal shear stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedersen, Vivi K.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Herman, Frédéric; Egholm, David L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/74/30/08/PDF/Absolute_undecidability.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">From Bi-immunity to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Undecidability Laurent Bienvenu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From Bi-immunity to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Undecidability Laurent Bienvenu , Adam R. Day , Rupert H¨olzl October- pute A on a set of positions of positive upper density. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> undecidability is a weakening of bi-immunity. Downey, Jockusch and Schupp [2] asked whether, unlike the case for bi-immunity, there is an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=EIS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEIS"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=Climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Climate%2Bchange%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Climate Change <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy in Orbit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020268"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC21C..07F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the DARA solar <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Davos <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9812094v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distances and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes from trigonometric parallaxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We first review the current knowledge of Hipparcos systematic and random errors, in particular small-scale correlations. Then, assuming Gaussian parallax errors and using examples from the recent Hipparcos literature, we show how random errors may be misinterpreted as systematic errors, or transformed into systematic errors. Finally we summarise how to get unbiased estimates of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and distances, using either Bayesian or non-parametrical methods. These methods may be applied to get either mean quantities or individual estimates. In particular, we underline the notion of astrometry-based luminosity, which avoids the truncation biases and allows a full use of Hipparcos samples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Arenou; X. Luri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..955S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Priority for a Vehicle in VANET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22072454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrostatic gyrokinetic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu Jianzhou [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> method of measuring magnetic susceptibility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SPIE..240..293K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moire <span class="hlt">Topography</span> For The Detection Of Orthopaedic Defects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> is applied for the follow-up of scoliosis patients. The results are then compared with the X-rays. A special lamp and scale arrangement is utilized for patient alignment. It is suggested that this technique will be used for the detection of all orthopaedic defects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal, Syed A.; Lindseth, Richard E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sfu.ca/~jvenditt/publications/2010_2010JF001747f_Nelson_etal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the development of forced bed surface patches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2010; published 24 November 2010. [1] Channel <span class="hlt">topography</span> in gravelbedded rivers interacts with the local flow and sediment transport fields to produce "forced patches," which are temporally stable areas in which a large (55 m long, 2.74 m wide), straight, sediment recirculating flume was provided a constant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Venditti, Jeremy G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods for fabrication of nanoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> for tissue engineering scaffolds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations of how controlling the microenvironment of cell cultures can lead to changes in a variety of parameters has lead investigators to begin studying how the nano-environment of a culture can affects cells. Cells have many structures at the nanoscale such as filipodia and cytoskeletal and membrane proteins that interact with the environment surrounding them. By using techniques that can control the nano-environment presented to a cell, investigators are beginning to be able to mimic the nanoscale topographical features presented to cells by extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, which has precise and repeating nano-<span class="hlt">topography</span>. The belief is that these nanoscale surface features are important to creating more natural cell growth and function. A number of techniques are currently being used to create nanoscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for cell scaffolding. These techniques fall into two main categories: techniques that create ordered <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and those that create unordered <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. Electron Beam lithography and photo-lithography are two standard techniques for creating ordered features. Polymer demixing, phase separation, colloidal lithography and chemical etching are most typically used for creating unordered surface patterns. This review will give an overview of these techniques and cite observations from experiments carried out using them. PMID:16525765</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norman, James J; Desai, Tejal A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucd.ie/sllf/Visitor%20Information%20Belonging%20Dublin.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Belonging: Cultural <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of Identity Dublin 8th-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Belonging: Cultural <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of Identity Dublin 8th- 9th June 2012 Information for participants. Guests are free to make their own dinner arrangements on Thursday evening. Transport From Dublin airport to UCD/city: The (blue) aircoach runs frequent services from Dublin airport to the city</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/mnstep/activities/34861.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining <span class="hlt">topography</span> and stream discharge at Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this inquiry based geologic field lab students will be estimating and measuring stream flow. Students will also map out a full scale live <span class="hlt">topography</span> map of a dry streambed to help them estimate flow discharge. Students will use their journals to record their hypothesis, lab report questions, graphed data and evidence to backs up their observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Todd Koenig Zimmerman High School ISD 728 Zimmerman, MN I will be using a modified concept of the contour mapping exercise we did at St. Thomas and the Hydrology flow lab we preformed at Coon Creek.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds638"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span>-Virginia, post-Nor'Ida, 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the Virginia coastline beachface. These datasets were acquired post-Nor'Ida on November 27, 2009, November 29, 2009, and December 1, 2009.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Klipp, E.S.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TOPOGRAPHY&pg=2&id=EJ844890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Multiple Manding <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> during Functional Communication Training</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding <span class="hlt">topographies</span> during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20046441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> determination by Nomarski reflection microscopy I. Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Nomarksi differential interference contrast microscope is examined as a tool for determination of metallic mirror surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This discussion includes the development of an optical model for the Nomarski system, an examination of the key results of the model's application to sloped sample surfaces, and recommended procedures for implementation. The functional relationship is developed between image intensity and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delbert L. Lessor; John S. Hartman; Richard L. Gordon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4000..695M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mask <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects in low k1 lithography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With optical lithography driving device-manufacturing capability to subwavelength dimensions, complicated phenomena that were once safely ignored art playing a crucial role in determining process quality. One such critical effect result from the consideration of mask <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As low k1 processes are entering pilot production, we as an industry are finding that we can no longer simply treat the mask as a simple planar surface and therefore consideration of reticle <span class="hlt">topography</span> is becoming as important as pre-CMP wafer <span class="hlt">topography</span> once was. The use of advanced masks in a low-k1 process is far from straightforward however, because any image model describing these processes must now predict the effects of light scatter from the mask that lead to a loss in already low process tolerance we have. In this paper we will discuss the extraction of mask <span class="hlt">topography</span> information, using advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the resultant structures simulated through the use of electro-magnetic field simulation. We will also verify the accuracy of these simulations by examining the correlation between data gathered on an Aerial Image Measurement System and the simulations. We will further show how we have transferred these EMF simulated masks to a conventional lithography simulator to estimate the effects in the resultant photoresist image. This data will be compared to the actual performance of the masks when exposed using state-of-the-art processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCallum, Martin; Gordon, Ronald L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/AJS2001_copy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> DAVID R. MONTGOMERY, and Fullsack, 1993; Howard, Dietrich, and Seidl, 1994; Montgomery, 1994; Tucker and Slingerland, 1994; Kirkby, 1997; Whipple, Kirby, and Brocklehurst, 1999; Whipple and Tucker, 1999). Such efforts have spawned</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montgomery, David R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/4ax1acb14u5pru0y.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrastructural basement membrane <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the bladder epithelium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basement membrane underlies epithelium and separates it from deeper tissues. Recent studies suggest that nanoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface of basement membrane may modulate adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of overlying epithelium. This study was performed to elucidate nanoscale topographic features of basement membrane of the bladder. Bladder tissues were obtained from three adult female rhesus macaques. A process</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George A. Abrams; Christopher J. Murphy; Zun-Yi Wang; Paul F. Nealey; Dale E. Bjorling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1765456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the inner-core boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Constraining the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner-core boundary is important for studies of core–mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high-quality earthquake doublet, observed postcritically at the short-period Yellowknife seismic array (YK), which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a 10-year interval (1993/2003). This observation, complemented by data from several other doublets, indicates the presence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the inner-core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength on the order of 10 km. Such <span class="hlt">topography</span> could be sustained by small-scale convection at the top of the inner core and is compatible with a rate of super rotation of the inner core of ?0.1–0.15° per year. In the absence of inner-core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the inner-core boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core. PMID:17190798</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Aimin; Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56091150"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission: Introduction to Special Session</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60^o north and 56^o</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. G. Farr; M. Werner; M. Kobrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds617"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ftp.eos.ubc.ca/research/glaciology/research/Publications/ClarkeBerthierSchoofJarosch(JClimate-2009).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neural Networks Applied to Estimating Subglacial <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Glacier Volume</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To predict the rate and consequences of shrinkage of the earth's mountain glaciers and ice caps, it is necessary to have improved regional-scale models of mountain glaciation and better knowledge of the subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> upon which these models must operate. The problem of estimating glacier ice thickness is addressed by developing an artificial neural network (ANN) approach that uses calculations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garry K. C. Clarke; Etienne Berthier; Christian G. Schoof; Alexander H. Jarosch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~michiel/MatScience.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Quantification by Integral and Feature-related Parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">microscopy, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of brittle fracture surfaces and wire- eroded surfaces was quantified. The global brittle fracture surfaces of steel. Key words: algorithm, CLSM, fracture surface, topometry Die. The latter describe discrete geometrical objects, for example, planar regions like fracture facets in brittle</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smid, Michiel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.utep.edu/pub/bkonter/geol_4315/Labs/Lab9_Part3/Lab9_GMT_Part3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">GMT: Texas/El Paso <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Lab 9 Part 3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">-window startup · PCs: If you need to, launch Cygwin, then in the black window, type: startxwin.bat. Use the white a <span class="hlt">topography</span> map (see next pages). #12;Modify psbasemap command ·First you will modify the psbasemap command this, list your files by typing the following in your X-window: ! ! $ ls! (you should see the files</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith-Konter, Bridget</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51A2286I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slip inversions in complex media: the uncertainty of rupture parameters estimation due to lateral velocity heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake slip inversions aiming to retrieve rupture characteristics typically assume 1D velocity models and a flat Earth surface. However, the heterogeneous nature of the crust and the presence of rough <span class="hlt">topography</span> lead to seismic scattering and other wave propagation phenomena, thus introducing complex 3D effects on ground motions. In this study we investigate how realistic velocity perturbations and <span class="hlt">topography</span> affect source imaging results. In particular, we quantify the effects of these two factors on both kinematic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> source inversion parameters depending on the maximum frequency considered. We first consider a synthetic case, where several station configurations around the causative fault are explored. We then extend our investigation to the 2009 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake. Our study can help in understanding the robustness of practical slip inversion results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">imperatori, W.; Gallovic, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..54.2131Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> on simulated surface temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface temperature of the Moon is one of the essential parameters for the lunar exploration, especially to evaluate the Moon thermophysical features. The distribution of the temperature is heavily influenced by the Moon <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which, however, is rarely studied in the state-of-art surface temperature models. Therefore, this paper takes the Moon <span class="hlt">topography</span> into account to improve the surface temperature model, Racca model. The main parameters, such as slopes along the longitude and latitude directions, are estimated with the <span class="hlt">topography</span> data from Chang'E-1 satellite and the Horn algorithm. Then the effective solar illumination model is then constructed with the slopes and the relative position to the subsolar point. Finally, the temperature distribution over the Moon surface is obtained with the effective illumination model and the improved Racca model. The results indicate that the distribution of the temperature is very sensitive to the fluctuation of the Moon surface. The change of the surface temperature is up to 150 K in some places compared to the result without considering the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In addition, the variation of the surface temperature increases with the distance from the subsolar point and the elevation, along both latitude and longitude directions. Furthermore, the simulated surface temperature coincides well with the brightness temperature in 37 GHz observed by the microwave sounder onboard Chang'E-2 satellite. The corresponded emissivity map not only eliminates the influence of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but also hints the inherent properties of the lunar regolith just below the surface. Last but not the least, the distribution of the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) in the lunar pole area is also evaluated with the simulated surface temperature result.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhiguo, Meng; Yi, Xu; Zhanchuan, Cai; Shengbo, Chen; Yi, Lian; Hang, Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14562255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chloride channels and the reactions of cells to <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reactions of rat epitenon cells to substratum <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the micrometric and nanometric scale such as groove-ridge structures include cell extension, elongation and orientation reactions. In this paper we report that stretch-sensitive chloride channels may be involved in the earliest stages of these reactions in epitenon fibroblast-like cells. We report that rat epitenon-cells can develop appreciable lateral mechanical tension that could stretch both the force generating cells themselves and those nearby. We show that cells in medium in which more than 80% of the chloride has been replaced by nitrate show little reaction to <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Spreading of the cells takes place but is much reduced along the direction of the groove-ridge <span class="hlt">topography</span> but enhanced across the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The chloride channel inhibitors NPPB (5-Nitro-2- (3phenylpropylamino) benzoicacid) 4,4'-disothiocyanostilbene-2, 2' sulphonic acid (DIDS) and Chlorotoxin produce similar results which are further accentuated when these inhibitors are presented in low chloride medium. An antibody against ClC3, which has close homology to ClC5/6 also, blocked reaction to <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These treatments have no significant effect on cell spreading on planar surfaces nor do they lead to changes in internal pH in the cells. There is a slight inhibition of rates of cell movement. Experiments using antisense oligoribonucleotides to ClC-5 or ClC-6 channel m-RNA also inhibit topographic reactions, which provides further confirmation of the hypothesis. Since the ClC-3,4 and 5 share considerable sequence similarities in the genes and in their proteins it has not been possible to make an unambigous determination of which precise chloride channel(s) is (are) involved. PMID:14562255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tobasnick, G; Curtis, A S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070021751&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">High Resolution Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Eros from NEAR Imaging and LIDAR Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Principal Data Products: Ensemble of L-maps from SPC, Spacecraft state, Asteroid pole and rotation. Secondary Products: Global <span class="hlt">topography</span> model, inertia tensor, gravity. Composite high resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Three dimensional image maps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaskell, Robert W.; Konopliv, A.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Scheeres, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/55331"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The enhancement extends 1 km above the <span class="hlt">topography</span> suggesting that mixing is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.2375L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origins of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the western U.S.: Mapping crustal and upper mantle density variations using a uniform seismic velocity model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">investigate the physical basis for support of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the western U.S., we construct a subcontinent scale, 3-D density model using ~1000 estimated crustal thicknesses and S velocity profiles to 150 km depth at each of 947 seismic stations. Crustal temperature and composition are considered, but we assume that mantle velocity variations are thermal in origin. From these densities, we calculate crustal and mantle topographic contributions. Typical 2? uncertainty of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is ~500 m, and elevations in 84% of the region are reproduced within error. Remaining deviations from observed elevations are attributed to melt, variations in crustal quartz content, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>; compositional variations in the mantle, while plausible, are not necessary to reproduce <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Support for western U.S. <span class="hlt">topography</span> is heterogeneous, with each province having a unique combination of mechanisms. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> due to mantle buoyancy is nearly constant (within ~250 m) across the Cordillera; relief there (>2 km) results from variations in crustal chemistry and thickness. Cold mantle provides ~1.5 km of ballast to the thick crust of the Great Plains and Wyoming craton. Crustal temperature variations and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pressures have smaller magnitude and/or more localized impacts. Positive gravitational potential energy (GPE) anomalies (~2 × 1012N/m) calculated from our model promote extension in the northern Basin and Range and near the Sierra Nevada. Negative GPE anomalies (-3 × 1012N/m) along the western North American margin and Yakima fold and thrust belt add compressive stresses. Stresses derived from lithospheric density variations may strongly modulate tectonic stresses in the western U.S. continental interior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levandowski, Will; Jones, Craig H.; Shen, Weisen; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5190..111L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrahigh-resolution Cartesian <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical encoder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new optical encoder which measures <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, true-Cartesian displacement with ultra-high sensitivity and linearity has been developed at NASA"s Goddard Space Flight Center. The device is the two-dimensional analog of recently developed linear and rotary encoders based on optical pattern recognition. In this encoder, a glass scale carrying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian position information travels with the payload in an X-Y motion system. Because the scale comprises the entire measurement coordinate system in a monolithic form, motion control axes can be skew to one another to an arbitrary degree and can exhibit substantial lateral drift with no effect on the correctness of X-Y readout, thus eliminating challenges of orthogonal mounting for motion axes and challenges of mounting independent encoders parallel to the directions of travel for each constituent X and Y axis. Prototype devices with ranges of 30 x 30 mm and 150 x 150 mm with 5 nm and 50 nm resolutions, respectively, have been built in the laboratory. Performance data from the Cartesian encoder in the Point Target Assembly for the optical calibration stimulus for Hubble Space Telescope"s Wide Field Camera 3 are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leviton, Douglas B.; Kirk, Jeff; Lobsinger, Luke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270115"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to suboptimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1' fwhm), brief (34 ms), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ~0.47 log unit lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koenig, Darren; Hofer, Heidi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9206E..0ER"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental results for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cylindrical wavefront testing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhFl...21a5110N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twisted <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in lifted flames</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The theory of resonant modes is extended to finite length systems containing pinch points of complex axial wavenumber k0 and frequency ?0 with arbitrary ?kk0=?2? /?k2. The quantity ?kk0 is shown to be an important indicator of how streamwise boundary conditions modify the local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mode at (k0,?0). In particular, when Im(?kk0)>0, the pinch point is twisted, and resonant modes owing to streamwise boundary conditions may then have growth rates greater than that of the unbounded <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mode. In this case, global instability may occur while the flow is only convectively unstable. The premixing zone between the nozzle and a lifted flame on a variable-density jet is an example of a streamwise-confined system containing a twisted pinch point. For this system, linear stability analysis is employed to locate resonant modes along a solution curve in the complex k and ? planes. The orientation of the solution curve predicts destabilization owing to streamwise confinement as well as increasing global frequency with decreasing lift-off height as observed in previous direct numerical simulations. The theory also suggests that low-frequency fluctuations observed in the simulations may be explained by beating between two resonant modes of slightly differing frequencies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nichols, Joseph W.; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Schmid, Peter J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860002283&hterms=evolution+eve&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Devolution%2Beve"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the evolution of unstable disturbances in a baroclinic atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two layer spectral quasi-geostrophic model is used to simulate the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the equilibria, their stability, and the long term evolution of incipient unstable waves. The flow is forced by latitudinally dependent radiative heating. Dissipation is in the form of Rayleigh friction. An analytical solution is found for the propagating finite amplitude waves which result from baroclinic instability of the zonal winds when <span class="hlt">topography</span> is absent. The appearance of this solution for wavelengths just longer than the Rossby radius of deformation and disappearance of ultra-long wavelengths is interpreted in terms of the Hopf bifurcation theory. Simple <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and thermodynamic criteria for the existence of periodic Rossby solutions are presented. A Floquet stability analysis shows that the waves are neutral. The nature of the form drag instability of high index equilibria is investigated. The proximity of the equilibrium shear to a resonant value is essential for the instability, provided the equilibrium occurs at a slightly stronger shear than resonance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, J. H. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sdsc.edu/pub/techreports/SDSC-TR-2011-1-opentopography.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>: A Services Oriented Architecture for Community Access to LIDAR <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">from earthquake hazards to ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (e.g. [2], [3], [4]) with new applications and analysis-precision inertial measurement instrument on an aircraft or helicopter to record dense measurements of the position</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnan, Sriram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.uvic.ca/~jklymak/IWISE/DissipationAtSuperCritical.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Direct Breaking of Internal Waves at Steep1 <span class="hlt">Topography</span>2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 The Direct Breaking of Internal Waves at Steep1 <span class="hlt">Topography</span>2 Jody M. Klymak, Sonya Legg, Matthew H. Alford, Maarten Buijsman,3 Robert Pinkel and Jonathan D. Nash4 5 Abstract6 7 Internal waves are often steep "supercritical" <span class="hlt">topography</span> (i.e. <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is steeper than internal wave energy13</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klymak, Jody M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40483457"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comprehensive characterization of 3D surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by hard turning versus grinding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by precision machining is critical for component performance. Four representative surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of turned and ground surfaces were prepared at “extreme” machining conditions (gentle and abusive) and compared in terms of 3-dimensional (3D) surface features of amplitude, area and volume, spatial, and hybrid parameters. The 3D surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps revealed the anisotropic and repeatable nature of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Waikar; Y. B. Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1146S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravity measurement for microgravity monitoring in Aso volcanic field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement with a portable A10-017 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter at some benchmarks in the Aso volcanic field are valuable for reducing uncertainties of regional gravity variations and will be useful for delineating the long term trends of gravity changes. A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is a new generation of portable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instrument and has accuracy 10 microGal. To further the development of a high precision gravity data, we also conducted measurement using two relative gravimeter (Scintrex CG-5 [549] and LaCoste type G-1016) to be combined with an A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter. The using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter along with relative gravimeter can reduce drift correction factor and improve the result of gravity change data in microgravity monitoring. Microgravity monitoring is a valued tool for mapping the redistribution of subsurface mass and for assessing changes in the fluid as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process in volcanic field. Gravity changes enable the characterization of subsurface processes: i.e., the mass of the intrusion or hydrothermal flow. A key assumption behind gravity monitoring is that changes in earth's gravity reflect mass-transport processes at depth [1]. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity network was installed at seven benchmarks using on May 2010, which re-occupied in October 2010, and June 2011. The relative gravity measurements were performed at 28 benchmarks in one month before the eruption on May 2011 and then followed by series of gravity monitoring after the eruption in every three to five months. Gravity measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. Some gravity benchmarks were measured using both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravimeter and is used as the reference benchmarks. In longer time period, the combined gravity method will improve the result of gravity change data for monitoring in the Aso volcanic field. As a result, the gravity changes detected the hydrothermal flow in the subsurface which has a correlation to water level fluctuation in the crater. Large residual gravity changes between the surveys of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravimeter are found at benchmarks around Nakadake crater. Keywords: Microgravity monitoring, Aso volcanic field References [1] Battaglia, M., J. Gottsmann, D. Carbone, and J. Fernandez, 2008, 4D volcano gravimetry: Geophysics, vol. 73 no.6, p. WA3-WA18.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Shin; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Fukuda, Yoichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P13A0971D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the South Polar Layered Deposits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ice inferred to comprise the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) represents a significant fraction of the total water reservoir of the planet. The basal <span class="hlt">topography</span> of these deposits is currently unconstrained but may be expected to contain considerable relief based on the heavily cratered nature of the surrounding terrain. In this work we report on our efforts to characterize the overall nature of this basal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and in so doing better constrain the volume of this important volatile reservoir. Our approach has been to measure elevations at the periphery of the SPLD (defined by [1]) and use various interpolation techniques to estimate the basal <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We used 1300 control points from the edges and areas surrounding the SPLD and included extensive control points from within the Chasmae and other features to fit a surface beneath the SPLD. No assumptions were made about any lithospheric flexure, nor did the results suggest that possibility. We first tested a variety of surface interpolation routines on a comparable area of cratered terrain immediately adjacent to the SPLD, using the same spatial distribution of 1300 height control points as we used for the SPLD itself, and found that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> was broadly reproducible (ignoring craters) to within a few hundred meters. The SPLD basal <span class="hlt">topography</span> we derive can be subtracted from the current spatial <span class="hlt">topography</span> to produce isopach maps of the layered deposits. All interpolation methods we tested (within the ArcMap 8.3) indicate a lower total SPLD volume than that previous published [Smith et al., 2001]. Our best estimate for the SPLD volume is ~1 million km3, with a formal error in volume of ~5%, corresponding to an average thickness of ~950 meters. In comparison, [2] estimated this volume to be ~1.2-1.7 million km3. The Prometheus impact basin is present as a rimmed depression, consistent with the inference by [3]. More unexpected is the presence of a broad ridge underlying nearly the entire eastern half of the SPLD, which makes those deposits relatively thin. Our isopach maps show the northwestern portion of the Ultimi lobe to be an isolated thick region, in agreement with [1]. [1] Kolb, E. J., and K. L. Tanaka (2001), Icarus, 154, 22-39. [2] Smith, D. E., et al. (2001), J. Geophys. Res., 106(E10), 23,689-23,722. [3] Byrne, S., and A. B. Ivanov (2004), J. Geophys. Res., In press.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, C. W.; Murray, B. C.; Byrne, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358457"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of a viscous hollow jet.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity. PMID:17358457</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75b7301G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of a viscous hollow jet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061379&hterms=Water+conservation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522Water%2Bconservation%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/374736"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> beam current monitoring in endstation c</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25{mu}A. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5{mu}A per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bochna, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469995"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vivo absorption spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies. PMID:23082298</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25581283"> <span id="translatedtitle">MARQUIS: A multiplex method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of peptides and posttranslational modifications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantification of protein expression and posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry has been challenging due to a variety of factors, including the potentially large <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of phosphorylation response. To address these issues, we have developed MARQUIS-Multiplex <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regressed Quantification with Internal Standards-a novel mass spectrometry-based approach using a combination of isobaric tags and heavy-labelled standard peptides, to construct internal standard curves for peptides derived from key nodes in signal transduction networks. We applied MARQUIS to quantify phosphorylation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> within the EGFR network at multiple time points following stimulation with several ligands, enabling a quantitative comparison of EGFR phosphorylation sites and demonstrating that receptor phosphorylation is qualitatively similar but quantitatively distinct for each EGFR ligand tested. MARQUIS was also applied to quantify the effect of EGFR kinase inhibition on glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. MARQUIS is a versatile method, broadly applicable and extendable to multiple mass spectrometric platforms. PMID:25581283</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curran, Timothy G; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Daniel J; Sarkaria, Jann N; White, Forest M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGP43B0821G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity studies at Etna volcano: a comparison between relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The INGV has been operating at Mt Etna a discrete gravity network since 1986 and three continuous gravity stations since 1998. The combined use of discrete and continuous gravity measurements has provided, through the detection of phenomena with a wide range of evolution rates (periods ranging from minutes to years), both substantial improvements in the knowledge of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the shallow plumbing system at Etna and the identification of any gravity transient before and during the last volcanic eruptions. Recently, with the aim of compare relative microgravity measurements routinely acquired on Etna volcano using spring gravimeters with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity observations, we performed two surveys in June 2007 and July 2008 by using the new IMGC-02 transportable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter. The IMGC-02 transportable instrument, developed by INRiM - Torino, adopts the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ballistic method, which was recognized at international level (Comité International des Poids et Mesures - CIPM) as primary method of measurement of the acceleration due to gravity. Taking into account the logistic situation of Etna, four <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity stations were settled in 2007, while a fifth station was installed in 2008. Four of them were located very close to the active craters at: (i) the Serra la Nave Astrophysical Observatory (1740 m a.s.l.); (ii) the Montagnola (2500 m a.s.l.); (iii) the Pizzi Deneri Volcanological Observatory (2810 m a.s.l.); and the newest (iv) the Caserma Donnavita (1250 m a.s.l.). One <span class="hlt">absolute</span> station was installed out of the volcanic area, inside the gravity laboratory of INGV - Catania, to be adopted as reference. We present the results obtained by comparing relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements and their implications on the latest Etna eruption started on 13th May 2008.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greco, F.; D'Agostino, G.; Del Negro, C.; Germak, A.; Sicali, A.; Vitiello, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016296&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and convection-driven crustal deformation on Venus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution Magellan images and altimetry of Venus reveal a wide range of styles and scales of surface deformation that cannot readily be explained within the classical terrestrial plate tectonic paradigm. The high correlation of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity and the large apparent depths of compensation suggest that Venus lacks an upper-mantle low-viscosity zone. A key difference between Earth and Venus may be the degree of coupling between the convecting mantle and the overlying lithosphere. Mantle flow should then have recognizable signatures in the relationships between the observed surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, crustal deformation, and the gravity field. Therefore, comparison of model results with observational data can help to constrain such parameters as crustal and thermal boundary layer thicknesses as well as the character of mantle flow below different Venusian features. We explore in this paper the effects of this coupling by means of a finite element modelling technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simons, Mark; Hager, Bradford H.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920040774&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venusian highlands - Geoid to <span class="hlt">topography</span> ratios and their implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geoid-to-<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratios (GTRs) are estimated for 12 Venusian highland features to allow comparison with convection calculations and with terrestrial data of oceanic hot spots, swells, and plateaus. The geoid is estimated in the wavenumber domain from the isostatic formula, using the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the apparent depths isostatic compensation (ADC) for each region. In the space domain, the GTR is equal to the least squares slope of the linear fit of the geoid to the topograpy. The resulting GTR range is 7-31 m/km, which is much higher than terrestrial oceanic values (-1 to 5 m/km). The features fall into two distinct groups, one with a GTR range of 7-13 m/km, and one with a range of 19-25 m/km. A model for thermal thinning of a 100-km-thick lithosphere fits all values in the lower GTR group to within one standard deviation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20081970"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a novel method developed in our laboratory that provides quantitative phase images of transparent structures with a 0.3 nm spatial and 0.03 nm temporal accuracy owing to the white light illumination and its common path interferometric geometry. We exploit these features and demonstrate SLIM's ability to perform <span class="hlt">topography</span> at a single atomic layer in graphene. Further, using a decoupling procedure that we developed for cylindrical structures, we extract the axially averaged refractive index of semiconductor nanotubes and a neurite of a live hippocampal neuron in culture. We believe that this study will set the basis for novel high-throughput <span class="hlt">topography</span> and refractometry of man-made and biological nanostructures. PMID:20081970</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zhuo; Chun, Ik Su; Li, Xiuling; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Pop, Eric; Millet, Larry; Gillette, Martha; Popescu, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066704&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Craters on Mars: Global Geometric Properties from Gridded MOLA <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impact craters serve as natural probes of the target properties of planetary crusts and the tremendous diversity of morphological expressions of such features on Mars attests to their importance for deciphering the history of crustal assembly, modification, and erosion. This paper summarizes the key findings associated with a five year long survey of the three-dimensional properties of approx. 6000 martian impact craters using finely gridded MOLA <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Previous efforts have treated representative subpopulations, but this effort treats global properties from the largest survey of impact features from the perspective of their <span class="hlt">topography</span> ever assimilated. With the Viking missions of the mid-1970 s, the most intensive and comprehensive robotic expeditions to any Deep Space location in the history of humanity were achieved, with scientifically stunning results associated with the morphology of impact craters. The relationships illustrated and suggest that martian impact features are remarkably sensitive to target properties and to the local depositional processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Frawley, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870018047&hterms=electromagnetic+propagation+loss+atmosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectromagnetic%2Bpropagation%2Bloss%2Batmosphere"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this research is to develop theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> here is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The interest of this study focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-attitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence. The activities and developments that have resulted during the period, August 1986 through February 1987, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berthelot, Yves H.; Kearns, James A.; Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356661"> <span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the Earth’s inner core boundary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth’s inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth’s ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4–8 km with a lateral length scale of 2–4 km. The characteristics of the ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable. PMID:22547788</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610586C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, relief, climate and glaciers: a global prespective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The examination of the relationship between Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> and present and past climate (i.e. long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations. This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. This study examines the relationships between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). Two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000 - 1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between 40° and 60° (or between ELA of 500m to 2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity. These findings show that the relation between the mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed. Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, fred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1297803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional analysis of separate <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of aberrant behavior.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a functional analysis of distinct <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of aberrant behavior displayed by 4 clients. We first analyzed the behaviors in an aggregate fashion and then separated the behaviors to formulate hypotheses about the maintaining variables for each behavior. The procedures were used in a two-phase experiment. During Phase 1, two extended functional analyses were completed, one in an inpatient unit and one in a special education classroom. During Phase 2, two brief functional analyses were completed in an outpatient clinic. Results indicated that hypotheses of separate functions for distinct behaviors can be generated using both extended and brief functional analyses when the results are graphed in the aggregate and are separated by response <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The results also suggest that these methods can improve the accuracy of data interpretation and treatment selection. PMID:8063625</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Derby, K M; Wacker, D P; Peck, S; Sasso, G; DeRaad, A; Berg, W; Asmus, J; Ulrich, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3725893"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of roentgenography and moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> for quantifying spinal curvature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to compare roentgenography and moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> for identification, treatment, and prevention of scoliosis at an early age. Moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> was used as an assessment tool for the quantitative examination of 12 children with mild-to-moderate scoliosis receiving physical therapy during a three-month period. Each child's roentgenogram also was analyzed independently by orthopedic physicians and radiologists using the Cobb method of measuring spinal curvature. Rho correlations of Cobb angles and the spinal curvature angles based on moiré photographs taken at weeks 4, 8, and 12 were found to be +.94, +.96, and +.93, respectively. The moiré method, thus, may be used as an available, inexpensive, and easily interpreted diagnostic and treatment tool in physical therapy. PMID:3725893</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">el-Sayyad, M M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/953736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and Apparatus for Creating a <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at a Surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired <span class="hlt">topographies</span> at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, David P. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Mayer, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Vasile, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3221202A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins, Mercury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> derived from Mariner 10 stereo images is used to characterize the interior structure of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are shallow (~2.5 km and ~2 km deep, respectively) and relatively flat-floored. Beethoven basin has an interior topographic rise near the northwest margin. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben associated with lunar mascons are absent in both Beethoven and Tolstoj basins. The lack of mascon tectonic features suggests that either 1) the mercurian basins have a relatively thin veneer of fill material, 2) Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or 3) the basin fill material has little or no density contrast with the surrounding crust and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">André, Sarah L.; Watters, Thomas R.; Robinson, Mark S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3000K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations of avalanches over a real mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For real three-dimensional numerical simulations of avalanches over mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we have developed a new preprocessor that generates the mesh and sets the initial conditions. In our approach, first we select the region of interest on which the preprocessor creates a colored overlay with possible starting positions, then we choose the initial sliding zone. Afterwards, the preprocessor creates an unstructured triangulated surface. Together with an initial hexahedral mesh, the utility, called the snappyHexMesh in the OpenFOAM software package [1], creates the final mesh. Our second reprocessing utility sets the initial conditions needed by the numerical solver for the avalanche flow simulation. In the next step, we calculate the flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with our numerical solver, which is based on interFoam [1]. Different rheological models and parameters can be chosen in this solver. We implement, for the first time, the Coulomb-type internal friction rheology with a Coulomb sliding law at the base in connection to the continuum <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model equations for the mass and momentum balances. We show good comparisons between our numerical solutions and published results of small scale laboratory experiments. We also present some preliminary results for avalanche flows down real mountain slopes. When calibrated with field measurements, our numerical simulations (based on the full three-dimensional flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>) can provide a deeper understanding of the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of real avalanches, with applications to proper hazard mapping and improved risk management. [1] http://www.openfoam.org/</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kröner, C.; Pudasaini, S. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..331L"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps with a high spatial resolution (250-500 m) of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12 000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Ørkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at ~1600 m above sea level. The bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is overdeepened and reaches an elevation of ~500 m below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The compiled data sets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys cover one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and hydrology. The combined data set is freely available at doi:10.1594/pangaea.830314.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Helanow, C.; Jansson, P.; Kristensen, S. S.; Stenseng, L.; Forsberg, R.; Hubbard, A. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990028624&hterms=Flow+Cap&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFlow%2BCap"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Impact Structures on the Northern Polar Cap of Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The north polar residual ice deposits of mars are thought to be relatively young, based on the reported lack of any fresh impact craters in Viking Orbiter images. A handful of possible impact features were identified, but available data were inconclusive. Determining the number and current topographic characteristics of any craters on the polar residual ice surface is important in constraining the surface age, relative importance of polar cap resurfacing processes and ice flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and the role of the cap deposits in the global volatile and climate cycles. Subsequent image processing advances and new Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data in the north polar region are now a considerable aid in impact feature identification. This study reconsiders the abundant Viking high-resolution polar images along with the new altimetry data. We examine possible impact features, compare their <span class="hlt">topography</span> with known mars high-latitude impact features, and use their morphology as a constraint on crater modification processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120009942&hterms=Circumference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCircumference"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Northern Hemisphere of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser altimetry by the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a topographic model of the northern hemisphere of Mercury. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of elevations is considerably smaller than those of Mars or the Moon. The most prominent feature is an extensive lowland at high northern latitudes that hosts the volcanic northern plains. Within this lowland is a broad topographic rise that experienced uplift after plains emplacement. The interior of the 1500-km-diameter Caloris impact basin has been modified so that part of the basin floor now stands higher than the rim. The elevated portion of the floor of Caloris appears to be part of a quasi-linear rise that extends for approximately half the planetary circumference at mid-latitudes. Collectively, these features imply that long-wavelength changes to Mercury s <span class="hlt">topography</span> occurred after the earliest phases of the planet s geological history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuber,Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Hauck, Steven A., Jr.; Peale, Stanton J.; Barnouin, Oliver S.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Freed, Andrew M.; Klimczak, Christian; Margot, Jean-Luc; Oberst, Juergen; Perry, Mark E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Balcerski, Jeffrey A.; Michel, Nathalie; Talpe, Matthieu J.; Yang, Di</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~axs/misc/logical-geography.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two Notions Contrasted: 'Logical Geography' and 'Logical <span class="hlt">Topography</span>'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">by Gilbert Ryle: The logical <span class="hlt">topography</span> of 'Logical Geography'. Aaron Sloman This file is http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/cogaff/misc/logical-geography.html Also available as messy, automatically generated PDF file http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects: added Portia spider example. Updated: 21 Apr 2008 Update: 8 Jan 2008 On re-reading Appendices III and IV</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sloman, Aaron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correcting for surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in X-ray fluorescence imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples with non-planar surfaces present challenges for X-ray fluorescence imaging analysis. Here, approximations are derived to describe the modulation of fluorescence signals by surface angles and <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and suggestions are made for reducing this effect. A correction procedure is developed that is effective for trace element analysis of samples having a uniform matrix, and requires only a fluorescence map from a single detector. This procedure is applied to fluorescence maps from an incised gypsum tablet. PMID:25343805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geil, E C; Thorne, R E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds431"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds448"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070011733&hterms=TOPOGRAPHY&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTOPOGRAPHY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at 1 km Resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds430"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds449"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3741180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shuttle radar <span class="hlt">topography</span> mission produces a wealth of data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On February 22, 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution digital topographic map of Earth ever made.SRTM is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tom G. Farr; Mike Kobrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subjective effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l766100w6q2p26vn.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The development of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> using two ion beams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ion etching is a well-established technique for the micromachining of solid surfaces. It is used extensively in surface analysis with techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, ESCA and SIMS, both for surface cleaning and composition—depth profiling. In all of these applications the formation of ion-induced surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a serious problem. Experimental evidence has shown that the use of two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. S. Makh; R. Smith; J. M. Walls</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from space (TOPEX/Poseidon Missions)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Joint US and France project, the TOPEX-Poseidon satellites continuously measures sea surface height. Oceans store and transport solar heat, helping to keep Earth's climate in balance. The overall shape of the oceans' "hills" and "valleys" is called ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, or OST. Precise knowledge of OST is essential to predict the effects of catastrophic storms. Educational resources available for all ages and backgrounds. Outstanding animation of OTS also included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1986-THESIS-T147"> <span id="translatedtitle">The submerged offshore breakwater and its effects on seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">/B for the emergent offshore breakwater. It has been postulated that tombolo formation cannot occur in the case of the submerged offshore breakwater. However, the spit-growth/relative d1stance from shore relationship is expected to be similar. The beach...THE SUBMERGED OFFSHORE BREAKWATER AND ITS EFFECTS ON SEAFLOOR <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> A Thesis by JAMES RUSSELL TALLENT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tallent, James Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554372"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biocompatibility of TiO2 nanotubes with different <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The biological response of osteoblast cells to implant materials depends on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and physico-chemistry of the implant surface and this determines the cell behavior such as shaping, adhesion and proliferation, and finally the cell fate. In this study, titanium (Ti) was anodized to create different <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of titania nanotubes (TNTs) to investigate the cell behavior to them. TNTs with and without a highly ordered nanoporous layer on their top surface were fabricated using two-step and one-step anodizing processes, respectively. The TNTs without a highly ordered nanoporous layer on the top surface exhibited a rougher surface, higher surface energy and better hydrophilicity than the TNTs with such a layer. Osteoblast-like cells (SaOS2) were used to assess the biocompatibility of the TNTs with different <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in comparison to bare cp-Ti. Results indicated that TNTs can enhance the proliferation and adhesion of osteoblast-like cells. TNTs without a highly ordered nanoporous layer exhibited better biocompatibility than the TNTs covered by such a nanoporous layer. Cell morphology observation using confocal microscopy and SEM indicated that SaOS2 cells that were adhered to the TNTs without the highly ordered nanoporous layer showed the longest filopodia compared to TNTs with a highly ordered nanoporous layer and bare cp-Ti. PMID:23554372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yu; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter; Li, Yuncang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the continental shelf around Hudson Canyon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent seismic-reflection data show that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the Continental Shelf around Hudson Canyon is composed of a series of depressions having variable spacings (< 100 m to 2 km), depths (1-10 m), outlines, and bottom configurations that give the sea floor an anomalous "jagged" appearance in profile. The acoustic and sedimentary characteristics, the proximity to relict shores, and the areal distribution indicate that this rough <span class="hlt">topography</span> is an erosional surface formed on Upper Pleistocene silty sands about 13,000 to 15,000 years ago by processes related to Hudson Canyon. The pronounced southward extension of the surface, in particular, may reflect a former increase in the longshore-current erosion capacity caused by the loss of sediments over the canyon. Modern erosion or nondeposition of sediments has prevented the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Middle Atlantic shelf from covering the surface. The "anomalous" <span class="hlt">topography</span> may, in fact, be characteristic of areas near other submarine canyons that interrupt or have interrupted the longshore drift of sediments. ?? 1979.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knebel, H. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071394"> <span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site contains lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first return (FR) <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.297..453H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age and Prematurity of the Alps Derived from <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The European Alps are one of the best studied mountain ranges on Earth, but yet the age of their <span class="hlt">topography</span> is almost unknown. Even their relative stage of evolution is unclear: Are the Alps still growing, in a steady state or already decaying, and is there a significant difference between Western and Eastern Alps? Using a new geomorphic parameter we analyze the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Alps and provide one of the first quantitative constraints demonstrating that the range is still in its infancy: In contrast to several other mountain ranges, the Alps have still more than half of their evolution to a geomorphic steady state to go. Combining our results with sediment budget data from the surrounding basins we infer that the formation of the present <span class="hlt">topography</span> began only 5-6 million years ago. Our results question the apparent consensus that the topographic evolution is distributed over much of the Miocene and might give new impulses to the reconstruction of paleoclimate in Central Europe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hergarten, S.; Wagner, T.; Stüwe, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Icar..221..135P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the lunar photoelectron sheath and electrostatic dust transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dayside near-surface lunar plasma environment is electrostatically complex, due to the interaction between solar UV-induced photoemission, the collection of ambient ions and electrons, and the presence of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains. Further complicating this environment, although less well understood in effect, is the presence of surface relief, typically in the form of craters and/or boulders. It has been suggested that such non-trivial surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> can lead to complex electrostatic potentials and fields, including “mini-wakes” behind small obstacles to the solar wind flow and “supercharging” near sunlit-shadowed boundaries (Criswell, D.R., De, B.R. [1977]. J. Geophys. Res. 82 (7); De, B.R., Criswell, D.R. [1977]. J. Geophys. Res. 82 (7); Farrell, W.M., Stubbs, T.J., Vondrak, R.R., Delory, G.T., Halekas, J.S. [2007]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34; Wang, X., Horányi, M., Sternovsky, Z., Robertson, S., Morfill, G.E. [2007]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16104). In this paper, we present results from a three-dimensional, self-consistent, electrostatic particle-in-cell code used to model the dayside near-surface lunar plasma environment over a variety of local times with the presence of a crater. Additionally, we use the particle-in-cell model output to study the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of electrostatic dust transport, with the goal of understanding previous observations of dust <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the Moon and dust ponding on various asteroids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poppe, Andrew R.; Piquette, Marcus; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Horányi, Mihály</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the intrinsic energy landscape of flexible biomolecular recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomolecular functions are determined by their interactions with other molecules. Biomolecular recognition is often flexible and associated with large conformational changes involving both binding and folding. However, the global and physical understanding for the process is still challenging. Here, we quantified the intrinsic energy landscapes of flexible biomolecular recognition in terms of binding–folding <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for 15 homodimers by exploring the underlying density of states, using a structure-based model both with and without considering energetic roughness. By quantifying three individual effective intrinsic energy landscapes (one for interfacial binding, two for monomeric folding), the association mechanisms for flexible recognition of 15 homodimers can be classified into two-state cooperative “coupled binding–folding” and three-state noncooperative “folding prior to binding” scenarios. We found that the association mechanism of flexible biomolecular recognition relies on the interplay between the underlying effective intrinsic binding and folding energy landscapes. By quantifying the whole global intrinsic binding–folding energy landscapes, we found strong correlations between the landscape <span class="hlt">topography</span> measure ? (dimensionless ratio of energy gap versus roughness modulated by the configurational entropy) and the ratio of the thermodynamic stable temperature versus trapping temperature, as well as between ? and binding kinetics. Therefore, the global energy landscape <span class="hlt">topography</span> determines the binding–folding thermodynamics and kinetics, crucial for the feasibility and efficiency of realizing biomolecular function. We also found “U-shape” temperature-dependent kinetic behavior and a <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> cross-over temperature for dividing exponential and nonexponential kinetics for two-state homodimers. Our study provides a unique way to bridge the gap between theory and experiments. PMID:23754431</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chu, Xiakun; Gan, Linfeng; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1055713"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321841"> <span id="translatedtitle">Puffing <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Nicotine Intake of Electronic Cigarette Users</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Prior electronic cigarette (EC) <span class="hlt">topography</span> data are based on two video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring <span class="hlt">topography</span> are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake. Objectives This study evaluated EC <span class="hlt">topography</span> with a CReSS Pocket device and quantified nicotine intake. Methods Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10–15 minute break between brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. Results Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one, took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65 seconds/puff), volume/puff (51ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively, which is similar to conventional smokers. Conclusions EC puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> was variable among participants in the study, but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration, inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products. PMID:25664463</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Behar, Rachel Z.; Hua, My; Talbot, Prue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4687C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global snowline and mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a contrasted view</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The examination of the relationship between Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> and present and past climate (i.e., long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations (e.g. Porter, 1989). This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. In this study, we examine the relationships between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (~ long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). This analysis reinforce a global study previously published (Champagnac et al., 2012), and provide a much finer view of the climate-<span class="hlt">topography</span>-tectonics relationships. Specifically, two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000~1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief, see Champagnac et al., 2012 for details) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between ~40 and ~60° (or between ELA of ~500m to ~2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with an important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity (Herman et al., 2011). These findings show that the relation between the mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed (e.g. Egholm et al., 2009) . Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors (e.g. Pedersen et al., 2010;Spotila and Berger, 2010),, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape Champagnac, J.-D., Molnar, P., Sue, C., and Herman, F.: Tectonics, Climate, and Mountain <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth, 117, doi:10.1029/2011JB008348, 2012. Egholm, D. L., Nielsen, S. B., Pedersen, V. K., and Lesemann, J. E.: Glacial effects limiting mountain height, Nature, 460, 884-888, 2009. Herman, F., Beaud, F., Champagnac, J.-D., Lemieux, J.-M., and Sternai, P.: Glacial hydrology and erosion patterns: A mechanism for carving glacial valleys, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310, 498-508, 2011. Pedersen, V. K., Egholm, D. L., and Nielsen, S. B.: Alpine glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the rate of rock column uplift: a global perspective, Geomorphology, 122, 129-139, 10.1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24192160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of naturally occurring glabridin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(3R)-8,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-3-yl]benzene-1,3-diol, commonly named glabridin}, C20H20O4, is a species-specific biomarker from the roots Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (European licorice, Fabaceae). In the present study, this prenylated isoflavan has been purified from an enriched CHCl3 fraction of the extract of the root, using three steps of medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) by employing HW-40F, Sephadex LH-20 and LiChroCN as adsorbents. Pure glabridin was crystallized from an MeOH-H2O mixture (95:5?v/v) to yield colorless crystals containing one molecule per asymmetric unit (Z' = 1) in the space group P212121. Although the crystal structure has been reported before, the determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration remained uncertain. Stereochemical analysis, including circular dichroism, NMR data and an X-ray diffraction data set with Bijvoet differences, confirms that glabridin, purified from its natural source, is found only in a C3 R configuration. These results can therefore be used as a reference for the assignment of the configuration and enantiopurity of any isolated or synthetic glabridin sample. PMID:24192160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simmler, Charlotte; Fronczek, Frank R; Pauli, Guido F; Santarsiero, Bernard D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DNP.CD011Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Apparatus for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Flux Measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fully-absorbing neutron detector is being developed to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux (s-1) of a cold neutron beam at the level of 0.1,%. The device will be used to calibrate a neutron flux monitor used in an in-beam neutron lifetime measurement performed at NIST (?n= (886.3 ±3.4) s). The precision of the measurement was limited by the uncertainty in the efficiency of the neutron flux monitor (0.3,%). The flux monitor operates by counting charged particles produced when neutrons impinge on a ^6Li (or ^10B) foil. Its efficiency was calculated from the cross section, the solid angle subtended by the charged particle detectors, and the amount of neutron-absorbing material present on the foil. Successful calibration would reduce the neutron lifetime uncertainty to approximately 0.25,%. In addition, using the measured solid angle and amount of material on the deposit, a new experimental value for the ^6Li or (^10B) capture cross section will be obtained. Details of the apparatus and the measurement technique along with the status of the experiment will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yue, A.; Greene, G.; Dewey, M. S.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Laptev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0702056v3"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantum energy inequalities in curved spacetime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum Energy Inequalities (QEIs) are results which limit the extent to which the smeared renormalised energy density of the quantum field can be negative, when averaged along a timelike curve or over a more general timelike submanifold in spacetime. On globally hyperbolic spacetimes the minimally-coupled massive quantum Klein--Gordon field is known to obey a `difference' QEI that depends on a reference state chosen arbitrarily from the class of Hadamard states. In many spacetimes of interest this bound cannot be evaluated explicitly. In this paper we obtain the first `<span class="hlt">absolute</span>' QEI for the minimally-coupled massive quantum Klein--Gordon field on four dimensional globally hyperbolic spacetimes; that is, a bound which depends only on the local geometry. The argument is an adaptation of that used to prove the difference QEI and utilises the Sobolev wave-front set to give a complete characterisation of the singularities of the Hadamard series. Moreover, the bound is explicit and can be formulated covariantly under additional (general) conditions. We also generalise our results to incorporate adiabatic states.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher J. Fewster; Calvin J. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90a3825D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of forces in optical tweezers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DDA....4420429M"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radius Scale for Saturn's Rings from Cassini Occultations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Cassini mission has provided a remarkable opportunity to investigate the structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Saturn ring system at the sub-km radial scale, using hundreds of individual stellar and radio occultations from the UVIS, VIMS, and RSS instruments. From precise measurements of ring and gap edges, we have been able to determine the orbital characteristics of over one hundred features in the rings. A crucial step in the orbital determination is the establishment of a highly accurate radius scale for the rings. This is compounded by uncertainties in the positions of the occulted stars, km-scale trajectory errors in the spacecraft location, and inexact knowledge of the direction and precession rate of Saturn’s pole. We have taken an iterative approach in which we identify a set of 30 or so putative circular, equatorial features, solve for along-track trajectory errors for each occultation, and use this best-fitting orbital solution to establish the reference system for determination of the orbits of non-circular ring features. Using thousands of individual measurements of rings in the Cassini data, we have determined an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radius scale for each contributing occultation with an accuracy of about 200 m for the C and B rings and the Cassini Division. This enables us to detect and measure very small <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects such as weak normal modes in ring edges, and to determine the phases of density waves, including very short wavelength outer Lindblad resonances in the C ring, as reported at this meeting. We calculate the sensitivity of the radius scale to the assumed pole direction and precession rate. Ultimately, we will combine these results with Voyager, HST, and pre-Cassini Earth-based occultation measurements to refine our knowledge of Saturn’s pole direction and precession.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGhee, Colleen; French, R. G.; Jacobson, R. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E. A.; Lonergan, K.; Sepersky, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=course+AND+computer&pg=5&id=EJ766058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating <span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amrani, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18795211"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of analog detectors using stimulated parametric down conversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous parametric down conversion has been largely exploited as a tool for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of photon counting detectors, photomultiplier tubes or avalanche photodiodes working in Geiger regime. In this work we investigate the extension of this technique from very low photon flux of photon counting regime to the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of analog photodetectors at higher photon flux. Moving toward higher</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Brida; M. Chekhova; M. Genovese; M.-L. Rastello; I. Ruo-Berchera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.vu.nl/~huang/papers/safety1.ps"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safety Logics I: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Safety Zhisheng Huang and John Bell #</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">medical safety­critical system would consider states in which the patient dies as a result of treatmentSafety Logics I: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Safety Zhisheng Huang and John Bell # Applied Logic Group Department}@dcs.qmw.ac.uk Abstract In this paper we distinguish between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> safety and normative safety, and develop a formal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Zhisheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.umich.edu/~zhanglab/clubPaper/05_15_2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Protein Synthesis Rates Reveals Principles Underlying</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantifying <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Protein Synthesis Rates Reveals Principles Underlying Allocation of Cellular present a genome-wide approach, based on ribosome profiling, for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein synthesis- lyses of protein synthesis. INTRODUCTION Protein biosynthesis is by far the largest consumer of energy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Jianzhi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ttt..work...22N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crater <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unique among the icy satellites, Titan’s surface shows evidence for extensive modification by fluvial and aeolian erosion, which act to change the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of its surface over time. Quantifying the extent of this landscape evolution is difficult, since the original, ‘non-eroded’ surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is generally unknown. However, fresh craters on icy satellites have a well-known shape and morphology, which has been determined from extensive studies on the airless worlds of the outer solar system (Schenk et al., 2004). By comparing the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of craters on Titan to similarly sized, pristine analogues on airless bodies, we can obtain one of the few direct measures of the amount of erosion that has occurred on Titan. Cassini RADAR has imaged >30% of the surface of Titan, and more than 60 potential craters have been identified in this data set (Wood et al., 2010; Neish and Lorenz, 2012). Topographic information for these craters can be obtained from a technique known as ‘SARTopo’, which estimates surface heights by comparing the calibration of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) beams (Stiles et al., 2009). We present <span class="hlt">topography</span> data for several craters on Titan, and compare the data to similarly sized crate