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Sample records for absolute dynamic topography

  1. The contribution of eddies to striations in absolute dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, C. E.; Cornillon, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractDistinct 4 year averages of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> reveal striations in all ocean basins during 1993-2008. Striations are alternating mesoscale jet-like structures observed in time-averaged zonal geostrophic velocity, u>¯. They are characterized by speeds O(1 cm s-1) and are nominally separated by 200 km in the meridional direction. Similar patterns have been observed in sea level anomaly, mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and Argo float measurements. Use of a tracked-eddy database in concert with a contour identification and eddy removal algorithm demonstrates that eddies are a dominant source of striations in u>¯ in the South Pacific (20°S-50°S, 200°E-280°E). Eddies with lifetimes ? 4 weeks account for 46-57% of the variance in u>¯ and correlation coefficients between total and eddy-only u>¯ are 0.90-0.93. Attention is given to the ability of the algorithm to correctly identify eddies and suggests that a more appropriate bound on the variance due to eddies is ˜ 30-70%. This permits the existence of latent zonal jets and/or ?-plumes. Additional findings of the study include (1) a large number of eddies having a broad range of amplitudes and scales contribute most to the eddy-induced patterns and (2) the standard deviation of u>¯ does not decay inversely with averaging period as proposed by a model of random eddies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..772L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..772L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Profiles along the Brazilian Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luz, R. T.; Bosch, W.; Freitas, S. R. C.; Heck, B.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Based on a new approach, which consistently filters GRACE-based geoid undulations and altimetry-derived sea surface heights along the tracks of altimeter satellites, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) profiles are estimated along the Brazilian coast. Such DOT profiles can be used to perform levelling over the sea. Connecting these profiles with Brazilian Geodetic Tide Gauge Network (RMPG) stations it would be possible to validate the current studies on the modernization of the Brazilian height system, extended over many thousand kilometers on land. The link with coastal reference sites would also allow to connect isolated height systems, e.g. north of the Amazonas River mouth. We perform long-term mean DOT-profiles of cross-calibrated altimeter satellites which operated for many years over repeated ground tracks (TOPEX, Jason-1, ERS-2). Moreover, we analyze the consistency among crossing profiles (single- and dual-satellite) in particular in areas with strong mesoscale currents. The extrapolation of DOT profiles towards selected RMPG stations is investigated. For this connection strategies are considered to overcome the degradation of coastal altimetry due to errors in ocean tide models and the land contamination of the radiometer observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8274M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8274M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moresi, Louis</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Revisited <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The second definition of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The relationship between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity anomalies, and temperature structure of convection, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 88(B2), 1129-1144, doi:10.1029/JB088iB02p01129. [3] Robinson, E. M., B. Parsons, and S. F. Daly (1987), The effect of a shallow low viscosity zone on the apparent compensation of mid-plate swells, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 82(3-4), 335-348, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(87)90207-X.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364891','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364891"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferring Cetacean Population Densities from the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Ocean in a Hierarchical Bayesian Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pardo, Mario A.; Gerrodette, Tim; Beier, Emilio; Gendron, Diane; Forney, Karin A.; Chivers, Susan J.; Barlow, Jay; Palacios, Daniel M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column’s physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Niño anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of the Humboldt Current System. We posit that such reductions in available foraging habitats during climatic disturbances could incur high energetic costs on these populations, ultimately affecting individual fitness and survival. PMID:25785692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS32B0248B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS32B0248B"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Sea-Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Reference Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Jacobs, G.; Blaha, J.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Highly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> coastal ocean processes occur at temporal and spatial scales that cannot be captured by the present generation of satellite altimeters. Space-borne gravity missions such as GRACE also provide time-varying gravity and a geoidal msl reference surface at resolution that is too coarse for many coastal applications. The Naval Research Laboratory and the Naval Oceanographic Office have been testing the application of airborne measurement techniques, gravity and altimetry, to determine sea-surface height and height anomaly at the short scales required for littoral regions. We have developed a precise local gravimetric geoid over a test region in the northern Gulf of Mexico from historical gravity data and recent airborne gravity surveys. The local geoid provides a msl reference surface with a resolution of about 10-15 km and provides a means to connect airborne, satellite and tide-gage observations in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (WGS-84) framework. A series of altimetry reflights over the region with time scales of 1 day to 1 year reveal a highly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> environment with coherent and rapidly varying sea-surface height anomalies. AXBT data collected at the same time show apparent correlation with wave-like temperature anomalies propagating up the continental slope of the Desoto Canyon. We present animations of the temporal evolution of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and water column temperature structure down to the 800 m depth of the AXBT sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8045R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8045R"><span id="translatedtitle">Landscape response to changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruetenik, Gregory A.; Moucha, Robert; Hoke, Gregory D.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized by broad wavelength, low amplitude undulations of the Earth's surface maintained by stresses arising from mantle convection. Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> is thus an aggregate of both <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is modulated by surface processes and changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> and/or the climate can be recorded in the offshore sedimentary record. However, it is generally difficult to deconvolve this record into contributions from changes in climate, isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Herein, we use a landscape evolution model that is capable of producing simulations at the necessary scale and resolution for quantifying landscape response to moderate changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the presence of flexural unloading and loading due to erosion and deposition. We demonstrate that moderate changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> coupled with flexural response imposed on a landscape with pre-existing relief and drainage divide, disequilibrates the landscape resulting in a measurable increase in erosion rates and corresponding sedimentary flux to the margin. The magnitude and timing of this erosional response to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is dependent on several key landscape evolution parameters, most notably the erosion (advection) coefficient and effective elastic thickness. Moreover, to maximize this response, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> must be slow enough and long-lived for given rates of erosion otherwise the landscape will not have sufficient time to generate a response. Lastly, this anomalous flux can persist for a significant amount of time beyond the influence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> change as the landscape strives to re-equilibrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T22B..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T22B..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Flat Subduction and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita depression in Argentina. We explain the uplift of the paleosols of the los Llanos formation and the Fitzcarrald Arch. We show the effects of strong viscosity variations and slab dip on the extent of continental flooding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T44A..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T44A..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">Spherical Harmonic Models of Observed <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoggard, M.; White, N. J.; Al-Attar, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mantle convective simulations are often used to predict present-day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Earth. Most of these models suggest that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is dominated by degree 2 and 3 patterns which have peak amplitudes of 1-2 km. In order to test the applicability of these results, it is useful to construct an accurate global observational database. We have collated ~1000 seismic reflection profiles and ~500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. This dataset can be used to calculate residual depth anomalies with respect to the well-known age-depth cooling relationship by carefully taking sedimentary and crustal loading effects into account. Resulting anomalies have wavelengths of 103-104 km with typical amplitudes of ±1 km. Average uncertainties are ±150 meters. We have combined these oceanic residual depths with onshore estimates from GRACE gravity anomalies to generate a spherical harmonic map of present-day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The resultant power spectrum is significantly less red than most predictive models. In other words, there is significantly less power at degrees 2 and 3 and much greater power at degrees 20 to 30 (i.e. wavelengths of 2000-1300 km). This mismatch implies that predictive models are currently compromised by limited resolution of mantle density structure and weak constraints on viscosity variation. Inclusion of accurate shallow mantle structure, which is the likely source of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at degrees 20-30, is particularly important for future convective simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006607"><span id="translatedtitle">Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S13C..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S13C..01L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at Earth's Surface: Fact or Fiction? (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Silver, P. G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Contributions to Earth’s surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The latter we call <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> elevates or depresses the surface even if the density anomaly giving rise to flow is deep in the mantle. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is also a major contributor to Earth’s gravitational potential and to surface deformation. However, direct observations of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> are elusive, because signals are obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. The only seemingly unequivocal signals of <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> supported <span class="hlt">topography</span> have been found over mantle upwellings on both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). Recent work on Africa’s geomorphic history [Moore et al., 2009] and North Atlantic gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> have called even these results into questions. In downwelling regions (near slabs) no clear signals have been found. I will explore why this dichotomy may exist and relate it to the need for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in mantle flow models, with an eye towards the effects of phase transitions, lateral variations in viscosity and layered convection. I will also present recent results on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> over flat slab segments that overturn the conventional wisdom and explain basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Andean foreland. Along with the new models I will discuss a recent global lithospheric structure model with which to compute the residual <span class="hlt">topography</span>, i.e. the “observed” <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T44C..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T44C..03M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying landscape evolution response to changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moucha, R.; Ruetenik, G. A.; Braun, J.; Guillocheau, F.; Hoke, G. D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a convolution of complex interactions of the mantle, the crust and surface processes, where the latter are controlled by the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the atmosphere and sea level change. An outstanding problem in landscape evolution and continental <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is the delineation of mantle convective flow induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> (termed <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) from the geological record. Therefore, to unravel this record, we need to first understand the complex landscape evolution response to long-term <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> forcing from the mantle in a controlled study. Recent advances in landscape evolution modeling have overcome a previous limitation in spatial and temporal scales making modeling the effects of large-scale long-term features such as <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, possible. In this study, we utilize FastScape (Braun and Willett, 2013) to quantify the effect of changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Africa on landscape evolution and sediment supply to its margins. We utilize a novel iterative approach that uses backward in time advected models of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> as the initial drivers of uplift/subsidence in the landscape evolution model. Subsequently, with the margins' sedimentary record acting as constraints we refine the changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a function of time. Our goal is to obtain a geodynamically and geologically consistent model of African <span class="hlt">topography</span> throughout the late Cenozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4372D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4372D"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>: geoscience communities requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated <span class="hlt">topography</span> to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including foreseen societal benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T21D2594P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T21D2594P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Neogene <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Madagascar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day <span class="hlt">topography</span> is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840018116','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840018116"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower mantle heterogeneity, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hager, B. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Richards, M. A.; Comer, R. P.; Dziewonski, A. M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Density contrasts in the lower mantle, recently imaged using seismic tomography, drive convective flow which results in kilometers of <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> maintained <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the core-mantle boundary and at the Earth's surface. The total gravity field due to interior density contrasts and boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> predicts the largest wavelength components of the geoid remarkably well. Neglecting <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface deformation leads to geoid anomalies of opposite sign than are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1578P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1578P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Neogene <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's <span class="hlt">topography</span> began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T52D..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T52D..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic velocities, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and relative sea level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Husson, L.; Conrad, C. P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The competition between ocean volume and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in response to variable tectonic velocities can be captured by a simple, yet <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> consistent, analysis based on the boundary layer theory. Our model reveals that short-lived changes in plate velocity (""tectonic pulses") have a negligible impact on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Tectonic velocities essentially mirror variations in mantle viscosity, but are not indicative of substantial modification of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which primarily reflects mass anomalies in the mantle. This implies that relative sea level is unlikely to be affected by "tectonic pulses" and also that observed tilting of cratonic margins couldn't result from a pulse of increased tectonic velocities. Thus, relative sea level is primarily controlled by the seafloor age distribution, although long-term (>100 myrs) changes in tectonic velocity will produce <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> that reinforces sea level changes associated with changing ridge volume. These results can be related to present day plate motion and trench migration and mantle flow inferred from mantle tomography, in order to characterize the current variation -either <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> or isostatic- of the volume of the oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..771Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..771Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury's Thermal Evolution, <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Geoid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes</p> <p></p> <p>Among the terrestrial planets Mercury is not only the smallest, but also the densest (after correction for self-compression). To explain Mercury's high density it is considered likely that the planet's mantle was removed during a giant impact event, when proto-Mercury was already differentiated into an iron core and a silicate mantle. Beside the damage to the planet's mantle the vaporization would cause a significant loss of volatile elements, leaving the remaining planet molten and dominated by extremely refractory material.Since the arrival of a spacecraft at the enigmatic planet is not to be expected before 2011 (Messenger) or 2019 (BepiColombo) we might already prepare ourselves for the upcoming results and perform tests that allow some anticipation of the measured data. The hermean mantle is modelled as an internally and bottom heated, isochemical fluid in a spherical shell. The principle of this convection model is widely accepted and is used for various models of thermal evolution of terrestrial planets, e.g., the Earth, Mars or the Moon. We are solving the hydrodynamical equations, derived from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A program originally written by S. Zhang is used to solve the temperature field which employs a combination of a spectral and a finite difference method. Beside the large core as a heat source 'from below' the decay of radioactive isotopes provides internal heating of the hermean mantle. The viscosity of the mantel material depends exponentially on the inverse temperature. The model results show the typical behaviour of a one-plate-planet, meaning the surface is not broken into several tectonic plates but the outside is a single rigid shell. The thermal evolution is generally charaterized by the growth of a massive lithosphere on top of the convecting mantle. The lower mantle and core cool comparatively little and stay at temperatures between 1900K and 2000K until about 2.0Ga after the simulation was started. The stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (<span class="hlt">dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc) numerous models are required to understand the importance and influence of the mentioned variables. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/FACULTY/conrad/papers/Husson_Conrad_GRL2006.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/FACULTY/conrad/papers/Husson_Conrad_GRL2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic velocities, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and relative sea level Laurent Husson1,2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Conrad, Clint</p> <p></p> <p>Tectonic velocities, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and relative sea level Laurent Husson1,2 and Clinton P] A simple <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> model based on boundary layer theory shows that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is unlikely to vary of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which primarily reflects mass anomalies in the mantle. This implies that relative sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610735B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610735B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in subduction zones: insights from laboratory models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bajolet, Flora; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">topography</span> in subduction zones can exhibit very complex patterns due to the variety of forces operating this setting. If we can deduce the theoretical isostatic value from density structure of the lithosphere, the effect of flexural bending and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component of <span class="hlt">topography</span> are difficult to quantify. In this work, we attempt to measure and analyze the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the overriding plate during subduction compared to a pure shortening setting. We use analog models where the lithospheres are modeled by thin-sheet layers of silicone putty lying on low-viscosity syrup (asthenosphere). The model is shorten by a piston pushing an oceanic plate while a continental plate including a weak zone to localize the deformation is fixed. In one type of experiments, the oceanic plate bends and subducts underneath the continental one; in a second type the two plates are in contact without any trench, and thus simply shorten. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution is monitored with a laser-scanner. In the shortening model, the elevation increases progressively, especially in the weak zone, and is consistent with expected isostatic values. In the subduction model, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized, from the piston to the back-wall, by a low elevation of the dense oceanic plate, a flexural bulge, the trench forming a deep depression, the highly elevated weak zone, and the continental upper plate of intermediate elevation. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the upper plate is consistent with isostatic values for very early stages, but exhibits lower elevations than expected for later stages. For a same amount of shortening of the continental plate, the thickening is the same and the plate should have the same elevation in both types of models. However, comparing the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at 20, 29 and 39% of shortening, we found that the weak zone is 0.4 to 0.6 mm lower when there is an active subduction. Theses values correspond to 2.6 to 4 km in nature. Although theses values are high, there are of the same order as <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and could represent the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effect of the slab sinking into the asthenosphere and lowering the elevation of the upper plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737575"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of abrupt <span class="hlt">topography</span> on plankton <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zavala Sansón, L; Provenzale, A</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Plankton population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the upper layer of the ocean depends on upwelling processes that bring nutrients from deeper waters. In turn, these depend on the structure of the vertical velocity field. In coastal areas and in oceanic regions characterized by the presence of strong submarine topographic features, the variable bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> induces significant effects on vertical velocities and upwelling/downwelling patterns. As a consequence, large plankton and fish abundances are frequently observed above seamounts, canyons and steep continental shelves. In this work, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of an NPZ (nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton) system is numerically studied by coupling the ecosystem model with a quasi two-dimensional (2D) fluid model with <span class="hlt">topography</span>. At variance with classical 2D approaches, this formulation allows for an explicit expression of the vertical motions produced when fluid columns are squeezed and stretched as they experience changes of depth. Thus, input or output of nutrients at the surface are associated with fluid motion over the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We examine the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of a cyclonic vortex over two basic <span class="hlt">topographies</span>: a steep escarpment and a submarine mountain. We show that plankton abundance over the escarpment is modulated by the passing of topographic Rossby waves, generated by the vortex-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction. In such configuration, advection effects driven by the flow over the escarpment are of limited relevance for the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of biological fields. By contrast, we find that the flow resulting from the interaction of a vortex with a seamount is sufficiently strong and persistent to allow for a remarkable increase of nutrients, and a corresponding enhancement of phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations. Over the seamount, advection effects associated with trapped flow perturbations around the summit play an essential role. PMID:19737575</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geology.illinois.edu/people/lijunliu/Sites/webmaterial/2012_GR_Shephard_etal.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geology.illinois.edu/people/lijunliu/Sites/webmaterial/2012_GR_Shephard_etal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G.E. Shephard a,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijun</p> <p></p> <p>GR letter <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G Handling Editor: A. Aitken Keywords: <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> Residual basement depth Geodynamic modeling Argentine Basin Subduction Plate tectonics A substantial portion of Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> is known to be caused</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.earthbyte.org/people/dietmar/Pdf/Shephard_ArgentineBasin_anomalous_depth_GR2012.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.earthbyte.org/people/dietmar/Pdf/Shephard_ArgentineBasin_anomalous_depth_GR2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G.E. Shephard a,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Müller, Dietmar</p> <p></p> <p>GR letter <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously negative residual depth of the Argentine Basin G: A. Aitken Keywords: <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> Residual basement depth Geodynamic modeling Argentine Basin Subduction Plate tectonics A substantial portion of Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> is known to be caused by the viscous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715886"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> wetting and spreading and the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J</p> <p>2009-11-18</p> <p>The spreading of a droplet of a liquid on a smooth solid surface is often described by the Hoffman-de Gennes law, which relates the edge speed, v(e), to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and equilibrium contact angles ? and ?(e) through [Formula: see text]. When the liquid wets the surface completely and the equilibrium contact angle vanishes, the edge speed is proportional to the cube of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle. When the droplets are non-volatile this law gives rise to simple power laws with time for the contact angle and other parameters in both the capillary and gravity dominated regimes. On a textured surface, the equilibrium state of a droplet is strongly modified due to the amplification of the surface chemistry induced tendencies by the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The most common example is the conversion of hydrophobicity into superhydrophobicity. However, when the surface chemistry favors partial wetting, <span class="hlt">topography</span> can result in a droplet spreading completely. A further, frequently overlooked consequence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is that the rate at which an out-of-equilibrium droplet spreads should also be modified. In this report, we review ideas related to the idea of <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced wetting and consider how this may relate to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wetting and the rate of droplet spreading. We consider the effect of the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations on the driving forces and discuss how these may modify power laws for spreading. We relate the ideas to both the hydrodynamic viscous dissipation model and the molecular-kinetic theory of spreading. This suggests roughness and solid surface fraction modified Hoffman-de Gennes laws relating the edge speed to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and equilibrium contact angle. We also consider the spreading of small droplets and stripes of non-volatile liquids in the capillary regime and large droplets in the gravity regime. In the case of small non-volatile droplets spreading completely, a roughness modified Tanner's law giving the dependence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle on time is presented. We review existing data for the spreading of small droplets of polydimethylsiloxane oil on surfaces decorated with micro-posts. On these surfaces, the initial droplet spreads with an approximately constant volume and the edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relationship follows a power law [Formula: see text]. As the surface texture becomes stronger the exponent goes from p = 3 towards p = 1 in agreement with a Wenzel roughness driven spreading and a roughness modified Hoffman-de Gennes power law. Finally, we suggest that when a droplet spreads to a final partial wetting state on a rough surface, it approaches its Wenzel equilibrium contact angle in an exponential manner with a time constant dependent on roughness. PMID:21715886</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.maths.ed.ac.uk/~vanneste/papers/non_top_rev.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.maths.ed.ac.uk/~vanneste/papers/non_top_rev.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over rough <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vanneste, Jacques</p> <p></p> <p>Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> over rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>-dimensional, pe- riodic or random, small-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> is investigated using an asymptotic approach. Averaged (or homogenised) evolution equations which account for the flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> in- teraction are derived</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://mcnamara.asu.edu/assets/lassak_mcnamara_garnero_zhong-epsl-2010.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://mcnamara.asu.edu/assets/lassak_mcnamara_garnero_zhong-epsl-2010.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coremantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a possible constraint on lower mantle chemistry and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rhoads, James</p> <p></p> <p>Core­mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a possible constraint on lower mantle chemistry and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> November 2009 Editor: Y. Ricard Keywords: mantle convection core­mantle boundary CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>), each of which uniquely affects the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Earth's core­mantle boundary (CMB). The thermochemical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945107','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945107"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Membrane Voltage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..829Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcSci..11..829Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a regional ocean assimilation system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, C.; Zhu, J.; Tanajura, C. A. S.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>An ocean data assimilation system was developed for the Pacific-Indian oceans with the aim of assimilating altimetry data, sea surface temperature, and in situ measurements from Argo (Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography), XBT (expendable bathythermographs), CTD (conductivity temperature depth), and TAO (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean). The altimetry data assimilation requires the addition of the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> to the altimetric sea level anomaly to match the model sea surface height. The mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is usually computed from the model long-term mean sea surface height, and is also available from gravimetric satellite data. In this study, the impact of different mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> on the sea level anomaly assimilation is examined. Results show that impacts of the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> cannot be neglected. The mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from the model long-term mean sea surface height without assimilating in situ observations results in worsened subsurface temperature and salinity estimates. Even if all available observations including in situ measurements, sea surface temperature measurements, and altimetry data are assimilated, the estimates are still not improved. This proves the significant impact of the MDT (mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) on the analysis system, as the other types of observations do not compensate for the shortcoming due to the altimetry data assimilation. The gravimeter-based mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> results in a good estimate compared with that of the experiment without assimilation. The mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> computed from the model long-term mean sea surface height after assimilating in situ observations presents better results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geo.mff.cuni.cz/~oc/jgr06.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://geo.mff.cuni.cz/~oc/jgr06.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component of the geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cerveny, Vlastislav</p> <p></p> <p>Modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component of the geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus M. Pauer,1,2 K. Fleming,3 and O) the density structure of Venus' mantle can be approximated by a model in which the mass anomaly distribution of the geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E11012, doi:10.1029/2005JE002511. 1. Introduction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/scherler11_hillslope_glacier_coupling_himalaya.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/scherler11_hillslope_glacier_coupling_himalaya.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hillslope glacier coupling: The interplay of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and glacial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in High Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bookhagen, Bodo</p> <p></p> <p>Hillslope glacier coupling: The interplay of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and glacial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in High Asia Dirk. Here we provide a regional synthesis of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and flow characteristics of 287 glaciers across High Asia using digital elevation analysis and remotely sensed glacier surface velocities. Glaciers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T33B4667K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T33B4667K"><span id="translatedtitle">A magmatic probe of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> beneath western North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512898A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512898A"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns in the evolution of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its influence on the Antarctic continent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Lester; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Eagles, Graeme; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ritsema, Jeroen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Our knowledge of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Antarctica by analysing grids of global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Cenozoic (and late Cretaceous) based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS)may have driven these <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.3516P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.3516P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> modeling of predictive uncertainty by regression on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pianosi, F.; Raso, L.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Uncertainty of hydrological forecasts represents valuable information for water managers and hydrologists. This explains the popularity of probabilistic models, which provide the entire distribution of the hydrological forecast. Nevertheless, many existing hydrological models are deterministic and provide point estimates of the variable of interest. Often, the model residual error is assumed to be homoscedastic; however, practical evidence shows that the hypothesis usually does not hold. In this paper we propose a simple and effective method to quantify predictive uncertainty of deterministic hydrological models affected by heteroscedastic residual errors. It considers the error variance as a hydrological process separate from that of the hydrological forecast and therefore predictable by an independent model. The variance model is built up using time series of model residuals, and under some conditions on the same residuals, it is applicable to any deterministic model. Tools for regression analysis applied to the time series of residual errors, or better their <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, combined with physical considerations of the hydrological features of the system can help to identify the most suitable input to the variance model and the most parsimonious model structure, including <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> structure if needed. The approach has been called <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uncertainty modeling by regression on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> errors and is demonstrated by application to two test cases, both affected by heteroscedasticity but with very different <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of uncertainty. Modeling results and comparison with other approaches, i.e., a constant, a cyclostationary, and a static model of the variance, confirm the validity of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRC..10912032R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRC..10912032R"><span id="translatedtitle">A mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rio, M.-H.; Hernandez, F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The lack of an accurate geoid still prevents precise computation of the ocean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from satellite altimetry and only sea level anomalies (SLA) can be accurately deduced. In the new context of Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) where models are assimilating satellite altimetry, the estimation of a realistic mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) consistent with SLA is a crucial issue. In a first "direct" approach, a MDT is computed by subtracting the geoid model EIGEN-2 from the Mean Sea Surface Height CLS01, determined from 7 years of altimetric data (TOPEX and ERS1,2) at spherical harmonic degree 30. To provide the scales shorter than 660 km, the Levitus climatology is merged with the resulting MDT, both weighted by their respective errors. This solution provides a "first guess" for the computation of a global and higher resolution MDT. Then, a "synthetic" technique is used to combine in situ measurements and altimetric data: TOPEX and ERS1,2 altimetric anomalies are subtracted from in situ measurements of the full <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> signal (based on buoy velocities from the WOCE-TOGA program and XBT, CTD casts). The resulting values provide local estimates of the mean field, in terms of currents or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which are used to improve the first guess using an inverse technique. The MDT obtained is compared to other mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> fields, and a verification using independent in situ data shows improvements in most areas. It exhibits a more energetic representation of the subtropical and subpolar gyres; sea level gradients associated with the main currents are strongly enhanced. Differences with independent velocity observations are globally lower than 13 cm/s rms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4450M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4450M"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated approach to estimate the ocean's time variable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> including its covariance matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Silvia; Brockmann, Jan Martin; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ocean's <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> as the difference between the sea surface and the geoid reflects many characteristics of the general ocean circulation. Consequently, it provides valuable information for evaluating or tuning ocean circulation models. The sea surface is directly observed by satellite radar altimetry while the geoid cannot be observed directly. The satellite-based gravity field determination requires different measurement principles (satellite-to-satellite tracking (e.g. GRACE), satellite-gravity-gradiometry (GOCE)). In addition, hydrographic measurements (salinity, temperature and pressure; near-surface velocities) provide information on the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The observation types have different representations and spatial as well as temporal resolutions. Therefore, the determination of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is not straightforward. Furthermore, the integration of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> into ocean circulation models requires not only the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> itself but also its inverse covariance matrix on the ocean model grid. We developed a rigorous combination method in which the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is parameterized in space as well as in time. The altimetric sea surface heights are expressed as a sum of geoid heights represented in terms of spherical harmonics and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameterized by a finite element method which can be directly related to the particular ocean model grid. Besides the difficult task of combining altimetry data with a gravity field model, a major aspect is the consistent combination of satellite data and in-situ observations. The particular characteristics and the signal content of the different observations must be adequately considered requiring the introduction of auxiliary parameters. Within our model the individual observation groups are combined in terms of normal equations considering their full covariance information; i.e. a rigorous variance/covariance propagation from the original measurements to the final product is accomplished. In conclusion, the developed integrated approach allows for estimating the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its inverse covariance matrix on arbitrary grids in space and time. The inverse covariance matrix contains the appropriate weights for model-data misfits in least-squares ocean model inversions. The focus of this study is on the North Atlantic Ocean. We will present the conceptual design and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> estimates based on time variable data from seven satellite altimeter missions (Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, Envisat, ERS-2, GFO, Cryosat2) in combination with the latest GOCE gravity field model and in-situ data from the Argo floats and near-surface drifting buoys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1909A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1909A"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculating gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a generalized formalism for computing gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the combined effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, geoid perturbations due to mantle convection, ice mass fluctuations and sediment redistribution on a deforming Earth. Our mathematical treatment conserves mass of the surface (ice plus ocean) load and the solid Earth. Moreover, it takes precise account of shoreline migration and the associated ocean loading. The new formalism avoids a variety of approximations adopted in previous models of sea level change driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the assumption that a spatially fixed isostatic amplification of `air-loaded' <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> accurately accounts for ocean loading effects. While our approach is valid for Earth models of arbitrary complexity, we present numerical results for a set of simple cases in which a pattern of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is imposed, the response to surface mass loading assumes that Earth structure varies only with depth and that isostatic equilibrium is maintained at all times. These calculations, involving fluid Love number theory, indicate that the largest errors in previous predictions of sea level change driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> occur in regions of shoreline migration, and thus in the vicinity of most geological markers of ancient sea level. We conclude that a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of long-term sea level change is necessary in any effort to use such geological markers to estimate ancient ice volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6654S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6654S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesozoic ocean basins and the link to modeled <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the circum-Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shephard, Grace; Flament, Nicolas; Heine, Christian; Dietmar Müller, R.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is complex, punctuated by the opening and closing of several ocean basins, and the accretion and deformation of numerous autochthonous and allochthonous terranes. Here, we present a new plate tectonic reconstruction for the circum-Arctic and adjacent regions since the start of the Jurassic, incorporating the opening of the Amerasia Basin and associated closure of the South Anuyi Ocean. The location of palaeo-subduction zones can be used to infer mantle heterogeneity structure beneath north-eastern North America, the Canadian Arctic Islands, Northern Atlantic and Russia. We use this kinematic plate reconstruction to drive forward geodynamic models of mantle flow from which we compute the spatio-temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The passage of the evolving circum-Arctic over subducting slabs is expected to impart long-wavelength subsidence followed by uplift. Separating the isostatic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contributions to circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">topography</span> is challenging because of the paucity of offshore and onshore regional datasets, and is complicated by multiple processes, including rifting, long-wavelength mantle flow, magmatic underplating, sediment loading, and volcanism. Therefore, we focus on the possible correlation between the evolution of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and post-Jurassic subduction zones. We compare the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> predicted by our geodynamic models to residual <span class="hlt">topography</span>, published palaeo-geographic maps and anomalous tectonic subsidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5114D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5114D"><span id="translatedtitle">How to approximate viscoelastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of stagnant lid planetary bodies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumoulin, Caroline; ?adek, Ond?ej; Choblet, Gaël</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by an internal load to <span class="hlt">topographies</span> generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topography</span> with an elastic filtering of the IVF <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These results naturally depend on the ratio between the mantle and the lithospheric thicknesses. We show that, in the case of Mars, it is not possible to approximate viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topographies</span> generated by a stable plume using the elastic filtering of viscous <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5230S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5230S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequential assimilation of multi-mission <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> into a global finite-element ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skachko, S.; Danilov, S.; Janji?, T.; Schröter, J.; Sidorenko, D.; Savcenko, R.; Bosch, W.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Sequential assimilation of ocean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, derived from altimeter data combined with a referenced earth geoid, into gen- eral circulation ocean models is a complex problem. Our previous study based on the finite-element ocean model (FEOM) revealed the existence of a significant systematical bias between the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the model and ocean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. To overcome this problem an adiabatic pressure correction method was used which reduces model drift from the mean ocean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Another difficulty for the sequential assimilation of surface data is related to projection of the surface perturbation update to the layers of the ocean model. To this end a method is used according to which the temperature and salinity are updated following the vertical structure of the first baroclinic mode. It is shown that the method leads to a partially successful assimilation approach reducing the RMS difference between the model and data from 16 cm to 2 cm. This improvement of the mean state was accompanied by significant improvement of temporal variability in our analysis. However, it remains suboptimal, showing a tendency in the forecast phase of returning toward a free run without data assimilation. To improve the analysis quality and to reduce the tendency of the model to reject the changes made by the filter another approach is proposed based on the correlation between a steric height and elevation variability. The results of such an approach are discussed and compared to the results of our previous work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4542339','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4542339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> scalp <span class="hlt">topography</span> reveals neural signs just before performance errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ora, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Performance errors may cause serious consequences. It has been reported that ongoing activity of the frontal control regions across trials associates with the occurrence of performance errors. However, neural mechanisms that cause performance errors remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that some neural functions required for correct outcomes are lacking just before performance errors, and to determine this lack of neural function we applied a spatiotemporal analysis to high-density electroencephalogram signals recorded during a visual discrimination task, a d2 test of attention. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a difference in the temporal development of scalp ERP between trials with error, and correct outcomes as seen by <span class="hlt">topography</span> during the d2 test of attention. We observed differences in the signal potential in the frontal region and then the occipital region between reaction times matched with correct and error outcomes. Our observations suggest that lapses of top-down signals from frontal control regions cause performance errors just after the lapses. PMID:26289925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870063001&hterms=Asthenosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAsthenosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870063001&hterms=Asthenosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAsthenosphere"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity anomalies for fluid layers whose viscosity varies exponentially with depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Revenaugh, Justin; Parsons, Barry</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Adopting the formalism of Parsons and Daly (1983), analytical integral equations (Green's function integrals) are derived which relate gravity anomalies and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> with temperature as a function of wavenumber for a fluid layer whose viscosity varies exponentially with depth. In the earth, such a viscosity profile may be found in the asthenosphere, where the large thermal gradient leads to exponential decrease of viscosity with depth, the effects of a pressure increase being small in comparison. It is shown that, when viscosity varies rapidly, <span class="hlt">topography</span> kernels for both the surface and bottom boundaries (and hence the gravity kernel) are strongly affected at all wavelengths.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T44A..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T44A..04C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Sea Level Change Inferred from Dipole and Quadrupole Moments of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conrad, C. P.; Steinberger, B. M.; Torsvik, T. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although constraints on the history of mantle flow are difficult to obtain, tectonic reconstructions contain information about the longest wavelength patterns of mantle flow that drove plate motions in the past. To examine the influence of this long-wavelength flow on global geodynamics, we computed the dipole and quadrupole moments (harmonic degrees 1 and 2) of the spherical vector fields associated with tectonic reconstructions of plate motions back to 250 Ma. Areas of dipole or quadrupole divergence lie above regions of major mantle upwelling, and convergence regions reside atop major mantle downwellings. To constrain the time-dependence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with these upwellings and downwellings, we used a numerical model of present-day mantle flow to relate degree-1 and degree-2 patterns of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> to the orientations and amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments of present-day plate motions. We then apply this relationship to the dipole and quadrupole moments of past plate motions to compute the long-wavelength components of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Continental motions over this time-evolving <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> predict patterns of continental uplift and subsidence that can be related to geological observations of continental surfaces relative to sea level. Net uplift or subsidence of the global seafloor can also induce eustatic sea level changes. We infer that dispersal of the Pangean supercontinent away from upwelling beneath Africa may have exposed the seafloor to an increasingly larger area of positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the early Mesozoic that has caused up to 100 m of sea level rise during this time period. This component of sea level change helps to balance observations of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sea level change with an estimated total sea level budget that includes concurrent tectonic and climatic influences that produce sea level drop of up to ~250 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..384O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203..384O"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, Makiko; Hirahara, Kazuro</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We take account of the effect of Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycle simulations using a boundary integral equation method. While we have so far assumed a homogeneous elastic half-space medium with a flat free surface, Earth's actual surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is complicated. Here, we constructed new slip response functions in half-space with an arbitrarily shaped surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in which we used slip response functions in full-space by introducing imaginary free surface cells in addition to embedded fault ones. By comparing analytical slip response functions in the case of a flat surface overlying half-space with the new ones, we developed a computationally efficient method for setting the Earth's surface region, which was divided into cells with the appropriate sizes depending on the fault source cell depth to maintain the computational accuracy. With these new slip response functions, we simulated simple interplate earthquake cycles in the region close to the Japan Trench, off Miyagi, Tohoku, in northeast Japan, which has the amplitude of 7 km in depth. Compared with the case where the flat surface level was set at the trench depth, the slip response functions for the case where actual seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span> was used had smaller amplitudes. Hence, the actual <span class="hlt">topography</span> produces smaller recurrence times for earthquake cycles than that for the flat surface case. These effects of the actual Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> mainly come from changes in the distance between the surface and the fault compared with the flat surface case. Changes in the slip response function also represent changes in the fault stiffness of the system. Considering the actual <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Earth's surface to be convex upwards as opposed to the flat, the fault stiffness becomes larger compared to the case of the flat Earth's surface. This leads to a change in the frictional instability, and sometime leads to the change in the way of rupture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8021V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8021V"><span id="translatedtitle">Noise-driven cooperative <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> between vegetation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in riparian zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In order to elucidate how randomness shape riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments, and the stream is adopted, emphasizing the capability of vegetation to alter the plot <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A minimalistic approach is pursued, and the probability density function of vegetation biomass is analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This probability density function strongly depends on the vegetation-<span class="hlt">topography</span> feedback. We demonstrate how the vegetation-induced modifications of the bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> create more suitable conditions for the survival of vegetation in a stochastically dominated environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616088H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616088H"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting Oceanic Residual Depth to Quantify Present-day <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at the Earth's Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoggard, Mark; White, Nicky</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Convective circulation within the mantle causes vertical motions at the Earth's surface. This <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is time dependent and occurs on wavelengths of 1000s km with maximum amplitudes of ±2 km. Convective simulation models have been used extensively to make predictions of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and have thus far out-paced observational constraints. Here, the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age is used to produce a global map of residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. Care is taken to remove other causes of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including an isostatic correction for sedimentary loading that takes compaction into account, a correction for variable oceanic crustal thickness, and lithospheric thickening with age away from mid-ocean ridge spreading centres. A dataset including over 1000 seismic reflection profiles and 300 modern wide-angle refraction experiments has been amassed, primarily on old ocean floor adjacent to the continents. Calculation of residual depth yields a map of present-day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> with amplitudes significantly larger than the errors associated with the corrections. One of the most interesting results occurs along the west coast of Africa, where two full 2000 km wavelengths of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> have been captured with amplitudes ±1 km that correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. Comparison with predictive models reveal poor to moderate correlations. This is a direct result of the limited resolution of the mantle tomography models used to set-up convection simulations and also the currently poor understanding of viscosity structure within the Earth. It is hoped that this residual depth dataset should provide an excellent surface boundary constraint for future convective simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686342"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Simmons, Nathan A; Grand, Stephen P</p> <p>2013-06-28</p> <p>Sedimentary rocks from Virginia through Florida record marine flooding during the mid-Pliocene. Several wave-cut scarps that at the time of deposition would have been horizontal are now draped over a warped surface with a maximum variation of 60 meters. We modeled <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> by using mantle convection simulations that predict the amplitude and broad spatial distribution of this distortion. The results imply that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and, to a lesser extent, glacial isostatic adjustment account for the current architecture of the coastal plain and proximal shelf. This confounds attempts to use regional stratigraphic relations as references for longer-term sea-level determinations. Inferences of Pliocene global sea-level heights or stability of Antarctic ice sheets therefore cannot be deciphered in the absence of an appropriate mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> reference frame. PMID:23686342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........86B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........86B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on multidimensional potential energy surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Keith Douglas</p> <p></p> <p>The stochastic master equation is a valuable tool for elucidating potential energy surface (PES) details that govern structural relaxation in clusters, bulk systems, and protein folding. This work develops a comprehensive framework for studying non-equilibrium relaxation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> using the master equation. Since our master equations depend upon accurate partition function models for use in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRK(M) transition state theory, this work introduces several such models employing various harmonic and anharmonic approximations and compares their predicted equilibrium population distributions with those determined from molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. This comparison is performed for the fully-delineated surfaces (KCl)5 and Ar9 to evaluate model performance for potential surfaces with long- and short-range interactions, respectively. For each system, several models perform better than a simple harmonic approximation. While no model gives acceptable results for all minima, and optimal modeling strategies differ for (KCl)5 and Ar9, a particular one-parameter model gives the best agreement with simulation for both systems. We then construct master equations from these models and compare their isothermal relaxation predictions for (KCl)5 and Ar9 with molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations. This is the first comprehensive test of the kinetic performance of partition function models of its kind. Our results show that accurate modeling of transition-state partition functions is more important for (KCl)5 than for Ar9 in reproducing simulation results, due to a marked stiffening anharmonicity in the transition-state normal modes of (KCl)5. For both systems, several models yield qualitative agreement with simulation over a large temperature range. To examine the robustness of the master equation when applied to larger systems, for which full topographical descriptions would be either impossible or infeasible, we compute relaxation predictions for Ar11 using a master equation constructed from data representing the full PES, and compare these predictions to those of reduced master equations based on statistical samples of the full PES. We introduce a sampling method which generates random, Boltzmann-weighted, energetically 'downhill' sequences. The study reveals that, at moderate temperatures, the slowest relaxation timescale converges as the number of sequences in a sample grows to ~1000. Furthermore, the asymptotic timescale is comparable to the full-PES value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.5994v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.5994v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and slippage: a Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nikita Tretyakov; Marcus Müller</p> <p>2013-02-21</p> <p>Using Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> simulations of a polymer liquid flowing past flat and patterned surfaces, we investigate the influence of corrugation, wettability and pressure on slippage and friction at the solid-liquid interface. For one-dimensional, rectangular grooves, we observe a gradual crossover between the Wenzel state, where the liquid fills the grooves, and the Cassie state, where the corrugation supports the liquid and the grooves are filled with vapor. Using two independent flow set-ups, we characterize the near-surface flow by the slip length, $\\delta$, and the position, $z_\\textrm{h}$, at which viscous and frictional stresses are balanced according to Navier's partial slip boundary condition. This hydrodynamic boundary position depends on the pressure inside the channel and may be located above the corrugated surface. In the Cassie state, we observe that the edges of the corrugation contribute to the friction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.1892G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.1892G"><span id="translatedtitle">Flat-slab subduction, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in southwestern Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gérault, Mélanie; Husson, Laurent; Miller, Meghan S.; Humphreys, Eugene D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> above subduction zones arises from the isostatic contribution of crustal and lithospheric buoyancy, as well as the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contribution from slab-driven mantle flow. We evaluate those effects in southwestern Mexico, where a segment of the Cocos slab subducts horizontally. The eastern part of the volcanic arc—the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt—stands at an average elevation of 2.3 km, nearly 1.3 km above the fore-arc. Lateral changes in bulk crustal density are relatively small, and seismic imaging shows that there is little variation in crustal thickness between these two regions. Thus, the elevation difference between the arc and the fore-arc should arise from differences in mantle properties. We present finite element models of flat-slab subduction that provide a simultaneous match to <span class="hlt">topography</span>, plate velocities, and stress state in the overriding plate. We find that the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effects are primarily controlled by the amount of coupling at the subduction interface and in the mantle wedge, the lack of slab anchoring into the lower mantle, and the absence of continental mantle lithosphere. With a mantle wedge and a subduction interface that are, respectively, 2 and 4 orders of magnitude weaker than the asthenosphere, the flat slab exerts a downward pull that can explain most of the elevation difference between the fore-arc and the arc. We infer that lateral viscosity variations play a significant role in shaping <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in complex tectonic settings and that sublithospheric <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> can influence the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at wavelengths that are significantly shorter than previously recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008OcDyn..58...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008OcDyn..58...43C"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint altimetric and in-situ data assimilation using the GRACE mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a 1993-1998 hindcast experiment in the Tropical Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castruccio, Frédéric; Verron, Jacques; Gourdeau, Lionel; Brankart, Jean-Michael; Brasseur, Pierre</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The altimetric satellite signal is the sum of the geoid and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but only the latter is relevant to oceanographic applications. Poor knowledge of the geoid has prevented oceanographers from fully exploiting altimetric measurements through its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> component, and applications have concentrated on ocean variability through analyses of sea level anomalies. Recent geodetic missions like CHAMP, GRACE and the forthcoming GOCE are changing this perspective. In this study, data assimilation is used to reconstruct the Tropical Pacific Ocean circulation during the 1993-1996 period. Multivariate observations are assimilated into a primitive equation ocean model (OPA) using a reduced order Kalman filter (the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman filter). A 6-year (1993-1998) hindcast experiment is analyzed and validated by comparison with observations. In this experiment, the new capability offered by an observed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (built using the GRACE geoid to reference the altimetric data) is used to assimilate, in an efficient way, the in-situ temperature profiles from the TAO/TRITON moorings together with the T/P and ERS1&2 altimetric signal. GRACE data improves compatibility between both observation data sets. The difficulties encountered in this regard in previous studies such as Parent et al. (J Mar Syst 40-41:381-401, 2003) are now circumvented. This improvement helps provide more efficient data assimilation, as evidenced, by assessing the results against independent data. This leads in particular to significantly more realistic currents and vertical thermal structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T43E..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T43E..03G"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Patterns of Channel Steepness in the Central Rockies: Do River Profiles Record Landscape Evolution Forcing By Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.; Kirby, E.; Gregg, P. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Numerous investigations demonstrate that mantle convective processes affect the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the overriding plate. 'Positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>' refers to the surface expression of mantle upwelling. An advecting wave of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> topographic surface uplift plate is thought to result from migration of North America relative to the Yellowstone hotspot. Advection of positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through an overriding plate disturbs the landscape by a combination of a change in surface uplift rate and tilting. Identification of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>'s contribution to evolution of the greater Yellowstone region's landscape, however, is complicated by the polygenetic regional <span class="hlt">topography</span> that results from glaciation, bimodal volcanism, Basin and Range extension, early Cenozoic arc volcanism, and Laramide contraction. Our model, which is parameterized to Yellowstone but doesn't include climate variations, suggests contribution of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> erosional signal should decrease from 0.1mm/yr to 0.5 mm/yr at a 100km radius from the hotspot uplift source. The cosmogenic chronology that we are building to constrain spatial patterns of incision in the Bighorn Basin indicates that there is differential incision occurring in the Bighorn basin. Rates vary from 2.8mm/yr in the western basin, which is closer to Yellowstone to 1.1mm/yr in the eastern basin. Global cooling and its effects at the Plio-Pleistocene transition is thought to be the dominant control on the region's erosional regime. However, the magnitude of the contribution from Yellowstone <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> to the regional landscape evolution is still unknown because published incision rates lack the resolution to differentiate between incision forcing mechanisms. Bedrock stream profile analysis is powerful tool for determining spatial patterns of surface deformation. We compare results for normalized channel steepness indices across various basins in the Central Rockies and Greater Yellowstone area with existing datasets to determine whether regional steepness patterns are associated with the proposed spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33B4532O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33B4532O"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycle simulations (ECSs) using BIEM, we have developed a method of calculating slip response function (SRF) in a homogeneous elastic medium with an arbitrary shaped Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Ohtani and Hirahara, 2013; Paper1). In this study, we report the improvement in our method. Following Hok and Fukuyama (2011), we set the Earth's surface as a free surface, in addition to the fault interface, in a homogeneous full-space medium. Then, using the analytic solution in full-space, we can calculate the Earth's surface deformation, then the SRF change. The surface cell setting determines the accuracy. For reducing the computational amount, we use the different sizes of the surface region and its divided subfault cells, depending on the fault depth. Paper1 used the uniform size for surface cells. Here, we improved our method where the Earth's surface cells closer to the trench have the finer sizes for achieving more accuracy. With such numerical SRF, we performed the quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ECS on a model, where the Earth's surface is convex upward. Basically, with this <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the slip behavior approaches the full-space case, from the half-space with flat surface case. This is because the distance from the Earth's surface to the fault becomes large. When we set two asperities with negative A - B in the positive A - B background at 10km and 35km depths, the two asperities rupture independently. The recurrence time of the shallow asperity is Trshalf = 34.95, Trsflat = 34.89, and Trsactual =32.82 years, when using analytic SRF in half-space, and numerical SRF with flat surface and with actual <span class="hlt">topography</span>, respectively. For each case, the recurrence time of the deep asperity is Tr1_dhalf = 26.80, Tr1_dflat = 26.89, and Tr1_dactual =26.69 years. Thus, the shallower asperity is more affected by the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> than the deeper one, because the distance change rate from the surface to the fault is larger. On the other hand, when we set the entire seismogenic zone as negative A - B to produce coseismic slip, the slip behavior showed almost no change. This is because the rupture starts from the deep portion, and the deep area has less affected by the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We also examined the realistic case assuming the Nankai Trough, the subduction zone located in southeast, Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712057O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712057O"><span id="translatedtitle">Active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in three sites with contrasted <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Vieira, Gonçalo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> exerts a key role on permafrost distribution in areas where mean annual temperatures are slightly negative. This is the case of low-altitude environments in Maritime Antarctica, namely in the South Shetland Islands, where permafrost is marginal to discontinuous until elevations of 20-40 m asl turning to continuous at higher areas. Consequently, the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is also strongly conditioned by the geomorphological setting. In January 2014 we installed three sites for monitoring the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> across the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands) in different geomorphological environments at elevations between 60 and 100 m. The purpose was to examine the role of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and microclimatic conditions on the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. At each site a set of loggers was set up to monitor: air temperatures, snow thickness, ground temperatures until 80 cm together with the coupling atmosphere-ground temperatures. During the first year of monitoring the mean annual air temperatures show similar values in the three sites, in all cases slightly below freezing. The snowy conditions during this year in this archipelago have resulted in a late melting of snow, which has also conditioned the duration of frozen conditions in the uppermost soil layers. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> has a strong influence on snow cover duration, which in turn affects frozen ground conditions. The Domo site is located in a higher position with respect to the central plateau of Byers; here, the wind is stronger and snow cover thinner, which has conditioned a longer thawing season than in the other two sites (Cerro Negro, Escondido). These two sites are located in topographically protected areas favouring snow accumulation. The longer persistence of snow conditions a longer duration of negative temperatures in the active layer of the permafrost. This research was financially supported by the HOLOANTAR project (Portuguese Science Foundation) and the AXA Research Fund.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4343A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4343A"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the bedrock elevation and volume of the Pliocene Antarctic Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, Jacqueline; Pollard, David; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro M.; DeConto, Robert M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of the Antarctic ice sheet over long timescales (i.e. Myrs) require estimates of bedrock elevation through time. Ice sheet models have accounted, with varying levels of sophistication, for changes in the bedrock elevation due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), but they have neglected other processes that may perturb <span class="hlt">topography</span>. One notable example is <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the deflection of the solid surface of the Earth due to convective flow within the mantle. Numerically predicted changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> have been used to correct paleo shorelines for this departure from eustasy, but the effect of such changes on ice sheet stability is unknown. In this study we use numerical predictions of time-varying <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> to reconstruct bedrock elevation below the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid Pliocene warm period (~3 Ma). Moreover, we couple this reconstruction to a three-dimensional ice sheet model to explore the impact of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Pliocene. Our modeling indicates significant uplift in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the adjacent Wilkes basin. This predicted uplift, which is at the lower end of geological inferences of uplift of the TAM, implies a lower elevation of the basin in the Pliocene. Relative to simulations that do not include <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the lower elevation leads to a smaller Antarctic Ice Sheet volume and a more significant retreat of the grounding line in the Wilkes basin, both of which are consistent with offshore sediment core data. We conclude that reconstructions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the mid-Pliocene warm period should be based on bedrock elevation models that include the impact of both GIA and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004856"><span id="translatedtitle">Flight <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T14B..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T14B..04E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Passage of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Beneath the Southern Costa Rica Forearc seen with Seismic Stratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, J. H.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>3D seismic reflection data (CRISP) collected across the southern Costa Rica margin reveals that a thick, deforming sedimentary wedge underlies the younger slope sediments (Silver et al., this meeting). The older wedge material and younger slope sediments are separated by a high-amplitude regional unconformity. Seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary strata overlying this regional unconformity reflects a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> deformation history of the margin. The younger slope sediments contain series of more localized unconformities, separating sedimentary units as thick as 1 km that reveal a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> changing set of inverted, overlapping basins. The geometry of these overlapping, inverted basins indicate sequential uplift events. The direction of basin thickening varies upsection, and these basins are cut by both thrust and normal faults and are deformed by folding. Structural development appears to be controlled by relief on the subducting plate interface, which induces uplift and subsidence and thereby controls the pattern of erosion and deposition. We interpret the evolution of these inverted stratigraphic packages as forming from subducting <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Correlating these seismic-stratigraphic packages to recent drilling based on preliminary magnetostratigraphy from IODP site U1413 (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013), allows us to date the passage of the subducting plate <span class="hlt">topography</span> beginning ~2 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8215E..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8215E..04P"><span id="translatedtitle">Interferometer for measuring the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a human tear film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cohenweb.rc.fas.harvard.edu/Publications/Hou%20Absolute%20Voltage%20BPJ%202014.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cohenweb.rc.fas.harvard.edu/Publications/Hou%20Absolute%20Voltage%20BPJ%202014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Membrane Voltage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cohen, Adam E.</p> <p></p> <p>-protein coupled receptors (3), and redox proteins (4). Bacteria, fungi, plants, and animal cells <span class="hlt">dynamically</span>,22). One would like a means to map the numerical value of the membrane voltage in a sample over space. This strategy has been employed in fluorescent measurements of pH (23), Ca2þ (24,25), kinase activity (26</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016168','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016168"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of SEASAT altimeter data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Williamson, R. G.; Patel, G. B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A method for the simultaneous solution of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity and orbits using satellite altimeter data is described. A GEM-T1 based gravitational model called PGS-3337 that incorporates Seasat altimetry, surface gravimetry and satellite tracking data has been determined complete to degree and order 50. The altimeter data is utilized as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> observation of the satellite's height above the sea surface with a degree 10 model of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> being recovered simultaneously with the orbit parameters, gravity and tidal terms in this model. PGS-3337 has a geoid uncertainty of 60 cm root-mean-square (RMS) globally, with the uncertainty over the altimeter tracked ocean being in the 25 cm range. Doppler determined orbits for Seasat, show large improvements, with the sub-30 cm radial accuracies being achieved. When altimeter data is used in orbit determination, radial orbital accuracies of 20 cm are achieved. The RMS of fit to the altimeter data directly gives 30 cm fits for Seasat when using PGS-3337 and its geoid and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> model. This performance level is two to three times better than that achieved with earlier Goddard earth models (GEM) using the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from long-term oceanographic averages. The recovered <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> reveals the global long wavelength circulation of the oceans with a resolution of 1500 km. The power in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> recovery is now found to be closer to that of oceanographic studies than for previous satellite solutions. This is attributed primarily to the improved modeling of the geoid which has occurred. Study of the altimeter residuals reveals regions where tidal models are poor and sea state effects are major limitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430103"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with high resolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution. PMID:25430103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85k3112W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85k3112W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with high resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392223"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with high resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031692"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on the Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Rossby Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abarzhi, S. I.; Desjardins, O.; Pitsch, H.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Boussinesq convection in rotating systems attracts a sustained attention of the fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> community, because it has intricate non-linear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (Cross & Hohenberg 1993) and plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical applications, such as the motion of the liquid outer core of Earth, the Red Spot in Jupiter, the giant cells in the Sun etc. (Alridge et al. 1990). A fundamental distinction between the real geo- and astrophysical problems and the idealized laboratory studies is that natural systems are inhomogeneous (Alridge et al. 1990). Heterogeneities modulate the flow and influence significantly the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of convective patterns (Alridge et al. 1990; Hide 1971). The effect of modulations on pattern formation and transition to turbulence in Boussinesq convection is far from being completely understood (Cross & Hohenberg 1993; Aranson & Kramer 2002). It is generally accepted that in the liquid outer core of the Earth the transport of the angular momentum and internal heat occurs via thermal Rossby waves (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). These waves been visualized in laboratory experiments in rotating liquid-filled spheres and concentric spherical shells (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). The basic <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> features of Rossby waves have been reproduced in a cylindrical annulus, a system much simpler than the spherical ones (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). For convection in a cylindrical annulus, the fluid motion is two-dimensional, and gravity is replaced by a centrifugal force, (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). Hide (1971) has suggested that the momentum and heat transport in the core might be influenced significantly by so-called bumps, which are heterogeneities on the mantle-core boundary. To model the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the transport of momentum and energy in the liquid outer core of the Earth, Bell & Soward (1996), Herrmann & Busse (1998) and Westerburg & Busse (2001) have studied the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of thermal Rossby waves in a cylindrical annulus with azimuthally modulated height.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198300','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198300"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> substrate control: Dual-tone hydrogel photoresists allow double-dissociation of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and modulus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Changying; Wong, Darice</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogels are widely utilized as artificial extracellular matrices, but current materials are unable to completely recapitulate the geometric, mechanical and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> characteristics of natural tissues. Here, we report an approach to <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> tune both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and elasticity in a single photoresponsive hydrogel substrate. Upon exposure to spatially controlled doses of light, a topographically and mechanically micropatterned surface forms. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate changes in topographical feature size and elastic moduli of the hydrogel surface as a function of irradiation time and wavelength. These photodegradable hydrogels can act as both positive and pseudo-negative photoresists, depending on exposure time and wavelength. By carefully controlling the aspect ratio (surface area to depth) of micropatterned features, unique swelling-induced ordered microstructures can be formed on the surface. These dual-tone hydrogel photoresists therefore allow <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tunability in both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and elasticity, enabling the fabrication of complex and anisotropic biomaterials. PMID:24339260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....90...58M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....90...58M"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, crustal tectonics, and surface processes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Romanian Carpathians: A geomorphological approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molin, P.; Fubelli, G.; Nocentini, M.; Sperini, S.; Ignat, P.; Grecu, F.; Dramis, F.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Tectonic processes and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle flow impart a unique imprint on <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geomorphic responses over time scales of 104 to 106 yr. First-order topographic features in a tectonically active landscape represent ways to quantitatively characterise the interaction between crustal tectonics, mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and geomorphology, providing a basis for modelling landscape evolution. We analysed the topographic features of the Romanian Carpathians, a mountain range characterised by two straight segments connected by a narrow curvature zone. The deformation started in the Late Jurassic and includes two collisional phases during the Cretaceous and Miocene. We examined the tectonic geomorphology of the Romanian Carpathians focusing on regional and local topographic setting, drainage pattern, and river long profiles. Our main database is composed of DEM-based topographic analysis, supplemented with field investigations in the Sl?nic River basin, located in the Carpathian curvature zone. The longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the southern Carpathians are close to the equilibrium shape, in agreement with the older emersion of the chain. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers draining the eastern and southeastern Carpathians are in a transient state of disequilibrium as a consequence of a more recent emersion of the chain and of the Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic activity in the Bend Zone. Filtering the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at different wavelengths, we observe a relative depression in correspondence with the Carpathian Bend, where mantle seismicity and a high-velocity zone in tomography data are located and commonly interpreted as related to an almost inactive and dying subduction zone. Contrastingly, the filtered <span class="hlt">topography</span> presents a high in the Transylvanian basin, where tomography data show a low-velocity area, interpreted as upwelling of hot asthenospheric materials. We hypothesise that local mantle convection generates positive and negative <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. In the Sl?nic River basin, the foredeep deposits (Middle Miocene-Upper Pliocene) are folded and tilted, suggesting active compression beginning in the Lower Pleistocene. During the Middle-Late Pleistocene and Holocene, four terrace orders developed by the interaction between regional uplift and climate changes. The Carpathian <span class="hlt">topography</span> results from a diachronous uplift superimposed on crustal tectonics. This diachronous uplift influenced the chain <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the shape of river longitudinal profiles, and the formation of strath terraces. Crustal tectonics dominated the hydrographic net organisation. In correspondence with the Carpathian Bend and the Transylvanian basin, mantle flow driven by slab pull produced negative and positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8216G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8216G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on GOCE data and Wiener filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilardoni, Maddalena; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Albertella, Alberta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) has been computed by using a GOCE-only gravity model and a given mean sea surface (MSS) obtained from satellite altimetry. Since the used gravity model, i.e. the fifth release of the time-wise solution covering the full mission lifetime, is truncated at a maximum harmonic degree of 280, the obtained MDT has to be consistently filtered. This has been done globally by using the spherical harmonic representation and following a Wiener minimization principle. This global filtering approach is convenient from the computational point of view but requires to have MDT values all over the Earth surface and therefore to fill the continents with fictitious data. The main improvements with respect to the already presented results are in the MDT filling procedure (to guarantee that the global signal has the same covariance of the one over the oceans), in the error modelling of the input MSS and in the error estimation of the filtered MDT and of the corresponding geostrophic velocities. The impact of GOCE data in the ocean circulation global modelling has been assessed by comparing the pattern of the obtained geostrophic currents with those computed by using EGM2008. Comparisons with independent circulation data based on drifters and other MDT models have been also performed with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of the obtained results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3908...38A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3908...38A"><span id="translatedtitle">New clinical instrument for the early detection of cataract using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering and corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered light and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G42A..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G42A..08A"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Evolution of Antarctic Bed <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Its Implications for Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.; Seroussi, H. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The recently concluded Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project (Bindschadler et al., 2013; Nowicki et al., 2013) provides some clues regarding the future evolution of Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in a warming climate. Using the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we combine the relevant SeaRISE results with possibly the best available GIA ice loading history for the past 21 kyr (Ivins et al., 2013), and provide first-order estimates of future uplift of AIS. While the model predicts minor subsidence in the interior of the east AIS and along the Wilkes Land, we find that the west AIS (Amundsen sea sector, in particular) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters over the next 100 and 500 years, respectively. Such uneven changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> imply that the bed slope will be modulated in the future, thereby potentially controlling the grounding line migration and eventually the ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Using hydrostatic equilibrium criterion and through high-order modeling of AIS, we demonstrate that proper treatment of GIA response is crucial on centennial timescale, as it promotes systematic, although mild, stability to marine portions of the ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..811W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..811W"><span id="translatedtitle">The status of measurement of the Mediterranean mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> by geodetic techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woodworth, Philip L.; Gravelle, Médéric; Marcos, Marta; Wöppelmann, Guy; Hughes, Chris W.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We review the measurement of the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) of the Mediterranean using ellipsoidal heights of sea level at discrete tide gauge locations, and across the entire basin using satellite altimetry, subtracting estimates of the geoid obtained from recent models. This `geodetic approach' to the determination of the MDT can be compared to the independent `ocean approach' that involves the use of in situ oceanographic measurements and ocean modelling. We demonstrate that with modern geoid and ocean models there is an encouraging level of consistency between the two sets of MDTs. In addition, we show how important geodetic MDT information can be in judging between existing global ocean circulation models, and in providing insight for the development of new ones. The review makes clear the major limitations in Mediterranean data sets that prevent a more complete validation, including the need for improved geoid models of high spatial resolution and accuracy. Suggestions are made on how a greater amount of reliable geo-located tide gauge information can be obtained in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125h4901J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.125h4901J"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallelized-over-parts computation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy with docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jayachandran, Guha; Shirts, Michael R.; Park, Sanghyun; Pande, Vijay S.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>We present a technique for biomolecular free energy calculations that exploits highly parallelized sampling to significantly reduce the time to results. The technique combines free energies for multiple, nonoverlapping configurational macrostates and is naturally suited to distributed computing. We describe a methodology that uses this technique with docking, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and free energy perturbation to compute <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energies of binding quickly compared to previous methods. The method does not require a priori knowledge of the binding pose as long as the docking technique used can generate reasonable binding modes. We demonstrate the method on the protein FKBP12 and eight of its inhibitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965051"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallelized-over-parts computation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> binding free energy with docking and molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jayachandran, Guha; Shirts, Michael R; Park, Sanghyun; Pande, Vijay S</p> <p>2006-08-28</p> <p>We present a technique for biomolecular free energy calculations that exploits highly parallelized sampling to significantly reduce the time to results. The technique combines free energies for multiple, nonoverlapping configurational macrostates and is naturally suited to distributed computing. We describe a methodology that uses this technique with docking, molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and free energy perturbation to compute <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energies of binding quickly compared to previous methods. The method does not require a priori knowledge of the binding pose as long as the docking technique used can generate reasonable binding modes. We demonstrate the method on the protein FKBP12 and eight of its inhibitors. PMID:16965051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1485T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1485T"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating depth-averaged, one-dimensional turbidity current <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> using natural <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traer, M. M.; Fildani, A.; McHargue, T.; Hilley, G. E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This study simulates turbidity currents through natural submarine <span class="hlt">topographies</span> using a steady, one-dimensional, depth-averaged model to determine if modeled flows might traverse the length of channel forms observed at the seafloor or in shallow seismic data sets. To accomplish this, we calculated flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on 50,000 sets of initial conditions drawn randomly between prescribed bounds and identified those conditions that allowed flows to traverse the naturally observed systems. We also used flow height and velocity to rule out initial conditions that produced flows that would be broadly accepted as unrealistic. We found that a small percentage (2.3-9.7%) of flows traversed the measured portion of these natural systems and maintained plausible peak depth-averaged velocities when laboratory-derived clear-water entrainment rules were used. However, even these flows reached peak heights that were many times (10-200) greater than that of the channel bottom to levee crest relief. When clear-water entrainment was removed from the model, a larger percentage of flows (34.5-41.6%) traversed the measured channel geometries, maintained lower ranges of flow height, and typically had higher flow velocities. Alternate entrainment relationships allowed flows to maintain realistic flow heights and velocities. We speculate that the unrealistic flows produced using clear-water entrainment rules arise because flow loss through stripping and/or overbank collapse is neglected in this one-dimensional model, or extrapolating laboratory-measured clear-water entrainment rules to the field is problematic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI51A4347R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI51A4347R"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining Mantle Convection Modeling With Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Spectra to Constrain the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolf, T.; Werner, S. C.; Steinberger, B. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>From some perspective the terrestrial planets of our Solar System appear very similar, for instance in their bulk composition and the differentiation in core, silicate mantle and crust. However, from other perspectives they appear significantly different, perhaps most strikingly in their current tectonic mode: while Earth is the only planet with currently ongoing plate tectonics, Venus is likely to be in a regime of episodic resurfacing. Mars features the stagnant lid mode and so might Mercury, if its mantle is still undergoing large-scale convection at all. Understanding the similarities and differences in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolution of the different planets can thus provide important information about the conditions needed to initialize and maintain plate tectonics and shed light on the question why Earth is unique in this respect. Reliable constraints for planets other than Earth are difficult to make and are mostly limited to the planetary surface. However, measuring a planet's gravity field provides one, though not unique, way to constrain the internal structure of a planet. Additionally, the planet's moment of inertia factor and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> may help to limit the number of possible structures. All of these, moment of inertia, gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are reasonably well known for the terrestrial planets from various satellite missions. Here, we use such measurements to constrain the radial structure of the planetary mantles. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> forward modeling is then used to analyze the different evolutions and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> features that cause the inferred structures and the resulting geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> spectra to evolve. Using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models also enables us to estimate the role of lateral variations, particularly in viscosity. In this first step, we focus on a comparison between the Earth and Venus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980223942','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980223942"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development of a Degree 360 Expansion of the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the POCM_4B Global Circulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rapp, Richard H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the development of a degree 360 expansion of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) of the POCM_4B ocean circulation model. The principles and software used that led to the final model are described. A key principle was the development of interpolated DOT values into land areas to avoid discontinuities at or near the land/ocean interface. The power spectrum of the POCM_4B is also presented with comparisons made between orthonormal (ON) and spherical harmonic magnitudes to degree 24. A merged file of ON and SH computed degree variances is proposed for applications where the DOT power spectrum from low to high (360) degrees is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765862','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765862"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative shortage of physicians in Japan using a system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> model approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In Japan, a shortage of physicians, who serve a key role in healthcare provision, has been pointed out as a major medical issue. The healthcare workforce policy planner should consider future <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in physician numbers. The purpose of this study was to propose a physician supply forecasting methodology by applying system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> modeling to estimate future <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative numbers of physicians. Method We constructed a forecasting model using a system <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> approach. Forecasting the number of physician was performed for all clinical physician and OB/GYN specialists. Moreover, we conducted evaluation of sufficiency for the number of physicians and sensitivity analysis. Result & conclusion As a result, it was forecast that the number of physicians would increase during 2008–2030 and the shortage would resolve at 2026 for all clinical physicians. However, the shortage would not resolve for the period covered. This suggests a need for measures for reconsidering the allocation system of new entry physicians to resolve maldistribution between medical departments, in addition, for increasing the overall number of clinical physicians. PMID:23981198</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010002520&hterms=1057&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231057','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010002520&hterms=1057&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231057"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Polar Regions of Mars from MGS <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been engaged in systematic mapping of Mars since insertion into Mars orbit in September, 1997. The objectives of the MGS mission are to globally map Mars as well as to quantify seasonal changes on the planet. MGS geophysical/geodetic observations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from the Radio Science investigation are providing significant new insights on both static and time-varying aspects of the polar regions of Mars. These observations have implications for polar processes on diurnal seasonal and climatic timescales. Thus far, MOLA has collected over 300 million precise measurements of Martian <span class="hlt">topography</span> and cloud heights. The instrument has also provided measurements of the width of the backscattered optical pulse and of the 1064 nm reflectivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. The along-track resolution of MOLA ground shots is approx. 300 m and the across-track spacing in the polar regions is a maximum of about four kilometers. The vertical accuracy of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is determined by the precision recovery of spacecraft orbits from the Radio Science investigation, which includes MOLA altimetry in the form of crossovers. This accuracy is currently approx. one meter. The gravity field is derived from X-band Doppler tracking with typical accuracy of 0.03 to 0.05 mm/s averaged over ten seconds. Current Mars gravity fields are to approximately degree and order 80 but are interpretable to the approximate degree and order 60 (spatial resolution < 180 km), which represents an estimate of the approximate coefficient limit of a field that can be produced without a power law constraint on the gravitational field inversion, which is commonly imposed for solution stability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RvGeo..53.1022L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RvGeo..53.1022L"><span id="translatedtitle">The ups and downs of North America: Evaluating the role of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the Mesozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijun</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The driving force for transient vertical motions of Earth's surface remains an outstanding question. A main difficulty lies in the uncertain role of the underlying mantle, especially during the geological past. Here I review previous studies on both observational constraints and physical mechanisms of North American topographic evolution since the Mesozoic. I first summarize the North American vertical motion history using proxies from structural geology, geochronology, sedimentary stratigraphy, and geomorphology, based on which I then discuss the published physical models. Overall, there is a progressive consensus on the contribution of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> due to buoyancy structures associated with the past subduction. At the continental scale, a largely west-to-east migrating deformation pattern suggests an eastward translation of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effects, consistent with models involving an eastward subduction and sinking of former Farallon slabs since the Cretaceous. Among the existing models, the inverse model based on an adjoint algorithm and time-dependent data constraints provides the most extensive explanations for the temporal changes of North American <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the Mesozoic. At regional scales, debates still exist on the predicted surface subsidence and uplift within both the western and eastern United States, where discrepancies are likely due to differences in model setup (e.g., mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> properties and boundary conditions) and the amount of time-dependent observational constraints. Toward the development of the next-generation predictive geodynamic models, new research directions may include (1) development of enhanced data assimilation capabilities, (2) exploration of multiscale and multiphysics processes, and (3) cross-disciplinary code coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inequality&pg=2&id=EJ1070880','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inequality&pg=2&id=EJ1070880"><span id="translatedtitle">Easy <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Values? <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..147A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..147A"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea level change since the Pliocene - a new formalism for predicting sea level in the presence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and isostasy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, Jacqueline; Rovere, Alessio; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Raymo, Maureen E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DT), as reflected in local sea level change, provides a unique lens for studying the imprint of deep Earth <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the Earth's surface. The elevation of paleo-shorelines over long time scales is, however, not only perturbed by DT but also by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and eustatic changes in sea level. Isolating these contributions is essential for efforts to constrain past changes in ice volume or mantle convection models. Previous studies have performed this separation by modeling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and superimposing the signal on the elevation of a GIA-corrected paleo-shoreline. However, this approach neglects deformation of the Earth in response to changes in the ocean load and geometry driven by DT. We describe a generalized, gravitationally self-consistent framework for computing sea-level changes that incorporates DT and GIA. The formalism is based on a sea-level theory developed within the GIA community that takes accurate account of viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, perturbations in the gravity field, migration of shorelines and the feedback into sea-level of contemporaneous (load-induced) changes in Earth rotation. Specifically, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is introduced as a perturbation to the elevation of the solid surface that does not load the Earth because it is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> supported. However, water that is displaced by DT is allowed to redistribute, perturb the gravitational field and load (or unload) the ocean floor wherever the water column is increased (or decreased). The problem is complicated by plate tectonics, which (in a tectonic reference frame) leaves changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> and DT undefined in areas of the ocean floor where plates have been subducted. We interpolate these regions by imposing mass conservation of both the solid Earth and water on the reconstructed <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We use the new formalism to calculate sea level change since the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma) using recent global simulations of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> that are constrained to fit a large suite of modern geophysical observables. We demonstrate that the results differ significantly from calculations in which <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is simply added to the elevation of GIA-corrected paleo-shorelines. Moreover, we apply these results to new paleo-shoreline data of Pliocene age from the US east coast, South Africa and southwest Australia to estimate peak eustatic sea level (and, thus, minimum ice volume) during the Mid Pliocene Warm Period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22046843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22046843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of plasma formation, relaxation, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J.; Ehrentraut, L.; Bonse, J.</p> <p>2010-05-15</p> <p>We have studied plasma formation and relaxation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> along with the corresponding <span class="hlt">topography</span> modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The evolution of the crater depth as a function of fluence can be described taking into account the individual bandgap of each material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0313F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0313F"><span id="translatedtitle">Geological Influences on Bedrock <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and East Antarctic Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferraccioli, F.; Armadillo, E.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Jordan, T. A.; Balbi, P.; Bozzo, E.; Siegert, M. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) extends for 1,400 km from George V Land into the interior of East Antarctica and hosts several major glaciers that drain a large sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). This region is of key significance for the long-term stability of the ice sheet in East Antarctica, as it lies well below sea level and its bedrock deepens inland, making it potentially prone to marine ice sheet instability, much like areas of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) that are presently experiencing significant mass loss. We present new enhanced potential field images of the WSB combined with existing radar imaging to study geological controls on bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ice flow regimes in this key sector of the ice sheet. These images reveal mayor Precambrian and Paleozoic basement faults that exert tectonic controls both on the margins of the basin and its sub-basins. Several major sub-basins can be recognised: the Eastern Basin, the Central Basins and the Western Basins. Using ICECAP aerogeophysical data we show that these tectonically controlled interior basins connect to newly identified basins underlying the Cook Ice Shelf region. This connection implies that any ocean-induced changes at the margin of the EAIS could potentially propagate rapidly further into the interior. With the aid of simple magnetic and gravity models we show that the WSB does not presently include major post Jurassic sedimentary infill. Its bedrock geology is highly variable and includes Proterozoic basement, Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sediments, intruded by Cambrian arc rocks, and cover rocks formed by Beacon sediments intruded by Jurassic Ferrar sills. Enhanced ice flow in this part of the EAIS occurs therefore in a area of mixed and spatially variable bedrock geology. This contrasts with some regions of the WAIS where more extensive sedimentary basins may represent a geological template for the onset and maintenance of fast glacial flow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017427"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Antarctic Bed <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Its Implications for Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik R.; Larour, Eric Y.; Seroussi, Helene L.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves.We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS.We find that past loading is relatively less important than future loading for the evolution of the future bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years AD 2100 and 2500, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay will approach roughly 45mmyr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is generally associated with the flattening of reverse bed slope, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote stability in marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/34613','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/34613"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> vegetation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> on hydrological processes in semi-arid areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Valeri Yuryevich, 1974-</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ecosystems of dry climates represent a particularly interesting object for ecohydrological studies, as water is generally considered to be the key limiting resource. This work focuses on vegetation-water-energy <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9677E..2FL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9677E..2FL"><span id="translatedtitle">The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement system for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrOce..68..271B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrOce..68..271B"><span id="translatedtitle">Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: Navigating the “ predator pit” <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakun, Andrew</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.G13C..08P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.G13C..08P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Solutions Based on a new Mean sea Surface Model and a GRACE-Based Geoid Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavlis, N. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Andersen, O. B.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A new Mean Sea Surface (MSS) model has been compiled recently at the Danish National Space Center (DNSC). This MSS model incorporates data from several altimeter missions (Geosat GM, ERS-1 and ERS-2, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, GFO, Envisat, and ICESat). In parallel, as part of an activity sponsored by the USA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, a new Preliminary Gravitational Model (PGM) has been developed recently. This model is an intermediate solution leading to a new Earth Gravitational Model complete to degree and order 2160. We have used the new MSS from DNSC and the latest PGM to estimate the mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (DOT), represented both as an ocean-wide grid and in terms of surface spherical harmonics. Of particular interest to these analyses is the treatment of systematic errors in GRACE-based gravitational solutions that manifest themselves as "stripes", predominantly in the North-South direction. We will present our DOT solutions and compare them against DOT estimates obtained from Ocean Circulation Models. We will also present comparisons with hydrographic data that are independent from our solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000121260','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000121260"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Light Scattering and Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered fight and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31A1130Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31A1130Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting spatial plant <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> under future climate change in a semiarid savanna ecosystem with complex <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, X.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The space and time <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of savanna ecosystems in semiarid regions is tightly related to fluctuations and changes in the climate, and the competition strategies of individual plants for resources. In most parts of the southwest U.S., various General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict general warming trends with reduced annual precipitation amounts, and increased frequency of extreme droughts and wet periods in the 21st century. Despite the potential risks posed by climate change on vegetation patterns and hydrology, our ability to predict such changes at the catchment and regional scales is limited. In this study, we used a recently developed spatially explicit Cellular Automata Tree-Grass-Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a semiarid catchment (>3km2) located in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA. In the catchment north-facing slopes are characterized by a juniper-grass savanna, and south-facing slopes by creosote bush and grass species. Initialized by LIDAR-derived tree locations and simulated grass and shrub patterns obtained from model calibration, CATGraSS is forced by a weather generator, AWE-GEN, used to downscale an ensemble of eight different GCM outputs at the study basin, producing multiple stochastic realizations of a transient climate scenario for the next hundred years. The ensemble simulations are used to examine the uncertainty in vegetation response and develop probabilistic plant distribution maps in relation to landscape morphology. This study highlights the importance of understanding local scale plant-to-plant interactions and the role of climate variability in determining climate change impacts on vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at varying spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750050989&hterms=gravitation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgravitation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750050989&hterms=gravitation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgravitation"><span id="translatedtitle">Mariner 9 - An instrument of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> science. [for Mars gravitation and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, J. F.; Lorell, J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>We review and evaluate the contributions of Mariner 9 in improving our knowledge of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> characteristics of Mars and its two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Primary results include the discovery of the large gravitational and topographical bulge in the Tharsis region, the development of a detailed gravity model representable as coefficients in a spherical harmonic expansion, the development of a topographic model exhibiting a three kilometer displacement of the center of figure from the center of mass, and the determination of the size, shape and motion of Phobos and Deimos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019781','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019781"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of some dominant parameters of the global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from GEOS-3 altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The 1977 altimetry data bank is analyzed for the geometrical shape of the sea surface expressed as surface spherical harmonics after referral to the higher reference model defined by GEM 9. The resulting determination is expressed as quasi-stationary <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SST. Solutions are obtained from different sets of long arcs in the GEOS-3 altimeter data bank as well as from sub-sets related to the September 1975 and March 1976 equinoxes assembled with a view to minimizing seasonal effects. The results are compared with equivalent parameters obtained from the hydrostatic analysis of sporadic temperature, pressure and salinity measurements of the oceans and the known major steady state current systems with comparable wavelengths. The most clearly defined parameter (the zonal harmonic of degree 2) is obtained with an uncertainty of + or - 6 cm. The preferred numerical value is smaller than the oceanographic value due to the effect of the correction for the permanent earth tide. Similar precision is achieved for the zonal harmonic of degree 3. The precision obtained for the fourth degree zonal harmonic reflects more closely the accuracy expected from the level of noise in the orbital solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039257"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">topography</span> induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could potentially be important to the population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of many organisms. PMID:25039257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC34A..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC34A..06R"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid Pliocene sea levels: A combined analysis of field data, models of glacial isostasy and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and eustasy. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; Hearty, P. J.; Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Michael, O.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Determining the eustatic elevation of former sea levels (SL), or equivalently ice volumes, is a central goal of paleoclimate research. SL estimates for the Mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ˜3.3 to 2.9 Ma) are of particular interest as CO2 levels at that time (between 350 and 450 ppmv) were similar to today (> 400 ppmv as of May 2013). However, despite general agreement on other climate variables, SL estimates for the MPWP and the stability of polar ice sheets during this interval remain largely unconstrained. In this regard, inferring ice volumes from SL indicators of MPWP age is complicated by several factors. First, relatively few robust records of MPWP SL have been obtained from tectonically stable areas. Second, the potentially significant contaminating signals due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with mantle convective flow (DT) have rarely, and only recently, been accounted for. Within the framework of PLIOMAX project, we are collecting accurate MPWP indicators at widely distributed sites using a combination of classic field methods, state of the art GPS and GIS techniques. Moreover, the analysis of the data involves the participation of both field geologists and geodynamic modelers. In this talk, we present data collected in three specific areas: Republic of South Africa, Western Australia and the southeastern United States. We will report on the present day elevation of MPWP shoreline indicators in each region. Moreover, we will combine this data set with a broad suite of numerical models of GIA and DT to establish current uncertainties on the estimate of eustatic SL during the MPWP, as well as comment on possible strategies for improving the accuracy of this estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6088P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6088P"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing the effects of rheology on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of 3D subduction-collision models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. It is well known that they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. The differences among the structures and evolutions of mountain belts arise for several reasons, such as different strengths of materials, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergence plates. All these possible controlling factors can change with space and time. Of all the mountain belts and orogenic plateaus, the most striking example is the India-Asia collision zone, which gave rise to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau, the largest region of elevated <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such a highly elevated region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully 3D models are required. Here, we employed the 3D code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed long-term 3D simulations to analyse the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the continental collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift and lateral extrusion of material). Moreover, different topographic regimes can be identified in the upper plate during continental subduction/collision, which can be determined using the Argand number and an initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Next, we investigate the effect of using more complex (powerlaw viscous and plastic) rheologies and compare the results with linear viscous models. Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on MOGON (ZDV Mainz computing center) and JUQUEEN (Jülich high-performance computing center).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18446284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18446284"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein-ligand binding constants with the molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> free energy perturbation method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woo, Hyung-June</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Reliable first-principles calculations of protein-ligand binding constants can play important roles in the study and characterization of biological recognition processes and applications to drug discovery. A detailed procedure for such a calculation is outlined in this chapter. The methodology is computationally implemented using the molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> sampling of relevant configurational spaces and free energy perturbation techniques. The procedure is illustrated with the model system of the phosphotyrosine peptide binding to the Src SH2 domain. PMID:18446284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geology.case.edu/~hauck/papers/smith_science_1999.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://geology.case.edu/~hauck/papers/smith_science_1999.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Mars and Implications for Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hauck II, Steven A.</p> <p></p> <p>) and an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accu- racy of 13 m with respect to Mars' center of mass (COM) (12). The global <span class="hlt">topography</span> of MarsThe Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Mars and Implications for Surface Evolution David E. Smith,1 * Maria T Zwally,1 Thomas C. Duxbury6 Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020807','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020807"><span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic temporal changes of slip direction: the effect of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stress on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Spudich, P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of rupture at low-stress level. We show that one main difference between the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of high- and low-stress events is the amount of coseismic temporal rake rotation occurring at given points on the fault. Curved stations on exposed fault surfaces and earthquake dislocation models derived from ground-motion inversion indicate that the slip direction may change with time at a pointon the fault during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture. We use a 3D boundary integral method to model temporal rake variations during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture propagation assuming a slip-weakening friction law and isotropic friction. The points at which the slip rotates most are characterized by an initial shear stress direction substantially different from the average stress direction over the fault plane. We show that for a given value of stress drop, the level of initial shear stress (i.e., the fractional stress drop) determines the amount of rotation in slip direction. We infer that seismic events that show evidence of temporal rake rorations are characterized by a low initial shear-stress level with spatially variable direction on the fault (possibly due to changes in fault surface geometry) and an almost complete stress drop. Our models motivate a new interpretation of curved and cross-cutting striations and put new constraints on their analysis. The initial rake is in general collinear with the initial stress at the hypocenter zone, supporting the assumptions made in stress-tensor inversion from first-motion analysis. At other points on the fualt, especially away from the hypocenter, the initial slip rake may not be collinear with the initial shear stress, contradicting a common assumption of structural geology. On the other hand, the later part of slip in our models is systematically more aligned withi the average stress direction than the early slip. Our modeling suggests that the length of the straight part of curved striations is usually an upper bound of the slip-weakening distance is this parameter is uniform over the fault plane, and the direction of the late part of slip of curved striations should have more weight in the estimate of initial stress direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26235749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26235749"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear depolarization and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity in magic-angle spinning cross effect <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nuclear polarization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Paul, Subhradip; Lee, Daniel; Feintuch, Akiva; Hediger, Sabine; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>Over the last two decades solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has witnessed a breakthrough in increasing the nuclear polarization, and thus experimental sensitivity, with the advent of Magic Angle Spinning <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP). To enhance the nuclear polarization of protons, exogenous nitroxide biradicals such as TOTAPOL or AMUPOL are routinely used. Their efficiency is usually assessed as the ratio between the NMR signal intensity in the presence and the absence of microwave irradiation ?on/off. While TOTAPOL delivers an enhancement ?on/off of about 60 on a model sample, the more recent AMUPOL is more efficient: >200 at 100 K. Such a comparison is valid as long as the signal measured in the absence of microwaves is merely the Boltzmann polarization and is not affected by the spinning of the sample. However, recent MAS-DNP studies at 25 K by Thurber and Tycko (2014) have demonstrated that the presence of nitroxide biradicals combined with sample spinning can lead to a depolarized nuclear state, below the Boltzmann polarization. In this work we demonstrate that TOTAPOL and AMUPOL both lead to observable depolarization at ?110 K, and that the magnitude of this depolarization is radical dependent. Compared to the static sample, TOTAPOL and AMUPOL lead, respectively, to nuclear polarization losses of up to 20% and 60% at a 10 kHz MAS frequency, while Trityl OX63 does not depolarize at all. This experimental work is analyzed using a theoretical model that explains how the depolarization process works under MAS and gives new insights into the DNP mechanism and into the spin parameters, which are relevant for the efficiency of a biradical. In light of these results, the outstanding performance of AMUPOL must be revised and we propose a new method to assess the polarization gain for future radicals. PMID:26235749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001041"><span id="translatedtitle">Does <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Downscaling Introduce Novel Information in Climate Model Simulations of Recipitation Change over a Complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Region?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tselioudis, George; Douvis, Costas; Zerefos, Christos</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Current climate and future climate-warming runs with the RegCM Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 50 and 11 km-resolutions forced by the ECHAM GCM are used to examine whether the increased resolution of the RCM introduces novel information in the precipitation field when the models are run for the mountainous region of the Hellenic peninsula. The model results are inter-compared with the resolution of the RCM output degraded to match that of the GCM, and it is found that in both the present and future climate runs the regional models produce more precipitation than the forcing GCM. At the same time, the RCM runs produce increases in precipitation with climate warming even though they are forced with a GCM that shows no precipitation change in the region. The additional precipitation is mostly concentrated over the mountain ranges, where orographic precipitation formation is expected to be a dominant mechanism. It is found that, when examined at the same resolution, the elevation heights of the GCM are lower than those of the averaged RCM in the areas of the main mountain ranges. It is also found that the majority of the difference in precipitation between the RCM and the GCM can be explained by their difference in topographic height. The study results indicate that, in complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> regions, GCM predictions of precipitation change with climate warming may be dry biased due to the GCM smoothing of the regional <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGeoS...2....8T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGeoS...2....8T"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the BEM approach for a determination of the regional marine geoid model and the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tenzer, R.; ?underlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Abdalla, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We apply a novel approach for the gravimetric marine geoid modelling which utilise the boundary element method (BEM). The direct BEM formulation for the Laplace equation is applied to obtain a numerical solution to the linearised fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem in points at the Earth's surface. The numerical scheme uses the collocation method with linear basis functions. It involves a discretisation of the Earth's surface which is considered as a fixed boundary. The surface gravity disturbances represent the oblique derivative boundary condition. The BEM approach is applied to determine the marine geoid model over the study area of the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea using DNSC08 marine gravity data. The comparison of the BEM-derived and EGM2008 geoid models reveals that the geoid height differences vary within -25 and 18 cm with the standard deviation of 6 cm. The DNSC08 sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> data and the new marine geoid are then used for modelling of the mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) over the study area. The local vertical datum (LVD) offsets estimated at 15 tide-gauge stations in New Zealand are finally used for testing the coastal MDT. The average value of differences between the MDT and LVD offsets is 1 cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2380N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2380N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted <span class="hlt">topography</span>) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle-driven uplift along the Jemez anomaly in the last 3.6 Ma. Apatite fission-track ages indicate a tilted 30 Ma 110C isotherm, however, suggesting that Jemez mantle-driven uplift is superimposed on earlier Rocky Mountain uplift that was initiated in the mid-Tertiary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~pvandenhof/Paperfiles/Kuiper&etal_IFAC2011_Prepr.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~pvandenhof/Paperfiles/Kuiper&etal_IFAC2011_Prepr.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards Integrated Design of a Robust Feedback Controller and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Van den Hof, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>Towards Integrated Design of a Robust Feedback Controller and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Estimator for Atomic Force of the sample <span class="hlt">topography</span>. <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> uncertainties of the system pose a strong limitation on the achievable control bandwidth, and on the accuracy of the estimated <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This contribution discusses</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037750&hterms=Asthenosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAsthenosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037750&hterms=Asthenosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAsthenosphere"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoid anomalies and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from convection in cylindrical geometry - Applications to mantle plumes on earth and Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A variety of evidence suggests that at least some hotspots are formed by quasi-cylindrical mantle plumes upwelling from deep in the mantle. Such plumes are modeled in cylindrical, axisymmetric geometry with depth-dependent, Newtonian viscosity. Cylindrical and sheet-like, Cartesian upwellings have significantly different geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> signatures. However, Rayleigh number-Nusselt number systematics in the two geometries are quite similar. The geoid anomaly and topographic uplift over a plume are insensitive to the viscosity of the surface layer, provided that it is at least 1000 times the interior viscosity. Increasing the Rayleigh number or including a low-viscosity asthenosphere decreases the geoid anomaly and the topographic uplift associated with an upwelling plume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023549"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.421..107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.421..107S"><span id="translatedtitle">Australian plate motion and <span class="hlt">topography</span> linked to fossil New Guinea slab below Lake Eyre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Unravelling causes for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate velocity change and continental <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> change is challenging because of the interdependence of large-scale geodynamic driving processes. Here, we unravel a clear spatio-temporal relation between latest Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic subduction at the northern edge of the Australian plate, Early Cenozoic Australian plate motion changes and Cenozoic <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution of the Australian continent. We present evidence for a ?4000 km wide subduction zone, which culminated in ophiolite obduction and arc-continent collision in the New Guinea-Pocklington Trough region during subduction termination, coinciding with cessation of spreading in the Coral Sea, a ?5 cm/yr decrease in northward Australian plate velocity, and slab detachment. Renewed northward motion caused the Australian plate to override the sinking subduction remnant, which we detect with seismic tomography at 800-1200 km depth in the mantle under central-southeast Australia at a position predicted by our <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate reconstructions. With a numerical model of slab sinking and mantle flow we predict a long-wavelength subsidence (negative <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) migrating southward from ?50 Ma to present, explaining Eocene-Oligocene subsidence of the Queensland Plateau, ?330 m of late Eocene-early Oligocene subsidence in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Marion Plateau, and providing a first-order fit to the present-day, ?200 m deep, topographic depression of the Lake Eyre Basin and Murray-Darling Basin. We propound that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution provides an independent means to couple geological processes to a mantle reference frame. This is complementary to, and can be integrated with, other approaches such as hotspot and slab reference frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2104E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2104E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of chance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We present a model of multiplicative Langevin <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> that is based on two foundations: the Langevin equation and the notion of multiplicative evolution. The model is a nonlinear mechanism transforming a white-noise input to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-equilibrium output, using a single control: an underlying convex U-shaped potential function. The output is quantified by a stationary density which can attain a given number of shapes and a given number of randomness categories. The model generates each admissible combination of the output's shape and randomness in a universal and robust fashion. Moreover, practically all the probability distributions that are supported on the positive half-line, and that are commonly encountered and applied across the sciences, can be reverse engineered by this model. Hence, this model is a universal equilibrium mechanism, in the context of multiplicative <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, for the robust generation of “chance”: the model's output. In turn, the properties of the produced “chance,” the output's shape and randomness, are determined with mathematical precision by the control's landscape, its <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Thus, a topographic map of chance is established. As a particular application, probability distributions with power-law tails are shown to be universally and robustly generated by controls on the “edge of convexity”: convex U-shaped potential functions with asymptotically linear wings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13D..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13D..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of rheology on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and development of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in 3D numerical simulations of continental collision, with an application to the India-Asia collision zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau represent the largest region of elevated <span class="hlt">topography</span> and anomalously thick crust on Earth. Understanding the formation and evolution of the region has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. While some of these models (i.e. thin sheet model) have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, channel flow or extrusion, for which fully 3D models are required. Here, we employed the 3D code LaMEM to investigate the role that subduction, continental collision and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and the implications they have for the Asian tectonics. Our model setup resembles a simplified tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone and we performed a large number of 3D simulations to analyse the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the conditions under which large topographic plateaus, such as the Tibetan Plateau can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. Results of models with linear viscous rheologies show different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction, trench retreat and slab roll-back) and the continental collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift and lateral extrusion of material). Despite the complex <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the great variation in slab shape across the subduction-collision zone, which are consistent with tomographic observations, we note that slab-pull alone is insufficient to generate high <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the upper plate. Several studies suggested that external forces (i.e. ridge push, plume push or slab suction) must be important in order to sustain the on-going convergence of India towards Eurasia. We show that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin within the Asian lithosphere are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus, analogous to the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Next, we present a few models with more complex (power-law viscous and plastic) rheologies and compare them with linear viscous models. Funding was provided by the ERC under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SRL....16..697P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SRL....16..697P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.</p> <p></p> <p>The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://semte.engineering.asu.edu/docs/seminars/che/Leong%20Seminar%20Flyer.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://semte.engineering.asu.edu/docs/seminars/che/Leong%20Seminar%20Flyer.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of extracellular microenvironment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Chemical Engineering Abstract <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of extracellular microenvironment can influence cellular. Nanoscaled <span class="hlt">topography</span> of synthetic materials, through its resemblance to in vivo surroundings, may provide the potential of applying <span class="hlt">topography</span> to enhance nonviral transfection. Optimization of nonviral gene delivery</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1771V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1771V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 2. Suprasubduction zone ophiolite formation and metamorphic sole exhumation in context of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Peters, Kalijn; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim; Guilmette, Carl; Thieulot, Cedric; Plümper, Oliver; Gürer, Derya; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Aldanmaz, Ercan; Kaymakc?, Nuretdin</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Analyzing subduction initiation is key for understanding the coupling between plate tectonics and the underlying mantle. Here we focus on suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites and how their formation links to intraoceanic subduction initiation in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motion frame. SSZ ophiolites form the majority of exposed oceanic lithosphere fragments and are widely recognized to have formed during intraoceanic subduction initiation. Structural, petrological, geochemical, and plate kinematic constraints on their kinematic evolution show that SSZ crust forms at fore-arc spreading centers at the expense of a mantle wedge, thereby flattening the nascent slab. This leads to the typical inverted pressure gradients found in metamorphic soles that form at the subduction plate contact below and during SSZ crust crystallization. Former spreading centers are preserved in forearcs when subduction initiates along transform faults or off-ridge oceanic detachments. We show how these are reactivated when subduction initiates in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motion direction of the inverting weakness zone. Upon inception of slab pull due to, e.g., eclogitization, the sole is separated from the slab, remains welded to the thinned overriding plate lithosphere, and can become intruded by mafic dikes upon asthenospheric influx into the mantle wedge. We propound that most ophiolites thus formed under special geodynamic circumstances and may not be representative of normal oceanic crust. Our study highlights how far-field geodynamic processes and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motions may force intraoceanic subduction initiation as key toward advancing our understanding of the entire plate tectonic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413998B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413998B"><span id="translatedtitle">Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Berg&pg=5&id=EJ096841','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Berg&pg=5&id=EJ096841"><span id="translatedtitle">X Ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Balchin, A. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Discusses some aspects in X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.1061.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.1061.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> masses, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii and 3D orbits of the triply eclipsing star HD 181068 from Kepler photometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Borkovits, Tamás; Kiss, László L; Király, Amanda; Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Bíró, Imre Barna; Bedding, Timothy R; Bryson, Stephen T; Huber, Daniel; Szabó, Róbert</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>HD 181068 is the brighter of the two known triply eclipsing hierarchical triple stars in the Kepler field. It has been continuously observed for more than 2 years with the Kepler space telescope. Of the nine quarters of the data, three have been obtained in short-cadence mode, that is one point per 58.9 s. Here we analyse this unique dataset to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> physical parameters (most importantly the masses and radii) and full orbital configuration using a sophisticated novel approach. We measure eclipse timing variations (ETVs), which are then combined with the single-lined radial velocity measurements to yield masses in a manner equivalent to double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have also developed a new light curve synthesis code that is used to model the triple, mutual eclipses and the effects of the changing tidal field on the stellar surface and the relativistic Doppler-beaming. By combining the stellar masses from the ETV study with the simultaneous light curve analysis we determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220222','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220222"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma radiation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> with the upgraded <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G.; Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B.</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Robert&pg=5&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Robert&pg=5&id=EJ1000865"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852531"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phasing by confocal imaging of a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> grating and 27-step phase-cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De, Arijit K; Monahan, Daniele; Dawlaty, Jahan M; Fleming, Graham R</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We present a novel experimental scheme for two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy (2D-FDCS) using a non-collinear beam geometry with the aid of "confocal imaging" of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (population) grating and 27-step phase-cycling to extract the signal. This arrangement obviates the need for distinct experimental designs for previously developed transmission detected non-collinear two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (2D-CS) and collinear 2D-FDCS. We also describe a novel method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phasing of the 2D spectrum. We apply this method to record 2D spectra of a fluorescent dye in solution at room temperature and observe "spectral diffusion." PMID:24852531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGD....2.1007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGD....2.1007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal multifractal Martian <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landais, F.; Schmidt, F.; Lovejoy, S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the scaling properties of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars. Planetary topographic fields are well known to roughly exhibit (mono)fractal behavior. Indeed, the fractal formalism is reproduces much of the variability observed in <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Still, a single fractal dimension is not enough to explain the huge variability and intermittency. Previous studies have claimed that fractal dimensions might be different from one region to an other, excluding a general description at the planetary scale. In this article, we are analyzing the Martian topographic data with a multifractal formalism to study the scaling intermittency. In the multifractal paradigm, the apparent local variation of the fractal dimension is interpreted as a statistical property of multifractal fields. We analyze the <span class="hlt">topography</span> measured with the laser altimeter MOLA at 300 m horizontal resolution, 1 m vertical resolution. We adapted the Haar fluctuation method to the the irregularly sampled signal. The results suggest a multifractal behavior from planetary scale down to 10 km. From 10 km to 300 m, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> seems to be simple monofractal. This transition indicates a significant change in the geological processes governing the Red Planet's surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGeo..22..713L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPGeo..22..713L"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal multifractal Martian <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landais, F.; Schmidt, F.; Lovejoy, S.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the scaling properties of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars. Planetary topographic fields are well known to roughly exhibit (mono)fractal behavior. Indeed, the fractal formalism reproduces much of the variability observed in <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Still, a single fractal dimension is not enough to explain the huge variability and intermittency. Previous studies have claimed that fractal dimensions might be different from one region to another, excluding a general description at the planetary scale. In this article, we analyze the Martian topographic data with a multifractal formalism to study the scaling intermittency. In the multifractal paradigm, the apparent local variation of the fractal dimension is interpreted as a statistical property of multifractal fields. We analyze the <span class="hlt">topography</span> measured with the Mars Orbiter Laser altimeter (MOLA) at 300 m horizontal resolution, 1 m vertical resolution. We adapted the Haar fluctuation method to the irregularly sampled signal. The results suggest a multifractal behavior from the planetary scale down to 10 km. From 10 to 300 m, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> seems to be simple monofractal. This transition indicates a significant change in the geological processes governing the Red Planet's surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/52561','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/52561"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal Conversion by Supercritical <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Balmforth, Neil J.</p> <p></p> <p>Calculations are presented of the rate of energy conversion of the barotropic tide into internal gravity waves above <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the ocean floor. The ocean is treated as infinitely deep, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> consists of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMagR.208...76D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMagR.208...76D"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining steady-state and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> methods for determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> signs of hyperfine interactions: Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doan, Peter E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The underlying causes of asymmetric intensities in Davies pulsed ENDOR spectra that are associated with the signs of the hyperfine interaction are reinvestigated. The intensity variations in these asymmetric ENDOR patterns are best described as shifts in an apparent baseline intensity that occurs <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> following on-resonance ENDOR transitions. We have developed an extremely straightforward multi-sequence protocol that is capable of giving the sign of the hyperfine interaction by probing a single ENDOR transition, without reference to its partner transition. This technique, Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE) monitors <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> shifts in the ‘baseline’ following measurements at a single RF frequency (single ENDOR peak), rather than observing anomalous ENDOR intensity differences between the two branches of an ENDOR response. These baseline shifts, referred to as <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> reference levels (DRLs), can be directly tied to the electron-spin manifold from which that ENDOR transition arises. The application of this protocol is demonstrated on 57Fe ENDOR of a 2Fe-2S ferredoxin. We use the 14N ENDOR transitions of the S = 3/2[Fe(II)NO]2+ center of the non-heme iron enzyme, anthranilate dioxygenase (AntDO) to examine the details of the relaxation model using PESTRE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714981I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714981I"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> to <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Burn Severity in two contrasting ecosystems: the Case of the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of Western Canada & that of a Typical Mediterranean site in Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios; Griffirths, Hywel M.; Louka, Panagiota</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Altering land cover <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is currently regarded as the single most important variable of global change affecting ecological systems. Wildfires are an integral part of many terrestrial ecosystems and are considered to dramatically affect land cover <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. In this context, knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of post-fire vegetation recovery <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is of key importance. In this study, we explore the relationships between vegetation recovery <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to <span class="hlt">topography</span> and burn severity for two different ecosystems using a chronosequence of Landsat TM data images analysis. One of our experimental sites is the Okanagan Mountain Park, located in the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of western Canada at which a fire occurred in 2003. The other is Mt. Parnitha, located in Greece, representing a typical Mediterranean setting. The spatio-temporal patterns of regrowth for 8 years following the fire events were quantified based on the analysis of 2 widely used indices, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Regeneration Index (RI). Burn severity was derived from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) index computed from the Landsat TM images. Topographical information for the studied area was obtained from the ASTER global operational product. Relationships of vegetation regrowth to both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and burn severity was quantified using a series of additional statistical metrics. In overall, results indicated noticeable differences in the recovery rates of both ecosystems to the pre-fire patterns. Re-growth rates appeared to be somewhat higher in north-facing slopes in comparison to south facing ones for both experimental sites, in common with other similar studies in different ecosystems. Lastly, areas of lower burn severity exhibited a higher recovery rate compared to areas of high severity burns. Results are presented in detail and an explanation of the main observation trends is also attempted to be provided. To our knowledge, this study is one of the few attempting to explore the relationships between post-fire vegetation regrowth and <span class="hlt">topography</span> or burn severity, particularly so in such a comparative and systematic manner between two contrasting ecosystem types. It corroborates the significance of EO technology as a successful and cost-effective solution in providing information related to post-fire regeneration assessment. Keywords: post-fire vegetation regeneration, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, burn severity, Landsat, remote sensing, Cordillera Ecozones, Canada, Mt. Parnitha, Greece</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/85638','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/85638"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal thickness and support of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>James, Peter Benjamin</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a terrestrial planet can be supported by several mechanisms: (1) crustal thickness variations, (2) density variations in the crust and mantle, (3) <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> support, and (4) lithospheric stresses. Each of ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dawn <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the Dawn <span class="hlt">topography</span> investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..439....1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..439....1O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8209E..1US','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8209E..1US"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward optical coherence <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110271&hterms=Board+diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBoard%2Bdiversity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110271&hterms=Board+diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBoard%2Bdiversity"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of MOLA Global Roughness, Statistics, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aharonson, O.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>New insights are emerging as the ongoing high-quality measurements of the Martian surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft increase in coverage, resolution, and diversity. For the first time, a global characterization of the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is possible. The data were collected during the aerobreaking hiatus, science phasing, and mapping orbits of MGS, and have a resolution of 300-400 m along track, a range resolution of 37.5 cm, a range precision of 1-10 m for surface slopes up to 30 deg., and an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of <span class="hlt">topography</span> of 13 m. The spacecraft's orbit inclination dictates that nadir observations have latitude coverage of about 87.1S to 87.1N; the addition of observations obtained during a period of off-nadir pointing over the north pole extended coverage to 90N. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/993087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1042637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170605','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170605"><span id="translatedtitle">RADAR Reveals Titan <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to <span class="hlt">topography</span> will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00740&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00740&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Io (color)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.<p/>North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120..287J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120..287J"><span id="translatedtitle">Support of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury inferred from MESSENGER measurements of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>James, Peter B.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>To explore the mechanisms of support of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury, we have determined the admittances and correlations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity in Mercury's northern hemisphere from measurements obtained by NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. These admittances and correlations can be interpreted in the context of a number of theoretical scenarios, including flexural loading and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flow. We find that long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degree l < 15) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury is primarily supported through a combination of crustal thickness variations and deep mass anomalies. The deep mass anomalies may be interpreted either as lateral variations in mantle density or as relief on compositional interfaces. Domical topographic swells are associated with high admittances and are compensated at 300-400 km depth in the lower reaches of Mercury's mantle. Quasi-linear topographic rises are primarily associated with shallow crustal compensation and are weakly correlated with positive mass anomalies in the mantle. The center of the Caloris basin features some of the thinnest crust on the planet, and the basin is underlain by a large negative mass anomaly. We also explore models of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flow in the presence of compositional stratification above the liquid core. If there is substantial compositional stratification in Mercury's solid outer shell, relaxation of perturbed compositional interfaces may be capable of creating and sustaining long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26i2103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26i2103L"><span id="translatedtitle">Spreading of droplet with insoluble surfactant on corrugated <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chunxi; Pei, Jianjun; Ye, Xuemin</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The flow of microscale fluid on a <span class="hlt">topography</span> surface is a key to further development of MEMS, nanoscience and technology. In the present paper, a theoretical model of the droplet spreading with insoluble surfactant over corrugated <span class="hlt">topography</span> is established with the lubrication theory, and the evolution equations of film thickness and surfactant concentration in base state and disturbance state are formulated. The droplet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the nonlinear stability based on nonmodal stability theory, and the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> structure and Marangoni stress are numerically simulated with PDECOL scheme. Results show that the impact of topographical surface is strengthened apparently while the Marangoni stress driven by surfactant concentration is weakened in the mid-late stages of the spreading. The droplet radius on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> advances faster and the lowest height of liquid/gas interface near the droplet edge reduces remarkably in the intermediate stage compared with those on the flat wall. The quantity of the wavelet similar to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> increases gradually, with the characteristics of wavelet crest height with time exhibiting a single-hump feature. The spreading stability is enhanced under the disturbance wavenumber of 4, however, is to deteriorate and even to transform into instability when wavenumber increases further. In addition, the reductive Marangoni number, enhancive capillary number, modest Peclet number, the low height of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as small wavenumber of <span class="hlt">topography</span> can make contributions to the evident stability of droplet spreading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/files/ostm/OSTM-jason-2-presskit.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/files/ostm/OSTM-jason-2-presskit.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission/ Jason 2 Launch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission/ Jason 2 Launch PreSS KiT/JUNe 2008 #12;#12;Media Contacts Steve .............................................................................................................................. 7 Why Study Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048057&hterms=Doll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDoll','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048057&hterms=Doll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDoll"><span id="translatedtitle">The length-scaling properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Malinverno, Alberto</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of <span class="hlt">topography</span> are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((<span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846206"><span id="translatedtitle">Lake <span class="hlt">topography</span> and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were controlled by the lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41C3058W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41C3058W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of African <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the South Asian Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, H. H.; Bordoni, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Somali cross-equatorial jet is estimated to contribute up to half of the mass flux crossing the equator during the Asian monsoon season. Previous studies have argued that the Somali jet is strengthened by the East African Highlands, which act as a wall and accelerate the flow (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1976, Sashegyi and Geisler 1987). Besides, observational studies have shown a positive correlation between the strength of the Somali jet and the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) precipitation (e.g., Findlater 1969, Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001). These imply that the existence of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> would relate to a stronger SAM. However, in a more recent study, Chakraborty et al. (2002) found that if the African <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed in a comprehensive general circulation model (GCM), the SAM strengthens. In this study, we use the GFDL AM2.1 GCM to conduct experiments with and without <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Africa, to further examine its influence on the cross-equatorial Somali jet and the SAM. We find that when the African <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed, the SAM precipitation increases, consistent with the results in Chakraborty et al. (2002). Interestingly, our results also show that the cross-equatorial Somali jet does weaken in the absence of the African <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in agreement with previous studies. The moisture budget shows that the increase in precipitation in the no-African <span class="hlt">topography</span> experiment is primarily due to stronger wind convergence. The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the cross-equatorial Somali jet is investigated within the framework of the Potential Vorticity (PV) budget, showing the contribution of the changes in friction and diabatic heating to the circulation as the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed. A backward trajectory analysis is also conducted to further examine the influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on both the material tendencies of the PV budget and trajectories of parcels reaching the Indian subcontinent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323838"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> driven spreading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Aqil, S; Perry, C C; Newton, M I</p> <p>2004-07-16</p> <p>Roughening a hydrophobic surface enhances its nonwetting properties into superhydrophobicity. For liquids other than water, roughness can induce a complete rollup of a droplet. However, topographic effects can also enhance partial wetting by a given liquid into complete wetting to create superwetting. In this work, a model system of spreading droplets of a nonvolatile liquid on surfaces having lithographically produced pillars is used to show that superwetting also modifies the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of spreading. The edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relation is shown to obey a simple power law, and such power laws are shown to apply to naturally occurring surfaces. PMID:15323838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0709.2194v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0709.2194v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing Solar <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Carlos Allende Prieto</p> <p>2007-09-14</p> <p>Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore »provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.earthdynamics.org/papers-ED/2010/2010-Steinberger-etal-Icarus.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.earthdynamics.org/papers-ED/2010/2010-Steinberger-etal-Icarus.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep versus shallow origin of gravity anomalies, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and volcanism on Earth, Venus and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Torsvik, Trond Helge</p> <p></p> <p>Deep versus shallow origin of gravity anomalies, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and volcanism on Earth, Venus and Mars Available online xxxx Keywords: Earth Venus, Interior Mars, Interior Volcanism a b s t r a c t The relation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of planets. From the power spectra of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Earth, Venus and Mars we infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantitation of Myocardial Blood Flow in Human Subjects with or without Myocardial Ischemia using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Flurpiridaz F 18 Positron Emission Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Packard, René R. S.; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Dahlbom, Magnus; Czernin, Johannes; Maddahi, Jamshid</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) by positron emission tomography (PET) is an established method of analyzing coronary artery disease (CAD) but subject to the various shortcomings of available radiotracers. Flurpiridaz F 18 is a novel PET radiotracer which exhibits properties of an ideal tracer. Methods A new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> perfusion quantitation method with Flurpiridaz was developed, taking advantage of the early kinetics and high first-pass extraction by the myocardium of this radiotracer, and the first in human measurements of MBF performed in 7 normal subjects and 8 patients with documented CAD. PET images with time-activity curves were acquired at rest and during adenosine stress. Results In normal subjects, regional MBF between coronary artery territories did not differ significantly, leading to a mean global MBF of 0.73 mL/min/g at rest and 2.53 mL/min/g during stress, with a mean global myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of 3.70. CAD vascular territories with <50% stenosis demonstrated a mean MBF of 0.73 at rest and 2.02 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 2.97. CAD vascular territories with ?50% stenosis exhibited a mean MBF of 0.86 at rest and 1.43 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 1.86. Differences in stress MBF and MFR between normal and CAD territories, as well as between <50% and ?50% stenosis vascular territories, were significant (P<0.01). Conclusion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of MBF in humans with the novel PET radiotracer Flurpiridaz is feasible over a wide range of cardiac flow in the presence or absence of stress-inducible myocardial ischemia. The significant decrease in stress MBF and ensuing MFR in CAD territories allows a clear distinction between vascular territories exhibiting stress-inducible myocardial ischemia and those with normal perfusion. PMID:25071096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043634&hterms=sars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsars','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043634&hterms=sars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsars"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP34A..04Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP34A..04Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations in a global river model: a case study in the Amazon River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, D.; Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Dutra, E. N.; Kanae, S.; Kim, H.; Oki, T.; Bates, P. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers is an important factor for surface water studies and flood hazard management. However, most continental-scale river models have not focused on the reproduction of water level because the storage and movement of surface waters are regulated by smaller scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> than their grid resolutions. Here we analyzed the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a state-of-the-art global river model, CaMa-Flood, with sub-grid representation of floodplain <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a case study, hydrodynamics simulation in the Amazon River was accomplished, and the simulated water surface elevations along the mainstem were compared against Envisat altimetry. The seasonal cycle of the simulated water surface elevations are in agreement with the altimetry (correlation coefficient >0.69, annual amplitude error <1.6 m). The accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations was also good (averaged RMSE of 1.83 m), and the associated errors were within the range of the model uncertainty due to channel cross-section parameters. Then, the ocean tide variation at river mouth was incorporated for simulating the tidal effect in the inland Amazon basin, which requires realistic representation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations. By applying power-spectra analysis to the simulated water level variations, the 15-day cycle due to spring and neap tides was detected at Obidos located 800 km upstream from the river mouth. The reproduction of the ocean tide propagation to the inland region suggests that CaMa-Flood includes the main physical processes needed to accurately simulate the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMoSt.966...18J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMoSt.966...18J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of neostenine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wencai; Shaw, Pang-Chui; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Mak, Thomas C. W.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Heavy atoms bromine and iodine were incorporated into the neostenine ( 1) skeleton through reductive cleavage of the lactone ring, followed by acylation with 4-bromobenzoyl chloride, and salt formation with methyl iodide, respectively. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of the seven chiral centers C1, C9, C9a, C10, C11, C1 and C13 in 1 were assigned as S, S, R, R, R, R, and S, respectively, based on the Flack parameters in X-ray structure refinement, and results from the two heavy atom derivatives are consistent with each other. As many Stemona alkaloids share the same lactone and pyrrolo[1,2-?]azepine nucleus as those in 1, the facile method reported in this paper can be applied for the determination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of similar alkaloids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007713','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007713"><span id="translatedtitle">A scanning radar altimeter for mapping continental <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, T. H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Topographic information constitutes a fundamental data set for the Earth sciences. In the geological and geophysical sciences, <span class="hlt">topography</span> combined with gravitational information provides an important constraint on the structure and rheologic properties of the crust and lithosphere. Detailed <span class="hlt">topography</span> data can also be used to map offsets associated with faulting and to reveal the effects of tectonic deformation. In the polar regions, elevation data form a crucial but as yet largely unavailable resource for studying ice sheet mass balance and ice flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The vast Antarctic ice sheet is the largest fresh water reservoir on Earth and is an important influence on ocean circulation and global climate. However, our knowledge of its stability is so limited that we cannot even specify whether the Antarctic ice sheet is growing or shrinking. It is clear that there is need for high quality global <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. A summary of potential applications with their resolution requirements is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011267"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear baroclinic instability in the presence of large scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span> on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the forced wave influence the growth rates and the spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The latter are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations. Agreement is good between the two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span>, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time-dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3382H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3382H"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls on (anomalous) <span class="hlt">topography</span> in rifted margin settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huismans, Ritske S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Contrasting end members of volcanic and non-volcanic passive margin formation show a large variability in basin shape and structure, subsidence history, and associated topographic evolution of the onshore rifted margins. The large range of structural style and associated <span class="hlt">topography</span> of these systems imply a strong variability in the underlying thermo-mechanical conditions at the time of rifting. Rift - passive margin styles ranging from narrow to ultra wide are explained using forward numerical models with varying rheological structure, with strong crust lithosphere leading to narrow rift formation associated with highly elevated rift shoulders and conversely weak crust lithosphere resulting in highly stretched wide rifted conjugate margins and little flank morphology. In some cases rifted margins appear to indicate the formation of anomalous post rift <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A number of mechanisms including small-scale convective removal of the lower lithosphere, lithosphere counter-flow, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, have been invoked to explain the anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Forward numerical models are used to predict the magnitude and characteristic <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with each of these mechanisms and to evaluate their potential for explaining these apparent anomalous characteristics of rifts and rifted margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nist.gov/cnst/upload/poster_10-Nanoscale_Surface_Topography-Letter_Sized.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nist.gov/cnst/upload/poster_10-Nanoscale_Surface_Topography-Letter_Sized.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> to Guide Bone Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nanoscale Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Controlled cell alignment by varying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cornea.berkeley.edu/pubs/78.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cornea.berkeley.edu/pubs/78.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Volume 6, Number 1, 1993 79 Invertinga Laplacian <span class="hlt">Topography</span>Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Klein, Stanley</p> <p></p> <p>Brain <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Volume 6, Number 1, 1993 79 Invertinga Laplacian <span class="hlt">Topography</span>Map StanleyA. Klein. An Excel spreadsheet implementation of the algorithm is presented. Key words: <span class="hlt">Topography</span>; Laplacian; Inverse laplacian;Principal components. Introduction Many researchers who measure the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of evoked</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SGeo..tmp...28P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SGeo..tmp...28P"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a High-Resolution Monitoring of Continental Surface Water Extent and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>, at Global Scale: from GIEMS (Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites) to SWOT (Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prigent, Catherine; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Aires, Filipe; Papa, Fabrice</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Up to now, high-resolution mapping of surface water extent from satellites has only been available for a few regions, over limited time periods. The extension of the temporal and spatial coverage was difficult, due to the limitation of the remote sensing technique [e.g., the interaction of the radiation with vegetation or cloud for visible observations or the temporal sampling with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR)]. The advantages and the limitations of the various satellite techniques are reviewed. The need to have a global and consistent estimate of the water surfaces over long time periods triggered the development of a multi-satellite methodology to obtain consistent surface water all over the globe, regardless of the environments. The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-satellites (GIEMS) combines the complementary strengths of satellite observations from the visible to the microwave, to produce a low-resolution monthly dataset (0.25° × 0.25°) of surface water extent and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Downscaling algorithms are now developed and applied to GIEMS, using high-spatial-resolution information from visible, near-infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images, or from digital elevation models. Preliminary products are available down to 500-m spatial resolution. This work bridges the gaps and prepares for the future NASA/CNES Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission to be launched in 2020. SWOT will delineate surface water extent estimates and their water storage with an unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy, thanks to a SAR in an interferometry mode. When available, the SWOT data will be adopted to downscale GIEMS, to produce a long time series of water surfaces at global scale, consistent with the SWOT observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..514S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..514S"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Ganymede's <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Rotation and Tidal Deformation - a Study of Synthetic Ganymede Laser Altimeter Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinke, T.; Stark, A.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We implement an iterative least-squares inversion routine to study the estimation of several <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> Ganymede rotation parameters by laser altimetry. Based on spherical harmonic expansions of the global <span class="hlt">topography</span> we use simulated Ganymede Laser Al-timeter observations representing the synthetic <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the satellite. Besides the static <span class="hlt">topography</span> we determine the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> parameters, such as the rotation rate, the amplitudes of physical librations, the spin pole orientation, and the tidal deformation. This parameters may strengthen implications for a liquid ocean beneath Ganymede's icy shell and, in addition, constrain geodetic frame parameters essential for various space-borne experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927137"><span id="translatedtitle">Stresses in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under ocean waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pore pressure and the combined static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effective stresses are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5268545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5268545"><span id="translatedtitle">Stresses in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under ocean waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pore pressure and the combined static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990076710&hterms=gravity+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgravity%2Blight','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990076710&hterms=gravity+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgravity%2Blight"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Interpretations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>New models of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars and its gravity field from the Mars Global Surveyor mission are shedding new light on the structure of the planet and the state of isostatic compensation. Gravity field observations over the flat northern hemisphere plains show a number of anomalies at the 100 to 200 mGal level that have no apparent manifestation in the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We believe that these anomalies are probably the result of ancient impacts and represent regions of denser material buried beneath the outer depositional crust. Similar anomalies are also found in the region of the north polar ice cap even though a gravity anomaly resulting from the 3 km high icecap has not been uniquely identified. This leads us to speculate that the ice cap is largely compensated and is older than the timescale of isostatic compensation, about 10(exp 15) years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016849','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Cell Response, and Nerve Regeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed <span class="hlt">topography</span> can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to <span class="hlt">topography</span> is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret <span class="hlt">topography</span> remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response. PMID:20438370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RvGeo..45.2004F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RvGeo..45.2004F"><span id="translatedtitle">The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farr, Tom G.; Rosen, Paul A.; Caro, Edward; Crippen, Robert; Duren, Riley; Hensley, Scott; Kobrick, Michael; Paller, Mimi; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Roth, Ladislav; Seal, David; Shaffer, Scott; Shimada, Joanne; Umland, Jeffrey; Werner, Marian; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Alsdorf, Douglas</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001054"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth rotation and core <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hager, Bradford H.; Clayton, Robert W.; Spieth, Mary Ann</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Geodynamics program has as one of its missions highly accurate monitoring of polar motion, including changes in length of day (LOD). These observations place fundamental constraints on processes occurring in the atmosphere, in the mantle, and in the core of the planet. Short-timescale (t less than or approx 1 yr) variations in LOD are mainly the result of interaction between the atmosphere and the solid earth, while variations in LOD on decade timescales result from the exchange of angular momentum between the mantle and the fluid core. One mechanism for this exchange of angular momentum is through topographic coupling between pressure variations associated with flow in the core interacting with <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the core-mantel boundary (CMB). Work done under another NASA grant addressing the origin of long-wavelength geoid anomalies as well as evidence from seismology, resulted in several models of CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The purpose of work supported by NAG5-819 was to study further the problem of CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>, using geodesy, fluid mechanics, geomagnetics, and seismology. This is a final report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0603017v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0603017v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absoluteness</span> of Velocity Produced by Accelerating Process and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Space-time Theory with Variable Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mei Xiaochun</p> <p>2006-03-03</p> <p>It is proved by means of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects of special relativity that velocity caused by accelerating process is not a relative concept. The influence of accelerating process should be considered in space-time theory. Besides the Newtonian <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space-time theory with invariable space-time scales and the Einstein relative space-time theory with variable space-time scales, there exists the third space-time theory, i.e., the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space-time theory with variable space-time scales. At present, special relativity is divided into two parts, kinematics and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. In kinematics, force and acceleration are not considered so that space and time becomes relative concepts. This division is completely artificial and irrational. The rational space-time theory should be established on the foundation of <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> consistently. The changing rules of space, time and mass with speed should be dependent of accelerating processes and with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> significance. The real meaning of invariability principle of high speed should be that we can not make the speed of an object speed with rest mass reach and exceed the speed of light in vacuum by the method of accelerating object. It is proved that the <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> resting reference frame exists. In order to eliminate multifarious space-time paradoxes in special relativity, and coincide with Big-bang cosmology, the <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> resting frame is necessary. A method is put forward to look for the <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> resting reference frame. The isotropy reference frame of cosmic microwave background radiation can be regarded as the <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> resting reference frame actually at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.3712v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.3712v2"><span id="translatedtitle">The information as <span class="hlt">Absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sergey V. Shevchenko; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky</p> <p>2013-03-11</p> <p>This article presents and grounds (i.e. presents proof of the existence, the truth, the self-consistence and the completeness of)the informational conception ("the Information as <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>" conception)in physics and philosophy. the conception defines the information as an ultimately common, real and fundamental concept/phenomenon - "<span class="hlt">Absolute</span>", which exists as anabsolutely infinite set ("Information" Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) linksbetween the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substence, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific - and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set - subset of the "Information" Set. The conception allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of the basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; in physics it allows to suggest reasonable model, which makes more clear basic phisical notions,such as space, time, matter, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24243093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24243093"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vujovi?, Dragana; Vu?kovi?, Vladan; Curi?, Mla?en</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real <span class="hlt">topography</span> conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real <span class="hlt">topography</span> give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %. PMID:24243093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992646"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> \</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27k2106T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27k2106T"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting channel bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> in hydraulic falls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, Alexander; Yu, Zheng; Kelso, Richard M.; Binder, Benjamin J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We consider inverse methods for predicting the channel bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> in experiments of hydraulic falls. Nonlinear solutions and weakly nonlinear approximations from Euler-based models are compared to experimental observations. Accurate predictions are obtained for the maximum height of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its constant horizontal level far downstream using the nonlinear method. The weakly nonlinear approximation is shown only to be a good predictor of the maximum height of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The error in the inverse predictions is examined and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17744680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17744680"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> from single radar images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wildey, R L</p> <p>1984-04-13</p> <p>A mathematical theory and a corresponding numerical procedure have been developed to produce digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> from radar images as digital photometric arrays. Thus, as radargrammetry is to photogrammetry, so radarclinometry is to photoclinometry. Photoclinometry encompasses a fundamental indeterminacy principle even for terrain that is homogeneous in normal albedo, because the surface normal consistent with a given reflected specific intensity is not unique. A geometric locus of such normal directions is implied, which generates a surface. For microwave backscatter, in specific application to radarclinometry, this surface is a cone whose half-angle is the incidence angle, whose axis contains the radar, and whose apex coincides with the terrain point. Although the indeterminacy can be removed if a properly directed profile of ground truth is available as a constraint, such is seldom the case. In its absence, an auxiliary assumption, such as that the strike line runs perpendicular to the illumination line, is needed. If metric integrity is a goal, then this is an absurd assumption. Herein, "the hypothesis of local cylindricity" has been assumed, a premise regarding the nature of topographic curvature that seems more realistic and that makes possible the production of <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a set of parallel line integrals. PMID:17744680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0908.2562v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0908.2562v1"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Relativity Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Jean-Marc Oury; Bruno Heintz</p> <p>2009-08-18</p> <p>This paper is a first presentation of a new approach of physics that we propose to refer as the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Relativity Theory (ART) since it refutes the idea of a pre-existing space-time. It includes an algebraic definition of particles, interactions and Lagrangians. It proposed also a purely algebraic explanation of the passing of time phenomenon that leads to see usual Euler-Lagrange equations as the continuous version of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov monodromy. The identification of this monodromy with the local ones of the Lorentzian manifolds gives the Einstein equation algebraically explained in a quantized context. A fact that could lead to the unification of physics. By giving an algebraic classification of particles and interactions, the ART also proposes a new branch of physics, namely the Mass Quantification Theory, that provides a general method to calculate the characteristics of particles and interactions. Some examples are provided. The MQT also predicts the existence of as of today not yet observed particles that could be part of the dark matter. By giving a new interpretation of the weak interaction, it also suggests an interpretation of the so-called dark energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ABSOLUTE+AND+ACCOUNT&id=EJ735377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ABSOLUTE+AND+ACCOUNT&id=EJ735377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1263K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1263K"><span id="translatedtitle">High surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> related to upper mantle flow beneath Eastern Anatolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komut, Tolga</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Eastern Anatolia region between north-south colliding Arabian and Eurasian plates has no significant crustal root and shallow (upper) mantle flow beneath seems to be vertically supporting its high <span class="hlt">topography</span>. It has a high surface heat flow and the underlying mantle is characterized by low seismic velocity zones. Using a mantle density/temperature variation field derived from P-wave seismic velocity, current shallow mantle flow and resultant <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Eastern Anatolia and adjacent Arabian foreland and Caucasus areas were calculated along a vertical section. The section crosses the tectonic boundaries interrelated with slab bodies (high seismic velocity/cold regions) and the low velocity zones above the slabs. According to the modelling experiments, the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Eastern Anatolia seems to be supported by shallow mantle flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. On the other hand, residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> for the region was calculated using high resolution crustal thickness data. Positive residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> that suggests an undercompensated state of Eastern Anatolia is in concordance with the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomaly. The modelled local shallow mantle flow support due to the density contrast between hot (low velocity) zones and underlying cold slab bodies beneath the area may be the present-day snapshot of the mantle flow uplift in Eastern Anatolia presence of which was previously suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411208','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411208"><span id="translatedtitle">Hybrid Steered Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Approach to Computing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Binding Free Energy of Ligand–Protein Complexes: A Brute Force Approach That Is Fast and Accurate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Computing the free energy of binding a ligand to a protein is a difficult task of essential importance for which purpose various theoretical/computational approaches have been pursued. In this paper, we develop a hybrid steered molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (hSMD) method capable of resolving one ligand–protein complex within a few wall-clock days with high enough accuracy to compare with the experimental data. This hSMD approach is based on the relationship between the binding affinity and the potential of mean force (PMF) in the established literature. It involves simultaneously steering n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) centers of mass of n selected segments of the ligand using n springs of infinite stiffness. Steering the ligand from a single initial state chosen from the bound state ensemble to the corresponding dissociated state, disallowing any fluctuations of the pulling centers along the way, one can determine a 3n-dimensional PMF curve connecting the two states by sampling a small number of forward and reverse pulling paths. This PMF constitutes a large but not the sole contribution to the binding free energy. Two other contributors are (1) the partial partition function containing the equilibrium fluctuations of the ligand at the binding site and the deviation of the initial state from the PMF minimum and (2) the partial partition function containing rotation and fluctuations of the ligand around one of the pulling centers that is fixed at a position far from the protein. We implement this hSMD approach for two ligand–protein complexes whose structures were determined and whose binding affinities were measured experimentally: caprylic acid binding to bovine ?-lactoglobulin and glutathione binding to Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase tyrosine 7 to phenylalanine mutant. Our computed binding affinities agree with the experimental data within a factor of 1.5. The total time of computation for these two all-atom model systems (consisting of 96K and 114K atoms, respectively) was less than one wall-clock week using 512 cores (32 Xeon E5-2680 processors). PMID:25937822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9881B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9881B"><span id="translatedtitle">Moho depth and residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Antarctic continent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranov, Alexey; Molinari, Irene; Morelli, Andrea; Danesi, Stefania</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (ANTMoho), merging information retrieved from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data have been analyzed: from active seismic prospection,including DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent passive seismic receiver function and geological studies. ANTMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. The oldest Archean and Proterozoic crust of East Antarctica has a thickness of 36-56 km (with an average of about 41 km). The continental crust of the Transantarctic Mountains, the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilkes Basin has a thickness of 30-40 km (with an average Moho of about 30 km). The youngest rifted continental crust of the West Antarctic Rift System has a thickness of 16-28 km (with an average Moho of about 26 km). The mean Moho depth of the whole model is 33.8 km. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> -- an indicator of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> response to large-scale mantle flow. We adopt the semianalytical methodology implemented in the HC code (developed and maintained by Prof. T. Becker). The spatial resolution is limited by the L=127 of the input model. The Transantarctic Mountains appear not to be isostatically compensated, such as the neighboring Wilkes Subglacial Basin. East Antarctica on a large scale does not show significant uncompensated <span class="hlt">topography</span>. There are however some smaller-scale residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> features, that correlate with sub-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and that may indicate some limitation in resolution or laterally-variable crustal density. Better knowledge of crustal structure is therefore an important tool for better understanding of the complex <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> processes acting at a regional scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..856Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..856Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Venus atmosphere and extreme surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zasova, L.; Khatuntsev, I.; Patsaeva, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Rodin, A.; Turin, A.; Markiewicz, W.; Piccioni, G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The temperature fields at several levels in the Venus mesosphere(60-95 km)as well as the altitude of the upper boundary of clouds retrieved from Venera-15 (FS-V15) [1], and the zonal wind fields and albedo of the upper clouds, measured by VMC Venus Express [2], and altitude of the upper boundary of clouds VIRTIS-M VEX [3] data are compared with the topographic map, obtained by Magellan [4] . The results show that the isotherms and the altitude isolines of the upper clouds boundary reproduce the extended surface features Ishtar and Atalanta Planitia. In turn, the shapes of wind isovelocities and albedo at the upper boundary of clouds (VMC) closely follow the details of relief of Terra Aphrodite as well the isolines of altitude of the cloud tops (VIRTIS). In all cases the isolines are shifted with respect to <span class="hlt">topography</span> by about 30° in the direction of superrotation. Non-hydrostatic general circulation model of the Venus atmosphere[5] demonstrates that the major topographic features such as Maxwell Montes and Terra Aphrodite provide a prominent impact on the atmospheric <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at levels as high as 90-95 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906021"><span id="translatedtitle">The cortical <span class="hlt">topography</span> of local sleep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, Michael; Huber, Reto; Esser, Steve; Riedner, Brady A; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Ghilardi, M Felice; Tononi, Giulio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a recent series of experiments, we demonstrated that a visuomotor adaptation task, 12 hours of left arm immobilization, and rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during waking can each induce local changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the poor spatial resolution of EEG and the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex limited the interpretation of these results. In order to better understand local cortical regulation of sleep, we used source modeling to show that plastic changes in specific cortical areas during waking produce correlated changes in SWA during sleep in those same areas. We found that implicit learning of a visuomotor adaptation task induced an increase in SWA in right premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to a motor control. These same areas have previously been shown to be selectively involved in the performance of this task. We also found that arm immobilization resulted in a decrease in SWA in sensorimotor cortex. Inducing cortical potentiation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an increase in SWA in the targeted area and a decrease in SWA in the contralateral cortex. Finally, we report the first evidence that these modulations in SWA may be related to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of individual slow waves. We conclude that there is a local, plasticity dependent component to sleep regulation and confirm previous inferences made from the scalp data. PMID:21906021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/ds_136.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/ds_136.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Landforms of Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=aluminum+pressure+vessel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Daluminum%2Bpressure%2Bvessel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=aluminum+pressure+vessel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Daluminum%2Bpressure%2Bvessel"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, High Pressure Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensing configuration. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..908B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRE..118..908B"><span id="translatedtitle">Convection-driven compaction as a possible origin of Enceladus's long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Besserer, J.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Pappalardo, R. T.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The long wavelength surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Enceladus shows depressions about 1 km in depth and ˜102 km wide. One possible cause of this <span class="hlt">topography</span> is spatially variable amounts of compaction of an initially porous ice shell, driven by spatial variations in heat flux. Here, we show that the heat flux variations associated with convection in the shell can quantitatively match the observed features. We develop a simple model of viscous compaction that includes the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity, and find that an initial shell porosity of at least 20-25% is required to develop the observed <span class="hlt">topography</span> over ˜1 Ga. This mechanism produces topographic depressions, not rises, above convective upwellings, and does not generate detectable gravity anomalies. Unlike transient <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, it can potentially leave a permanent record of ancient convective processes in the shallow lithospheres of icy satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN31C1015M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN31C1015M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Glacier and Land Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Interferometer: An Airborne Proof-of-concept Mapping Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Chuang, C.; Fisher, C.; Muellerschoen, R.; Milligan, L.; Sadowy, G.; Rignot, E. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year activities. This was achieved by integrating a Ka-band single-pass interferometric synthetic radar on the NASA Dryden Gulfstream III for a coordinated deployment. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. This proof-of-concept demonstration was motivated by the Glacier and Land Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Interferometer (GLISTIN) Instrument Incubator Program and furthermore, highly leveraged existing ESTO hardware and software assets (the Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and processor and the PR2 (precipitation radar 2) RF assembly and power amplifier). Initial Ka-band test flights occurred in March and April of 2009 followed by the Greenland deployment. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. However, for this application the electromagnetic wave will penetrate an unknown amount into the snow cover thus producing an effective bias that must be calibrated. This penetration will be characterized as part of this program and is expected to vary as a function of snow wetness and radar incidence angle. To evaluate this, we flew a coordinated collection with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper on a transect from Greenland’s Summit its West coast. This flight included two field calibration sites at Colorado Institute for Research in Environmental Science’s Swiss Camp and the National Science Foundation’s Summit station. Additional collections entailed flying a grid over Jakobshavn glacier which were repeated after 6 days to reveal surface <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. In this time frame we were able to observe horizontal motion of over 1km on the glacier. While developed for relevancy to ice surface mapping, the Ka-band interferometer was able to make targeted observations relevant for the Surface Water and Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission. Most notably, en route to Greenland via North Dakota, data was collected in the “SWOT-like” geometry by rolling the GIII toward nadir and collecting nadir data over surface water targets (Red and Missouri Rivers, Devils Lake, ND and the Big Bog, MN). Flying into Thule, SWOT data was also collected over sea ice. In summary, the campaign and demonstration was highly successful. Not only were we able to achieve the primary objective of validated data collections for ice-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but we also gathered unique observations that will be used by the SWOT mission. In the next year, the detailed processing, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration and intersensor comparisons will enable us ultimately to produce a high quality topographic map of Jakobshavn as an IPY reference for measuring future changes in ice elevation. Finally, our experiment has paved the way to make more topographic products available to glaciologists, either through dedicated airborne campaigns, or ultimately as a satellite mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53C0157L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53C0157L"><span id="translatedtitle">New CAM <span class="hlt">topography</span> generation software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lauritzen, P. H.; Bacmeister, J. T.; Taylor, M. A.; Neale, R. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A new algorithm and associated software (to be released with NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 5.2) to generate surface height and associated sub-grid-scale orographic variances is presented. The sub-grid-scale variance is separated into scales smaller than approximately 3km (referred to as SGH30), that is used for turbulent mountain stress parameterizations, and scales larger than approximately 3km and less than the model grid scale (referred to as SGH) used for gravity wave drag parameterizations. The raw topographic data is binned to an intermediate gnomonic cubed-sphere grid which, contrary to the older versions of CAM <span class="hlt">topography</span> generation software, results in a quasi-isotropic separation of scales over the entire sphere for SGH30 and SGH. The cubed-sphere data is thereafter rigorously remapped using a volume conserving method to any target model grid. The algorithm supports structured and unstructured meshes; even meshes with non-convex control volumes. The new consistent specification of sub-grid-scale variances result in several improvements in `AMIP'-style climate simulations using CAM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ase.tufts.edu/biomedical/research/fantini/publications/brainStudies/Hallacoglu_J_Biomed_Opt_2012.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ase.tufts.edu/biomedical/research/fantini/publications/brainStudies/Hallacoglu_J_Biomed_Opt_2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Fantini, Sergio</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen Aron M. Troen Sergio Fantini #12;<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin-infrared spectroscopy measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018849','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 10(exp 1) - 10(exp 2) km correlates with elevation and surface age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3201A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3201A"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory studies of pyroclastic flows that interact with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, B.; Manga, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We performed a set of scaled laboratory experiments to simulate pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) using dilute mixtures of warm talc powder in air. The experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on current runout, buoyancy reversal and liftoff, and mass partitioning into buoyant plumes. The densimetric and thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers for our experiments match those of PDCs and the laboratory currents are fully turbulent, although the experiments have lower Reynolds numbers than PDCs, thus our experiments are <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> similar to natural currents. Comparisons of currents traversing flat <span class="hlt">topography</span> or encountering barriers shows that runout distance is not significantly reduced for currents that traverse barriers with height less than 1.5 times the current thickness, but currents do not pass taller barriers. Buoyancy reversals occur in most currents, resulting in liftoff and generation of a buoyant plume. Liftoff occurs near the maximum runout distance for currents traveling over flat <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but is focused near or above barriers for currents that encounter barriers. Notably, plume formation above barriers can result in reversal of flow direction downstream of the obstruction as portions of the current flow back and feed the rising plume. Greater than half of the initial particle mass composing the density currents usually partitions into the buoyant plumes; that fraction is greater for currents that liftoff closer to the source, thus topographic barriers increase mass partitioning from currents into buoyant plumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6526G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6526G"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> - i.e. the <span class="hlt">topography</span> due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the modeled <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We also test several viscosity models, either radially symmetric, the V1 profile from Mitrovica and Forte [2004], or more complex laterally varying structures. All the property fields are expanded in spherical harmonics, until degree 24, and implemented in the code StagYY [Tackley, 2008] to perform mantle instantaneous flow modeling and compute surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravitational field. Our results show the importance of constraining the crustal and mantle density structure relying on a multidisciplinary approach that involves experimentally robust thermodynamic datasets. Crustal density field has a strong effect on the isostatic component of <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The models that we test, CRUST 1.0 and those in Guerri and Cammarano [2015], produce strong differences in the computed isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in the range ±600 m. For the lithospheric mantle, relying on experimentally robust material properties constraints is necessary to infer a reliable density model that takes into account chemical heterogeneities. This approach is also fundamental to correctly interpret seismic models in temperature, a crucial parameter, necessary to determine the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, where static effects on <span class="hlt">topography</span> leave place to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ones. The comparison between results obtained with different viscosity fields, either radially symmetric or vertically and laterally varying, shows how lateral viscosity variations affect the results, in particular the modeled geoid, at different wavelengths. References: Brocher, T. M. (2005), Empirical Relations between Elastic Wavespeeds and Density in the Earth's Crust, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(6), 2081-2092. Cammarano, F., P. J. Tackley, and L. Boschi (2011), Seismic, petrological and geodynamical constraints on thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle: global thermochemical models, Geophys. J. Int. Connolly, J. A. D. (2005), Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation, Earth and </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031324"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90478','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90478"><span id="translatedtitle">Scholte waves generated by seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zheng, Yingcai</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Seafloor <span class="hlt">topography</span> can excite strong interface waves called Scholte waves that are often dispersive and characterized by slow propagation but large amplitude. This type of wave can be used to invert for near seafloor shear ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..869B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..869B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formation of Non-Zonal Jets over Sloped <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boland, E.; Thompson, A. F.; Shuckburgh, E.; Haynes, P. H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present the results of an investigation into the effect of a spatially uniform slope in bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a quasi-geostrophic, doubly periodic, two-layer model. A slope in the meridional direction results in the enhancement of the 'beta' effect, producing zonal jets, familiar from many previous studies. The novel aspect of this investigation is that the bottom slope has arbitrary orientation. Jets continue to form but they are non-zonal and tilted relative to layer-wise potential vorticity gradients. We show that these non-zonal jets follow the barotropic potential vorticity gradient, and we find that eddy energies are larger when the barotropic potential vorticity gradient is aligned with the direction of the shear in the system. The tilted jets are also demonstrated to be weaker barriers to transport than their zonal counterparts using an effective diffusivity diagnostic. These results are shown to be independent of the ratio of layer depths and to carry over to more complicated <span class="hlt">topographies</span> containing slopes. We also interpret these results in the light of linear Rossby wave theory, showing the extent to which the jet orientation can be explained by the alteration of the linear dispersion relation by the presence of sloped <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the extent to which a Rhines scale can explain the separation of such jets. This work is of relevance to the many regions of the oceans where strong non-zonal jets are present, and is a significant step towards understanding the influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> properties of jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.408..362H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.408..362H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Marie Byrd Land stability using an improved basal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holschuh, N.; Pollard, D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Prior understanding of the ice-sheet setting in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) was derived primarily from geologic and geochemical studies of the current nunataks, with very few geophysical surveys imaging the ice covered regions. The geologic context suggested that the ice rests on a broad regional high, in contrast to the deep basins and trenches that characterize the majority of West Antarctica. This assumed <span class="hlt">topography</span> would favor long-term stability for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in MBL. Airborne geophysical data collected in 2009 reveal a much deeper bed than previously estimated, including a significant trough underlying DeVicq Glacier and evidence for extensive glacial erosion. Using these data, we produce a new map of subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, with which we model the sensitivity of WAIS to a warming ocean using the ice-sheet model of Pollard and DeConto (2012b). We compare the results to estimates of ice loss during WAIS collapse using the previously defined subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, to determine the impact of the newly discovered subglacial features. Our results indicate that the topographic changes are not sufficient to destabilize the northern margin of MBL currently feeding the Getz Ice Shelf; the majority of ice loss occurs from flow toward the Siple Coast. However, despite only slight <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> differences, using the new bed as a boundary condition results in an additional 8 cm of sea-level rise during major glacial retreat, an increase of just over 2%. Precise estimation of past and future ice retreat, as well as a complete understanding of the geologic history of the region, will require a higher resolution picture of the bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> around the Executive Committee mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..257J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..257J"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on tropical African vegetation coverage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Gerlinde; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Hominid evolution in the late Miocene has long been hypothesized to be linked to the retreat of the tropical rainforest in Africa. One cause for the climatic and vegetation change often considered was uplift of Africa, but also uplift of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau was suggested to have impacted rainfall distribution over Africa. Recent proxy data suggest that in East Africa open grassland habitats were available to the common ancestors of hominins and apes long before their divergence and do not find evidence for a closed rainforest in the late Miocene. We used the coupled global general circulation model CCSM3 including an interactively coupled <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> vegetation module to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on African hydro-climate and vegetation. We performed sensitivity experiments altering elevations of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau as well as of East and Southern Africa. The simulations confirm the dominant impact of African <span class="hlt">topography</span> for climate and vegetation development of the African tropics. Only a weak influence of prescribed Asian uplift on African climate could be detected. The model simulations show that rainforest coverage of Central Africa is strongly determined by the presence of elevated African <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In East Africa, despite wetter conditions with lowered African <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the conditions were not favorable enough to maintain a closed rainforest. A discussion of the results with respect to other model studies indicates a minor importance of vegetation-atmosphere or ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and a large dependence of the simulated vegetation response on the land surface/vegetation model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33B1231C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33B1231C"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing Pliocene coastlines, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and bathymetry: A geodynamic perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The middle Pliocene period (~3.3-3.0 Mya) was characterized by warm temperatures (2-3? higher) and high carbon-dioxide (~400 ppmv) concentrations which has led to its recognition as a possible analogue for the future climate. Under the auspices of the Pliocene Modeling and Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), general circulation models (GCM's) are being employed to simulate mid-Pliocene climate to better understand the biases in these models, which are presently used to make future climate predictions. Necessary boundary conditions for these simulations — land mask, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, surface albedo and vegetation cover are being provided by the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project. Bathymetry, which is not part of the PRISM supplied dataset has been adjusted by raising the sea-level by an assumed constant eustatic amount. At present the PRISM land mask, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and bathymetry reconstructions do not incorporate the gravitationally self consistent changes that would be required to account for the mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets that produced the assumed rise in eustatic sea level. The effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced corrections, due to the action of the mantle convection process, have also been neglected.The influence of these corrections on the predictions of Pliocene climate using modern GCM's remains unexplored. The continuing failure of these models to simulate proxy inferred levels of warming in high-latitude [Dowsett et al., 2013, Sci. Rep.] regions where the magnitude of the required corrections are expected to be largest make it especially important that their impact be assessed. Here, we present the results from a preliminary of the required modifications to the boundary condition data sets.We compute the gravitationally self consistent corrections using the viscoelastic theory of global, glacial isostatic adjustment and relative sea level history for a spherically symmetric Earth model. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> related changes are computed using a 3D convection model initialized using seismic tomography. Together, this creates an updated picture of the mid-Pliocene shoreline, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and bathymetry that can be employed as boundary conditions for future Pliocene climate modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......154L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......154L"><span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements for biometric applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Nathan D.</p> <p></p> <p>The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measured. Human subject <span class="hlt">topography</span> data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing <span class="hlt">topography</span> data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C31A0581C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C31A0581C"><span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between ice velocity and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Byrd Glacier, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Child, S.; Stearns, L. A.; Purdon, K.; Li, J.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Crowe, R.; Gomez-Garcia, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> controls the pattern and magnitude of ice velocity, far into the catchment basin of many Antarctic outlet glaciers. Predictive models of glacier <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and ice sheet mass balance rely on well-prescribed bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but in many regions bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> is largely unknown. This particular study investigates the relationship between bed and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ice velocity in the catchment basin and trunk of Byrd Glacier. Byrd Glacier drains ~19 % of the area of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (1,070,400 km2), and has the potential to play a significant role in the ice sheet's total mass balance. In 2011/2012, the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) collected airborne radar data over Byrd Glacier. These new measurements of bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>, along with updated surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and basin-wide ice velocity maps, are used to investigate the flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of Byrd Glacier with improved accuracy. Surface DEMs are derived from new high-resolution WorldView imagery; ice velocity is derived from repeat visible imagery, coupled with InSAR results (Rignot et al., 2011). Results exhibit relatively smooth depressions surrounding the inferred subglacial lakes, ~200 km upflow of the grounding line on Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008). Downflow of the subglacial lakes is a complex pattern of hills and valleys as ice enters the glacier trunk. At the mouth of the trunk is a large overdeepening (~2500 m) that coincides with faster ice flow. We use along- and across-flow radar profiles to perform detailed comparisons of ice velocity, bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> throughout the Byrd Glacier region. Gridded products are used to complete an updated force balance assessment. These results provide us with a better understanding of Byrd Glacier's flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and sensitivity to external perturbations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DPP.K6S17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DPP.K6S17L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability in a TWT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lau, Y. Y.; Ang, L. K.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>There is renewed interest in the traveling wave tube (TWT) because of the recent advances in microwave power module (D. R. Whaley et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 912 (1998)) and of the significant growth in satellite communication. A serious threat to the operation of TWT is bandedge oscillation, occurring at the ?-mode of the slow wave circuit. A candidate for bandedge oscillation is the excitation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability. In this paper, we approximate the circuit mode by a parabola in the dispersion diagram (?-k plane). We use the Briggs-Bers criterion to determine the threshold value of C (C = Pierce parameter) for the onset of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability. The stabilizing effect of a distributed resistive loss, and of velocity detune, is included. The differences in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instabilities between fast wave and slow wave devices are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://es.ucsc.edu/~fnimmo/website/Rhea.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://es.ucsc.edu/~fnimmo/website/Rhea.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical implications of the longwavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Rhea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nimmo, Francis</p> <p></p> <p>Geophysical implications of the longwavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Rhea F. Nimmo,1 B. G. Bills,2 P. C 16 October 2010. [1] We use limb profiles to investigate the longwavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Rhea. The degree 3 <span class="hlt">topography</span> is large enough, if uncompensated, to contaminate estimates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geofaculty.uwyo.edu/dueker/PAPERS/yellowstone%20discontinuities%20fee.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://geofaculty.uwyo.edu/dueker/PAPERS/yellowstone%20discontinuities%20fee.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle transition zone <span class="hlt">topography</span> and structure beneath the Yellowstone hotspot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dueker, Ken</p> <p></p> <p>Mantle transition zone <span class="hlt">topography</span> and structure beneath the Yellowstone hotspot David Fee and Ken ± 1.6 km, with 36­40 km of peak to peak <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This <span class="hlt">topography</span> is spatially uncorrelated, providing no evidence for a lower mantle plume currently beneath the hotspot. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> suggests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.ubc.ca/~njb/Research/super.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.ubc.ca/~njb/Research/super.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal Conversion by Supercritical <span class="hlt">Topography</span> NEIL J. BALMFORTH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Balmforth, Neil</p> <p></p> <p>Tidal Conversion by Supercritical <span class="hlt">Topography</span> NEIL J. BALMFORTH University of British Columbia <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the ocean floor. The ocean is treated as infinitely deep, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> consists. The calculations extend the previous results of Balmforth et al. for subcritical <span class="hlt">topography</span> (wherein waves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/Mitchell-Montgomery.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/Mitchell-Montgomery.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">POLYGENETIC <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF THE CASCADE RANGE, WASHINGTON STATE, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Montgomery, David R.</p> <p></p> <p>POLYGENETIC <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF THE CASCADE RANGE, WASHINGTON STATE, USA SARA GRAN MITCHELL Range of Washington State by analyzing the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, geology, and exhumation patterns across the range-relief <span class="hlt">topography</span>, 2) post-Miocene surface uplift of the range superimposed on pre-existing high-relief <span class="hlt">topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NIMPB.266.2035D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NIMPB.266.2035D"><span id="translatedtitle">White beam synchrotron <span class="hlt">topography</span> using a high resolution digital X-ray imaging detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danilewsky, A. N.; Rack, A.; Wittge, J.; Weitkamp, T.; Simon, R.; Riesemeier, H.; Baumbach, T.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a well known imaging technique to characterise strain and extended defects in single crystals. Topographs are typically collected on X-ray films. On the one hand such photographic films show a limited <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range and the production of films will be discontinued step by step in the near future. On the other hand new imaging detectors improved for X-ray tomography become more and more attractive even for <span class="hlt">topography</span> because of increasing resolution, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range, speed and active area. In this paper we report about the upgrade of the TOPO-TOMO beamline at the synchrotron light source ANKA, Research Centre Karlsruhe, with a high resolution digital camera for the <span class="hlt">topography</span> use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430....9F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430....9F"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of subduction history on South American <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Müller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Cenozoic evolution of South American <span class="hlt">topography</span> is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is restricted to the oceanic domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in 3-D continental-collision models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. Here we employ 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale model. Distinct <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision models: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type <span class="hlt">topography</span> with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type <span class="hlt">topography</span> with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical models suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DPS....40.5105G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DPS....40.5105G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Mercury from Imaging Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaskell, Robert W.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Sprague, A. L.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>During its January 2008 flyby of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired over 1200 MDIS images of the planet. Combined with images obtained during the three Mariner 10 flybys, well over half of Mercury's surface has now been imaged. We present preliminary results for the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of that surface obtained by applying stereography and stereophotoclinometry (SPC) to the images. The technique generates a series of overlapping digital <span class="hlt">topography</span>/albedo maps called L-maps which can be accurately aligned with each other, in images and on limbs. The L-map centers play the role of control points for the stereographic analysis, which solves for body-fixed control point location, camera pointing and spacecraft position. The L-maps themselves are determined by minimizing the brightness residuals between images and illuminated L-maps. The results must be treated as provisional because there was no significant variation in illumination during the flyby to help distinguish brightness variations due to <span class="hlt">topography</span> from those due to albedo and because the useful stereo separation was less then 10°. Where there was overlap between the two imaging data sets, local illumination differed by close to 90 degrees, rather too large for the assumptions underlying SPC. We present both global <span class="hlt">topography</span> for the surface imaged so far and local <span class="hlt">topography</span> for areas of geological interest, including lobate scarps, vents and craters of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053075"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Cigarette <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in the Natural Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>, suggesting that a range of representative puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems. PMID:26053075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460076','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460076"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Cigarette <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in the Natural Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morabito, P. N.; Roundtree, K. A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>, suggesting that a range of representative puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems. PMID:26053075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..301H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..301H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> Restoration of Historic City Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present <span class="hlt">topography</span>. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present <span class="hlt">topography</span> is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/18708','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/18708"><span id="translatedtitle">The trough-system algorithm and its application to spatial modeling of Greenland subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Herzfeld, Ute C.; McDonald, Brian W.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Chen, Phillip A.; Mayer, Helmut; Paden, John D.; Leuschen, Carl</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> ice-sheet models are used to assess the contribution of mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise. Mass transfer from ice sheet to ocean is in a large part through outlet glaciers. Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a3001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a3001L"><span id="translatedtitle">Open questions in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement: a roadmap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W.; O'Connor, Daniel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Control of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first principles for statistically stationary, random surfaces. For rougher surfaces, correlations can be found experimentally for specific manufacturing processes. Improvements in computational methods encourage us to revisit light scattering as a powerful and versatile tool to investigate surface and thin film <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, potentially providing information on both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and defects over large areas at high speed. Future scattering techniques will be applied for complex film systems and for sub-surface damage measurement, but more research is required to quantify and standardise such measurements. A fundamental limitation of all <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement systems is their finite spatial bandwidth, which limits the slopes that they can detect. The third section ‘Optical measurements of surfaces containing high slope angles’ discusses this limitation and potential methods to overcome it. In some cases, a rough surface can allow measurement of slopes outside the classical optics limit, but more research is needed to fully understand this process. The last section ‘What are the challenges for high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range surface measurement?’ presents the challenge facing metrologists by the use of surfaces that need measurement systems with very high spatial and temporal bandwidths, for example, those found in roll-to-roll manufacturing. High resolution, large areas and fast measurement times are needed, and these needs are unlikely to be fulfilled by developing a single all-purpose instrument. A toolbox of techniques needs to be developed which can be applied for any specific manufacturing scenario. The functional significance of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been known for centuries. Mirrors are smooth. Sliding behaviour depends on roughness. We have been measuring surfaces for centuries, but we still face many challenges. New manufacturing paradigms suggest that we need to make rapid measurements online that relate to the functional performance of the surface. This first ‘open questions’ collection addresses a subset of the challenges facing the surface metrology commun</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........79V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........79V"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> on biofilm formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasudevan, Ravikumar</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell <span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, <span class="hlt">topographies</span> tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic <span class="hlt">topography</span> shapes. In this study patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria <span class="hlt">topography</span> characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11707095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11707095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch and planum temporale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keenan, J P; Thangaraj, V; Halpern, A R; Schlaug, G</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>An increased leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) in <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-pitch (AP) musicians has been previously reported, with speculation that early exposure to music influences the degree of PT asymmetry. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether a larger left PT or a smaller right PT actually accounts for the increased overall PT asymmetry in AP musicians, anatomical magnetic resonance images were taken from a right-handed group of 27 AP musicians, 27 nonmusicians, and 22 non-AP musicians. A significantly greater leftward PT asymmetry and a significantly smaller right <span class="hlt">absolute</span> PT size for the AP musicians compared to the two control groups was found, while the left PT was only marginally larger in the AP group. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> size of the right PT and not the left PT was a better predictor of music group membership, possibly indicating "pruning" of the right PT rather than expansion of the left underlying the increased PT asymmetry in AP musicians. Although early exposure to music may be a prerequisite for acquiring AP, the increased PT asymmetry in AP musicians may be determined in utero, implicating possible genetic influences on PT asymmetry. This may explain why the increased PT asymmetry of AP musicians was not seen in the group of early beginning non-AP musicians. PMID:11707095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026516&hterms=image+registration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Bregistration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820026516&hterms=image+registration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Bregistration"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> image registration for geosynchronous satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nankervis, R.; Koch, D.; Sielski, H.; Hall, D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A procedure for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> registration of earth images acquired by cameras on geosynchronous satellites is described. A conventional least squares process is used to estimate navigational parameters and camera pointing biases from observed minus computed landmark line and element numbers. These estimated parameters along with orbit and attitude <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models are used to register images, employing an automated grey-level correlation technique, inside the span represented by the landmark data. Experimental results obtained from processing the SMS-2 observation data base covering May 2, 1979 through May 20, 1979 show registration accuracies with a standard deviation of less than two pixels if the registration is within the landmark data span. It is also found that accurate registration can be expected for images obtained up to 48 hours outside of the landmark data span.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914801','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914801"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting and Quantifying <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Neural Maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yarrow, Stuart; Razak, Khaleel A.; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Topographic maps are an often-encountered feature in the brains of many species, yet there are no standard, objective procedures for quantifying <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Topographic maps are typically identified and described subjectively, but in cases where the scale of the map is close to the resolution limit of the measurement technique, identifying the presence of a topographic map can be a challenging subjective task. In such cases, an objective <span class="hlt">topography</span> detection test would be advantageous. To address these issues, we assessed seven measures (Pearson distance correlation, Spearman distance correlation, Zrehen's measure, topographic product, topological correlation, path length and wiring length) by quantifying <span class="hlt">topography</span> in three classes of cortical map model: linear, orientation-like, and clusters. We found that all but one of these measures were effective at detecting statistically significant <span class="hlt">topography</span> even in weakly-ordered maps, based on simulated noisy measurements of neuronal selectivity and sparse sampling of the maps. We demonstrate the practical applicability of these measures by using them to examine the arrangement of spatial cue selectivity in pallid bat A1. This analysis shows that significantly topographic arrangements of interaural intensity difference and azimuth selectivity exist at the scale of individual binaural clusters. PMID:24505279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/wfs340/Restoration3.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/wfs340/Restoration3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonally Flooded Hardwood Bottomlands <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gray, Matthew</p> <p></p> <p>plantings ­ Results? #12;Difficult at best to restore natural hydrology · River & Site Hydrology AlterationsSeasonally Flooded Hardwood Bottomlands #12;<span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Vegetation Stream Channel Levee Back influence vegetation and animal communities) Surrounding land use is also important #12;Ridge and Swale</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000080640&hterms=patrick+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpatrick%2Bsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000080640&hterms=patrick+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpatrick%2Bsmith"><span id="translatedtitle">Localized Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Admittances on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/lab/people/sd103/papers/Theses/ClaudiaCenedese1998.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/lab/people/sd103/papers/Theses/ClaudiaCenedese1998.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Baroclinic Eddies Over <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Claudia Cenedese</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dalziel, Stuart</p> <p></p> <p>boundary in a rotating container. Different bottom <span class="hlt">topographies</span> that simulate both a continental slope front and a gentle continental slope tended to stabilise this second instability while a continental and a continental ridge were introduced in the container and their presence modified the flow in comparison</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS12B..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS12B..01L"><span id="translatedtitle">Overland Tsunami Flow through Complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lynett, P. J.; Cox, D. T.; Park, H.; Wiebe, D. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>As seen in numerous Japanese eyewitness videos that captured the tsunami inundation on March 11th 2011, flow interaction with the built environment is extremely complex. In addition to the entrainment of sediment and large discrete objects such as cars and ships, tsunami energy amplification due to topographic focusing was widely observed. In coastal towns and cities, this topographic focusing was due to large structures which channelled the flow to either side, often through roadways or other low-obstruction pathways. Structures in the "line-of-fire" of this channelized flow were often found to have been inflicted with relatively greater levels of damage, while the opposite was true for structures in the flow-shadow of large buildings. In this presentation, we attempt to quantify the hydrodynamic variability of flow through complex <span class="hlt">topography</span>, such as a city layout. Understanding this variability is of particular relevance to on-going engineering efforts to develop standards for tsunami design of coastal structures. A novel set of large-scale experimental data will be introduced and used to validate a depth-integrated model. The experiment was performed in the Tsunami Wave Basin at Oregon State University. Transient long wave flooding in a 1/50 scale model of the town of Seaside, Oregon was tested. Data from the experiment, including water elevations and co-located flow speeds, are used to confirm the simulated <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the numerical model. The model is shown to be capable of accurately reproducing the instantaneous wave elevation, velocity, and momentum flux of a long wave flooding a town. It is found that the numerical prediction is sensitive to the value of the bottom roughness coefficient. The model is then extended to look at the hydrodynamics in more detail and for other cases. Predicted momentum flux values from with structures resolved, with-out structures resolved, and with spatially variable bottom roughness will be discussed. It is found that localized maximum momentum flux values can be two orders of magnitude greater than the alongshore-transect mean. A method to calculate statistical variability of hydrodynamic flow properties, such as might be used in a risk-based analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978296"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.</p> <p>2009-09-13</p> <p>We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang <span class="hlt">topography</span> revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012272','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012272"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> imaging with SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~tony/watts/downloads/West_etal_2013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/~tony/watts/downloads/West_etal_2013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Links between climate, erosion, uplift, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> during intracontinental mountain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Watts, A. B. "Tony"</p> <p></p> <p>Links between climate, erosion, uplift, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> during intracontinental mountain building a window into understanding how climate influences the erosion and resulting geomorphic and sedimentary signatures of continental <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specifically, asymmetric erosion of the Hangay, associated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172788"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous sea surface structures as an object of statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klyatskin, V I; Koshel, K V</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>By exploiting ideas of statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we analyze the stochastic boundary problem of emergence of anomalous high structures on the sea surface. The kinematic boundary condition on the sea surface is assumed to be a closed stochastic quasilinear equation. Applying the stochastic Liouville equation, and presuming the stochastic nature of a given hydrodynamic velocity field within the diffusion approximation, we derive an equation for a spatially single-point, simultaneous joint probability density of the surface elevation field and its gradient. An important feature of the model is that it accounts for stochastic bottom irregularities as one, but not a single, perturbation. Hence, we address the assumption of the infinitely deep ocean to obtain statistic features of the surface elevation field and the squared elevation gradient field. According to the calculations, we show that clustering in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> surface elevation gradient field happens with the unit probability. It results in the emergence of rare events such as anomalous high structures and deep gaps on the sea surface almost in every realization of a stochastic velocity field. PMID:26172788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11138042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11138042"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> versus convective instability of spiral waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandstede; Scheel</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and convective instabilities of spirals are investigated using the continuous and the so-called <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrum. It is shown that the nature of transport, induced by an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability, is determined by spectral data of the asymptotic wave trains. The results are applied to core and far-field breakup of spiral waves in excitable and oscillatory media. PMID:11138042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10924408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10924408"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial aggregation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baharloo, S; Service, S K; Risch, N; Gitschier, J; Freimer, N B</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as "AP-1." As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20779136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20779136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.</p> <p>2006-03-27</p> <p>As a step toward <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88m1110V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88m1110V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viana, N. B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>As a step toward <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ("geometrical optics") approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and "jump" effects are also confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7305S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7305S"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the European Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sternai, P.; Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.; Fox, M.; Salcher, B.; Willett, S. D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a reconstruction of the Alpine <span class="hlt">topography</span> prior to Quaternary glaciation, based on the assumption that the pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Alps was a fluvial landscape in equilibrium with tectonic and isostatic rock uplift. Amongst the models that have been proposed, the stream-power law has been profitably used for modeling the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of fluvial bedrock channel incision: dz-= U - KAmSn dt (1) where dz/dt (m a-1) is the time rate of change of channel elevation, U(m a-1) is rock-uplift rate, A(m) is upstream drainage area, S is local channel gradient, K is a dimensionless coefficient of erosion and m and n are positive constants related to basin hydrology and erosion process. Under steady-state conditions (dz/dt = 0), equation (1) can be solved to yield an expression for equilibrium channel gradient: 1 ( U-)n - (m) S = K A n (2) where the ratios U/K and m/n are generally referred to as the steepness and concavity index, respectively. Particular focus is put on the spatial variability of the steepness index over the Alpine mountain belt. Assuming a constant concavity index, the pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Alps is obtained through an inversion technique that resolves local slopes (as described in eq. 2) by minimizing the misfit between the elevations of the actual and modeled channel heads. Comparing the present-day and reconstructed pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we infer patterns and magnitudes of exhumation and rock uplift produced by Quaternary glaciation in the Alps. We find a correspondence between rock type and pre-glacial channel steepness which may indicate that rock erodibility has a significant importance in determining the pre-glacial fluvial network elevation. Our results also provide insight into patterns of glacial erosion and associated isostatic adjustment, and provide estimates of the increase of valley-scale topographic relief and decrease of mean elevation that glaciation seems to have produced in the Alps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5966S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5966S"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation self-organization over resource fluxes in wetland ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stieglitz, Marc; Cheng, Yiwei; Truk, Greg; Engel, Victor; Ross, Joshua</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>While it is recognized that <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation self-organization (SO) are both first order controls over ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, the discrete contributions that these two controls have over ecosystem functioning have not been studied in any rigorous way. This work is focused on systematically isolating the separate and combined impacts of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and SO over vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We simulate the steady state and transient <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of nitrogen-limited patterned peat vegetation observed in the bogs of northern Siberia. We do so across a realistic range of land slopes, nutrient limitation values, and rainfall amounts. Simulation results show that on relatively shallow slopes, vegetation SO is a primary control over the spatial arrangement of vegetation, and that such self-organized arrangements yield the most efficient capture of ecosystem resources. However, as slope increases, and or resource limitation is low, <span class="hlt">topography</span> begins to exert its control over the temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. As will be discussed, these results suggest a simple continuum framework, valid across biomes, for understanding the interplay between these two first order controls. Specifically, as resources (e.g., water, nutrients) increase, ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> shift towards topographic control, while when resources are reduced, ecosystem <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> shift towards vegetation SO control.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11972374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11972374"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchrotron X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electronic materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuomi, T</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Large-area transmission, transmission section, large-area back-reflection, back-reflection section and grazing-incidence <span class="hlt">topography</span> are the geometries used when recording high-resolution X-ray diffraction images with synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet, a wiggler or an undulator of an electron or a positron storage ring. Defect contrast can be kinematical, <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> or orientational even in the topographs recorded on the same film at the same time. In this review article limited to static <span class="hlt">topography</span> experiments, examples of defect studies on electronic materials cover the range from voids and precipitates in almost perfect float-zone and Czochralski silicon, dislocations in gallium arsenide grown by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski technique, the vapour-pressure controlled Czochralski technique and the vertical-gradient freeze technique, stacking faults and micropipes in silicon carbide to misfit dislocations in epitaxic heterostructures. It is shown how synchrotron X-ray topographs of epitaxic laterally overgrown gallium arsenide layer structures are successfully explained by orientational contrast. PMID:11972374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010shcg.book.1425R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010shcg.book.1425R"><span id="translatedtitle">X-Ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Techniques for Defect Characterization of Crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Dhanaraj, Govindhan</p> <p></p> <p>X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of structural defects such as dislocations, inclusions/precipitates, stacking faults, growth sector boundaries, twins, and low-angle grain boundaries in single-crystal materials. From the first x-ray diffraction image, recorded by Berg in 1931, to the double-crystal technique developed by Bond and Andrus in 1952 and the transmission technique developed by Lang in 1958 through to present-day synchrotron-radiation-based techniques, x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> has evolved into a powerful, nondestructive method for the rapid characterization of large single crystals of a wide range of chemical compositions and physical properties, such as semiconductors, oxides, metals, and organic materials. Different defects are readily identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> theories of x-ray diffraction. This method is capable of imaging extended defects in the entire volume of the crystal and in some cases in wafers with devices fabricated on them. It is well established as an indispensable tool for the development of growth techniques for highly perfect crystals (for, e.g., Czochralski growth of silicon) for semiconductor and electronic applications. The capability of in situ characterization during crystal growth, heat treatment, stress application, device operation, etc. to study the generation, interaction, and propagation of defects makes it a versatile technique to study many materials processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QuEle..23..535V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QuEle..23..535V"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Optical visualization of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a crater formed on a solid sample by a laser pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasil'ev, Sergei V.; Ivanov, A. Yu; Lyalikov, A. M.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>A fringe projection method has been used to determine the shape of a crater formed by applying laser light to a metal plate. The crater <span class="hlt">topography</span> should be taken into account in thermal, acoustic, and plasma-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.instmath.rwth-aachen.de/~mwest/files/BouWest.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.instmath.rwth-aachen.de/~mwest/files/BouWest.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">GRAVITY DRIVEN SHALLOW WATER MODELS FOR ARBITRARY <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Blömker, Dirk</p> <p></p> <p>GRAVITY DRIVEN SHALLOW WATER MODELS FOR ARBITRARY <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> FRANC¸OIS BOUCHUT AND MICHAEL over a general <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A first model is valid for small slope variation, i.e. small curvature, and a second model is valid for arbitrary <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In both cases no particular assumption is made</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.mcmaster.ca/craig/RandomBottom-Revised08v20.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.mcmaster.ca/craig/RandomBottom-Revised08v20.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Long wave expansions for water waves over random <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Craig, Walter</p> <p></p> <p>Long wave expansions for water waves over random <span class="hlt">topography</span> Anne de Bouard1 , Walter Craig2 interacting with the random bottom. We show that the resulting influence of the random <span class="hlt">topography</span> is expressed numbers: 76B15, 35Q53, 76M50, 60F17 Keywords :Water waves, random <span class="hlt">topography</span>, long wave asymptotics #12</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ma/research/preprints/papers06/06-04.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ma/research/preprints/papers06/06-04.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation of internal undular bores by transcritical flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Generation of internal undular bores by transcritical flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span> R.H.J. Grimshaw1 , D. H, the interaction of a density stratified flow with <span class="hlt">topography</span> can generate large-amplitude, horizontally. #12;Often, these waves are generated by critical flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and in this situation the waves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/ahyvarin/papers/NIPS99.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/ahyvarin/papers/NIPS99.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Complex Cell Properties from Natural Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hyvärinen, Aapo</p> <p></p> <p>Emergence of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Complex Cell Properties from Natural Images using Extensions of ICA complex cells. Second, we deøne a <span class="hlt">topography</span> between the linear components obtained by ICA components are close to each other in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> if they are strongly dependent on each other. This leads</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.tnw.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/TNW/Over_de_faculteit/Afdelingen/Imaging_Science_and_Technology/Research/Research_Groups/Optics/Publications/Per_Year/doc/2004.022.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.tnw.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/TNW/Over_de_faculteit/Afdelingen/Imaging_Science_and_Technology/Research/Research_Groups/Optics/Publications/Per_Year/doc/2004.022.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the merit function landscape in optical system design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the merit function landscape in optical system design Eco van Driel, Florian Bociort into the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of merit function landscapes of arbitrary dimensionality. Keywords: global optimization, saddle the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the merit function space between them. Recently, we have shown that optimization paths</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://coweeta.uga.edu/publications/10491.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://coweeta.uga.edu/publications/10491.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RESEARCH ARTICLE <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-mediated controls on local vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Teskey, Robert O.</p> <p></p> <p>RESEARCH ARTICLE <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-mediated controls on local vegetation phenology estimated from MODIS patterns of phenology in humid temperate forest as a function of <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Moderate-resolution imaging spectro- radiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices are used to derive local patterns of <span class="hlt">topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://psychology.emory.edu/cognition/barsalou/papers/Simmons_Barsalou_CNP_2003_SIT_Principle.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://psychology.emory.edu/cognition/barsalou/papers/Simmons_Barsalou_CNP_2003_SIT_Principle.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">THE SIMILARITY-IN-<span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> PRINCIPLE: RECONCILING THEORIES OF CONCEPTUAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Barsalou, Lawrence W.</p> <p></p> <p>THE SIMILARITY-IN-<span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> PRINCIPLE: RECONCILING THEORIES OF CONCEPTUAL DEFICITS W. Kyle Simmons deficits, and offer different insights into their origins. Conceptual <span class="hlt">topography</span> theory (CTT) integrates it with the similarity-in-<span class="hlt">topography</span> (SIT) principle. According to CTT, feature maps in sensory-motor systems represent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://berrygroup.uchicago.edu/papers/409.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://berrygroup.uchicago.edu/papers/409.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coarsely resolved <span class="hlt">topography</span> along protein folding pathways Ariel Fernandez</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Berry, R. Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>Coarsely resolved <span class="hlt">topography</span> along protein folding pathways Ariel Ferna´ndez Instituto de Matema . The <span class="hlt">topography</span> is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and exhibiting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/AJS2001_copy.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/AJS2001_copy.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Montgomery, David R.</p> <p></p> <p>SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> DAVID R. MONTGOMERY hillslopes, and steady-state <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Plots of drainage area versus slope for these mountain ranges or exponential distributions in areas of active rock uplift and depositional <span class="hlt">topography</span>, respectively. Local</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ma.utexas.edu/mp_arc/c/07/07-228.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ma.utexas.edu/mp_arc/c/07/07-228.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">LONG WAVE EXPANSIONS FOR WATER WAVES OVER RANDOM <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>LONG WAVE EXPANSIONS FOR WATER WAVES OVER RANDOM <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> ANNE DE BOUARD 1 , WALTER CRAIG 2 with the ran­ dom bottom. We show that the resulting influence of the random <span class="hlt">topography</span> is expressed in terms of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> a#ects the equations describing the limit of solutions in the long wave regime. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://depts.washington.edu/rubelab/personnel/molea_rubel03.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://depts.washington.edu/rubelab/personnel/molea_rubel03.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Nucleus Magnocellularis Innervation by the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rubel, Edwin</p> <p></p> <p>Timing and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Nucleus Magnocellularis Innervation by the Cochlear Ganglion DAVID MOLEA). In the somatosensory system, for example, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of thalamocortical projections develops before the synaptic and Crowley, 2002). Thus, the common pattern of development seems to be that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of connections</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~michiel/MatScience.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.scs.carleton.ca/~michiel/MatScience.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Quantification by Integral and Feature-related Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smid, Michiel</p> <p></p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Quantification by Integral and Feature-related Parameters Quantifizieren von microscopy, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of brittle fracture surfaces and wire- eroded surfaces was quantified. The global-related parameters in <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, which uses methods of computational geometry. The software was tested using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.duke.edu/~dmb65/Ledogar-et-al_AJPA2013_22181_ftp.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.duke.edu/~dmb65/Ledogar-et-al_AJPA2013_22181_ftp.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Diet and Dental <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Pitheciine Seed Predators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boyer, Doug M.</p> <p></p> <p>Diet and Dental <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Pitheciine Seed Predators Justin A. Ledogar,1 * Julia M. Winchester,2. Pitheciines also exhibit highly ``complex'' occlusal <span class="hlt">topography</span> that promotes the effi- cient breakdown of demands imposed on the postcanine teeth of Pithecia might there- fore select for an average <span class="hlt">topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ualberta.ca/~bsuther/papers/topoblsep/reprint_style.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ualberta.ca/~bsuther/papers/topoblsep/reprint_style.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratified Flow over <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sutherland, Bruce</p> <p></p> <p>Stratified Flow over <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation B. R. Sutherland <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We have chosen to use periodic, finite­amplitude hills which are representative of the Earth upon internal waves generated by flow over rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>. 1 Introduction Internal waves propagate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ualberta.ca/~bsuther/papers/topoblsep/reprint_style.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ualberta.ca/~bsuther/papers/topoblsep/reprint_style.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratified Flow over <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sutherland, Bruce</p> <p></p> <p>Stratified Flow over <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Wave Generation and Boundary Layer Separation B. R. Sutherland <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We have chosen to use periodic, finite-amplitude hills which are representative of the Earth upon internal waves generated by flow over rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>. 1 Introduction Internal waves propagate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.umbc.edu/rssipl/people/aplaza/Papers/Conferences/2013.WHISPERS.Topography.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.umbc.edu/rssipl/people/aplaza/Papers/Conferences/2013.WHISPERS.Topography.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">VALIDATION OF SPECTRAL UNMIXING METHODS USING PHOTOMETRY AND <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> INFORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Plaza, Antonio J.</p> <p></p> <p>VALIDATION OF SPECTRAL UNMIXING METHODS USING PHOTOMETRY AND <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> INFORMATION Rubén Marrero1 <span class="hlt">topography</span> and photometry of the scene. The validation of the different methods and deconvolution processes <span class="hlt">topography</span> and most importantly photometry are precisely known. On the other hand better distribution maps</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.earthbyte.org/people/dietmar/Pdf/heine_etal_palaeogeo_recon_aus.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.earthbyte.org/people/dietmar/Pdf/heine_etal_palaeogeo_recon_aus.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating deep Earth <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in paleogeographic reconstructions of Australia Christian Heine a,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Müller, Dietmar</p> <p></p> <p>by combining our modelled <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> with a recent eustatic sea level curve. We suggest-driven <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is critical for understanding hinterland uplift, basin subsidence, the formation accommodation space due to transient, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> displacement of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, usually referred</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.246..394G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.246..394G"><span id="translatedtitle">Reenvisioning cross-sectional at-a-station hydraulic geometry as spatially explicit hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Transect-based hydraulic geometry is well established but depends on a complex set of subjective fieldwork and computational decisions that sometimes go unexplained. As a result, it is ripe for reenvisioning in the light of the emergence of meter-scale, spatially explicit data and algorithmic geospatial analysis. This study developed and evaluated a new spatially explicit method for analyzing discharge-dependent hydraulics coined 'hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span>' that not only increases accuracy but also eliminates several sample- and assumption-based inconsistencies. Using data and hydrodynamic simulations from the regulated, gravel-cobble-bed lower Yuba River in California, power functions were fitted to discharge-dependent average width, depth, and depth-weighted velocity for three spatial scales and then their corresponding exponents and coefficients were compared across scales and against ones computed using traditional approaches. Average hydraulic values from cross sections at the segment scale spanned up to 1.5 orders of magnitude for a given discharge. Transect-determined exponents for reach-scale depth and velocity relations were consistently over- and underestimated, respectively, relative to the hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span> benchmark. Overall, 73% of cross-sectional power regression parameters assessed fell between 10 and 50 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> percent error with respect to the spatially explicit hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span> baseline. Although traditional transect-based sampling may be viable for certain uses, percent errors of this magnitude could compromise engineering applications in river management and training works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0312225v10','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0312225v10"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic Spacetime Based on <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>ChiYi Chen</p> <p>2015-09-19</p> <p>Based on the consideration of naturalness and physical facts in Einstein's theories of relativity, a nontrivial spacetime physical picture, which has a slight difference from the standard one, is introduced by making a further distinction on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background of spacetime and the relative length or duration of base units of spacetime. In this picture, the coordinate base units in gravity-induced spacetime metric are defined by the standard clock and ruler equipped by the observer, and duplicated onto the every position of the whole universe. In contrast, the proper base units of spacetime in gravitational field are defined by the length and duration of physical events intervals in the same-type standard clock and ruler really located at every position of the universe. In principle, the reading number of the standard clock is counted by the undergone times of unit intervals defined depending on a certain kind of proper events. But the size of the base units of spacetime is essentially depicted by the length of the line segment, which is cut from the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background of spacetime by the proper events of unit interval. The effect of gravitation is just to change the length of this segment for base spacetime units. On the basis of such a physical picture of spacetime, in a fairly natural way we re-derive a new classical <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equation which satisfies a more realistic and moderately general principle of relativity. To further examine this physical picture including of gravitation and spacetime, we also reinterpret the gravitational redshifts for solar gravity tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021047"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41A1576G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P41A1576G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury and Vesta - Preliminary shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaskell, R. W.; Palmer, E. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Barnouin, O. S.; Jorda, L.; Taylor, A. H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This year two spacecraft, MESSENGER and Dawn, were placed into orbit around Mercury and the asteroid Vesta, respectively. We have been using stereophotoclinometry (SPC) to analyze MESSENGER and Dawn images both for navigation and to determine the precise shapes and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of these bodies. Because SPC requires images at different local Sun elevations and azimuths to distinguish between albedo and topographic variations, Mercury presents the challenges of a slow spin rate and a long solar day. Vesta, on the other hand, rotates more than four times per Earth day, allowing a given area of surface to be viewed under rapidly changing illumination and topographic information to be built up rapidly. The essence of SPC is that small pieces of surface called maplets and modeled with digital elevation and albedo are illuminated and correlated with images. Hundreds of these maplets are found in each image, providing a valuable data type for spacecraft navigation. Hundreds of images go into the construction of each maplet, and the resulting multi-image stereo over a wide range of viewing conditions provides a precise determination of the maplet's body-fixed position. The construction of <span class="hlt">topography</span> with SPC uses each pixel, allowing resolutions comparable to the images themselves. Mercury's <span class="hlt">topography</span> varies by about 5 km above and below that of a sphere of radius 2440 km. We compare the SPC-derived shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> with data from MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). Vesta, although a tenth of Mercury's size, exhibits variations in elevation between 17 km below and 12 km above the equipotential that best matches its surface. The lowest areas lie on the floor of the south polar impact crater, and the highest points lie on the crater's rim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980216243&hterms=Herbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerbs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980216243&hterms=Herbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerbs"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> over South America from ERS altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The results of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/418/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/418/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Alabama 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/450/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/450/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Mississippi, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033574&hterms=journal+physique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Djournal%2Bphysique','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033574&hterms=journal+physique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Djournal%2Bphysique"><span id="translatedtitle">Global relationship between oceanic geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cazenave, A.; Dominh, K.; Allegre, C. J.; Marsh, J. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The transfer function of geoid over <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a function of wavelength is derived. The relationship between oceanic geoid and seafloor depth is analyzed. The correction of the geoid and topological data for thermal cooling of the oceanic lithosphere, sediment loading, and crustal thickening induced by volcanism under large ocean plateaus is discussed. The global residual depth and geoid anomalies are computed. The admittance and correlation between residual depth and geoid anomalies as a function of wavelength are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T5308E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T5308E"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and material removal during nanoscale grinding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eder, S. J.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Vernes, A.; Betz, G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work we perform molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations to quantify and parametrize the evolution of a bcc Fe work piece <span class="hlt">topography</span> during nanometric grinding with multiple hard abrasive particles. The final surface quality depends on both the normal pressure and the abrasive geometry. We fit the time development of the substrate’s root mean squared roughness to an exponential function, allowing the definition of a run-in regime, during which the surface ‘forgets’ about its initial state, and a steady-state regime where the roughness no longer changes. The time constants associated with smoothing and material removal are almost inversely proportional to each other, highlighting the distinctiveness of these two simultaneously occurring processes. We also describe an attempt to reduce the time required to achieve the smoothest possible surface finish by periodically re-adjusting the normal pressure during the grinding process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211784Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211784Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Solutions of barotropic trapped waves over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala Sanson, Luis</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Solutions of free, barotropic waves over variable <span class="hlt">topography</span> are derived. In particular, we examine two cases: waves around axisymmetric seamounts and waves along a sloping bottom. Even though these types of oscillations have been studied before, we revisit the problem because of two main reasons: (i) The linear, barotropic, shallow-water equations with a rigid lid are now solved with no further approximations, in contrast with previous studies. (ii) The solutions are applied to a wide family of seamounts and bottom slopes with profiles proportional to exp(rs) and ys, respectively, where r is the radial distance from the centre of the mountain, y is the direction perpendicular to the slope, and s is an arbitrary positive real number. Most of previous works on seamounts are restricted to the special case s = 2. By varying the shape parameter one can study trapped waves around flat-topped seamounts or guyots (s > 2) or sharp, cone-shaped <span class="hlt">topographies</span> (s < 2). Similarly, most of previous studies on sloping bottoms report cases with s = 1 (linear slopes), whilst the present results are applied to more general bottom profiles. The resulting dispersion relation in both cases possess a remarkable simplicity that reveals a number of wave characteristics as a function of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071431','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071431"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Padre Island National Seashore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12167231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12167231"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing HAPEX <span class="hlt">topography</span> influences osteoblast response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalby, Matthew J; Di Silvio, Lucy; Gurav, Neelam; Annaz, Basil; Kayser, Michael V; Bonfield, William</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>HAPEX (hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene composite) is a second-generation orthopedic biomaterial designed as a bone analog material, which has found clinical success. The use of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in cell engineering has been shown to affect cell attachment and subsequent response. Thus, by combining bioactivity and enhancing osteoblast response to the implant surface, improved tissue repair and implant life span may be achieved. In this study a primary human osteoblast-like cell model has been used to study the influence of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and chemistry produced by three different production methods. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal scanning laser microscopy have been used to study cell adhesion; tritiated thymidine uptake has been used to observe cell proliferation; and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and biochemical methods have been used to study phenotypic expression. Transmission electron microscopy has also been used to look at more long-term morphology. The results show that <span class="hlt">topography</span> significantly influences cell response, and may be a means of enhancing bone apposition on HAPEX. PMID:12167231</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1179/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1179/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: George Washington Birthplace National Monument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0901.4859v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0901.4859v1"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Johnson noise thermometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Luca Callegaro; Vincenzo D'Elia; Marco Pisani; Alessio Pollarolo</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p>We developed an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Johnson noise thermometer (JNT), an instrument to measure the thermodynamic temperature of a sensing resistor, with traceability to voltage, resistance and frequency quantities. The temperature is measured in energy units, and can be converted to SI units (kelvin) with the accepted value of the Boltzmann constant kb; or, conversely, it can be employed to perform measurements at the triple point of water, and obtain a determination of kb. The thermometer is composed of a correlation spectrum analyzer an a calibrated noise source, both constructed around commercial mixed-signal boards. The calibrator generates a pseudorandom noise, by digital synthesis and amplitude scaling with inductive voltage dividers; the signal spectrum is a frequency comb covering the measurement bandwidth. JNT measurements at room temperature are compatible with those of a standard platinum resistance thermometer within the combined uncertainty of 60 ppm. A path towards future improvements of JNT accuracy is also sketched.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513326C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513326C"><span id="translatedtitle">Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data and Processing Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has become a hub for high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> catalog, providing users a "one-stop shop" for such information. With several thousand active users, Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is an excellent example of a mature Spatial Data Infrastructure system that is enabling access to challenging data for research, education and outreach. Ongoing Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> design and development work includes the archive and publication of datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); creation of a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; expanded support for satellite and terrestrial lidar; and creation of a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party programs and algorithms. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the project's next phase, we are working to enable equally easy and successful sharing of services for processing and analysis of these data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9752713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9752713"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Absolute</span>" sterility and "<span class="hlt">absolute</span>" freedom from particle contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knapp, J Z</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms. Any description of sterility other than as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and standardization of the results of a visual inspection for contaminating particles. The control of particle contamination in injectable products is a two-fold problem for the pharmaceutical industry. The two parts of the problem are 1) achieving contamination free product and 2) achieving this contamination free quality at an economic cost acceptable to the user. Today, there is no commonly accepted framework for the definition or analysis of the results of a manual inspection for "visible" particles. Any progress toward global harmonization of the results of a visual particle inspection must commence with the development of a common scientific language with which inspection security and economic effectiveness of an inspection can be discussed and rationally evaluated. The tools with which to define and control the results of this inspection have been developed in biophysics, illumination engineering, optics, pharmaceutical manufacturing and statistics. With them, statistically replicable measures have been developed. The statistically replicable measures are then used to evaluate the results of semi- and fully automated particle inspection systems in terms of human inspection performance. The numerical evaluation of both the freedom from contamination achieved with an inspection for particle contamination and the economic effectiveness of the inspection are compared to Pflug's sterility index. In the case of particle contamination, the final product quality depends on product quality prior to inspection and to the parameters of the inspection process. PMID:9752713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9.6683M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9.6683M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The influence of a reduced Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse rate corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the NH flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the sensible heat flux (SHFLX). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHFLX. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHFLX and anomalous cold winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the NEEM ice core site, our model suggests that up to 3.2 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these <span class="hlt">topography</span>-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1221M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1221M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these <span class="hlt">topography</span>-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Icar..193..359G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Icar..193..359G"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Iapetus' leading side</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giese, Bernd; Denk, Tilmann; Neukum, Gerhard; Roatsch, Thomas; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; McEwen, Alfred; Porco, Carolyn C.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>We have used Cassini stereo images to study the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Iapetus' leading side. A terrain model derived at resolutions of 4-8 km reveals that Iapetus has substantial <span class="hlt">topography</span> with heights in the range of -10 km to +13 km, much more than observed on the other middle-sized satellites of Saturn so far. Most of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is older than 4 Ga [Neukum, G., Wagner, R., Denk, T., Porco, C.C., 2005. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVI. Abstract 2034] which implies that Iapetus must have had a thick lithosphere early in its history to support this <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Models of lithospheric deflection by topographic loads provide an estimate of the required elastic thickness in the range of 50-100 km. Iapetus' prominent equatorial ridge [Porco, C.C., and 34 colleagues, 2005. Science 307, 1237-1242] reaches widths of 70 km and heights of up to 13 km from their base within the modeled area. The morphology of the ridge suggests an endogenous origin rather than a formation by collisional accretion of a ring remnant [Ip, W.-H., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, doi: 10.1029/2005GL025386. L16203]. The transition from simple to complex central peak craters on Iapetus occurs at diameters of 11±3 km. The central peaks have pronounced conical shapes with flanking slopes of typically 11° and heights that can rise above the surrounding plains. Crater depths seem to be systematically lower on Iapetus than on similarly sized Rhea, which if true, may be related to more pronounced crater-wall slumping (which widens the craters) on Iapetus than on Rhea. There are seven large impact basins with complex morphologies including central peak massifs and terraced walls, the largest one reaches 800 km in diameter and has rim <span class="hlt">topography</span> of up to 10 km. Generally, no rings are observed with the basins consistent with a thick lithosphere but still thin enough to allow for viscous relaxation of the basin floors, which is inferred from crater depth-to-diameter measurements. In particular, a 400-km basin shows up-domed floor <span class="hlt">topography</span> which is suggestive of viscous relaxation. A model of complex crater formation with a viscoplastic (Bingham) rheology [Melosh, H.J., 1989. Impact Cratering. Oxford Univ. Press, New York] of the impact-shocked icy material provides an estimate of the effective cohesion/viscosity at 0.04±0.01 MPa/0.6±0.2 GPas. The local distribution of bright and dark material on the surface of Iapetus is largely controlled by <span class="hlt">topography</span> and consistent with the dark material being a sublimation lag deposit originating from a bright icy substrate mixed with the dark components, but frost deposits are possible as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995373"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental evidence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective instabilities in optics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Louvergneaux, Eric; Szwaj, Christophe; Agez, Gonzague; Glorieux, Pierre; Taki, Majid</p> <p>2004-01-30</p> <p>Experimental evidence of convective and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instabilities in a nonlinear optical system is given. In optics, the presence of spatial nonuniformities brings in additional complexity. Hence, signatures characterizing these two regimes are derived based on analytical and numerical investigations. The corresponding noise-sustained and <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> patterns are observed experimentally in a liquid crystal layer subjected to a laser beam with tilted feedback. PMID:14995373</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030067822&hterms=insulin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dinsulin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030067822&hterms=insulin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dinsulin"><span id="translatedtitle">Macromolecular <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Leaps into the Digital Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A low-cost, real-time digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> images. With this development macromolecular <span class="hlt">topography</span> finally comes into the digital age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/393/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/393/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Sandy Hook 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuTMP...1a0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuTMP...1a0201L"><span id="translatedtitle">Welcome to Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leach, Richard</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its <span class="hlt">topography</span> is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this field yields across an array of applications in the modern world. To this end, we have gathered leading experts from across our scope to form our inaugural editorial board. Their broad subject knowledge and experience will help to guide the journal and ensure we meet our goal of high-quality research, published quickly, across the breadth of the subject. We are committed to providing a rapid and yet rigorous peer review process. As a launch promotion, all STMP's published content will be free to readers during 2013. The editorial board and I hope you will be as excited by the possibilities of this new journal as we are, and that you will choose to both submit your research and read STMP in the months and years to come. We look forward to reading your papers!</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983262"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon contamination <span class="hlt">topography</span> analysis of EUV masks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.</p> <p>2010-03-12</p> <p>The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044472&hterms=patrick+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpatrick%2Bsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044472&hterms=patrick+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpatrick%2Bsmith"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Admittances and Lithospheric Evolution on Mars: The Importance of Finite-Amplitude <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, Roger J.; Simons, Mark</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We calculate localized gravity/<span class="hlt">topography</span> admittances for Mars, in order to estimate elastic lithosphere thickness. A finite-amplitude correction to modeled gravity is required to properly interpret admittances in high-relief regions of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ronispc.chem.mcgill.ca/ronis/chem223/kelvin.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ronispc.chem.mcgill.ca/ronis/chem223/kelvin.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Divertissement 4: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperature From Thermodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ronis, David M.</p> <p></p> <p>Divertissement 4: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperature From Thermodynamics (North Holland, 1976) Ryogo Kubo by a thermodynamic method so that it does not depend on the choice of thermometric substance, the zero of the scale being defined as the lowest temperature which is possible thermodynamically. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> temperature, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.umn.edu/~scheel/preprints/abs-steady.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.umn.edu/~scheel/preprints/abs-steady.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instabilities of standing pulses Bjorn Sandstede</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Scheel, Arnd</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instabilities of standing pulses Bj¨orn Sandstede Department of Mathematics The Ohio State-diffusion systems that are caused by an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of the homogeneous background state. Specifically, we renders the instability convective in nature [18, 19]: Even though perturbations grow in overall amplitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ458199','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ458199"><span id="translatedtitle">Inequalities, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value, and Logical Connectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parish, Charles R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents an approach to the concept of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+judgement&pg=3&id=EJ1050985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+judgement&pg=3&id=EJ1050985"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation "Effect" Size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gorard, Stephen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happiness&pg=6&id=EJ804151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happiness&pg=6&id=EJ804151"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Income, Relative Income, and Happiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative income are positively and significantly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17g5005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17g5005F"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes. Here by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS...92...65K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014P%26SS...92...65K"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> from multispectral LROC images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korokhin, Viktor V.; Velikodsky, Yuri I.; Shalygin, Eugene V.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Kaydash, Vadym G.; Videen, Gorden</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A technique for retrieving information about the lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> from any individual multispectral LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) image has been developed. This technology is possible, since images acquired at different wavelengths correspond to different viewing angles and the influence of color differences between the images on the parallax assessments is small. This method provides the precision of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) comparable to the global lunar 100 m raster DTM retrieved from the LROC WAC stereo model (GLD100). It potentially allows one to obtain maps of the elevations with better horizontal resolution than those of the GLD100. An empirical model of the distortion for LROC WAC has been developed and used for correction of the initial WAC images. In contrast to the standard pre-flight model, our model allows for compensation of the radial distortion, decentering the optics, and tilt of the CCD array almost fully. The DEMs obtained using our approach exhibit real morphological details in some cases that are invisible in GLD100 maps. Thus, our method suggests additional independent information about the lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The fact that our elevation maps have the same projection as the initial images allows valid corrections of these images to account for topographic effects (i. e. orthorectification) in contrast to the use of the GLD100 that may have slightly different coordinates referencing in comparison to individual WAC images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3c5004H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3c5004H"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty in measurement of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haitjema, Han</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) roughness parameters were standardized in 2012. With their increasing use in science and industry, the request for traceability and uncertainty evaluation for these parameters follows logically. This paper gives an overview of the problems and possibilities that appear when uncertainties have to be associated with values that are derived from a measured surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, such as the Ra-value of a periodic specimen, the RSm value of a type-D standard, and the Sa-value of a single cutoff length of a type D standard. It is shown that straightforward implementation of the methods described in the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM) leads to impossible and impracticable equations because of the correlations between some millions of measurement points. A practical solution is found by considering the main aspects of uncertainty, as these are given in the recent ISO 25178 standards series, and applying these to a measured surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1326/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1326/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Colonial National Historical Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Stevens, Sara; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program, Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs, barrier islands, and various nearshore coastal environments for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280530','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280530"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S. Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.</p> <p>2014-01-27</p> <p>We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/384/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/384/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Northern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system on September 19, 2004. The survey resulted in the acquisition of 3.2 gigabytes of data. The data were processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of 'last return' elevations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712400K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712400K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of snow cover properties and path <span class="hlt">topography</span> on front velocities measured by GEODAR radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köhler, Anselm; McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Steinkogler, Walter; Fischer, Jan-Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>One main challenge in snow avalanche <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is to understand the complicated nature of the front <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both cold (dry-dense, powder) and warm (moist, wet) avalanches under changing snow and topographic conditions. Even more complex, by entraining warmer snow at lower altitude, transitional avalanches are able to change the frontal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from cold to warm along the path making the prediction of frontal velocity a challenging task. In order to gain an understanding on avalanche front <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, we analyze the front velocities of numerous avalanches measured with the GEODAR radar system installed at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne full-scale test site. With a spatial resolution of 1 m down slope and a frame rate of 50 Hz, this radar enables the tracking of features at the avalanche front over time, thus allowing a precise definition of the front <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Information on the snow cover is obtained from numerical simulation performed with the model SNOWPACK. Geo-referenced avalanche pictures together with lateral steered GEODAR reflections yield the location and path <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We compare the front velocities of transitional avalanches with snow cover data and <span class="hlt">topography</span> along the avalanche path. We show under which conditions changes from cold to warm flow may occur. This analysis is of fundamental importance to understand the effect of snow cover properties on the avalanches <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, but also to avoid erroneous interpretations in case the frontal <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> data are used to calibrate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0502256v10','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0502256v10"><span id="translatedtitle">New Interpretation of Inertial Force and Natural Existence of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>ChiYi Chen</p> <p>2015-01-04</p> <p>We reinvestigate the formalism of classical particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> according to the basic requirement of causal consistency, and obtain a new particle <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equation. In the application of this new particle <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equation, the new formula is more in line with the empirical laws from classical mechanics experiments than Newton's second law, but inertial reference frames are no longer required and inertial forces are no longer introduced by hand. The new <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equation can be straightforwardly applied in any reference frame which is irrotational with respect to the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background of (the whole space of) the universe, namely a moderately general principle of relativity is realized on particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The nature of the inertial force is nothing but the real forces acting on the reference object. As far as the framework of classical mechanics is concerned, the essence of this work is nothing but an error existing in the formalism of Newton's second law being corrected. However, it may be more important that the derivation of this new particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> equation strongly suggests the existence of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background for the whole space of the universe. In physical concepts, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background for space must be distinguished from the relative scales of space in order to be mostly compatible with the physical logic in Einstein's special relativity and general relativity. Certainly, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> background of space is also able to be understood as the implicit part of Newton's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> view of space-time, but the former is more natural and more accurate in natural philosophy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1793H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1793H"><span id="translatedtitle">An algorithm for generalizing <span class="hlt">topography</span> to grids while preserving subscale morphologic characteristics—creating a glacier bed DEM for Jakobshavn trough as low-resolution input for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ice-sheet models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herzfeld, Ute C.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Plummer, Joel</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm for preserving important subscale morphologic characteristics at grids of lower-resolution, in particular for linear features such as canyons and ridge lines. The development of such an algorithm is necessitated by applications that require reduced spatial resolution, as is common in cartographic generalization, GIS applications, and geophysical modeling. Since any algorithm that results in weighted averages, including optimum interpolation and ordinary kriging, cannot reproduce correct depths, a new algorithm is designed based on principles of mathematical morphology. The algorithm described here is applied to derive a subglacial bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet that includes the trough of Jakobshavn Isbræ as a continuous canyon at correct depth in a low-resolution (5-km) digital elevation model (DEM). Data from recent airborne radar measurements of the elevation of the subglacial bed as part of the CReSIS project are utilized. The morphologic algorithm is designed with geophysical ice-sheet modeling in mind, in the following context. Currently occurring changes in the Earth's climate and the cryosphere cause changes in sea level, and the societal relevance of these natural processes motivates estimation of maximal sea-level rise in the medium-term future. The fast-moving outlet glaciers are more sensitive to climatic change than other parts of the Greenland ice sheet. Jakobshavn Isbrae, the fastest-moving ice stream in Greenland, follows a subglacial geologic trough. Since the existence of the trough causes the acceleration of the slow-moving inland ice in the Jakobshavn region and the formation of the ice stream, correct representation of the trough in a DEM is essential to model changes in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the ice sheet and resultant sea-level predictions, even if current ice-sheet models can typically be run only at 5-km resolution. The DEM resultant from this study helps to bridge the conceptual gap between data analysis and geophysical modeling approaches. It is available as SeaRISE Greenland bed data set dev1.2 at http://websrv.cs.umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033697','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033697"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-99 Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission Stability and Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..245...26S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PEPI..245...26S"><span id="translatedtitle">Interior structure of the Moon: Constraints from seismic tomography, gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinberger, Bernhard; Zhao, Dapeng; Werner, Stephanie C.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Seismic tomography can be combined with constraints from geoid, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and other surface observations to gain information about mantle structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. This approach has been taken with much success for the Earth mantle, and here it is, for the first time, applied to the Moon. Lunar tomography has much lower resolution as for the Earth and is mostly restricted to the near side, nevertheless we can assess under what assumptions the fit between predicted geoid (based on a tomography model) and observed geoid is best. Among the models tested, we find the most similar pattern (correlation about 0.5) if we only consider tomography below 225 km depth, if density anomalies cause little or no <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and if we compare to the geoid with the flattening (l = 2, m = 0) term removed. This could mean that (a) like for the Earth, seismic anomalies shallower than 225 km are caused by a combination of thermal and compositional effects and therefore cannot be simply converted to density anomalies; (b) the lithosphere is sufficiently thick to prevent <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> more than a small fraction of total <span class="hlt">topography</span>; and (c) flattening is a "fossil" bulge unrelated to present-day mantle anomalies. However, we have to be cautious with interpreting our results, because for models with a comparatively higher correlation and a conversion from seismic velocity to density anomalies similar to the Earth's upper mantle, the amplitude of the predicted geoid is much lower than observed. This could either mean that the tomography model is strongly damped, or that the geoid is mostly due to shallow causes such as crustal thickness variations, with only a small part coming from the deeper mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433054"><span id="translatedtitle">Representation of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in spectral climate models and its effect on simulated precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindberg, C.; Broccoli, A.J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Spectral climate models are distinguished by their representation of variables as finite sums of spherical harmonics, with coefficients computed by an orthogonal projection of the variables onto the spherical harmonics. Representing the surface elevation in this manner results in its contamination by Gibbs-like truncation artifacts, which appear as spurious valleys and mountain chains in the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These {open_quotes}Gibbs ripples{close_quotes} are present in the surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of spectral climate models from a number of research institutions. Integrations of the Geophysical Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Laboratory (GFDL) climate model over a range of horizontal resolutions indicate that the Gibbs ripples lead to spurious, small-scale extrema in the spatial distribution of precipitation. This {open_quotes}cellular precipitation pathology{close_quotes} becomes more pronounced with increasing horizontal resolution, causing a deterioration in the fidelity of simulated precipitation in higher resolution models. A method is described for reducing the Gibbs ripples that occur when making an incomplete spherical harmonic expansion of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The new spherical harmonic representations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> are formed by fitting a nonuniform spherical smoothing spline to geodetic data and found by solving a fixed-point problem. This regularization technique results in less distortion of features such as mountain height and continental boundaries than previous smoothing methods. These new expansions of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, when used as a lower boundary surface in the GFDL climate model, substantially diminish the cellular precipitation pathology and produce markedly more realistic simulations of precipitation. These developments make the prospect of using higher resolution spectral models for studies of regional hydrologic climate more attractive. 34 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.5474v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.5474v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Measure of Local Chirality and the Chiral Polarization Scale of the QCD Vacuum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Andrei Alexandru; Terrence Draper; Ivan Horváth; Thomas Streuer</p> <p>2010-10-26</p> <p>The use of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure of local chirality is championed since it has a uniform distribution for randomly reshuffled chiral components so that any deviations from uniformity in the associated "X-distribution" are directly attributable to QCD-induced <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We observe a transition in the qualitative behavior of this <span class="hlt">absolute</span> X-distribution of low-lying eigenmodes which, we propose, defines a chiral polarization scale of the QCD vacuum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3827T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3827T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical instruments without spherical symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Until now, the known set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24125958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24125958"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engstrom, Eric J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes. PMID:24125958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900065452&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddropout','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900065452&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddropout"><span id="translatedtitle">Australian <span class="hlt">topography</span> from Seasat overland altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frey, Herbert; Brenner, Anita C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Retracking of overland returns from the Seasat altimeter using algorithms originally developed for recovering elevations over ice has led to the successful recovery of high quality continental <span class="hlt">topography</span> over Australia and other continents. Cross-over analysis both before and after orbit adjustment shows the altimetric data over land to have a 2-3 m quality. Direct comparison of gridded Seasat data with surface data re-averaged in the same way shows excellent agreement except where Seasat data are sparse, due either to poor track spacing or to dropouts caused by loss of tracker lock over steeply sloping ground. These results suggest that useful topographic data can be derived from Seasat and the more recent Geosat altimeters for parts of the world where surface data are few or of poor quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1244/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1244/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Dry Tortugas National Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This lidar-derived submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, ad event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8533E..0GN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8533E..0GN"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Water and Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914146','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914146"><span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E. ); Davis, R.K. ); Hopkins, R.A. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> without collecting additional seismic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10186369','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10186369"><span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span>. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> without collecting additional seismic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.duke.edu/~dmb65/Winchester-Boyer-et-al_2013_ajpa22398.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.duke.edu/~dmb65/Winchester-Boyer-et-al_2013_ajpa22398.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Platyrrhines and Prosimians: Convergence and Contrasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boyer, Doug M.</p> <p></p> <p>Dental <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Platyrrhines and Prosimians: Convergence and Contrasts Julia M. Winchester,1 <span class="hlt">topography</span> with that of prosimians. We sampled 111 lower second molars of 11 platyrrhine genera and 121 of 20 prosimian genera. For each tooth we calcu- lated Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), relief index (RFI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.library.yorku.ca/files/Map/Metadata/World/Land%20Info%20WWM/landinfo_SRTM_2005.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.library.yorku.ca/files/Map/Metadata/World/Land%20Info%20WWM/landinfo_SRTM_2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Title: Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) Data Creator /</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>@yorku.ca Citation: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. "Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTMTitle: Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Publisher: Land Information Worldwide Mapping, LLC. Edition: N/A Versions: N</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1492..176D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1492..176D"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications of laser ranging to ocean, ice, and land <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Degnan, John J.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has been used for over two decades in the study of a variety of geophysical phenomena, including global tectonic plate motion, regional crustal deformation near plate boundaries, Earth''s gravity field, the orientation of its polar axis and rate of spin, lunar <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and general relativistic studies. The subcentimeter precision of the technique is now attracting the attention of a new community of scientists, notably those interested in high- resolution ocean, ice, and land <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Over the next several years, the international SLR network will provide an essential link between the geocentric terrestrial reference frame (as presently defined by the international VLBI and SLR networks) and two new oceanographic satellites, ERS-1 and TOPEX-Poseidon, which will range to sea and ice surfaces using microwave altimeters. The combined SLR/altimetry data set will provide precise orbits, improved gravity models, and estimates of the marine geoid. The latter are necessary to infer the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and will enable measurements of parameters important to an understanding of global change, such as mean sea level and ice sheet thickness. Laser tracking of oceanographic satellites from multiple sites as they overfly special calibration towers equipped with tide gauges will also provide periodic estimates of microwave altimeter bias. The few-centimeter precision orbits determined by the SLR network will be used as ''ground truth'' data in the intercomparison and performance evaluation of developmental space radio-navigation systems such as GPS (TOPEX/Poseidon) and PRARE (ERS-1). Future spaceborne two-color SLR instruments, such as NASA''s geoscience laser ranging system (GLRS), can monitor the tectonically-induced motions of tide gauges by bouncing laser pulses off of collocated retroreflectors. Similar systems can measure the barometric loading over the open ocean. When used as transmitters in spaceborne or airborne altimeters, the narrow beamwidths and short pulsewidths available from lasers can provide high spatial resolution (both horizontal and vertical) topographic data over land and ice in support of a diverse set of science applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/3562','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/3562"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> vs. intensity-based emission caps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ellerman, A. Denny.</p> <p></p> <p>Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1290v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1290v1"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for detached binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>S. Bilir; T. Ak; E. Soydugan; F. Soydugan; E. Yaz; N. Filiz Ak; Z. Eker; O. Demircan; M. Helvaci</p> <p>2008-06-07</p> <p>Lutz-Kelker bias corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% ($\\sigma_{\\pi}/\\pi\\leq0.15$). The calibration equations which provide the corrected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes: $-0.18magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instruments for optically homogeneous regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tyc, Tomas</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>We propose a class of magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214544C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214544C"><span id="translatedtitle">Enabling Access to High-Resolution Lidar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> for Earth Science Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Baru, Chaitan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging a.k.a. laser scanning) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the geomorphic processes acting along the Earth's surface. These data, acquired from either an airborne platform or from a tripod-mounted scanner, are emerging as a fundamental tool for research on a variety of topics ranging from earthquake hazards to ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate digital representation of landforms and geologic hazards. However, along with the potential of lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> comes an increase in the volume and complexity of data that must be efficiently managed, archived, distributed, processed and integrated in order for them to be of use to the community. A single lidar data acquisition may generate terabytes of data in the form of point clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs), and derivative imagery. This massive volume of data is often difficult to manage and poses significant distribution challenges when trying to allow access to the data for a large scientific user community. Furthermore, the datasets can be technically challenging to work with and may require specific software and computing resources that are not readily available to many users. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is an online data access and processing system designed to address the challenges posed by lidar data, and to democratize access to these data for the scientific user community. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including raw lidar point cloud data, standard DEMs, and easily accessible Google Earth visualizations. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> uses cyberinfrastructure resources to allow users, regardless of their level of expertise, to access lidar data products that can be applied to their research. In addition to data access, the system uses customized algorithms and high-performance computing resources to allow users to perform on-the-fly data processing tasks such as the generation of custom DEMs. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>'s primarily focus is on large, community-oriented, scientific data sets, such as those acquired by the NSF-funded EarthScope project. We are actively expanding our holdings through collaborations with researchers and data providers to include data from a wide variety of landscapes and geologic domains. Ultimately, the goal is for Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> to be the primary clearing house for Earth science-oriented high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This presentation will provide an overview of the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility, including available data, processing capabilities and resources, examples from scientific use cases, and a snapshot of system and data usage thus far. We will also discuss current development activities related to deploying high-performance algorithms for hydrologic processing of DEMs, geomorphic change detection analysis, and the incorporation of full waveform lidar data into the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984nrl..reptY....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984nrl..reptY....S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmitt, A. J.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 3 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this <span class="hlt">absolute</span> illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800023351','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800023351"><span id="translatedtitle">State estimation and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> image registration for geosynchronous satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nankervis, R.; Koch, D. W.; Sielski, H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft state estimation and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> registration of Earth images acquired by cameras onboard geosynchronous satellites are described. The basic data type of the procedure consists of line and element numbers of image points called landmarks whose geodetic coordinates, relative to United States Geodetic Survey topographic maps, are known. A conventional least squares process is used to estimate navigational parameters and camera pointing biases from observed minus computed landmark line and element numbers. These estimated parameters along with orbit and attitude <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models are used to register images, using an automated grey level correlation technique, inside the span represented by the landmark data. In addition, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models can be employed to register images outside of the data span in a near real time mode. An important application of this mode is in support of meteorological studies where rapid data reduction is required for the rapid tracking and predicting of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nesys.uio.no/Publications/pdf/http___www.frontiersin.org_neuroscience_paper_10.3389_neuro.01_1.1.016.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nesys.uio.no/Publications/pdf/http___www.frontiersin.org_neuroscience_paper_10.3389_neuro.01_1.1.016.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the complete corticopontine projection: from experiments to principal maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bjaalie, Jan G.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the complete corticopontine projection: from experiments to principal maps Trygve B cellular components, commonly referred to as topographical organization. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of cortical, a principal map of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of corticopontine projections was developed. This map followed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.life.illinois.edu/clockworks/pdfs/2010Wang_OpticsLetters.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.life.illinois.edu/clockworks/pdfs/2010Wang_OpticsLetters.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gillette, Martha U.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM <span class="hlt">topography</span> at a single atomic layer in graphene. Further, using a decoupling procedure that we developed high- throughput <span class="hlt">topography</span> and refractometry of man-made and biological nanostructures. Quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://berrygroup.uchicago.edu/papers/349.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://berrygroup.uchicago.edu/papers/349.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical interpretation of <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of multidimensional potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Berry, R. Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>were the mechanism of folding proteins to their active structures. In fact crystal formation by random, such as particular crystal structures or folded protein structures. © 1995 American Institute of Physics. I on the protein-- maintenance of the integrity of the chemical bonds of the polymer chain--rule out many</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.4370v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.4370v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> resistance in a Josephson junction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>J. Nagel; D. Speer; T. Gaber; A. Sterck; R. Eichhorn; P. Reimann; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner</p> <p>2008-01-28</p> <p>We experimentally demonstrate the occurrence of negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> resistance (NAR) up to about $-1\\Omega$ in response to an externally applied dc current for a shunted Nb-Al/AlO$_x$-Nb Josephson junction, exposed to a microwave current at frequencies in the GHz range. The realization (or not) of NAR depends crucially on the amplitude of the applied microwave current. Theoretically, the system is described by means of the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model in terms of a moderately damped, classical Brownian particle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a one-dimensional potential. We find excellent agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulations of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0610049v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0610049v2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Being vs Relative Becoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Joy Christian</p> <p>2007-04-23</p> <p>Contrary to our immediate and vivid sensation of past, present, and future as continually shifting non-relational modalities, time remains as tenseless and relational as space in all of the established theories of fundamental physics. Here an empirically adequate generalized theory of the inertial structure is discussed in which proper time is causally compelled to be tensed within both spacetime and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. This is accomplished by introducing the inverse of the Planck time at the conjunction of special relativity and Hamiltonian mechanics, which necessitates energies and momenta to be invariantly bounded from above, and lengths and durations similarly bounded from below, by their respective Planck scale values. The resulting theory abhors any form of preferred structure, and yet captures the transience of now along timelike worldlines by causally necessitating a genuinely becoming universe. This is quite unlike the scenario in Minkowski spacetime, which is prone to a block universe interpretation. The minute deviations from the special relativistic effects such as dispersion relations and Doppler shifts predicted by the generalized theory remain quadratically suppressed by the Planck energy, but may nevertheless be testable in the near future, for example via observations of oscillating flavor ratios of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos, or of altering pulse rates of extreme energy binary pulsars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530887','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530887"><span id="translatedtitle">NMR and MD Studies Reveal That the Isolated Dengue NS3 Protease Is an Intrinsically Disordered Chymotrypsin Fold Which <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Requests NS2B for Correct Folding and Functional <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gupta, Garvita; Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Dengue genome encodes a two component protease complex (NS2B-NS3pro) essential for the viral maturation/infectivity, thus representing a key drug target. Previously, due to its “complete insolubility”, the isolated NS3pro could not be experimentally studied and it remains elusive what structure it adopts without NS2B and why NS2B is indispensable. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery, the isolated NS3pro has been surprisingly deciphered by NMR to be the first intrinsically-disordered chymotrypsin-like fold, which exists in a loosely-packed state with non-native long-range interactions as revealed by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). The disordered NS3pro appears to be needed for binding a human host factor to trigger the membrane remodeling. Moreover, we have in vitro refolded the NS3pro in complex with either NS2B (48–100) or the full-length NS2B (1–130) anchored into the LMPC micelle, and the two complexes have similar activities but different <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We also performed molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) simulations and the results revealed that NS2B shows the highest structural fluctuations in the complex, thus providing the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basis for the observation on its conformational exchange between open and closed states. Remarkably, the NS2B cofactor plays a central role in maintaining the correlated motion network required for the catalysis as we previously decoded for the SARS 3CL protease. Indeed, a truncated NS2B (48–100;?77–84) with the flexible loop deleted is able to trap the NS2B-NS3pro complex in a highly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and catalytically-impotent state. Taken together, our study implies potential strategies to perturb the NS2B-NS3pro interface for design of inhibitors for treating dengue infection. PMID:26258523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02765&hterms=erosion+gully&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Derosion%2Bgully','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02765&hterms=erosion+gully&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Derosion%2Bgully"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereo Pair: Inverted <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow-, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.<p/>Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, and drainage ends up in salty lakes (blue if shallow, black if deep). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lakebeds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.<p/>This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.<p/>Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1,4,7 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..982W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..982W"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate measurements of residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> from the oceanic realm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winterbourne, Jeffrey; White, Nicky; Crosby, Alistair</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In the oceans, our understanding of plate subsidence as a function of age permits residual depth anomalies to be identified and mapped. These anomalies may reflect <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and could be an important means for constraining convective circulation of the sublithospheric mantle. Here we analyze a global database of seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles from heavily sedimented oceanic crust, which abuts continental lithosphere. At 449 locations, we calculated water-loaded subsidence, compared it with a reference age-depth relationship, and determined residual depth. We then combined these spot measurements of residual depth with observations from mid-oceanic ridges and from selected ship track bathymetry to construct a global map of residual depth. Our results suggest that the amplitude of residual depth varies by up to ±1 km with wavelengths of order 103 km. We compare our residual depths with free-air gravity and seismic tomographic anomalies. Our results show that residual depths correlate with long-wavelength gravity anomalies. In contrast, correlations between residual depths and vertically averaged shear velocity anomalies within the upper and/or the lower mantle are weaker. The largest discrepancies occur at short (˜1000 km) wavelengths. These combined observations suggest that residual depth anomalies could be generate by density variations within a thin (˜102 km) low-viscosity layer beneath the lithosphere. Our global compilation should play a significant role in helping to refine predictive geodynamical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARQ50011P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARQ50011P"><span id="translatedtitle">Renewable Interfaces: Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Actuation for Complex Biological Adhesion Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pocivavsek, Luka; Ye, Sangho; Cao, Kathleen; Lee, Ka Yee C.; Velankar, Sachin; Wagner, William</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Controlling adhesion at biological interfaces is a complex problem with great biomedical importance. We use <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wrinkling, generated with PDMS/UVO chemistry under different macroscopic strains (?ij ~ 0 . 3), to create a mechanical interfacial term that frustrates particle adhesion. This device actuates surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> between flat (zero surface confinement ?ij) and wrinkled surfaces (?ij ~(A / ?) 2 , where A and ? are wrinkle amplitude and wavelength, respectively), with a maximum rate of 0.6 Hz. Un-actuated PDMS placed in contact with whole sheep blood shows near total surface coverage with adhered platelets over 90 min. Actuation showed a nearly 100-fold decrease in platelet adhesion. Interestingly, topographic actuation is four times as effective compared to flat surface actuation in controlling platelet adhesion. Our model explores the competition between surface tension terms (U? = ??ij) and interfacial elastic terms (U? =Eij (t .?ij2 +t3 . (?ij /?2)) generated because of actuation and wrinkling, where Eij is platelet modulus and t is characteristic platelet length scale. The condition for de-adhesion is U? >U? .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G13B0659S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G13B0659S"><span id="translatedtitle">New Global Bathymetry and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model Grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine <span class="hlt">topography</span> model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land <span class="hlt">topography</span> data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data. GEBCO has agreed to adopt this model and begin updating it in 2009. Ongoing tasks include building an uncertainty model and including information from the latest IBCAO map of the Arctic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00738&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00738&hterms=dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bweb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Volcanoes on Io (color)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The images used to create this enhanced color composite of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. Low sun angles near the terminator (day-night boundary near the left side of the image) offer lighting conditions which emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on the volcanic satellite. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> appears very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horse-shoe shaped feature near the terminator) while a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere. The big reddish-orange ring in the lower right is formed by material deposited from the eruption of Pele, Io's largest volcanic plume.<p/>North is to the top of this picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The resolution is 6.1 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a range of 600,000 kilometers.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>Concurrent results from Galileo's exploration of Io appear in the October 15th, 1997 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers are: Temperature and Area Constraints of the South Volund Volcano on Io from the NIMS and SSI Instruments during the Galileo G1 Orbit, by A.G. Davies, A.S. McEwen, R. Lopes-Gautier, L. Keszthelyi, R.W. Carlson and W.D. Smythe. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment, by A. McEwen, D. Simonelli, D. Senske, K. Klassen, L. Keszthelyi, T. Johnson, P. Geissler, M. Carr, and M. Belton. Io: Galileo evidence for major variations in regolith properties, by D. Simonelli, J. Veverka, and A. McEwen.<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01101&hterms=shadow+web&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dshadow%2Bweb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01101&hterms=shadow+web&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dshadow%2Bweb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Europa....the Shadow knows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This image of Europa was taken by the Galileo spacecraft under 'low-sun' illumination--the equivalent of taking a picture from a high altitude at sunrise or sunset. Note that in this image the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the terrain is emphasized. Planetary geologists use information from images acquired under a variety of lighting conditions to identify different types of structures and interpret how they formed. For example, the length of the shadow cast by a feature (e.g. a ridge or knob) is indicative of that feature's height. In this recent image, ridges and irregularly shaped knobs ranging in size from 5 kilometers across down to the limit of resolution (0.44 kilometers/pixel) can be seen. Measurements from shadow lengths indicate that features in this image range from tens of meters up to approximately one hundred meters in height.<p/>The Galileo spacecraft acquired this image of Europa's surface during its third orbit around Jupiter. The image covers an area approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) by 75 kilometers (45 miles), centered near 10S, 190W.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1161..409K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1161..409K"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging, Reconstruction, And Display Of Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klyce, Stephen D.; Wilson, Steven E.</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>The cornea is the major refractive element in the eye; even minor surface distortions can produce a significant reduction in visual acuity. Standard clinical methods used to evaluate corneal shape include keratometry, which assumes the cornea is ellipsoidal in shape, and photokeratoscopy, which images a series of concentric light rings on the corneal surface. These methods fail to document many of the corneal distortions that can degrade visual acuity. Algorithms have been developed to reconstruct the three dimensional shape of the cornea from keratoscope images, and to present these data in the clinically useful display of color-coded contour maps of corneal surface power. This approach has been implemented on a new generation video keratoscope system (Computed Anatomy, Inc.) with rapid automatic digitization of the image rings by a rule-based approach. The system has found clinical use in the early diagnosis of corneal shape anomalies such as keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal warpage, in the evaluation of cataract and corneal transplant procedures, and in the assessment of corneal refractive surgical procedures. Currently, ray tracing techniques are being used to correlate corneal surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with potential visual acuity in an effort to more fully understand the tolerances of corneal shape consistent with good vision and to help determine the site of dysfunction in the visually impaired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Modern Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostro, Ludwik</p> <p></p> <p>The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5306051','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5306051"><span id="translatedtitle">Comments on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.</p> <p>1992-01-24</p> <p>><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> or convective evolutions of instabilities can produce very different signatures of observed radiation from unstable plasmas. This is particularly useful in space plasmas when correlating experimentally observed emissions with theoretical models describing the source regions. A letter has questioned the basis and usefulness of the theory of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective instabilities by using some singular examples. The arguments put forth by these authors, based upon their singular examples, are misleading. Furthermore, the notion of a time-asymptotic limit is treated in an imprecise manner by these authors. Here, the authors point out the misconceptions in the arguments put forth by Oscarsson and Roennmark (1986) that question the validity and usefulness of the well-known theory of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective instabilities. The solid basis of the well-known theory is clarified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006329','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006329"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and geodesy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Albee, Arden</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Both completed work and work that is still in progress are presented. The completed work presented includes: (1) core-mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value for mantle viscosity; (3) code development; (4) lateral heterogeneity of subduction zone rheology; and (5) planning for the Coolfront meeting. The work presented that is still in progress includes: (1) geoid anomalies for a chemically stratified mantle; and (2) geoid anomalies with lateral variations in viscosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035064&hterms=measuring+distance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmeasuring%2Bdistance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035064&hterms=measuring+distance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmeasuring%2Bdistance"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging) is a new system for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LPI....42.2202J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LPI....42.2202J"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formation History of Olympus Mons from Paleo-<span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jozwiak, L. M.; Isherwood, R. J.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We use lava flows on the flanks of the flexural trough surrounding Olympus Mons to reconstruct the history of volcanic loading and flexure. We constrain the eruption history and rates using paleo-<span class="hlt">topography</span>, flexural modeling, and crater counting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/80808','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/80808"><span id="translatedtitle">Superoleophobic Surfaces through Control of Sprayed-on Stochastic <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Campos, Raymond</p> <p></p> <p>The liquid repellency and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics of coatings comprising a sprayed-on mixture of fluoroalkyl-functional precipitated silica and a fluoropolymer binder were examined using contact and sliding angle ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8028P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8028P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J.; Montgomery, David R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which <span class="hlt">topography</span> was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 104 years after the last major glaciation the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6357E..1YZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6357E..1YZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Profile measuring and <span class="hlt">topography</span> modeling of aluminum alloy sheet surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhigang</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>With the development of lightweight vehicles, aluminum alloy sheet plays a more and more important role in auto panel production because of its high strength and low mass. However, aluminum alloy sheet is more difficult to forming than steel and its contact and friction behavior with the die surface in warm forming is more complicated. In order to study the laws of the contact and friction behavior, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> data of aluminum alloy sheet surface should be obtained first so that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> model can be set up. The authors introduce the principle and the performance of AF-LI Contact and Non-contact Synthesis Measuring Profilometer, get the <span class="hlt">topography</span> data of aluminum alloy sheet surface by using contact measuring method. Then a statistical <span class="hlt">topography</span> model of aluminum alloy sheet surface is set up based on the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0105.photos.141202p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0105.photos.141202p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0270.photos.168461p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0270.photos.168461p/"><span id="translatedtitle">23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 - LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. February 1934. Reference BS-150. - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90428','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90428"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite Difference Elastic Wave Modeling Including Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the weathered zone (i.e., heterogeneity near the earth’s surface) have great effects on elastic wave propagation. Both surface waves and body waves are contaminated by scattering and conversion by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26271245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26271245"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J; Montgomery, David R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which <span class="hlt">topography</span> was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 10(4) years after the last major glaciation the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain. PMID:26271245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557346','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557346"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J.; Montgomery, David R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which <span class="hlt">topography</span> was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 104 years after the last major glaciation the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain. PMID:26271245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59740','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59740"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear and nonlinear stratified spindown over sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Benthuysen, Jessica A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In a stratified rotating fluid, frictionally driven circulations couple with the buoyancy field over sloping <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Analytical and numerical methods are used to quantify the impact of this coupling on the vertical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619386','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619386"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to control the cell–substrate interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including <span class="hlt">topography</span> and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cell–substrate interface. <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application. PMID:22521491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a5007A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a5007A"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the impact on fatigue performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ardi, D. T.; Li, Y. G.; Chan, K. H. K.; Blunt, L.; Bache, M. R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Areal characterization was applied to plain fatigue specimens manufactured from a nickel-based superalloy, Alloy 720Li, to determine the impact of machined/finished surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on fatigue performance of this material. Samples were subjected to fatigue testing in the as-turned and shot peened conditions to study the interaction between residual stresses and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in influencing the fatigue performance. The turning process was deliberately manipulated to produce three distinct finishes which were subsequently given an identical shot peening, resulting in six grades of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> was found to influence fatigue even in the presence of peened compressive residual stresses by promoting crack initiation at valley sites. Both the roughness amplitude and spatial characteristics of the surface were found to be important when correlating to fatigue performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/39222','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/39222"><span id="translatedtitle">Infragravity waves over <span class="hlt">topography</span>: generation, dissipation, and reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomson, James M. (James McArthur)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface infragravity waves (periods from 20 to 200 s) observed along the southern California coast are shown to be sensitive to the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the shelf region, where propagation is linear, and of the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/97851','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/97851"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunable surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> via particle-enhanced soft composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Guttag, Mark A. (Mark Andrew)</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We introduce a new class of particle-enhanced soft composites (PESC) that can generate, on demand, custom and reversible surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, with surface features that can be highly localized. These features can be ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/674/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/674/"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span>--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02764&hterms=erosion+gully&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Derosion%2Bgully','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02764&hterms=erosion+gully&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Derosion%2Bgully"><span id="translatedtitle">SRTM Anaglyph: Inverted <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued, and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.<p/>Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, but instead the drainage ends up in salty lakes (dark water, some with bright shores). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lake beds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.<p/>This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.<p/>Size: 21.5 kilometers (13.4 miles) x 27.2 kilometers (16.9 miles) Location: 41.6 deg. South lat., 67.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat band 7 (short infrared) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10143&hterms=ve&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dve','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10143&hterms=ve&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dve"><span id="translatedtitle">Science in Motion: Isolated Araneiform <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 <p/> Have you ever found that to describe something you had to go to the dictionary and search for just the right word? <p/> The south polar terrain is so full of unearthly features that we had to visit Mr. Webster to find a suitable term. 'Araneiform' means 'spider-like'. These are channels that are carved in the surface by carbon dioxide gas. We do not have this process on Earth. <p/> The channels are somewhat radially organized (figure 1) and widen and deepen as they converge. In the past we've just refered to them as 'spiders.' 'Isolated araneiform <span class="hlt">topography</span>' means that our features look like spiders that are not in contact with each other. <p/> Observation Geometry Image PSP_003087_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 24-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -87.1 degrees latitude, 126.3 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.4 km (152.8 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.5 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 73 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 08:22 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 81 degrees, thus the sun was about 9 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 206.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=single+AND+cell&pg=2&id=EJ753903','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=single+AND+cell&pg=2&id=EJ753903"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Points for Multiple Assignment Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group <span class="hlt">absolute</span> points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darshan&id=EJ158158','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darshan&id=EJ158158"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Normal Scores Test for Symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lead&pg=7&id=EJ1070973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lead&pg=7&id=EJ1070973"><span id="translatedtitle">On Relative and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Conviction in Mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.logic.math.helsinki.fi/people/jouko.vaananen/multiverse5.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.logic.math.helsinki.fi/people/jouko.vaananen/multiverse5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiverse Set Theory and <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Undecidable Propositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Väänänen, Jouko</p> <p></p> <p>Multiverse Set Theory and <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Undecidable Propositions Jouko V¨a¨an¨anen University of Helsinki and University of Amsterdam Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Background 4 3 The multiverse of sets 6 3.1 The one universe case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 The multiverse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/927741"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Despite the current concerns about ozone, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~kammer/g231/RadiometricDating.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~kammer/g231/RadiometricDating.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Time Radiometric Dating: the source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kammer, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on the Geologic Time Scale #12;Radiometric Dating · Actually a simple technique. · Only two measurements are needed: · 1. The parent of parent and daughter elements. #12;Basis of the Technique · Radioactive elements "decay." Decay occurs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0209107v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0209107v1"><span id="translatedtitle">General Relativity Requires <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Space and Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rainer W. Kuhne</p> <p>2002-09-30</p> <p>We examine two far-reaching and somewhat heretic consequences of General Relativity. (i) It requires a cosmology which includes a preferred rest frame, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> space and time. (ii) A rotating universe and time travel are strict solutions of General Relativity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ABSOLUTE+AND+ACCOUNT&id=EJ945042','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ABSOLUTE+AND+ACCOUNT&id=EJ945042"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Inequalities to Mature Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115c3401S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115c3401S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Differential Positronium-Formation Cross Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shipman, M.; Armitage, S.; Beale, J.; Brawley, S. J.; Fayer, S. E.; Garner, A. J.; Leslie, D. E.; Van Reeth, P.; Laricchia, G.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">absolute</span> experimental determinations of the differential cross sections for the formation of ground-state positronium are presented for He, Ar, H2 , and CO2 near 0°. Results are compared with available theories. The ratio of the differential and integrated cross sections for the targets exposes the higher propensity for forward emission of positronium formed from He and H2 .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33A1034C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33A1034C"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earth’s surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR <span class="hlt">topography</span> into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> also provides <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> results page and viewed directly in the browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040073468&hterms=Cirques&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCirques','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040073468&hterms=Cirques&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCirques"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Glaciated Mountain Ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brocklehurst, Simon H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated landscapes are quite distinct from their fluvial counterparts in both landforms and processes. Given the scarcity of purely fluvial, active mountain ranges, it is essential that glacial erosion be considered amongst the processes sculpting active orogenic belts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009037','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009037"><span id="translatedtitle">Shuttle <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data Inform Solar Power Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features and processes taking place on Earth."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation on Effect of Optical Stimulation to Human Using Optical <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanai, Hiro-Fumi; Yorimoto, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Toshio; Fujii, Kan-ichi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ichikawa, Noriyoshi; Koshino, Yoshihumi</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>We have observed the time course features of cerebral response while a subject is performing the visual tracking task or visual tracking plus finger tapping task using Optiocal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (OT). The distribution maps of both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins are demonstrated in contrast with the time course diagram. The response of the cerebrum differs, depending on whether the optical stimulation is static or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, even when the overall nature of the pattern and intensity of the stimulation is the same. The cerebral response to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulation is very rapid and clear, and greater in magnitude than that to static optical stimulation, but it is suppressed when an auxiliary finger tapping task is also performed. From these results, it was confirmed that OT is sensitive to both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>We discuss the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7889S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7889S"><span id="translatedtitle">Circum-Arctic mantle structure and long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the Jurassic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shephard, G. E.; Flament, N.; Williams, S.; Seton, M.; Gurnis, M.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The circum-Arctic is one of the most tectonically complex regions of the world, shaped by a history of ocean basin opening and closure since the Early Jurassic. The region is characterized by contemporaneous large-scale Cenozoic exhumation extending from Alaska to the Atlantic, but its driving force is unknown. We show that the mantle flow associated with subducted slabs of the South Anuyi, Mongol-Okhotsk, and Panthalassa oceans have imparted long-wavelength deflection on overriding plates. We identify the Jurassic-Cretaceous South Anuyi slab under present-day Greenland in seismic tomography and numerical mantle flow models. Under North America, we propose the "Farallon" slab results from Andean-style ocean-continent convergence around ~30°N and from a combination of ocean-continent and intraoceanic subduction north of 50°N. We compute circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time from subduction-driven convection models and find that slabs have imparted on average <1-16 m/Myr of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence across the region from at least 170 Ma to ~50 Ma. With the exception of Siberia, the main phase of circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence has been followed either by slowed subsidence or by uplift of <1-6 m/Myr on average to present day. Comparing these results to geological inferences suggest that subduction-driven <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> can account for rapid Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence in the Slave Craton and North Slope (respectively, <15 and 21 m/Myr, between 170 and 130 Ma) and for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence (<7 m/Myr, ~170-50 Ma) followed by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift (<6 m/Myr since 50 Ma) of the Barents Sea region. Combining detailed kinematic reconstructions with geodynamic modeling and key geological observations constitutes a powerful tool to investigate the origin of vertical motion in remote regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/17115','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/17115"><span id="translatedtitle">An improved vacuum formulation for 2D finite-difference modeling of Rayleigh waves including surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and internal discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zeng, Chong; Xia, Jianghai; Miller, Richard D.; Tsoflias, Georgios P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>velocities from spectral analysis of surface waves: 8th Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 3, 31–39. Robertsson, J. O. A., 1996, A numerical free-surface condition for elastic/ viscoelastic finite-difference modeling in the presence of <span class="hlt">topography</span>.... Miller, C. B. Park, J. A. Hunter, J. B. Harris, and J. Ivanov, 2002, Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements: Soil <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Earthquake Engineering, 22, 181–190, doi: 10.1016/S0267...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233512&keyword=AIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=48058865&CFTOKEN=48346549','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233512&keyword=AIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=48058865&CFTOKEN=48346549"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C33B0350S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C33B0350S"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Ice Flow Related <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from ICESat Altimetry in NE Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuman, C. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Extending approximately 700 km inland from the coast of Greenland, the `Bronlund' Ice Stream in Northeast Greenland has a clear influence on the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the ice sheet from the coast to near the central divide. This onset of flow in this feature is associated with high rates of basal melt; flow in the interior is characterized by high strain rates in distinct shear margins. Fahnestock et al. (2001) investigated the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ice flow patterns in the interior based on data from SAR interferometry from Joughin et al. (2001). In this paper, we use ICESat precision laser altimetry data to examine the morphology of the shear margins of this feature. ICESat's high frequency sampling, 172 m along-track, provides consistent and accurate elevation data on the relief associated with the shear margins and surface undulations in the stream itself. The marginal shear zones and the undulating internal <span class="hlt">topography</span> that define the ice stream are clearly illustrated by the sampling of the ICESat data. Repeat tracks obtained during ICESat's first four operational periods enable the impact of clouds on the elevation data to be minimized. The resulting pattern of ICESat tracks, supported by enhanced MODIS imagery, allows us to revisit the previous study based on interferometry, enabling us to study the <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> generated <span class="hlt">topography</span> using a consistently sampled set of detailed elevation profiles over large areas. Narrow marginal troughs are shown to be as much as 10 m deep over distances of a kilometer; this is pronounced <span class="hlt">topography</span> in ice 3 km thick. The relief and extent of the marginal trough on the southeastern edge of the stream is in contrast to the less well-pronounced margin on the northwest. Significant surface undulations, with horizontal extents of approximately 3 ice thicknesses, are found where ice stream flow speeds reach 50 m/year, and change character downstream as flow speeds increase. Changes in the positions of the marginal troughs may be discernable if the ICESat instrument, or a follow-on mission, repeats the same tracks in a few years with similar accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243"><span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a method to obtain accurate corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT <span class="hlt">topographies</span> without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements. PMID:22162814</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750035825&hterms=earths+tectonic+plate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearths%2Btectonic%2Bplate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750035825&hterms=earths+tectonic+plate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearths%2Btectonic%2Bplate"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> plate motions by boundary velocity minimizations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaula, W. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The main interaction of the earth's interior with the lithosphere is as a material source and sink. An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reference frame defined by minimizing the translational motion of tectonic plate boundaries differs by 0.6 cm/year from a frame defined by hot spot traces and by 0.4 cm/year from the frame defined by the most plausible model of drag forces on the plates. The rms <span class="hlt">absolute</span> translational velocities are about 2 cm/year for ocean-ocean plate boundaries and 1.5 cm/year for ocean-continent plate boundaries. The close agreement between the source and sink and the drag-dependent definitions suggests that the lithosphere, as a stress guide, to some extent controls the locations of its sources and sinks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of supernovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tedesco, Edward F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new listing of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123"><span id="translatedtitle">From Hubble's NGSL to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412350"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantification method for protein concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Mingdong; Tan, Jiaojie; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>A fast and accurate assay to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> concentration of proteins is described based on direct measurement of droplet entrapped oligomer formation in electrospray. Here we demonstrate the approach using electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA), which can distinguish monomers and dimers from higher order oligomers. A key feature of the method is that it allows determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number concentration of proteins eliminating the need for protein-specific calibration. The method was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of a NIST Standard Reference Material 927e (bovine serum albumin), a high-purity immunoglobulin G 1?, and a formulated Rituximab. The method may be applied to any electrospray source, regardless of diagnostic tool (e.g., MS or ion-mobility, etc.), provided the electrospray is operated in a droplet-fission mode. PMID:25412350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spin polarization at the nanoscale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus</p> <p>2014-12-10</p> <p>Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191383','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191383"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thüring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC–MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding 13C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative errors can cue <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping. PMID:26280315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BCrAO.110...76B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BCrAO.110...76B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840024060','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840024060"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230792"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Differential Positronium-Formation Cross Sections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shipman, M; Armitage, S; Beale, J; Brawley, S J; Fayer, S E; Garner, A J; Leslie, D E; Van Reeth, P; Laricchia, G</p> <p>2015-07-17</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">absolute</span> experimental determinations of the differential cross sections for the formation of ground-state positronium are presented for He, Ar, H2, and CO2 near 0°. Results are compared with available theories. The ratio of the differential and integrated cross sections for the targets exposes the higher propensity for forward emission of positronium formed from He and H2. PMID:26230792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1359N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1359N"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and magnetic field of Mercury from MESSENGER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neumann, Gregory</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a ˜12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60°N, and apoapsis at ˜15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68°N, 33° E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR^2 = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M=3.30 × 10 ^{23} kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C_m/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe-rich outer core of radius 2030 ± 37 km, and an assumed solid inner core. Magnetic field measurements indicate a northward offset of Mercury's axial magnetic dipole from the geographic equator by 479 ± 3 km and provide evidence for a regional-scale magnetic field approximately collocated with the northern volcanic plains of possible crustal origin. These results from MESSENGER indicate a complex and asymmetric evolution of internal structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in this end-member inner planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009897"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity, <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Margot, Jean-Luc; McNutt, Ralph; Mazarico, Erwan M.; Oberst, Jurgen; Peale, Stanley J.; Perry, Mark; Purucker, Michael E.; Rowlands, David D.; Torrence, Mark H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe-rich outer core of radius 2030 +/- 37 km, and an assumed solid inner core. Magnetic field measurements indicate a northward offset of Mercury's axial magnetic dipole from the geographic equator by 479 +/-3 km and provide evidence for a regional-scale magnetic field approximately collocated with the northern volcanic plains of possible crustal origin. These results from MESSENGER indicate a complex and asymmetric evolution of internal structure and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in this end-member inner planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P22B..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P22B..05D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated peak flow, we can examine the flow behavior at the site of the apparent subaqueous dunes and, in particular, assess whether the flow in this area is uniquely conducive to the formation of such bedforms [e.g., 9]. [1] Berman D. C. and Hartmann W. K. (2002) Icarus 159, 1-17. [2] Burr D. M. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 53-73. [3] Jaeger W. L. et al. (2010) Icarus 205, 230-243. [4] Keszthelyi L. P. et al. (2007) GRL 34, L21206. [5] McIntyre et al. (2012) JGR 117, E03009. [6] Burr D. (2005) Geomorphology 69, 242-252. [7] Burr D. M. et al. (2004) Icarus 171, 68-83. [8] Denlinger R. P. and O'Connell D. R. H. (2008) J. Hyd. Eng. 134, 1590-1602. [9] Kleinhans M. G. (2005) JGR 110, E12003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARG11003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARG11003G"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31I0749N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31I0749N"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns of catchment water redistribution: The intersection of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Predicting the temporal evolution of runoff source areas represents a grand challenge in hydrology. While catchment structural characteristics, including <span class="hlt">topography</span> and soils, are known to drive hydrologic connectivity of upland areas to the riparian and stream system, the effects of vegetation on the connectedness of water flow pathways are less well identified. The combination of lateral water redistribution by topographically driven drainage and water uptake by vegetation leads to shifting patterns of catchment storage. Hydrologic response exhibits threshold behavior with the transition from unsaturated to saturated subsurface conditions. This threshold nature in conjunction with changing storage patterns leads to effective runoff sources areas that are <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> through time. To investigate these <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, we developed and applied a parsimonious but spatially distributed watershed modeling framework and used it to quantify the effects of vegetation on the temporal evolution of catchment connectivity over two years in a snow-dominated watershed in central Montana. Spatially distributed catchment water inputs were derived from two NRCS SNOTEL sites nearby with a simple temperature based snowmelt model. Evapotranspiration was measured at an eddy-covariance tower in the watershed and disaggregated based on vegetation structure. We used this modeling framework to further explore the effects of different vegetation pattern scenarios on the temporal expansion and cessation of catchment connectivity. With this work we seek to improve our understanding of how the intersection of physical (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) and biological (vegetation) factors mediates hydrologic connectivity in headwater catchments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410442"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Saturation Levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michel, D. T.; Depierreux, S.; Tassin, V.; Stenz, C.; Labaune, C.</p> <p>2010-06-25</p> <p>This Letter reports new experimental results that evidence the transition between the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and convective growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Significant reflectivities were observed only when the instability grows in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> regime. In this case, saturation processes efficiently limit the SRS reflectivity that is shown to scale linearly with the laser intensity, and the electron density and temperature. Such a scaling agrees with the one established by T. Kolber et al.[Phys. Fluids B 5, 138 (1993)] and B Bezzerides et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2569 (1993)], from numerical simulations where the Raman saturation is due to the coupling of electron plasma waves with ion waves <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/970789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/970789"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Topography</span> X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the <span class="hlt">topography</span> laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">topography</span> process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhNan...9..159S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhNan...9..159S"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser-based nanoengineering of surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for biomedical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koroleva, Anastasia; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris. N.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In this study femtosecond laser systems were used for nanoengineering of special surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in silicon and titanium. Besides the control of feature sizes, we demonstrated that laser structuring caused changes in material wettability due to a reduced surface contact area. These laser-engineered <span class="hlt">topographies</span> were tested for their capability to control cellular behavior of human fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and MG-63 osteoblasts. We found that fibroblasts reduced cell growth on the structures, while the other cell types proliferated at the same rate. These findings make laser-surface structuring very attractive for biomedical applications. Finally, to explain the results the correlation between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the biophysics of cellular adhesion, which is the key step of selective cell control, is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1154940','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1154940"><span id="translatedtitle">Sintered silver joints via controlled <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electronic packaging subcomponents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wereszczak, Andrew A.</p> <p>2014-09-02</p> <p>Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include <span class="hlt">topography</span> modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified <span class="hlt">topography</span> that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified <span class="hlt">topography</span>, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340200"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......322S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......322S"><span id="translatedtitle">Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheats, Julian Taylor</p> <p></p> <p>The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like <span class="hlt">topography</span> to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. The role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to <span class="hlt">topographies</span> was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019566','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019566"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (LIST) Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global <span class="hlt">topography</span> and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017527','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017527"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Kearns, James A.; Zhou, Ji-Xun</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques were developed for predicting the effects of irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> is understood to imply a ground surface that: (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat, or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051237"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the multilayer film formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.; Tolstikhina, A. L.</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>The relationship between the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of substrates and multilayer films deposited on these substrates (which are used in ring laser gyroscopes) has been investigated. The surfaces were studied by atomic-force microscopy. The statistical properties of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> are analyzed within the approach based on a comparative analysis of the power spectral density functions of roughness calculated for the substrate and film. The degree of correlation between the substrate nanotopography and multilayer film is determined, and the influence of the substrate roughness on the optical characteristics of the deposited mirrors is established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.2112v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.2112v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> influence on the Lake equations in bounded domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Christophe Lacave; Toan T. Nguyen; Benoit Pausader</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>We investigate the influence of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the lake equations which describe the two-dimensional horizontal velocity of a three-dimensional incompressible flow. We show that the lake equations are structurally stable under Hausdorff approximations of the fluid domain and $L^p$ perturbations of the depth. As a byproduct, we obtain the existence of a weak solution to the lake equations in the case of singular domains and rough bottoms. Our result thus extends earlier works by Bresch and M\\'etivier treating the lake equations with a fixed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and by G\\'erard-Varet and Lacave treating the Euler equations in singular domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022776"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierce, A. D.; Main, G. L.; Kearns, J. A.; Benator, D. R.; Parish, J. R., Jr.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The development of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere is discussed. Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> here is understood to imply a ground surface that (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The study focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005188"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoid, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and convection-driven crustal deformation on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simons, Mark; Hager, Bradford H.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>High-resolution Magellan images and altimetry of Venus reveal a wide range of styles and scales of surface deformation that cannot readily be explained within the classical terrestrial plate tectonic paradigm. The high correlation of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity and the large apparent depths of compensation suggest that Venus lacks an upper-mantle low-viscosity zone. A key difference between Earth and Venus may be the degree of coupling between the convecting mantle and the overlying lithosphere. Mantle flow should then have recognizable signatures in the relationships between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, crustal deformation, and the observed gravity field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5755..510Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5755..510Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Research of the Method of Local <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Rapid Reconstructed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Minrong; Deng, Shengli; Shi, Ze</p> <p></p> <p>For fast and convenient access to the environment based on the geomorphic characteristics of camouflage regional model for the complexity of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, this article analyzes a variety of terrain modeling method’s advantages and limitations, discussed a variety of modeling methods in the set up of the study of basic on the hybrid modeling method and the integrated use of research results to generate the details of the existing landform characteristics can be controlled on all-terrain results. Generate local terrain adaptive modeling method, as a regional model disguised form with the local terrain <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the region to adapt to a good camouflage effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eee.metu.edu.tr/~tayfuna/papers/akin_j7_sensact.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.eee.metu.edu.tr/~tayfuna/papers/akin_j7_sensact.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A wireless batch sealed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> capacitive pressure sensor Orhan Akarb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Akin, Tayfun</p> <p></p> <p>A wireless batch sealed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> capacitive pressure sensor Orhan Akarb , Tayfun Akina,b,* , Khalil sensor; Sealed pressure sensor; Capacitive pressure sensor 1. Introduction <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure sensors- ricate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensors with sealed cavities that also allow easy lead transfer from inside</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.umn.edu/~scheel/preprints/spiral-stability.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.umn.edu/~scheel/preprints/spiral-stability.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> versus convective instability of spiral waves Bjorn Sandstede</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Scheel, Arnd</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> versus convective instability of spiral waves Bjo¨rn Sandstede Department of Mathematics and convective instabilities of spirals are investigated using the continuous and the so-called <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrum I, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Arnimallee 2-6, 14195 Berlin, Germany Received 26 May 2000 <span class="hlt">Absolute</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ819063','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ819063"><span id="translatedtitle">Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value for Deeper Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ponce, Gregorio A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. They should also be able to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ920859','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absolute+AND+value+AND+inequalities&id=EJ920859"><span id="translatedtitle">A Conceptual Approach to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations and Inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities. When <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/muschinski/kumar_MS_Thesis_2009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/muschinski/kumar_MS_Thesis_2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> QUARTZ-CRYSTAL BAROMETERS WITH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Muschinski, Andreas</p> <p></p> <p>SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> QUARTZ-CRYSTAL BAROMETERS WITH SUB-MICROBAR PRECISION A Thesis 2009 All Rights Reserved #12;SYSTEM PERFORMANCE OF <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> QUARTZ-CRYSTAL BAROMETERS WITH SUB OF <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> QUARTZ-CRYSTAL BAROMETERS WITH SUB-MICROBAR PRECISION SEPTEMBER 2009 GANESH KUMAR SUBRAMANIAN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fhcrc.org/content/dam/public/labs-projects/PHS/Risksymposium2014/0930_illustration%20of%20the%20development_kovalchik.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fhcrc.org/content/dam/public/labs-projects/PHS/Risksymposium2014/0930_illustration%20of%20the%20development_kovalchik.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Brent, Roger</p> <p></p> <p>Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk Prediction Stephanie A. Kovalchik skovalch@rand.org FHCRC 2014 Risk Prediction Symposium June 11, 2014 1 #12;Outline · Lung Cancer Epidemiology and Screening · Screening Benefit and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk · <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk Model for Lung Cancer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Climate Change <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS"><span id="translatedtitle">Clock time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Xinhang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drutherford','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drutherford"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=saturn+ring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsaturn%2Bring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=saturn+ring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsaturn%2Bring"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radius scale for Saturn's rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii are in error by no more than 2 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> method of measuring magnetic susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0708.2823v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0708.2823v3"><span id="translatedtitle">Bedforms in a turbulent stream.Part 1: Turbulent flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>A. Fourrière; P. Claudin; B. Andreotti</p> <p>2008-11-14</p> <p>In the context of subaqueous ripple and dune formation, we present here a Reynolds averaged calculation of the turbulent flow over a <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We perform a weakly non-linear expansion of the velocity field, sufficiently accurate to recover the separation of streamlines and the formation of a recirculation bubble above some aspect ratio. The basal stresses are investigated in details; in particular, we show that the phase shift of the shear stress with respect to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, responsible for the formation of bedforms, appears in an inner boundary layer where shear stress and pressure gradients balance. We study the sensitivity of the calculation with respect to (i) the choice of the turbulence closure, (ii) the motion of the bottom (growth or propagation), (iii) the physics at work in the surface layer, responsible for the hydrodynamic roughness of the bottom, (iv) the aspect ratio of the bedform and (v) the effect of the free surface, which can be interpreted in terms of standing gravity waves excited by <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The most important effects are those of points (iii) to (v). We show that the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> mechanisms controlling the hydrodynamical roughness (mixing due to roughness elements, viscosity, sediment transport, etc) have an influence on the basal shear stress when the thickness of the surface layer is comparable to that of the inner layer. We evidence that non-linear effects tend to oppose linear ones and are of the same order for bedform aspect ratios of the order of 1/10. We show that the influence of the free surface on the basal shear stress is dominant when the wavelength is large compared to the flow depth, so that the inner layer extends throughout the flow and in the resonant conditions, and when the downstream material velocity balances the upstream wave propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.223...96P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.223...96P"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls of initial <span class="hlt">topography</span> on temporal and spatial patterns of glacial erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Vivi K.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Herman, Frédéric; Egholm, David L.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Here we investigate the influence of initial pre-glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> on spatial and temporal patterns of glacial erosion using numerical surface process modelling, including a higher order ice sheet model. First, we consider glacier <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> when simulating glaciation in two real landscapes, representing plateau-type <span class="hlt">topography</span> (southeast Australia) and characteristic steady-state fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> (southern Taiwan). We find that the different initial landscape configurations result in distinctly different ice configurations and patterns of basal sliding. The sliding patterns are controlled by ice configuration and the resulting basal shear stresses and by the thermal properties at the base of the ice. We then investigate how these characteristic patterns of basal sliding control glacial erosion and long-term landscape evolution using synthetic representations of the two landscapes. The two landscape configurations result in markedly different spatial and temporal patterns of glacial erosion. However, the resulting landscapes may have similar morphology, irrespective of initial landscapes and glacial erosion patterns being significantly different. The numerical experiments also suggest that, in addition to basal temperature, basal shear stress is important in restricting long-term glacial erosion, which is relevant for the preservation of landforms during glaciations. Specifically, pre-glacial landforms may be eroded although they are initially protected by cold-based ice, when the ice configuration promotes significant basal shear stress (glacial erosion) at the edge of a plateau-like landscape. In contrast, pre-glacial landforms may be preserved irrespective of the ice being warm-based, when low gradients in the ice surface act to limit basal shear stress.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..129L"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Helanow, C.; Jansson, P.; Savstrup Kristensen, S.; Stenseng, L.; Forsberg, R.; Hubbard, A. L.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We present ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps with high spatial resolution (250 to 500 m) of a and-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Ørkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at ~1600 m above sea level. The bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of the Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is over-deepened and reaches an elevation of several hundreds of meters below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The covered area is one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet with studies of mass balance, <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and supraglacial lakes, and our combined dataset can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and hydrology. The compiled datasets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys are accessible for reviewers (password protected) at <a href="http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/pangaea.830314"target="_blank">doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/pangaea.830314</a> and will be freely available in the final revised paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RAA....15.1881Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RAA....15.1881Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Payload <span class="hlt">topography</span> camera of Chang'e-3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A <span class="hlt">topography</span> camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...715568H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...715568H"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in engineering <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26372264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26372264"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in engineering <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26372264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Request+AND+treatment&pg=5&id=EJ844890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Request+AND+treatment&pg=5&id=EJ844890"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Multiple Manding <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> during Functional Communication Training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Lee, John F.; Ibrahimovic, Muska</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding <span class="hlt">topographies</span> during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children. During Phase 1, a functional analysis identified conditions that maintained problem behavior for each child. During Phase 2, the children's parents taught them to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940026605&hterms=perspective+position&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dperspective%2Bposition','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940026605&hterms=perspective+position&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dperspective%2Bposition"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoid-to-<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratios on Venus: A global perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Recently available spherical harmonic solutions for the geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus are sufficiently high resolution that they can be used to address questions concerning the relationship between geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a regional scale. We have approached this question by mapping the geoid-to-<span class="hlt">topography</span> ratio (GTR) on a systematic global basis. For a given point on the surface, we consider the geoid and elevation values at all points on a gridded representation of those fields located within a specified distance of the reference point. From the set of paired values, we determine the correlation coefficient and the best-fitting straight line. The latter is the GTR at that position, and the former is a measure of the significance of the derived ratio. This procedure is then repeated for all points on the global grid, yielding maps of the GTR and the correlation coefficient. Unlike previous studies of the GRT on Venus, this apprach permits us to make an objective and systematic search for regions with anomalous GTR's as well as areas that do not demonstrate any strong correlation between geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These maps can be updated regularly as new harmonic models of the Venus geoid are produced from new Magellan tracking data. This procedure permits the development of a global perspective on the relationship between GTR and venusian surface tectonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318939"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental <span class="hlt">topography</span> of platyrrhines and prosimians: convergence and contrasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winchester, Julia M; Boyer, Doug M; St Clair, Elizabeth M; Gosselin-Ildari, Ashley D; Cooke, Siobhán B; Ledogar, Justin A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Dental topographic analysis is the quantitative assessment of shape of three-dimensional models of tooth crowns and component features. Molar topographic curvature, relief, and complexity correlate with aspects of feeding behavior in certain living primates, and have been employed to investigate dietary ecology in extant and extinct primate species. This study investigates whether dental <span class="hlt">topography</span> correlates with diet among a diverse sample of living platyrrhines, and compares platyrrhine <span class="hlt">topography</span> with that of prosimians. We sampled 111 lower second molars of 11 platyrrhine genera and 121 of 20 prosimian genera. For each tooth we calculated Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), relief index (RFI), and orientation patch count (OPCR), quantifying surface curvature, relief, and complexity respectively. Shearing ratios and quotients were also measured. Statistical analyses partitioned effects of diet and taxon on <span class="hlt">topography</span> in platyrrhines alone and relative to prosimians. Discriminant function analyses assessed predictive diet models. Results indicate that platyrrhine dental <span class="hlt">topography</span> correlates to dietary preference, and platyrrhine-only predictive models yield high rates of accuracy. The same is true for prosimians. Topographic variance is broadly similar among platyrrhines and prosimians. One exception is that platyrrhines display higher average relief and lower relief variance, possibly related to lower relative molar size and functional links between relief and tooth longevity distinct from curvature or complexity. Explicitly incorporating phylogenetic distance matrices into statistical analyses of the combined platyrrhine-prosimian sample results in loss of significance of dietary effects for OPCR and SQ, while greatly increasing dietary significance of RFI. PMID:24318939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pablonet.princeton.edu/pgd/papers/pnas/PNASv106p15181y2009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://pablonet.princeton.edu/pgd/papers/pnas/PNASv106p15181y2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>) and microscopic (surface atomic polarity) characteristics for water in contact with a model solid surface basedEnhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> Nicolas on the structure of silica. We vary both the magnitude and direction of the solid surface polarity at the atomic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sfu.ca/~jvenditt/publications/2010_2010JF001747f_Nelson_etal.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.sfu.ca/~jvenditt/publications/2010_2010JF001747f_Nelson_etal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the development of forced bed surface patches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Venditti, Jeremy G.</p> <p></p> <p>Bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the development of forced bed surface patches Peter A. Nelson,1 William E with the local flow and sediment transport fields to produce "forced patches," which are temporally stable areas of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of forced patches, we conducted a nearfield scale flume experiment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4642214','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4642214"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in engineering <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hasan, Jafar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on bacteria–material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of <span class="hlt">topography</span> mediated antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26372264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://chaos.utexas.edu/wp-uploads/2010/08/2010GL043221.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://chaos.utexas.edu/wp-uploads/2010/08/2010GL043221.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal flow over threedimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> generates outofforcingplane harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>harmonics Benjamin King,1 H. P. Zhang,1 and Harry L. Swinney1 Received 10 March 2010; revised 30 April 2010 and mixing near rough <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the ocean. Citation: King, B., H. P. Zhang, and H. L. Swinney (2010 the barotropic tide [Munk and Wunsch, 1998; Egbert and Ray, 2000]. The transfer of this barotropic energy from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4114190','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4114190"><span id="translatedtitle">An anatomical and functional <span class="hlt">topography</span> of human auditory cortical areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that—whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis—the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a <span class="hlt">topography</span> of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions. PMID:25120426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529887','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529887"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral Streptococci Biofilm Formation on Different Implant Surface <span class="hlt">Topographies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pita, Pedro Paulo Cardoso; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Ota-Tsuzuki, Claudia; Miato, Tatiane Ferreira; Zenobio, Elton G.; Giro, Gabriela; Figueiredo, Luciene C.; Gonçalves, Cristiane; Gehrke, Sergio A.; Cassoni, Alessandra; Shibli, Jamil Awad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The establishment of the subgingival microbiota is dependent on successive colonization of the implant surface by bacterial species. Different implant surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> could influence the bacterial adsorption and therefore jeopardize the implant survival. This study evaluated the biofilm formation capacity of five oral streptococci species on two titanium surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. In vitro biofilm formation was induced on 30 titanium discs divided in two groups: sandblasted acid-etched (SAE- n = 15) and as-machined (M- n = 15) surface. The specimens were immersed in sterilized whole human unstimulated saliva and then in fresh bacterial culture with five oral streptococci species: Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus cricetus. The specimens were fixed and stained and the adsorbed dye was measured. Surface characterization was performed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Surface and microbiologic data were analyzed by Student's t-test and two-way ANOVA, respectively (P < 0.05). S. cricetus, S. mutans, and S. sobrinus exhibited higher biofilm formation and no differences were observed between surfaces analyzed within each species (P > 0.05). S. sanguinis exhibited similar behavior to form biofilm on both implant surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, while S. salivarius showed the lowest ability to form biofilm. It was concluded that biofilm formation on titanium surfaces depends on surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and species involved. PMID:26273590</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P21B1603G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P21B1603G"><span id="translatedtitle">Shape and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Saturn's Satellites from Imaging Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaskell, R. W.; Mastrodemos, N.; Rizk, B.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Detailed global and local digital <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of eight of Saturn's satellites are being constructed from ensembles of overlapping maplets which completely cover the visible surfaces. Each maplet is a digital representation of a piece of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and albedo constructed from imaging data with stereophotoclinometry. Multiple images projected onto the maplet provide brightness values at each pixel which are used in a least-squares estimation for slope and relative albedo. The slopes are then integrated to produce the <span class="hlt">topography</span> solution. The central pixel of each maplet represents a control point, and the ensemble of these points is used in an estimation for their body-fixed locations, the rotational state of the body, and the position and attitude of the spacecraft. Applications of these data products include studies of cratering of icy bodies and the subsequent relaxation of the surface, while detailed shapes for the small, irregular satellites can be used to predict the surface gravity and local slope at high resolution. For a larger satellite, a precise shape determination is important because often the shape was frozen in when the body was in a different rotational state. This enables an analysis of the rotational and orbital histories of these bodies. The high resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> yields surface roughness, slopes, overall elevation variations, and fractal character of the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~axs/misc/logical-geography.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~axs/misc/logical-geography.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Two Notions Contrasted: 'Logical Geography' and 'Logical <span class="hlt">Topography</span>'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sloman, Aaron</p> <p></p> <p>that the distinction is of any significance, but I've altered my text to fit what he wrote.) APOLOGETIC NOTE 1 #12;On 4. (Probably what Ryle meant by the term.) Logical <span class="hlt">topography</span> Features of the portion of reality, or types of portions of reality, related to a given set of concepts, where the reality may be capable of being divided</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9661E..0RS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9661E..0RS"><span id="translatedtitle">Product layout induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects on intrafield levelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simiz, J.-G.; Hasan, T.; Staals, F.; Le-Gratiet, B.; Tel, W. T.; Prentice, C.; Tishchenko, A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>With continuing dimension shrinkage using the TWINSCAN NXT:1950i scanner on the 28nm node and beyond, the imaging depth of focus (DOF) becomes more critical. Focus budget breakdown studies [Ref 2, 5] show that even though the intrafield component stays the same, it becomes a larger relative percentage of the overall DOF. Process induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> along with reduced Process Window can lead to yield limitations and defectivity issues on the wafer. In a previous paper, the feasibility of anticipating the scanner levelling measurements (Level Sensor, Agile and <span class="hlt">Topography</span>) has been shown [1]. This model, built using a multiple variable analysis (PLS: Partial Least Square regression) and GDS densities at different layers showed prediction capabilities of the scanner <span class="hlt">topography</span> readings up to 0.78 Q² (the equivalent of R² for expected prediction). Using this model, care areas can be defined as parts of the field that cannot be seen nor corrected by the scanner, which can lead to local DOF shrinkage and printing issues. This paper will investigate the link between the care areas and the intrafield focus that can be seen at the wafer level, using offline <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements as a reference. Some improvements made on the model are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/617/index.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/617/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ii.uib.no/~avle/orm1.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ii.uib.no/~avle/orm1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow over rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A preliminary study with high resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> at Ormen Lange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Avlesen, Helge</p> <p></p> <p>to engineers from the oil industry and oceanographers, due to the highly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> features of the flow. As we . Helge Avlesen ¡ Jarle Berntsen ¢ November 2001 Abstract Ormen Lange is an offshore gas field located of placing oil installations on several hundred meters depth has increased the focus on the ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9508Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9508Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a global river model: A case study in the Amazon River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Dai; Lee, Hyongki; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Dutra, Emanuel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers is an important factor for surface water studies and flood hazard management. However, most continental-scale river models have not focused on the reproduction of water level because the storage and movement of surface waters are regulated by smaller-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> than their grid resolutions. Here we analyzed the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulated by a state-of-the-art global river model, CaMa-Flood, with subgrid representation of floodplain <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a case study, hydrodynamics simulation in the Amazon River was accomplished, and the simulated water surface elevations along the main stem were compared against Envisat altimetry. The seasonal cycles of the simulated water surface elevations are in agreement with the altimetry (correlation coefficient >0.69, annual amplitude error <1.6 m). The accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations was also good (averaged RMSE of 1.83 m), and the associated errors were within the range of the model uncertainty due to channel cross-section parameters. Then the ocean tide variation at river mouth was incorporated for simulating the tidal effect in the inland Amazon basin, which requires realistic representation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> water surface elevations. By applying power spectra analysis to the simulated water level variations, the 15 day cycle due to spring and neap tides was detected at Obidos, located 800 km upstream from the river mouth. The reproduction of the ocean tide propagation to the inland region suggests that CaMa-Flood includes the main physical processes needed to accurately simulate the water level <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in continental-scale rivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51A3699C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51A3699C"><span id="translatedtitle">Swarm's <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9206E..0ER','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9206E..0ER"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental results for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cylindrical wavefront testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21574561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21574561"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of 7-epi-sesquithujene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard A; Crook, Damon J</p> <p>2011-06-24</p> <p>7-epi-sesquithujene (1) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene isolated from phoebe oil, an essential oil of the Brazilian walnut tree, Phoebe porosa. It is also produced by stressed ash trees and has been shown to elicit strong electrophysiological responses on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, antennae. In the course of the development of a synthetic 7-epi-sesquithujene lure for field testing against the emerald ash borer, we found that the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of this compound had not been determined. We isolated >95% pure 7-epi-sesquithujene from phoebe oil via successive fractionation and conventional and argentation (HPLC) chromatographies. The specific optical rotation of this compound matched that of a synthetic product of known configuration. We also synthesized two other stereoisomers of sesquithujene and developed a chiral GC method to separate all four. Based on the specific rotation, stereoselective syntheses, and chiral GC analyses, 7-epi-sesquithujene present in phoebe oil and white ash was found to have the 2S,6S,7R <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration. PMID:21574561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0351G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0351G"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Bedrock <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Gangotri Glacier in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gantayat, P.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Srinivasan, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Himalayan glaciers make useful contribution in the runoff of many rivers in South Asia. Knowledge of depth and bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> is useful in understanding future distribution of glaciers; the evolution of periglacial morphology and the subglacial drainage pattern. In this investigation, we have estimated the bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Gangotri glacier which is located in the Indian part of Central Himalayas. The Gangotri glacier is one of the largest glaciers and has an areal extent of around 140 Km2.It is considered traditionally to be the source of River Ganges which is one of the main source of water for a large population living in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> was estimated using the ice thickness and surface elevation. Ice thickness was estimated using an ice flow model, surface velocities and slope. Surface velocities were estimated using sub-pixel correlation of Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery for the years 2009 and 2010. The velocities that were estimated ranged from 14-85 m/a in the upper reaches to 20-30 m/a near the snout. The surface elevation was estimated using ASTER DEM and varied from ~4100 m near the snout to ~6600 m in the upper reaches. The combination of surface elevation and depth was used to estimate spatial distribution of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The estimated bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> varies from ~3900 to 6100 masl and also shows number of depressions as deep as 50-100m. These depressions are potential sites for the formation of periglacial lakes, influencing future retreat and security of the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721309P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721309P"><span id="translatedtitle">Shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> corrections for planetary nuclear spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prettyman, Thomas H.; Hendricks, John S.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The elemental composition of planetary surfaces can be determined using gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy. Most planetary bodies for which nuclear spectroscopy data have been acquired are round, and simple, analytic corrections for measurement geometry can be applied; however, recent measurements of the irregular asteroid 4 Vesta by Dawn required more detailed corrections using a shape model (Prettyman et al., Science 2012). In addition, subtle artifacts of <span class="hlt">topography</span> have been observed in low altitude measurements of lunar craters, with potential implications for polar hydrogen content (Eke et al., JGR 2015). To explore shape and <span class="hlt">topography</span> effects, we have updated the general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to include a polygonal shape model (Prettyman and Hendricks, LPSC 2015). The shape model is fully integrated with the code’s 3D combinatorial geometry modules. A voxel-based acceleration algorithm enables fast ray-intersection calculations needed for Monte Carlo. As modified, MCNPX can model neutron and gamma ray transport within natural surfaces using global and/or regional shape/<span class="hlt">topography</span> data (e.g. from photogrammetry and laser altimetry). We are using MCNPX to explore the effect of small-scale roughness, regional-, and global-<span class="hlt">topography</span> for asteroids, comets and close-up measurements of high-relief features on larger bodies, such as the lunar surface. MCNPX can characterize basic effects on measurements by an orbiting spectrometer such as 1) the angular distribution of emitted particles, 2) shielding of galactic cosmic rays by surrounding terrain and 3) re-entrant scattering. In some cases, re-entrant scattering can be ignored, leading to a fast ray-tracing model that treats effects 1 and 2. The algorithm is applied to forward modeling and spatial deconvolution of epithermal neutron data acquired at Vesta. Analyses of shape/<span class="hlt">topography</span> effects and correction strategies are presented for Vesta, selected small bodies and cratered planetary surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/55331','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/55331"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The enhancement extends 1 km above the <span class="hlt">topography</span> suggesting that mixing is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~zubarev/papers/7.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~zubarev/papers/7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ Observation of Switchable Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Topography</span> for Y-Shaped</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Natelson, Douglas</p> <p></p> <p>In-situ Observation of Switchable Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Topography</span> for Y-Shaped Binary Brushes in Fluids Yen network-like surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> formed by coexisting stretched soluble PAA arms and collapsed insoluble PS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://shermanlab.uchicago.edu/files/Lee&SMS%20PNAS%2010.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://shermanlab.uchicago.edu/files/Lee&SMS%20PNAS%2010.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and physiology of ascending streams in the auditory tectothalamic pathway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sherman, S. Murray</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and physiology of ascending streams in the auditory tectothalamic pathway Charles C. Lee in response to photo- stimulation in the IC with caged glutamate were used to map the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of excitatory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/~cweber/publications/diss.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/~cweber/publications/diss.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Modularity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Weber, Cornelius</p> <p></p> <p>Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Modularity Modeling: Feature Detectors, <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Modularity PhD Thesis by Cornelius Weber, Berlin, July 31, 2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/keller/library/pdf/MCA_PAPER.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/keller/library/pdf/MCA_PAPER.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic geomorphology and hydrocarbon induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Mid-Channel Anticline, Santa Barbara Basin, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Keller, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>Tectonic geomorphology and hydrocarbon induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Mid-Channel Anticline, Santa The geomorphology of the western sector of the Mid-Channel Anticline (MCA), Santa Barbara, southern California. Keywords: Active folding; Tectonic geomorphology; Hydrocarbon induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> 1. Introduction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.2375L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.2375L"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the western U.S.: Mapping crustal and upper mantle density variations using a uniform seismic velocity model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levandowski, Will; Jones, Craig H.; Shen, Weisen; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>To investigate the physical basis for support of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the western U.S., we construct a subcontinent scale, 3-D density model using ~1000 estimated crustal thicknesses and S velocity profiles to 150 km depth at each of 947 seismic stations. Crustal temperature and composition are considered, but we assume that mantle velocity variations are thermal in origin. From these densities, we calculate crustal and mantle topographic contributions. Typical 2? uncertainty of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is ~500 m, and elevations in 84% of the region are reproduced within error. Remaining deviations from observed elevations are attributed to melt, variations in crustal quartz content, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>; compositional variations in the mantle, while plausible, are not necessary to reproduce <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Support for western U.S. <span class="hlt">topography</span> is heterogeneous, with each province having a unique combination of mechanisms. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> due to mantle buoyancy is nearly constant (within ~250 m) across the Cordillera; relief there (>2 km) results from variations in crustal chemistry and thickness. Cold mantle provides ~1.5 km of ballast to the thick crust of the Great Plains and Wyoming craton. Crustal temperature variations and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> pressures have smaller magnitude and/or more localized impacts. Positive gravitational potential energy (GPE) anomalies (~2 × 1012N/m) calculated from our model promote extension in the northern Basin and Range and near the Sierra Nevada. Negative GPE anomalies (-3 × 1012N/m) along the western North American margin and Yakima fold and thrust belt add compressive stresses. Stresses derived from lithospheric density variations may strongly modulate tectonic stresses in the western U.S. continental interior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G22B0218D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G22B0218D"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of SRTM <span class="hlt">Topography</span> to USGS and High Resolution Laser Altimetry <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Case Studies From the Oregon Coast Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietrich, W. E.; Stock, J. D.; Allen, D.; Beluggi, D.; Montgomery, D. R.; Roering, J. J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> mission (SRTM) acquired topographic data for the non-polar regions of earth at a nominal 30-m resolution. This horizontal resolution is dramatically higher than previous ~1 km data, and is likely to be used by a broad cross-section of the earth sciences community for detailed modeling of surface and coupled surface-atmospheric models. These users will need to know how SRTM <span class="hlt">topography</span> compares with field-scale (e.g., 1-2 m) <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We compare SRTM 30-m data to 3 sites in the forested steeplands of the Oregon Coast Range where we have acquired 2-3 m spaced <span class="hlt">topography</span> using laser altimetry and total station surveys over areas from 2-6 km2. At each site, we have field-checked the laser altimetry with ground reconnaissance and measurements, and have identified vegetation cover. In addition, we compare the SRTM data to the existing public access data from the USGS 10- and 30-m data. We compare the coarser resolution data to high resolution data, and to re-gridded versions of the high resolution data for the following landscape metrics: 1) mean slope, 2) local slope distribution, 3) drainage density at a given area threshold, 4) relief as a function of area, 5) link magnitude distribution, and 6) slope versus area for the valley network. We also compare individual hillslope and river profiles by comparing rms error of the coarser data to fine resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and evaluate the planform errors in the coarser valley network. Our comparisons should guide user's interpretation of SRTM data where ground-truthing data are absent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://vlsicad.ucsd.edu/Publications/Conferences/196/c196.ps','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://vlsicad.ucsd.edu/Publications/Conferences/196/c196.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">Wafer <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Aware Optical Proximity Correction for Better DOF Margin and CD Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kahng, Andrew B.</p> <p></p> <p>Wafer <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Aware Optical Proximity Correction for Better DOF Margin and CD Control Puneet are oblivious to the predictable nature of focus variation arising from wafer <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a result, designers that is generated by CMP simulation. The wafer <span class="hlt">topography</span> variations result in local defocus, which we explicitly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://web.uvic.ca/~jklymak/IWISE/DissipationAtSuperCritical.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://web.uvic.ca/~jklymak/IWISE/DissipationAtSuperCritical.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Direct Breaking of Internal Waves at Steep1 <span class="hlt">Topography</span>2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Klymak, Jody M.</p> <p></p> <p>1 The Direct Breaking of Internal Waves at Steep1 <span class="hlt">Topography</span>2 Jody M. Klymak, Sonya Legg, Matthew H. Alford, Maarten Buijsman,3 Robert Pinkel and Jonathan D. Nash4 5 Abstract6 7 Internal waves are often steep "supercritical" <span class="hlt">topography</span> (i.e. <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is steeper than internal wave energy13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://labs.mcb.harvard.edu/engert/Bollmann%20Neuron%202009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://labs.mcb.harvard.edu/engert/Bollmann%20Neuron%202009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Subcellular <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Visually Driven Dendritic Activity in the Vertebrate Visual System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Engert, Florian</p> <p></p> <p>Neuron Article Subcellular <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Visually Driven Dendritic Activity in the Vertebrate+ signals are heterogeneously distributed and <span class="hlt">topographi</span>- cally biased across a developing dendritic tree to stimulus space. A possible <span class="hlt">topography</span> of dendritic Ca2+ signaling may reflect the anatomical map</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://optics.nuigalway.ie/people/chris/chrispapers/Paper120.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://optics.nuigalway.ie/people/chris/chrispapers/Paper120.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Double lateral shearing interferometer for the quantitative measurement of tear film <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dainty, Chris</p> <p></p> <p>Double lateral shearing interferometer for the quantitative measurement of tear film <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> features: postblink tear undulation, tear breakup, eyelid-produced bumps and ridges, bubbles. A more suitable technique to study the tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> was proposed by Licznerski et al.,31 where</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cornea.berkeley.edu/pubs/141.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cornea.berkeley.edu/pubs/141.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: A review, new ANSI standards and problems to solve Stanley A. Klein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Klein, Stanley</p> <p></p> <p>Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: A review, new ANSI standards and problems to solve Stanley A. Klein School@spectacle.berkeley.edu Abstract: This review of corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> has three sections: 1. a brief introduction to how corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> instruments work. A quantitative comparison of the relative accuracy of slope based and position</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/pkj/Papers/Conf-O/GJST03.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/pkj/Papers/Conf-O/GJST03.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Jimack, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with <span class="hlt">topography</span> Gaskell, P. Abstract This paper considers gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over substrates with <span class="hlt">topography</span> of gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over well defined <span class="hlt">topography</span>, as indicated in Figure 1, in which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://math.jacobs-university.de/oliver/papers/gfd.ps','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://math.jacobs-university.de/oliver/papers/gfd.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">JUSTIFICATION OF THE SHALLOW WATER LIMIT FOR A RIGID LID FLOW WITH BOTTOM <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Oliver, Marcel</p> <p></p> <p>JUSTIFICATION OF THE SHALLOW WATER LIMIT FOR A RIGID LID FLOW WITH BOTTOM <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> MARCEL OLIVER with bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We prove an a priori estimate in the Sobolev space H m for m #21; 3 which shows and the magnitude of the initial data in H m , the gradient of the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> in H m+1 , and the aspect ratio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cmi.univ-mrs.fr/~gallouet/Publi/cf2003.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.cmi.univ-mrs.fr/~gallouet/Publi/cf2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Some approximate Godunov schemes to compute shallow-water equations with <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gallouët, Thierry</p> <p></p> <p>Some approximate Godunov schemes to compute shallow-water equations with <span class="hlt">topography</span> Thierry the computation of shallow-water equations with <span class="hlt">topography</span> by Finite Volume methods, in a one are based on a discretisation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> by a piecewise function constant on each cell of the mesh</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uq.edu.au/spatialecology/docs/Publications/2008_Davies_etal_CityWideRelationships.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uq.edu.au/spatialecology/docs/Publications/2008_Davies_etal_CityWideRelationships.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Queensland, University of</p> <p></p> <p>City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and <span class="hlt">topography</span> Richard G. Davies in urban form and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The total area of buildings and length of the road network are equally strong-cover. <span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Urban form Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:269­287 DOI 10.1007/s11252-008-0062-y R. G. Davies :O. Barbosa</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ovrynlab.org/reprints/OvrynBiomedOpticsExpress.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ovrynlab.org/reprints/OvrynBiomedOpticsExpress.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reflectivity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of cells grown on glass-coverslips measured with</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ovryn, Ben</p> <p></p> <p>Reflectivity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of cells grown on glass-coverslips measured with phase-shifted laser the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and reflection from calibration spheres and from stress fibers and adhesions in both fixed membrane <span class="hlt">topography</span>," Cell. Biochem. Bio- phys. 1(3), 391­414 (2004). 11. J. T. Groves, R. Parthasarathy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.psych.ucsb.edu/gazzaniga/michael/PDF/Cortical%20Projection%20Topography%20of%20the%20Human%20Splenium.%20Hemispheric%20Asymmetry%20and%20Individual%20Differences.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.psych.ucsb.edu/gazzaniga/michael/PDF/Cortical%20Projection%20Topography%20of%20the%20Human%20Splenium.%20Hemispheric%20Asymmetry%20and%20Individual%20Differences.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Cortical Projection <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Human Splenium: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Individual Differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gazzaniga, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Cortical Projection <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Human Splenium: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Individual <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the human splenium. Homotopic and heterotopic connections were revealed between the splenium difficult to trace the cortical projection <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of long white matter fiber tracts of the human brain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sirius.bu.edu/withers/pppp/pdf/remsensptysurf1999paper.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sirius.bu.edu/withers/pppp/pdf/remsensptysurf1999paper.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Separating the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and composition in the Clementine UVVIS data set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Withers, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>Separating the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and composition in the Clementine UVVIS data set Paul Withers - 10 May 1999 Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and surface composition both affect corrected for <span class="hlt">topography</span> are generated for each of the five images. The technique is evaluated by comparing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.psych.cornell.edu/~blf2/pdfs/BLFVN08.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.psych.cornell.edu/~blf2/pdfs/BLFVN08.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ForPeerReview Number and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Cones, Rods and Optic Nerve Axons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Finlay, Barbara L.</p> <p></p> <p>ForPeerReview Number and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Cones, Rods and Optic Nerve Axons in New and Old World nerve Visual Neuroscience #12;ForPeerReview 1 Number and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Cones, Rods and Optic Nerve AxonsPeerReview 2 Number and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Cones, Rods and Optic Nerve Axons in New and Old World Primates Abstract</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.meteo.mcgill.ca/~swson/papers/Son_etal_JAS2009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.meteo.mcgill.ca/~swson/papers/Son_etal_JAS2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Son, Seok-Woo</p> <p></p> <p>The Effect of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on storm-track intensity is examined with a set of primitive equation model flow impinging on the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. If the background flow consists of a weak double jet, higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/castelaoEtalGRL2005.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/castelaoEtalGRL2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interactions in the northern California Current System observed from geostationary satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, Ravi</p> <p></p> <p>Flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interactions in the northern California Current System observed from geostationary: Castelao, R. M., J. A. Barth, and T. P. Mavor (2005), Flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interactions in the northern in regions of simple <span class="hlt">topography</span>, to the north of Newport (44.65°N). Recently, however, interest in regions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.soft-matter.uni-tuebingen.de/publications/Wang_jpcl14.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.soft-matter.uni-tuebingen.de/publications/Wang_jpcl14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Correlated Confocal Raman Microscopy with Cylindrical Vector Beams for Probing Nanoscale Structural Order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schreiber, Frank</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Correlated Confocal Raman Microscopy with Cylindrical Vector Beams for Probing Nanoscale, such as radially or azimuthally polarized doughnut beams, are combined with <span class="hlt">topography</span> studies of pentacene thin in the mirror focus and kept within a nanometer distance from the surface to probe the <span class="hlt">topography</span> using shear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ocean.washington.edu/research/gfd/rhines-vorticity2-viii2011.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ocean.washington.edu/research/gfd/rhines-vorticity2-viii2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of the ocean circulation by boundaries and <span class="hlt">topography</span> P.B. Rhines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Control of the ocean circulation by boundaries and <span class="hlt">topography</span> P.B. Rhines University of Washington enstrophy and zonal momentum, which no longer hold in the ocean basins or with uneven <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Since circulation. Generalizations to stratified oceans and oceans with continental-rise bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> are given</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.engineering.usu.edu/cee/faculty/dtarb/Youn_XSEDE_2014.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.engineering.usu.edu/cee/faculty/dtarb/Youn_XSEDE_2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Tarboton, David</p> <p></p> <p>Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. These web services make results from community software packages and other cyberinfrastructure-based applications available to the wider earth sciences community via the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/jharvey/pdf/GRL_2006_2006GL025747.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/jharvey/pdf/GRL_2006_2006GL025747.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact three-dimensional spectral solution to surface-groundwater interactions with arbitrary surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> Anders Wo¨rman,1 Aaron I. Packman,2 Lars Marklund,1 Judson W. Harvey,3 and Susa H. [1] It has been long known that land surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> governs both groundwater flow patterns that the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be separated in a Fourier-series spectrum that provides an exact solution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://topex.ucsd.edu/geodynamics/16_Transfer.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://topex.ucsd.edu/geodynamics/16_Transfer.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Transfer Function and Isostatic Geoid Anomalies (Copyright 2002, David T. Sandwell)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sandwell, David T.</p> <p></p> <p>1 Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Transfer Function and Isostatic Geoid Anomalies (Copyright 2002, David T to develop a linear relationship between gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This relationship can be used in a variety of ways. (1) If both the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity are measured over an area that is several times greater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sirius.bu.edu/withers/pppp/pdf/lpsc2002vl1topoabs.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sirius.bu.edu/withers/pppp/pdf/lpsc2002vl1topoabs.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ERRORS IN VIKING LANDER ATMOSPHERIC PROFILES DISCOVERED USING MOLA <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span>. Paul Withers1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Withers, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>ERRORS IN VIKING LANDER ATMOSPHERIC PROFILES DISCOVERED USING MOLA <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span>. Paul Withers1 , R. D above the spatially-varying martian <span class="hlt">topography</span>, were used to constrain the reconstructed trajectory of martian <span class="hlt">topography</span> pro- vided by the laser altimeter (MOLA) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.colostate.edu/~cheney/papers/eusar.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.colostate.edu/~cheney/papers/eusar.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SYNTHETIC APERTURE INVERSION FOR NON-FLAT <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> C. J. Nolan *</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cheney, Margaret</p> <p></p> <p>SYNTHETIC APERTURE INVERSION FOR NON-FLAT <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> C. J. Nolan * , M. Cheney ** * Department <span class="hlt">topography</span> is known but not necessarily flat. We consider two cases, corresponding to the degree and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> to avoid artifacts. We show that the algorithm correctly reproduces certain features of the scene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/bookhagen06_trmm_himalaya.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/bookhagen06_trmm_himalaya.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Bodo Bookhagen1,2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bookhagen, Bodo</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya Bodo Bookhagen1. To investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and relief on rainfall generation and resultant erosion, we processed distribution of rainfall and (2) the large-scale relationships between <span class="hlt">topography</span>, relief, and rainfall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www4.ncsu.edu/~acherto/papers/BCK.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www4.ncsu.edu/~acherto/papers/BCK.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Central-Upwind Scheme for Shallow Water Equations with Discontinuous Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chertock, Alina</p> <p></p> <p>Central-Upwind Scheme for Shallow Water Equations with Discontinuous Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Andrew are achieved, in particular, by using continuous piecewise linear interpolation of the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> function. However, when the bottom function is discontinuous or a model with a moving bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712796A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712796A"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of local <span class="hlt">topography</span> on glacial geomorphological records in West Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Tim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Holocene glacial record of Lyngmarksbræen, an ice cap in West Greenland, has been used to explore the impacts of local <span class="hlt">topography</span> on landform generation and preservation. It is well-established that glacial response to regional climate drivers may be locally modulated by local-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but there has been little systematic investigation of its impacts on the geomorphological record. Establishing the relative influence of regional and local-scale drivers on landform development is important as it will allow us to make more robust reconstructions of past ice <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Detailed geomorphological analysis of seven outlet valleys from Lyngmarksbræen, Disko Island has been undertaken. Satellite imagery and field mapping have been used to explore the topographic variations of neighbouring valleys, and the resulting geomorphological record. Comparisons between valleys are made on the basis of existing morphostratigraphic correlations (Ingólfsson, 1990) and recent surface exposure ages (Lane et al., In prep), which indicate that the majority of the landforms were deposited during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The valleys draining Lyngmarksbræen vary considerably in terms of geometry, landform characteristics (type, size, location), and ice extent (Holocene to present day). This allows us to explore geomorphological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in contrasting, but geographically proximal, settings. During the LIA, ice extended up to 3 km beyond the present ice margins. In all outlets, glacial landforms are confined to the radial valleys and there is only limited evidence of deposition in the larger trunk valleys. To the north and east of Lyngmarksbræen, large latero-frontal moraines are well-preserved and often impound small proglacial lakes. In the west, the LIA and present day ice margins are more diffuse, and there is evidence of ice-cored moraine, kettle holes, and buried ice. To the south of the ice cap, landform preservation is limited. We discuss the extent to which these variations are conditioned by valley <span class="hlt">topography</span>, ice-cap wide climate gradients, and glacier behaviour. Our analysis demonstrates that the glacial geomorphological record of individual outlet glaciers is not necessarily representative of ice cap-wide <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. This has important implications for our understanding of landform development and preservation within contrasting topographic settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1146S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1146S"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravity measurement for microgravity monitoring in Aso volcanic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Shin; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Fukuda, Yoichi</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement with a portable A10-017 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter at some benchmarks in the Aso volcanic field are valuable for reducing uncertainties of regional gravity variations and will be useful for delineating the long term trends of gravity changes. A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is a new generation of portable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instrument and has accuracy 10 microGal. To further the development of a high precision gravity data, we also conducted measurement using two relative gravimeter (Scintrex CG-5 [549] and LaCoste type G-1016) to be combined with an A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter. The using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter along with relative gravimeter can reduce drift correction factor and improve the result of gravity change data in microgravity monitoring. Microgravity monitoring is a valued tool for mapping the redistribution of subsurface mass and for assessing changes in the fluid as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> process in volcanic field. Gravity changes enable the characterization of subsurface processes: i.e., the mass of the intrusion or hydrothermal flow. A key assumption behind gravity monitoring is that changes in earth's gravity reflect mass-transport processes at depth [1]. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity network was installed at seven benchmarks using on May 2010, which re-occupied in October 2010, and June 2011. The relative gravity measurements were performed at 28 benchmarks in one month before the eruption on May 2011 and then followed by series of gravity monitoring after the eruption in every three to five months. Gravity measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. Some gravity benchmarks were measured using both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravimeter and is used as the reference benchmarks. In longer time period, the combined gravity method will improve the result of gravity change data for monitoring in the Aso volcanic field. As a result, the gravity changes detected the hydrothermal flow in the subsurface which has a correlation to water level fluctuation in the crater. Large residual gravity changes between the surveys of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative gravimeter are found at benchmarks around Nakadake crater. Keywords: Microgravity monitoring, Aso volcanic field References [1] Battaglia, M., J. Gottsmann, D. Carbone, and J. Fernandez, 2008, 4D volcano gravimetry: Geophysics, vol. 73 no.6, p. WA3-WA18.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573...99T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573...99T"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical cryostat realizations at <span class="hlt">absolut</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Tanchon, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes two kinds of optical cryostats designed and manufactured at <span class="hlt">Absolut</span> System. The first one makes use of pressurized LN2 for temperature control of a sample holder in the 80 K - 470 K temperature range. An optical window is implemented above the sample holder to allow for rugosity and 3D distortion of heterogeneous semicon sample assemblies on a wafer. The second one makes use of CRYOMECH remote motor type pulse tube cryocoolers for temperature control of the sample holder in the 3 K - 300 K temperature range. In this type of cryostats, particular attention has been paid to reduce the vibrations exported by the cooler. These 4 K ultra low vibration cryostats are used for characterization of samples via optical windows. Both designs will be presented and the performance reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666350','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666350"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced functional networks in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loui, Psyche; Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Functional networks in the human brain give rise to complex cognitive and perceptual abilities. While the decrease of functional connectivity is linked to neurological and psychiatric disorders, less is known about the consequences of increased functional connectivity. One population that has exceptionally enhanced perceptual abilities is people with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pitch (AP) — an ability to categorize tones into pitch classes without reference. AP has been linked to exceptional talent as well as to psychiatric and neurological conditions. Here we show that AP possessors have increased functional activation during music listening, as well as increased degrees, clustering, and local efficiency of functional correlations, with the difference being highest around the left superior temporal gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that increased functional connectivity in a small-world brain network is related to exceptional perceptual abilities in a healthy population. PMID:22836173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/1008274/files/0612252.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/1008274/files/0612252.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Viana, N B; Mazolli, A; Mesquita, O N; Nussenzveig, H M; Rocha, M S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Aiming at <span class="hlt">absolute</span> force calibration of optical tweezers, following a critical review of proposed theoretical models, we present and test the results of MDSA (Mie-Debye-Spherical Aberration) theory, an extension of a previous (MD) model, taking account of spherical aberration at the glass/water interface. This first-principles theory is formulated entirely in terms of experimentally accessible parameters (none adjustable). Careful experimental tests of the MDSA theory, undertaken at two laboratories, with very different setups, are described. A detailed description is given of the procedures employed to measure laser beam waist, local beam power at the transparent microspheres trapped by the tweezers, microsphere radius and the trap transverse stiffness, as a function of radius and height in the (inverted microscope) sample chamber. We find generally very good agreement with MDSA theory predictions, for a wide size range, from the Rayleigh domain to large radii, including the values most often employed in pra...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..963.1150B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..963.1150B"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Traces of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Enantioselective Synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barabás, Béla; Caglioti, Luciano; Faglioni, Francesco; Florini, Nicola; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Maioli, Marco; Micskei, Károly; Rábai, Gyula; Taddei, Ferdinando; Zucchi, Claudia; Pályi, Gyula</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The main goal of this communication is to show the utility of empirical approaches combined with mathematical methods in the research regarding the molecular basis of biological chirality. Preparative results (enantiomeric excesses, e.e.) obtained in asymmetric autocatalysis with (AAC) and without (AES) chiral additive were analyzed. Statistical calculations show, that AES (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> enantioselective synthesis) experiments yield two independent groups of results with prevalence of the R- or S-enantiomer. These are distributed asymmetrically in a second-order beta distribution. Empirical calculations both on AAC and EAS enable to identify the very low (statistical) e.e.-s amplified by AES. These initial e.e.-s show normal distribution. Possible molecular-level reasons of these results were controlled by quantum chemical MO calculations and compatible mechanism(s) are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444"><span id="translatedtitle">Micron Accurate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging System: Range Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595"><span id="translatedtitle">MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor alignment determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is described for accurately determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22055716"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>Yttrium is presented as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nonlocality via distributed computing without communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czekaj, ?.; Paw?owski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nonlocality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G21A0870N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G21A0870N"><span id="translatedtitle">Measured and modelled <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity in Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294360"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic based modeling for determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> atomic oxygen densities in atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niemi, K.; Reuter, S.; Graham, L. M.; Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T.</p> <p>2009-10-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> atomic oxygen ground state densities in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet, operated in a helium-oxygen mixture, are determined using diagnostic based modeling. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the electron <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are combined with time integrated optical emission spectroscopy. The population <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the upper O 3p {sup 3}P ({lambda}=844 nm) atomic oxygen state is governed by direct electron impact excitation, dissociative excitation, radiation losses, and collisional induced quenching. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> values for atomic oxygen densities are obtained through comparison with the upper Ar 2p{sub 1} ({lambda}=750.4 nm) state. Results for spatial profiles and power variations are presented and show excellent quantitative agreement with independent two-photon laser-induced fluorescence measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41B3520S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41B3520S"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls of climate, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, vegetation and lithology on drainage density extracted from high resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sangireddy, H.; Carothers, R. A.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Drainage density is a useful topographic metric that varies as a function of geomorphic processes and that serves to quantify links with <span class="hlt">topography</span>, climate, vegetation, and lithology. Here we analyze 101 sub-basins across thirteen states in the USA using high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) in combination with data on the spatial variation of precipitation, soil, geology, and land cover. We test the following hypotheses: (1) Drainage density carries strong, codependent signatures of rainfall variability, soil type, and topographic relief; (2) Drainage density reflects the extent of landscape dissection on the sub-catchment scale and the subsequent processes of vegetation recovery and gullying.We employ a dimensionless drainage density (Ddd) metric defined as the ratio of likely channelized pixels in a basin to its total number of pixels, and map this metric across meter-resolution lidar DTMs using GeoNet [Passalacqua et al., 2010]. We assess the resolution-dependent scaling of Ddd and observe that it is a much weaker scaling function of DTM resolution than the dimensional formulation of drainage density (Dg), which is classically defined as the ratio of total channel length to total basin area.In order to characterize the correlation structure of drainage density with climatic parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP), we use a Gaussian mixture model and identify two sub-groups of landscapes that display different correlations. We observe that Ddd and MAP are negatively correlated in arid and semi-arid environments and positively correlated in humid environments. The transition occurs at a MAP around 900-1000mm/yr and coincides with the maximum observed values of soil thickness and available water content. Landscape relief has a negative correlation with Ddd in arid environments while the correlation is positive in humid climates. We discuss the implication of our results for understanding eco-geomorphic processes and for modeling landscape evolution.References:Passalacqua, P., Do Trung, T., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., Sapiro, G., & Dietrich, W. E. (2010). A geometric framework for channel network extraction from lidar: Nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 115(F1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547788"><span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the Earth's inner core boundary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth's ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4-8 km with a lateral length scale of 2-4 km. The characteristics of the ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable. PMID:22547788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216855"><span id="translatedtitle">Waves in the OH emissive layer: photogrammetry and <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hersé, M; Moreels, G; Clairemidi, J</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>The waves in the OH emissive layer, which appear on photographs of the sky in the near IR taken with large aperture cameras, are distorted by atmospheric refraction and by a perspective effect. Two methods have been developed to allow restitution of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the waves in a simple way. In the first method a grid is computed, which is superimposed on an enlargement of the original 24 x 36-mm negative frame. In the second method the image is projected on an aspherical surface that is tilted with respect to the enlarger beam. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a wave display, photographed from the Pic du Midi Observatory during the night of 19-20 November 1976, is obtained using both methods. The photometric aspect of the photographs may be interpreted under the simple assumption that the emissive layer has a constant thickness and is ruffled like the wavy surface of the sea. PMID:20216855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/914218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/914218"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect Analysis in Crystals using X-ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raghothamachar,B.; Dhanaraj, G.; Bai, J.; Dudley, M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A brief review of X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> - a nondestructive method for direct observation and characterization of defects in single crystals - is presented here. The origin and development of this characterization method and the different techniques derived from it are described. Emphasis is placed on synchrotron X-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its application in studying various crystal imperfections. Mechanisms of contrast formation on X-ray topographs are discussed, with emphasis on contrast associated with dislocations. Determination of Burgers vectors and line directions of dislocations from analysis of X-ray topographs is explained. Contrast from inclusions is illustrated, and their differentiation from dislocations is demonstrated with the aid of simulated topographs. Contrast arising from the deformation fields associated with cracks is also briefly covered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029987&hterms=Dimarzio&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDimarzio','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029987&hterms=Dimarzio&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDimarzio"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span> from retracked ERS-1 altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Dimarzio, John; Seiss, Timothy</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An objective of the ERS-1 radar altimeter is to measure the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the polar ice sheets to a precision on the order of a meter. ERS-1 Waveform Altimeter Product (WAP) data was corrected for several processing errors. A range correction from the WAP waveforms, using the multiparameter retracking algorithm to account for range tracking limitations inherent to radar altimetry, was derived. From crossover analysis, the resulting precision is shown to be about 2.1 m in ocean mode and 2.2 m in ice mode. A <span class="hlt">topography</span> map, produced with 23 days of corrected data, shows details of the western part of west Antarctic ice sheet and part of the Ross ice shelf including ice divides, ice stream boundaries, and ice shelf grounding lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810056833&hterms=role+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drole%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810056833&hterms=role+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drole%2Btheory"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of membrane stresses in the support of planetary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turcotte, D. L.; Willemann, R. J.; Haxby, W. F.; Norberry, J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The role of membrane stresses and bending stresses in supporting topographic loads on planetary elastic lithospheres is examined. A dimensionless parameter is introduced in order to determine the ability of a spherical shell to support loads through membrane stresses. It is determined that when this parameter is large, membrane stresses can fully support topographic loads with flexure, and when it is small the influence of the membrane stresses can be neglected. Equations governing the behavior of a spherical shell are solved for a topographic load expressed in terms of spherical harmonics, and spherical harmonic expansions of the measured gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> for Mars and the moon are compared with the theory. It is concluded that membrane stresses play an important role in the support of topographic loads on the moon and Mars. The correlation of observed gravitational potential anomalies with the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mars is explained by membrane stresses in the elastic lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/953736','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/953736"><span id="translatedtitle">Method and Apparatus for Creating a <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at a Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Adams, David P. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Mayer, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Vasile, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p>2008-11-11</p> <p>Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired <span class="hlt">topographies</span> at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356661','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356661"><span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the Earth’s inner core boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Zhiyang; Wang, Wei; Wen, Lianxing</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Compressional seismic wave reflected off the Earth’s inner core boundary (ICB) from earthquakes occurring in the Banda Sea and recorded at the Hi-net stations in Japan exhibits significant variations in travel time (from -2 to 2.5 s) and amplitude (with a factor of more than 4) across the seismic array. Such variations indicate that Earth’s ICB is irregular, with a combination of at least two scales of <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a height variation of 14 km changing within a lateral distance of no more than 6 km, and a height variation of 4–8 km with a lateral length scale of 2–4 km. The characteristics of the ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> indicate that small-scale variations of temperature and/or core composition exist near the ICB, and/or the ICB topographic surface is being deformed by small-scale forces out of its thermocompositional equilibrium position and is metastable. PMID:22547788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610586C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610586C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, relief, climate and glaciers: a global prespective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, fred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The examination of the relationship between Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> and present and past climate (i.e. long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations. This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. This study examines the relationships between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). Two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000 - 1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between 40° and 60° (or between ELA of 500m to 2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity. These findings show that the relation between the mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed. Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26004522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26004522"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We demonstrate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. PMID:26004522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/430/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/430/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/431/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/431/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/449/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/449/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/448/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/448/"><span id="translatedtitle">ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014939','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014939"><span id="translatedtitle">Shaded relief map of US <span class="hlt">topography</span> from digital elevations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pike, R.J.; Thelin, G.P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Much geologic and geophysical information that lies encoded within land surface form can be revealed by image processing large files of digitized elevations in fast machines and mapping the results. This convergence of computers, analytic software, data, and output devices has created exciting opportunities for automating the numerical and spatial study of <span class="hlt">topography</span>. One recent result is the accompanying shaded relief map of the conterminous 48 states. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995256','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995256"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subjective effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess <span class="hlt">topography</span> as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4211132','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4211132"><span id="translatedtitle">Correcting for surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in X-ray fluorescence imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geil, E. C.; Thorne, R. E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Samples with non-planar surfaces present challenges for X-ray fluorescence imaging analysis. Here, approximations are derived to describe the modulation of fluorescence signals by surface angles and <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and suggestions are made for reducing this effect. A correction procedure is developed that is effective for trace element analysis of samples having a uniform matrix, and requires only a fluorescence map from a single detector. This procedure is applied to fluorescence maps from an incised gypsum tablet. PMID:25343805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852690"><span id="translatedtitle">Bridges of the sella turcica - anatomy and <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skrzat, Janusz; Mroz, Izabela; Marchewka, Justyna</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents anatomy and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inconstant osseous bridges that may occur in the sella turcica region. The interclinoid bridge and the caroticoclinoid bridge can be formed in consequence of abnormal ossification of the dural folds or disturbances in development of the sphenoid bone. Their presence may be of clinical importance because of potential influence on the neurovascular structures passing in the vicinity of the clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone. PMID:24852690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B41A0354Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B41A0354Y"><span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, footprint sizes and off-nadir viewing on vegetation structure retrievals from lidar remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The 2007 National Decadal Survey report identified the need to measure the horizontal and vertical structure of ecosystems for estimating global carbon storage and ecosystem response to climate change and human land use. The Decadal Survey recommended the use of lidar observations to obtain these data, either from the lidar mission like the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-II (ICESat-II), or a combined lidar and radar mission like the Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> of Ice (DESDynI). A physical based approach is required to assess the tradeoffs of the vegetation height and the above ground biomass retrieval requirements for the future lidar missions. Here we present a physical based approach to estimate the impact of vegetation structure, surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, off-nadir viewing, footprint size, pulse width and surface roughness on vegetation height retrieval. The key of the methodology lies in using the well developed Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model which describes the laser pulse interactions with vegetation structure and underneath surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. It directly characterizes the impacts of footprint size, underneath surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>/roughness, off-nadir viewing and laser pulse width on lidar waveforms and vegetation height retrieval. Using this physical based approach allows us to assess the vegetation height accuracies at different footprint sizes over different slope terrains for different vegetation characteristics at different off-nadir pointing angles. The results of this study will provide scientific guidance on prioritizing the new lidar mission measurement requirements and accuracies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..331L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..331L"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Helanow, C.; Jansson, P.; Kristensen, S. S.; Stenseng, L.; Forsberg, R.; Hubbard, A. L.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We present ice thickness and bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps with a high spatial resolution (250-500 m) of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12 000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Ørkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at ~1600 m above sea level. The bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is overdeepened and reaches an elevation of ~500 m below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The compiled data sets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys cover one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and hydrology. The combined data set is freely available at doi:10.1594/pangaea.830314.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120009942&hterms=cp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120009942&hterms=cp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcp"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Northern Hemisphere of Mercury from MESSENGER Laser Altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber,Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Hauck, Steven A., Jr.; Peale, Stanton J.; Barnouin, Oliver S.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Freed, Andrew M.; Klimczak, Christian; Margot, Jean-Luc; Oberst, Juergen; Perry, Mark E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Balcerski, Jeffrey A.; Michel, Nathalie; Talpe, Matthieu J.; Yang, Di</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Laser altimetry by the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a topographic model of the northern hemisphere of Mercury. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of elevations is considerably smaller than those of Mars or the Moon. The most prominent feature is an extensive lowland at high northern latitudes that hosts the volcanic northern plains. Within this lowland is a broad topographic rise that experienced uplift after plains emplacement. The interior of the 1500-km-diameter Caloris impact basin has been modified so that part of the basin floor now stands higher than the rim. The elevated portion of the floor of Caloris appears to be part of a quasi-linear rise that extends for approximately half the planetary circumference at mid-latitudes. Collectively, these features imply that long-wavelength changes to Mercury s <span class="hlt">topography</span> occurred after the earliest phases of the planet s geological history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990028624&hterms=new+images+Mars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bimages%2BMars','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990028624&hterms=new+images+Mars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bimages%2BMars"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Impact Structures on the Northern Polar Cap of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The north polar residual ice deposits of mars are thought to be relatively young, based on the reported lack of any fresh impact craters in Viking Orbiter images. A handful of possible impact features were identified, but available data were inconclusive. Determining the number and current topographic characteristics of any craters on the polar residual ice surface is important in constraining the surface age, relative importance of polar cap resurfacing processes and ice flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, and the role of the cap deposits in the global volatile and climate cycles. Subsequent image processing advances and new Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data in the north polar region are now a considerable aid in impact feature identification. This study reconsiders the abundant Viking high-resolution polar images along with the new altimetry data. We examine possible impact features, compare their <span class="hlt">topography</span> with known mars high-latitude impact features, and use their morphology as a constraint on crater modification processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012634','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012634"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the continental shelf around Hudson Canyon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Knebel, H. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Recent seismic-reflection data show that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the Continental Shelf around Hudson Canyon is composed of a series of depressions having variable spacings (< 100 m to 2 km), depths (1-10 m), outlines, and bottom configurations that give the sea floor an anomalous "jagged" appearance in profile. The acoustic and sedimentary characteristics, the proximity to relict shores, and the areal distribution indicate that this rough <span class="hlt">topography</span> is an erosional surface formed on Upper Pleistocene silty sands about 13,000 to 15,000 years ago by processes related to Hudson Canyon. The pronounced southward extension of the surface, in particular, may reflect a former increase in the longshore-current erosion capacity caused by the loss of sediments over the canyon. Modern erosion or nondeposition of sediments has prevented the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Middle Atlantic shelf from covering the surface. The "anomalous" <span class="hlt">topography</span> may, in fact, be characteristic of areas near other submarine canyons that interrupt or have interrupted the longshore drift of sediments. ?? 1979.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6003251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6003251"><span id="translatedtitle">Permian karst <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. . Geology Dept.)</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this <span class="hlt">topography</span>, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or <span class="hlt">topography</span>) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5016013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5016013"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity-induced stresses near <span class="hlt">topography</span> of small slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McTigue, D.F.; Mei, C.C.</p> <p>1981-10-10</p> <p>Topographic modification of gravity-induced near-surface stresses results in significant departures from a lithostatic state. A perturbation scheme provides approximate analytic solutions for plane strain of an elastic half-space with an irregularly shaped free surface of small characteristic slope. The leading order effect of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is equivalent to that of a distributed normal load on a plane boundary, and the correction is due to a distributed shear traction on a plane boundary. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> can exert a strong influence on the state of stress in the upper crust. An analytical solution to a relevant class of problems in elastostatics is presented: the gravity-induced stress field in a half-space with an irregularly shaped free surface. The analysis also is extended to consider the effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the stresses due to a far-field tectonic compression or tension. Motivation for this study stems from a broad range of problems in geology and geophysics. 20 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6880R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6880R"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> estimated by inversion of satellite gravity gradiometry observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, Guillaume</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An integration of mass elements is presented for evaluating the six components of the 2-order gravity tensor (i.e., second derivatives of the Newtonian mass integral for the gravitational potential) created by an uneven sphere <span class="hlt">topography</span> consisting of juxtaposed vertical prisms. The method is based on Legendre polynomial series with the originality of taking elastic compensation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> by the Earth's surface into account. The speed of computation of the polynomial series increases logically with the observing altitude from the source of anomaly. Such a forward modelling can be easily used for reduction of observed gravity gradient anomalies by the effects of any spherical interface of density. Moreover, an iterative least-square inversion of the observed gravity tensor values ??? is proposed to estimate a regional set of topographic heights. Several tests of recovery have been made by considering simulated gradiometry anomaly data, and for varying satellite altitudes and a priori levels of accuracy. In the case of GOCE-type gradiometry anomalies measured at an altitude of ~300 km, the search converges down to a stable and smooth <span class="hlt">topography</span> after 20-30 iterations while the final r.m.s. error is ~100 m. The possibility of cumulating satellite information from different orbit geometries is also examined for improving the prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SRL....15..847P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SRL....15..847P"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Changes of Gold (111) in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Produced by Electrochemical Surface Oxidation and Reduction and Relaxation Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pasquale, M. A.; Nieto, F. J. Rodríguez; Arvia, A. J.</p> <p></p> <p>The electrochemical formation and reduction of O-layers on gold (111) films in 1 m sulfuric acid under different potentiodynamic routines are investigated utilizing in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. The surface <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is interpreted considering the anodic and cathodic reaction pathways recently proposed complemented with concurrent relaxation phenomena occurring after gold (111) lattice mild disruption (one gold atom deep) and moderate disruption (several atoms deep). The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both oxidized and reduced gold <span class="hlt">topographies</span> depends on the potentiodynamic routine utilized to form OH/O surface species. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> resulting from a mild oxidative disruption is dominated by quasi-2D holes and hillocks of the order of 5 nm, involving about 500-600 gold atoms each, and their coalescence. A cooperative turnover process at the O-layer, in which the anion ad-layer and interfacial water play a key role, determines the oxidized surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The reduction of these O-layers results in gold clusters, their features depending on the applied potential routine. A moderate oxidative disruption produces a surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of hillocks and holes several gold atoms high and deep, respectively. The subsequent reduction leads to a spinodal gold pattern. Concurrent coalescence appears to be the result of an Ostwald ripening that involves the surface diffusion of both gold atoms and clusters. These processes produce an increase in surface roughness and an incipient gold faceting. The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of different <span class="hlt">topographies</span> can be qualitatively explained employing the arguments from colloidal science theory. For 1.1 V ? E ? Epzc weak electrostatic repulsions favor gold atom/cluster coalescence, whereas for E < Epzc the attenuated electrostatic repulsions among gold surfaces stabilize small clusters over the substrate producing string-like patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1227359','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1227359"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1055713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1055713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)</p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010004369&hterms=absolute+convective&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dabsolute%2Bconvective','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010004369&hterms=absolute+convective&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dabsolute%2Bconvective"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, S. P.; Hudman, M.; Chen, J. N.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The existence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in a liquid jet has been predicted for some time. The disturbance grows in time and propagates both upstream and downstream in an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable liquid jet. The image of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is captured in the NASA 2.2 sec drop tower and reported here. The transition from convective to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is observed experimentally. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions on the transition Weber number as functions of the Reynolds number. The role of interfacial shear relative to all other relevant forces which cause the onset of jet breakup is explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321841','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321841"><span id="translatedtitle">Puffing <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Nicotine Intake of Electronic Cigarette Users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Behar, Rachel Z.; Hua, My; Talbot, Prue</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Prior electronic cigarette (EC) <span class="hlt">topography</span> data are based on two video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring <span class="hlt">topography</span> are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake. Objectives This study evaluated EC <span class="hlt">topography</span> with a CReSS Pocket device and quantified nicotine intake. Methods Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10–15 minute break between brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. Results Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one, took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65 seconds/puff), volume/puff (51ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively, which is similar to conventional smokers. Conclusions EC puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> was variable among participants in the study, but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration, inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products. PMID:25664463</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4687C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4687C"><span id="translatedtitle">Global snowline and mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span>: a contrasted view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The examination of the relationship between Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> and present and past climate (i.e., long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations (e.g. Porter, 1989). This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. In this study, we examine the relationships between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (~ long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). This analysis reinforce a global study previously published (Champagnac et al., 2012), and provide a much finer view of the climate-<span class="hlt">topography</span>-tectonics relationships. Specifically, two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000~1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief, see Champagnac et al., 2012 for details) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between ~40 and ~60° (or between ELA of ~500m to ~2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with an important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity (Herman et al., 2011). These findings show that the relation between the mountain <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed (e.g. Egholm et al., 2009) . Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors (e.g. Pedersen et al., 2010;Spotila and Berger, 2010),, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape Champagnac, J.-D., Molnar, P., Sue, C., and Herman, F.: Tectonics, Climate, and Mountain <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth, 117, doi:10.1029/2011JB008348, 2012. Egholm, D. L., Nielsen, S. B., Pedersen, V. K., and Lesemann, J. E.: Glacial effects limiting mountain height, Nature, 460, 884-888, 2009. Herman, F., Beaud, F., Champagnac, J.-D., Lemieux, J.-M., and Sternai, P.: Glacial hydrology and erosion patterns: A mechanism for carving glacial valleys, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310, 498-508, 2011. Pedersen, V. K., Egholm, D. L., and Nielsen, S. B.: Alpine glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the rate of rock column uplift: a global perspective, Geomorphology, 122, 129-139, 10.1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P22B..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P22B..03N"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysics of Titan from gravity, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and spin state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nimmo, F.; Bills, B. G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>For the terrestrial planets, combined analyses of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> have greatly improved our understanding of these bodies' interiors [1]. The spin state and orientation of a planetary body can also be diagnostic of its internal structure [2]. Recently acquired <span class="hlt">topography</span> [3], gravity [4] and spin pole constraints [5] now permit these kinds of geophysical analyses at Titan. Titan's degree-two gravity coefficients, but not those of its <span class="hlt">topography</span>, are in the 10/3 ratio expected for a hydrostatic body. One explanation for this discrepancy is the existence of a floating isostatic ice shell whose thickness varies spatially due to tidal dissipation [6]. Shell thickness variations can result in slow non-synchronous rotation [7]. Furthermore, such variations will affect the gravity, an effect that should be taken into account when using gravity to calculate Titan's moment of inertia [4]. The relationship between the degree-three gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be used to place constraints on the thickness and rigidity of the ice shell. Based on the inferred heat fluxes of [6], Titan's ice shell is unlikely to be less than 90% compensated at degree three. The measured degree-three gravity [4] and <span class="hlt">topography</span> [3] coefficients show a strong correlation (r=0.84). For a completely compensated ice shell, the implied shell thickness is about 350 km, while if the shell is 90% compensated the thickness is 250 km. These shell thickness estimates significantly exceed those based on theoretical models [8,9] and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> [6]. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that there are other sources of degree-three gravity (e.g. bumps on the presumed silicate core) that do not contribute significantly to the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Further gravity observations will help to resolve this issue. If a satellite's spin and orbit poles remain coplanar as the latter precesses around the invariable pole, the satellite is said to occupy a damped Cassini state and the obliquity (angle between spin and orbit pole) is diagnostic of its moment of inertia [10]. Titan's spin pole is very nearly coplanar with the orbit and invariable poles, suggesting occupation of a Cassini state. Its obliquity of 0.32 degrees [5] corresponds to a normalized moment of inertia of 0.45, much larger than the value of 0.34 derived from gravity [4]. This discrepancy is probably due mostly to decoupling of the ice shell from the interior by an ocean, though excitation of the obliquity by the atmosphere [11] or ocean may also play a role. [1] Wieczorek, M.A., Treatise Geophys. 10, 165-206, 2007. [2] Williams, J.G. et al., JGR 106, 27933-27968, 2001. [3] Zebker, H.A. et al., Science 324, 921-923, 2009. [4] Iess, L. et al., Science 327, 1367-1369, 2010. [5] Stiles, B.W. et al., Astron. J. 135, 1669-1680, 2008. [6] Nimmo, F., B.G. Bills, Icarus 208, 896-904, 2010. [7] Ojakangas, G.W., D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 81, 220-41, 1989. [8] Tobie, G. et al., Nature 440, 61-64, 2006. [9] Sohl, F. et al., JGR 108, 5130, 2003. [10] Bills, B.G., F. Nimmo, Icarus 214, 351-355, 2011. 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