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Sample records for absolute refractive index

  1. Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

  2. High-accuracy interferometer with a prism pair for measurement of the absolute refractive index of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2009-04-10

    We propose a variable-path interferometric technique for the measurement of the absolute refractive index of optical glasses. We use two interferometers to decide the ratio between changes in the optical path in a prism-shaped sample glass and in air resulting from displacement of the sample. The method allows precise measurements to be made without prior knowledge of the properties of the sample. The combined standard uncertainty of the proposed method is 1.6x10{sup -6}.

  3. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-03-10

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10{sup -6}. The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1x10{sup -6}.

  4. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons. PMID:23487181

  5. Measurement of absolute cell volume, osmotic membrane water permeability, and refractive index of transmembrane water and solute flux by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscope to measure absolute volume of living cells is proposed. The optical setup allows us to reconstruct two quantitative phase contrast images at two different wavelengths from a single hologram acquisition. When adding the absorbing dye fast green FCF as a dispersive agent to the extracellular medium, cellular thickness can be univocally determined in the full field of view. In addition to the absolute cell volume, the method can be applied to derive important biophysical parameters of living cells including osmotic membrane water permeability coefficient and the integral intracellular refractive index (RI). Further, the RI of transmembrane flux can be determined giving an indication about the nature of transported solutes. The proposed method is applied to cultured human embryonic kidney cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, human red blood cells, mouse cortical astrocytes, and neurons.

  6. Uniform refraction in negative refractive index materials.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Cristian E; Stachura, Eric

    2015-11-01

    We study the problem of constructing an optical surface separating two homogeneous, isotropic media, one of which has a negative refractive index. In doing so, we develop a vector form of Snell's law, which is used to study surfaces possessing a certain uniform refraction property, in both the near- and far-field cases. In the near-field problem, unlike the case when both materials have positive refractive indices, we show that the resulting surfaces can be neither convex nor concave. PMID:26560926

  7. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  8. Measuring the Index of Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, F. M., III; Jacobson, B. S.

    1980-01-01

    Presents two methods for measuring the index of refraction of glass or lucite. These two methods, used in the freshman laboratory, are based on the fact that a ray of light inside a block will be refracted parallel to the surface. (HM)

  9. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  10. Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Ramey, Lucas A; Singh, David J

    2012-01-01

    The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n=1.839 0.002) and 633 nm (n=1.786 0.002). These 6 measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a 2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

  11. THEORETICAL SCHEMES FOR NEGATIVE REFRACTION AND ENHANCED REFRACTIVE INDEX IN ATOMIC SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Yavuz, Deniz

    THEORETICAL SCHEMES FOR NEGATIVE REFRACTION AND ENHANCED REFRACTIVE INDEX IN ATOMIC SYSTEMS and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Origin of refractive index of refractive index enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1 Introduction

  12. Determination of refractive index by Moiré deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Madanipour, Khosro; Javadianvarjovi, Soheila

    2015-06-01

    Determination of refractive index is an important characteristic of material which is crucial parameter for physicists and engineers. Moiré deflectometry technique is convenient, easy-aligning, nondestructive, non-contact and fairly accurate method for refractive index measurement of gas, liquid, solid. In this paper we investigate the theory of the technique and simulate some relations then finally measure refractive index of a glassy lamella, n=1.536.

  13. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  14. Formation of bulk refractive index structures

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons; Wheeler, David R.; Jamison, Gregory M.

    2003-07-15

    A method of making a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure in photosensitive materials using photo-patterning where first determined is the wavelength at which a photosensitive material film exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation, a portion of the surfaces of the photosensitive material film is optically irradiated, the film is marked to produce a registry mark. Multiple films are produced and aligned using the registry marks to form a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure.

  15. Refractive index measurement using comparative interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, Mihaela; Apostol, D.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, Iuliana

    2007-05-01

    The refractive index of a material medium is an important optical parameter since it exhibits the optical properties of the material. The adulteration problem is increasing day by day and hence simple, automatic and accurate measurement of the refractive index of materials is of great importance these days. For solid thin films materials Abeles method was reconsidered. Quick, measurements of refractive index using simple techniques and refractometers can help controlling adulteration of liquids of common use to a greater extent. Very simple interferometric set-up using Fizeau fringe patterns compares the fringe pitch as obtained in a cell with two levels: one down level with the unknown refractive index liquids and the upper level with gas air. A CCD matrix and a PC can handle the data and produce the results up to for digits.

  16. The refractive index of relic gravitons

    E-print Network

    Massimo Giovannini

    2015-07-13

    The dynamical evolution of the refractive index of the tensor modes of the geometry produces a specific class of power spectra characterized by a blue (i.e. slightly increasing) slope which is directly determined by the competition of the slow-roll parameter and of the rate of variation of the refractive index. Throughout the conventional stages of the inflationary and post-inflationary evolution, the microwave background anisotropies measurements, the pulsar timing limits and the big-bang nucleosythesis constraints set stringent bounds on the refractive index and on its rate of variation. Within the physically allowed region of the parameter space the cosmic background of relic gravitons leads to a potentially large signal for the ground based detectors (in their advanced version) and for the proposed space-borne interferometers. Conversely, the lack of direct detection of the signal will set a qualitatively new bound on the dynamical variation of the refractive index.

  17. Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Cai, Wenshan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Sarychev, Andrey K.; Drachev, Vladimir P.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2005-12-01

    A double-periodic array of pairs of parallel gold nanorods is shown to have a negative refractive index in the optical range. Such behavior results from the plasmon resonance in the pairs of nanorods for both the electric and the magnetic components of light. The refractive index is retrieved from direct phase and amplitude measurements for transmission and reflection, which are all in excellent agreement with simulations. Both experiments and simulations demonstrate that a negative refractive index n??-0.3 is achieved at the optical communication wavelength of 1.5 µm using the array of nanorods. The retrieved refractive index critically depends on the phase of the transmitted wave, which emphasizes the importance of phase measurements in finding n?.

  18. Temperature-dependent Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are perhaps the two most well-understood semiconductor materials in the context of solid state device technologies and more recently micromachining and nanotechnology. Meanwhile, these two materials are also important in the field of infrared lens design. Optical instruments designed for the wavelength range where these two materials are transmissive achieve best performance when cooled to cryogenic temperatures to enhance signal from the scene over instrument background radiation. In order to enable high quality lens designs using silicon and germanium at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of multiple prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For silicon, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K at wavelengths from 1.1 to 5.6 pin, while for germanium, we cover temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K and wavelengths from 1.9 to 5.5 microns. We compare our measurements with others in the literature and provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. Citing the wide variety of values for the refractive indices of these two materials found in the literature, we reiterate the importance of measuring the refractive index of a sample from the same batch of raw material from which final optical components are cut when absolute accuracy greater than k5 x 10" is desired.

  19. Fiber optic liquid refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    In this present work we report fabrication of fiber optic liquid refractive index (RI) measurement sensor based on Michelson Interferometer method. This sensor was assembled by using graded index multimode (MM) fiber with core diameter 50 µm and the cladding of fiber was removed by simple chemical method. To perform this experiment a 2×2 3dB coupler is used. The fiber ends are then immersed in solvent and solution to provide reference and refractive index measurements, respectively. This method was successfully used to measure refractive index of Sodium Chloride (NaCl)-Water solution at different concentrations. The fringe contrast sensitivity of device is 92.90 dB/RIU measured in the RI range from 1.34 to 1.42 which is better than Mach-Zehnder Interferometer sensor [1] and Fabry perot based sensor [2]. The fabrication of sensor is simple, low cost and highly sensitive.

  20. Refractive index change in dissociating shocked benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    A calculation is made of the refractive index of a shocked solution of hydrocarbon species and spheroidal carbon particles that would be the dissociation products of benzene. The results is evaluated for benzene shocked to 15 GPa, both for an arbitrary endpoint distribution of products and reactant, and for a specific endpoint distribution suggested by a statistical-mechanical calculation. In the case of diamond particles, the refractive index is predicted to decrease by a small amount (from 1.96 to 1.75) as the dissociation proceeds. In the case of graphite particles of large oblateness, the refractive index could increase significantly through the dissociation (from 1.96 to 2.75 for infinitely oblate platelets). Thus the measurement of the time dependent refractive index through the dissociation of shocked benzene can indicate the morphology of the carbon particulates as well as the time scale for this reaction. We propose using the refractive index as a measure of completion of the dissociation reaction. This would allow a determination of the instantaneous amount of carbon in particulate form, information which is valuable in conjunction with Mie scattering experiments for example.

  1. Cosmology With A Dark Refraction Index

    E-print Network

    B. Chen; R. Kantowski

    2009-02-23

    We review Gordon's optical metric and the transport equations for the amplitude and polarization of a geometrical optics wave traveling in a gravity field. We apply the theory to the FLRW cosmologies by associating a refraction index with the cosmic fluid. We then derive an expression for the accumulated effect of a refraction index on the distance redshift relations and fit the Hubble curve of current supernova observations with a non-accelerating cosmological model. We also show that some observational effects caused by inhomogeneities, e.g. the Sachs-Wolfe effect, can be interpreted as being caused by an effective index of refraction, and hence this theory could extend to other speed of light communications such as gravitational radiation and neutrino fluxes.

  2. Cosmology with a dark refraction index

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.

    2008-08-15

    We review Gordon's optical metric and the transport equations for the amplitude and polarization of a geometrical optics wave traveling in a gravity field. We apply the theory to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmologies by associating a refraction index with the cosmic fluid. We then derive an expression for the accumulated effect of a refraction index on the distance-redshift relations and fit the Hubble curve of current supernova observations with a nonaccelerating cosmological model. We also show that some observational effects caused by inhomogeneities, e.g., the Sachs-Wolfe effect, can be interpreted as being caused by an effective index of refraction, and hence this theory could extend to other speed of light communications such as gravitational radiation and neutrino fluxes.

  3. Plasmonic crystal enhanced refractive index sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Benedikt; Devaux, Eloïse; Genet, Cyriaque Ebbesen, Thomas W.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate experimentally how the local anisotropy of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon modes propagating over periodic metal gratings can lead to an enhancement of the figure of merit of refractive index sensors. Exploiting the possibility to acquire defocused images of the Fourier space of a highly stable leakage radiation microscope, we report a twofold increase in sensing sensitivity close to the band gap of a one-dimensional plasmonic crystal where the anisotropy of the band structure is the most important. A practical sensing resolution of O(10{sup ?6}) refractive index units is demonstrated.

  4. Dynamics of causal beam refraction in negative refractive index materials Steven A. Cummera)

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Dynamics of causal beam refraction in negative refractive index materials Steven A. Cummera on an interface between free space and a physically realizable negative refractive index material shows that negative refraction of finite beams does occur. A discontinuity in the phase normal direction

  5. Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy

    E-print Network

    Boppart, Stephen

    Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy Daniel L scale. The technique utilizes a broadband confocal microscope embedded into a Mach reconstruction on a cellular phan- tom. The spatial refractive index distribution determines the behavior of many

  6. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2013-05-28

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Scanning focused refractive-index microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Teng-Qian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to obtain the refractive index (RI) profiles of objects. The method uses a focused laser as the light source, and combines the derivative total reflection method (DTRM), projection magnification, and scanning technique together. SFRIM is able to determine RIs with an accuracy of 0.002, and the central spatial resolution achieved is 1?µm, which is smaller than the size of the focal spot. The results of measurements carried out on cedar oil and a gradient-refractive-index (GRIN) lens agree well with theoretical expectations, verifying the accuracy of SFRIM. Furthermore, using SFRIM, to the best of our knowledge we have extracted for the first time the RI profile of a periodically modulated photosensitive gelatin sample. SFRIM is the first RI profile-resolved reflected light microscopy technique that can be applied to scattering and absorbing samples. SFRIM enables the possibility of performing RI profile measurements in a variety of applications, including optical waveguides, photosensitive materials and devices, photorefractive effect studies, and RI imaging in biomedical fields. PMID:25008374

  9. Extremely High Refractive Index Terahertz Metamaterial Seung Hoon Lee1

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Extremely High Refractive Index Terahertz Metamaterial Seung Hoon Lee1 , Muhan Choi1 , Yushin Kim1 of refraction from large-area, freestanding, flexible terahertz metamaterials. The highest index of refraction of 33.22 is obtained from a multilayer metamaterial at a frequency of 0.851 THz. © 2011 Optical Society

  10. Measurement of refractive index distribution of biotissues by scanning focused refractive index microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tengqian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    We adapt the improved scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to the quantitative study of biological tissues. Delicate refractive index (RI) imaging of a porcine muscle tissue is obtained in a reflection mode. Some modifications are made to the SFRIM for better two dimension (2-D) observation of the tissues. The RI accuracy is 0.002. The central spatial resolution of SFRIM achieves 1?m, smaller than the size of the focal spot. Our method is free from signal distortion. The experimental result demonstrates that SFRIM is a potential technique in a wide field of biomedical research.

  11. Transparent nanocomposites based on refractive index matched nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Transparent nanocomposites based on refractive index matched nanoparticles Katja Fröhlich1,2, Eleni-1015 Lausanne Objective: Transparent, scratch resistant nanocomposites Conclusion and Acknowledgement: Dispersed particles in a matched system. Nanocomposites The better the match of the refractive indices

  12. A Simple Method to Determine the Refractive Index of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-yuen

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for determining the refractive index. Discusses the experiment procedure and mathematical expression for calculating the index. Provides two geometrical diagrams and a graph for determining the index with a typical data. (YP)

  13. Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    LETTERS Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index Jason Valentine1,2 Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures that have prop- erties, such as a negative refractive index1­4 , not attainable with naturally occurring materials. Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) were

  14. Refractive index depth profile in PMMA due to proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S. Z.; Budai, J.; Tóth, Z.; Petrik, P.; Baradács, E.

    2007-07-01

    Proton Beam Writing has been successfully used to create buried channel waveguides in PMMA, which suggested that proton irradiation increases the refractive index. To investigate this effect, PMMA samples were irradiated by 1.7-2.1 MeV proton beam. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to investigate the depth profile of the refractive index. An increase of the refractive index was observed in the order of 0.01, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than the detection limit. The highest increase of the refractive index occurs at the end of range, i.e. we found a good correlation with the Bragg curve of the energy loss.

  15. Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals

    E-print Network

    Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals Chiyan Luo, Steven G: It is shown that certain metallic photonic crystals can enable negative refraction and subwavelength imaging negative values of and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968). 5. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes

  16. Cryogenic refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion of S-TIH1 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Content, David A.

    2013-09-01

    The S-TIH1 glass from Ohara Inc. is a type of material that exhibits a high room-temperature refractive index as well as a wide variation in dispersion as a function of wavelength. Because of these properties, this material could be a suitable candidate for use in a refractive system based on a prism design. In order to broaden its applicable uses, this paper reports on the results from a temperature-dependent refractive index measurement program performed on this type of glass to enable a high-fidelity refractive system design that would operate at cryogenic temperatures. These measurements were performed using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We report on the absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT ) at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 K and at wavelengths from 0.455 to 2.536 ?m. We compare our index of refraction measurements to the material manufacturer's data at room temperature. We also provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our measured data to allow accurate interpolation of index as a function of wavelength and temperature. These studies are also complemented with measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to further validate the use of this type of glass in a cryogenic optical systems.

  17. Novel methacrylated diamondoid to produce high-refractive index polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tadashi; Lin, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Frank G.; Carlson, Bob; Sciamanna, Steven

    2010-03-01

    A novel, high-refractive index, methacrylic monomer was produced by incorporating 1-diamantane-carboxylic acid (1-D2-CA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The resulting monomer was gently polymerized with organic peroxide, and was formed transparent polymer thin film. Physicochemical and optical properties were compared with isobornyl methacrylate (IBoMA) homo-polymer film. 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer reveals that the refractive index is 1.56, and the softening temperature is 107.8 °C. High thermal stability and high-refractive index of 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer indicate the potential use in optical applications.

  18. Refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive fibers Eugeniu Rotari, Larissa Glebova, and Leonid Glebov

    E-print Network

    Glebov, Leon

    photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. PTR glass is a fluorosilicate glass doped with cerium and silver glass doped with cerium and silver demonstrating refractive index change after UV exposure and thermal of PTR glass is due to the main dopants: cerium, silver and fluorine. Cerium in the glass matrix

  19. Refractive index dispersion sensing using an array of photonic crystal resonant reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur G.; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Sørensen, Kristian T.; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-08-01

    Refractive index sensing plays a key role in various environmental and biological sensing applications. Here, a method is presented for measuring the absolute refractive index dispersion of liquids using an array of photonic crystal resonant reflectors of varying periods. It is shown that by covering the array with a sample liquid and measuring the resonance wavelength associated with transverse electric polarized quasi guided modes as a function of period, the refractive index dispersion of the liquid can be accurately obtained using an analytical expression. This method is compact, can perform measurements at arbitrary number of wavelengths, and requires only a minute sample volume. The ability to sense a material's dispersion profile offers an added dimension of information that may be of benefit to optofluidic lab-on-a-chip applications.

  20. Determining the Thickness and Refractive Index of a Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    When a laser beam reflects from a back surface glass mirror and falls on a screen, a pattern of discrete bright spots is created by partial reflection and refraction of the light at the air-glass interface and reflection at the mirror surface (Fig. 1). This paper explains how this phenomenon can be used to determine the refractive index and the…

  1. Index of refraction of molecular nitrogen for sodium matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreau, J.; Kharchenko, V.; Dalgarno, A.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the index of refraction of sodium matter waves propagating through a gas of nitrogen molecules. We use a recent ab initio potential for the ground state of the NaN2 van der Waals complex to perform quantal close-coupling calculations and compute the index of refraction as a function of the projectile velocity. We obtain good agreement with the available experimental data. We show that the refractive index contains glory oscillations but that they are damped by the averaging over the thermal motion of the N2 molecules. These oscillations appear at lower temperatures and projectile velocity. We also investigate the behavior of the refractive index at low temperature and low projectile velocity to show its dependence on the rotational state of N2 and discuss the advantage of using diatomic molecules as projectiles.

  2. Spatially Varying Index of Refraction: An Open Ended Undergraduate Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an experiment on the bending of light in a medium with a continuously varying index of refraction. Several theoretical approaches for the analysis of this experiment, designed for college physics students, are also presented. (HM)

  3. Miniature interferometer for refractive index measurement in microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghui; Geiser, Martial; Truffer, Frederic; Song, Chengli

    2012-12-01

    The design and development of the miniaturized interferometer for measurement of the refractive index or concentration of sub-microliter volume aqueous solution in microfludic chip is presented. It is manifested by a successful measurement of the refractive index of sugar-water solution, by utilizing a laser diode for light source and the small robust instrumentation for practical implementation. Theoretically, the measurement principle and the feasibility of the system are analyzed. Experimental device is constructed with a diode laser, lens, two optical plate and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Through measuring the positional changes of the interference fringes, the refractive index change are retrieved. A refractive index change of 10-4 is inferred from the measured image data. The entire system is approximately the size of half and a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for long time.

  4. Negative refractive index in ferromagnetic semiconductors: experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussow, Adil-Gerai; Ait El Aoud, Yassine; Jaradat, Hamzeh M.; Akyurtlu, Alkim

    In this work, we show that natural crystals, or magnetic semiconductor, Cr-doped indium oxide, has a negative refractive index at ~ 27.8 micron wavelength. The effect was predicted by two of us a few years ago (A.G. Kussow and A. Akyurtlu, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 205202 (2008)). Our result seriously undermines wide-spread opinion that only composite artificial metamaterials can demonstrate negative refractive index. Thin ferromagnetic films of ICO were fabricated by original post-annealing sputtering method. FTIR R and T measurements were processed to extract refractive index within the range of interest. The extracted from combined transmittance and reflectance FTIR data negative refractive index band parameters are found to be close to expected one.

  5. Refractive index in warm and hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe; Cossé, Phillipe

    2015-05-01

    A method to estimate the index of refraction in warm and hot dense matter is proposed. This method combines the Kubo-Greenwood approach, Maxwell equations, and existing codes that calculate photoabsorption and photoemission coefficients in warm and hot dense plasmas. An effective electrical conductivity is calculated from existing opacity codes from which the index of refraction is derived. Illustrations are shown on specific examples.

  6. Biexciton induced refractive index changes in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of linear and third order nonlinear refractive index changes in a optically driven disk-like GaN quantum dot. In our numerical calculations, we consider the three level system containing biexciton, exciton, and ground states and use the compact density matrix formalism and iterative method to obtain refractive index changes. Variational method through effective mass approximation are employed to calculate the ground state energy of biexciton and exciton states. The evolution of refractive index changes around one, two and three photon resonance is investigated and discussed for different quantum dot sizes and light intensities. Size-dependent three-photon nonlinear refractive index change versus incident photon energy compared to that of two-photon is obtained and analyzed. As main result, we found that around resonance frequency at exciton-biexciton transition the quantum confinement has great influence on the linear change in refractive index so that for very large quantum dots, it decreases. Moreover, it was found that third order refractive index changes for three photon process is strongly dependent on QD size and light intensity. Our study reveals that considering our simple model leads to results which are in good agreement with other rare numerical results. Comparison with experimental results has been done.

  7. Photoresist Exposure Parameter Extraction from Refractive Index Change during Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Oh, Jin-Kyung; Byun, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Yeon-Un; Oh, Hye-Keun; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    1998-12-01

    The refractive indices of photoresist are usually measured byan ellipsometer or spectrophotometer, but the values are limited to pre-exposure. It is known thatthe real and imaginary indices are changed during the exposure.But there is little report on these variations since itis difficult to measure this refractive index change at deep ultraviolet. The DillABC parameters show a significant variation with the resist and substrate thicknessas well as the experimental conditions.A method is suggested to extract the parameters from the refractive index changes.We can get the refractive index change and extract the Dill ABC exposure parameters from that.The multiple thin film interference calculation is used to fit the measured transmittance data.The results of our experiments and calculations for several resists including193 nm chemically amplified resists are compared with other methods.The results are agreed well with the full multilayer thin film simulation.

  8. Liquid-core low-refractive-index-contrast Bragg fiber sensor Hang Qu and Maksim Skorobogatiya

    E-print Network

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Liquid-core low-refractive-index-contrast Bragg fiber sensor Hang Qu and Maksim Skorobogatiya Genie demonstrate a low-refractive-index-contrast hollow-core Bragg fiber sensor for liquid analyte refractive index detection. The sensor operates using a resonant sensing principle--when the refractive index of a liquid

  9. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores??+??anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  10. Two-dimensional scanning focused refractive-index microscopy and applications to refractive-index profiling of optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowan; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhichao; Mei, Jianchun; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The refractive-index profile (RIP) of optical fibers is of fundamental significance in determining critical fiber properties. Here, we present the application of a two-dimensional (2-D) scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) to accurately obtain the 2-D RIP of a graded-index optical fiber. Some modifications are made to SFRIM for better 2-D measurement. Quantitative RIP of the fiber is obtained with derivative total reflection method. The refractive-index accuracy is 0.002. The measured result is in good agreement with theoretical expectation. This method is straightforward, simple, repeatable, and free from signal distortion. This technique is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric optical fibers. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to obtain the RIPs of a wide range of materials and has broad application prospect in many fields. PMID:25638085

  11. Two-dimensional scanning focused refractive-index microscopy and applications to refractive-index profiling of optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowan; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhichao; Mei, Jianchun; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The refractive-index profile (RIP) of optical fibers is of fundamental significance in determining critical fiber properties. Here, we present the application of a two-dimensional (2-D) scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) to accurately obtain the 2-D RIP of a graded-index optical fiber. Some modifications are made to SFRIM for better 2-D measurement. Quantitative RIP of the fiber is obtained with derivative total reflection method. The refractive-index accuracy is 0.002. The measured result is in good agreement with theoretical expectation. This method is straightforward, simple, repeatable, and free from signal distortion. This technique is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric optical fibers. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to obtain the RIPs of a wide range of materials and has broad application prospect in many fields.

  12. Plasmonic metamaterials for ultrasensitive refractive index sensing at near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yang; Li, Qiuze; Xiao, Jie; Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally report a kind of plasmonic metamaterials for high sensitive refractive index sensing. The metamaterials are an X-shaped metal nanohole array fabricated by holographic lithography followed by electron-beam evaporation and lift-off procedure. Transmission spectrum measurements reveal that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength of such nanohole array shows ultrasensitive response to refractive index change in the surrounding medium. A sensitivity of 1398 nm per refractive index unit is achieved at near infrared. The high sensitivity is attributed to the well confined and greatly enhanced electric field created by LSPR as well as the increased spatial overlap between the localized electric field and the surrounding medium. The robust fabrication technique and high sensitivity provide the present plasmonic metamaterials great potentials for the development of chip-based high sensitive nanooptical biomedicine sensors and integrated devices.

  13. Designing laser-induced refractive index changes in "thermal" glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, R.; Mermillod-Blondin, A.; Mauclair, C.; Huot, N.; Audouard, E.; Burakov, I. M.; Bulgakova, N. M.; Meschcheryakov, Y. P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Husakou, A.; Hertel, I. V.

    2008-05-01

    Ultrafast lasers emerged as promising tools to process refractive index changes in band-gap materials, resulting in waveguiding functions. Positive refractive index changes were often reported in fused silica matrices. However, in glasses characterized by slow electronic relaxation and high thermal expansion, the refractive index change is usually negative, detrimental for waveguide writing. This relates to the formation of hot regions, where, due to thermal expansion, material is quenched in low-density phases. We discuss control mechanisms related to spatio-temporal heat-source design which may be tuned by temporally shaped laser radiation. Programmable temporal tailoring of pulse envelopes triggers transitions from thermal expansion to directional inelastic flow. Consequently, material compaction leads to a positive refractive index change and guiding structures may thus be created. From an application perspective, the structuring quality degrades with the focusing depth due to wavefront distortions generated at the air-dielectric interface inducing spatial energy dispersion. Spatial beam tailoring corrects beam propagation distortion, improving the structuring accuracy. The corrective process is becoming important when laser energy has to be transported without losses at arbitrary depths, with the purpose of triggering mechanisms of positive index change.

  14. Cryogenic Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of CaF2 and Infrasil 301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, TImothy J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable high quality lens design using calcium fluoride (CaF2) and Heraeus Infrasil 30 (Infrasil) at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For CaF2, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 5.6 micrometers; for Infrasil we cover temperatures ranging from 35 to 300K and wavelengths from 0.4 to 3.6 micrometers. We investigate the interspecimen variability between measurements of two unrelated samples of CaF2, and we also compare our results for Infrasil to previous measurements fo Corning 7980 fused silica. Finally, we provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures and compare those results to other data found in the literature.

  15. Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Lin; Hong Hang, Zhi; Chen, Huanyang

    2014-05-12

    In this Letter, we find that high efficient unidirectional transmission occurs for an array of prisms made of zero-refractive-index metamaterials. As a specific demonstration, we further design the device using Dirac-cone-like photonic crystals. The device can function for a broadband of spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the one-way wave functionality.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE High refractive index of melanin in shiny occipital

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE High refractive index of melanin in shiny occipital feathers of a bird of paradise by ordered melanin pigmentation. The barbules of the Parotia's occipital feathers, with thickness ,3 mm, contain 6­7 layers of densely packed melanin rodlets (diameter ,0.25 mm, length ,2 mm). The effectively ,0

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying the refractive index dispersion of a pigmented

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying the refractive index dispersion of a pigmented biological tissue using of transparent tissues. Here, we extend the application of this method to pigmented, absorbing biological tissues's wings, with a thickness of 2.5 mm, contain a pigment with maximal absorption at 490 nm and a peak

  18. Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study Dan M. Peters1 , Roy G. Grainger1 state that has a strong effect on black carbon absorption [4],[6]; as well as the UK Chemistry Aerosol effects. Bond, [1] summarize the aspects of black carbon that are unknown or uncertain and affect our

  19. Invisible lenses with positive isotropic refractive index Tomas Tyc,1,

    E-print Network

    Tyc, Tomas

    Invisible lenses with positive isotropic refractive index Tom´as Tyc,1, Huanyang Chen,2 Aaron Danner,3 and Yadong Xu2 1 Faculty of Science and Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Kotl-called invisible lenses in the wave-optics regime and show that they are practically invisible for a discrete set

  20. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOEpatents

    Soukoulis, Costas M. (Ames, IA); Zhou, Jiangfeng (Ames, IA); Koschny, Thomas (Ames, IA); Zhang, Lei (Ames, IA); Tuttle, Gary (Ames, IA)

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  1. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of Si at 400 nm between 10 and 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakubo, Akira; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko

    2015-12-01

    Optical properties of Si are important and widely studied. However, temperature dependence of the refractive index for visible light at low temperatures has not been measured. In this study, we measured the complex refractive index of Si at 400 nm between 10 and 300 K by picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy. The measured refractive index at room temperature agrees well with reported values, confirming the accuracy of our measurement, and we found that the refractive index at 10 K is smaller than reported values.

  2. High Frequency Limit of the Helmholtz Equation with Variable Refraction Index

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xue Ping

    High Frequency Limit of the Helmholtz Equation with Variable Refraction Index Xue Ping WANG of the Helmholtz equation with variable refraction index and a source term concentrated near a p­dimensional a d , (1.1) where n(x) is the refraction index, # is a small parameter, and # # is a positive

  3. Multiply ionized carbon plasmas with index of refraction greater than one

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Multiply ionized carbon plasmas with index of refraction greater than one J. FILEVICH,1 J. GRAVA,1 on the approximation that the index of refraction in plasmas is due solely to the free electrons. This general assumption makes the index of refraction always less than one. However, recent soft x-ray laser

  4. A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Hongkai

    A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times Eric Chung 1 for reconstructing the index of refraction of a medium from travel time measurements. The method is based on the so into account multiple arrival times naturally, while the Eulerian formulation for the index of refraction

  5. Cosmology With A Dark Refraction Index B. Chen 1 , and R. Kantowski 1, y

    E-print Network

    Kantowski, Ron

    Cosmology With A Dark Refraction Index B. Chen 1 , #3; and R. Kantowski 1, y 1 Homer L. Dodge Dept cosmologies by associating a refraction index with the cosmic uid. We then derive an expression for the accumulated e#11;ect of a refraction index on the distance redshift relations and #12;t the Hub- ble curve

  6. Diffraction phase microscopy with transmission and reflection illumination for refractive index measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaikova, N. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays is developed a lot of techniques for the refractive index measurements. One of them describe in this article. We are used method of optical microscopy, there is diffraction phase microscopy with transmissionreflection illumination for measurements of red blood cells (RBCs) refractive index. Theory of measurements refractive index and results of experiments also are presented in the article.

  7. Wave fields measured inside a negative refractive index metamaterial Steven A. Cummera)

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Wave fields measured inside a negative refractive index metamaterial Steven A. Cummera) and Bogdan versus position inside a wire/split ring resonator negative refractive index metamaterial are presented index metamaterial. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1823595] Negative refractive

  8. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing

    E-print Network

    Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600

  9. INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SHOCK LOADED SODA-LIME GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C. S.

    2009-12-28

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a potential low-cost VISAR window for use at moderate shock pressures (up to 2430 GPa) where the material remains transparent. In order for SLG to be practical as a VISAR window, the correction factor, which describes the frequency correction related to the strain dependence of the refractive index, and hence the index of refraction itself, must be characterized as a function of pressure. Characterization data are reported in this paper and compared to previous results. The present data show good agreement with those of Dandekar [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6614 (1998)] and separate study results by Gibbons and Ahrens [J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5489 (1971)] up to 7 GPa. However, at stresses over 7 GPa, marked discrepancies are evident between the present data and that of Gibbons and Ahrens. Differences in test methods may explain these discrepancies.

  10. The whistler mode refractive index as a function of gyrofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J. M.

    2011-08-15

    The refractive index for a constant-frequency whistler mode wave in an electron-proton plasma is considered as a function of position, through the local gyrofrequencies {Omega}{sub e,i}. The full cold plasma dispersion relation is used. The wave frequency can take any value up to the smaller of {Omega}{sub e} and the plasma frequency {omega}{sub pe}, but {omega}{sub pe} is allowed to take any fixed value, as is the wavenormal angle. It is rigorously established that the refractive index is a decreasing function of {Omega}{sub e}. One application of this is to finding locations of Landau and cyclotron resonances, to evaluate the effects of whistler mode waves on radiation belt electrons.

  11. Enhanced refractive index without absorption in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Shui, Tao; Qian, Biqi; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a ladder-type quantum dot. It is found that the enhanced refraction index without absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting properly the corresponding parameters of the system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in dispersion compensation and solid-state quantum communication for quantum information processing.

  12. Nonresonant Transient Refractive Index Spectroscopy in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, D. K.; Leontyev, A. V.; Shmelev, A. G.; Nikiforov, V. G.; Lobkov, V. S.

    2015-09-01

    We report transient refractive index change in semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in polymethylmethacrylate matrix via pump-probe experiment. At lower pump intensities the detected signal consists of the pulse autocorrelation-shaped part and another part delayed by 300 fs. The latter's relative intensity depends on the pump level. However in CdS monocrystal the detected signal was found to lack this second feature completely.

  13. Microvolume index of refraction determinations by interferometric backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhop, Darryl J.

    1995-06-01

    A new method has been applied to the determination of fluid bulk properties in small detection volumes. Through the use of an unfocused He-Ne laser beam and a cylindrical tube of capillary dimensions, relative refractive-index measurements are possible. The backscattered light from the illumination of a tube of capillary dimensions produces an interference pattern that is spatially defined and that contains information related to the bulk properties of the fluid contained in the tube. Positional changes in the intensity-modulated beam profile (interference fringes) are directly related to the refractive index of the fluid in the tube. The determination of dn/n at the 10-7 level is possible in probe volumes of 350 pL. The technique has been applied to tubes as small as 75 mu m inner diameter and as large as 1.0 mm inner diameter. No modification of the simple optical bench is required for facilitating the determination of refractive index for the complete range of tube diameters.

  14. A simple optical probing technique for nonlinearly induced refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Partha; Abeywickrema, Ujitha

    2013-09-01

    Self phase modulation is a nonlinear effect that is observed when a laser beam is focused on to a high-absorbing thermal medium. A regular tea sample in a plastic cuvette is used as the nonlinear absorbing sample. The change in the refractive index of the medium occurs due to the heat generated by the focused pump beam, which in turn changes the refractive index. In this paper, self phase modulation is investigated in different ways. An Ar-Ion laser of 514 nm is used as the pump beam and a 632 nm He-Ne laser is used as the probe beam. The probe beam is introduced from the opposite side of the pump beam. Ring patterns are observed from the each side of the sample. Regular far field ring patterns are observed from the pump beam, and two sets of rings are observed with the probe beam. The behaviors of these inner and outer rings are monitored for different pump powers. The steady state heat equation is solved to obtain an exact solution for the radial heat distribution and far field ring patterns are simulated using the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral. Ring patterns are theoretically explained using simulations results, and compared with experimental observations. Finally, an interferometric setup using the low power He-Ne laser is also used to determine the induced change in refractive index. Results are compared with those obtained directly from self-phase modulation and from the probe beam method.

  15. Kramers-Kronig analysis on the real refractive index of porous media in the terahertz spectral range.

    PubMed

    Silfsten, Pertti; Kontturi, Ville; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2011-03-01

    We present a terahertz time-domain experimental technique for the detection of scattering from porous media. The method for detection of the scattering enables one to make a decision when Fresnel or Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis can be applied for a porous medium. In this study the real refractive index of a tablet is calculated using the conventional K-K dispersion relation and also using a singly subtractive K-K relation, which are applied to the extinction coefficient obtained from the Beer-Lambert law. The advantage of the K-K analysis is that one gets estimates both for absolute refractive index and also dispersion of the porous tablet, whereas Fresnel analysis provides only the absolute value of the index. PMID:21368980

  16. Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of L-BBH2 Glass for the Subaru CHARIS Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Groff, Tyler D.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have made the first cryogenic measurements of absolute refractive index for Ohara L-BBH2 glass to enable the design of a prism for the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) at the Subaru telescope. L-BBH2 is employed in CHARIS's prism design for improving the spectrograph's dispersion uniformity. Index measurements were made at temperatures from 110 to 305 K at wavelengths from 0.46 to 3.16 micron. We report absolute refractive index (n), dispersion (dn/d(lambda), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for this material along with estimated single measurement uncertainties as a function of wavelength and temperature. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures within applicable ranges. This paper also speaks of the challenges in measuring index for a material which is not available in sufficient thickness to fabricate a typical prism for measurement in CHARMS, the tailoring of the index prism design that allowed these index measurements to be made, and the remarkable results obtained from that prism for this practical infrared material.

  17. Temperature-dependent refractive index measurements of L-BBH2 glass for the Subaru CHARIS integral field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Groff, Tyler D.

    2015-09-01

    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we have made the first cryogenic measurements of absolute refractive index for Ohara L-BBH2 glass to enable the design of a prism for the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) at the Subaru telescope. L-BBH2 is employed in CHARIS's prism design for improving the spectrograph's dispersion uniformity. Index measurements were made at temperatures from 110 to 305 K at wavelengths from 0.46 to 3.16 ?m. We report absolute refractive index (n), dispersion (dn/d?), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for this material along with estimated single measurement uncertainties as a function of wavelength and temperature. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures within applicable ranges. This paper also speaks of the challenges in measuring index for a material which is not available in sufficient thickness to fabricate a typical prism for measurement in CHARMS, the tailoring of the index prism design that allowed these index measurements to be made, and the remarkable results obtained from that prism for this practical infrared material.

  18. Polymeric nanolayered gradient refractive index lenses: technology review and introduction of spherical gradient refractive index ball lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shanzuo; Yin, Kezhen; Mackey, Matthew; Brister, Aaron; Ponting, Michael; Baer, Eric

    2013-11-01

    A nanolayered polymer films approach to designing and fabricating gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses with designer refractive index distribution profiles and an independently prescribed lens surface geometry have been demonstrated to produce a new class of optics. This approach utilized nanolayered polymer materials, constructed with polymethylmethacrylate and a styrene-co-acrylonitrile copolymer with a tailorable refractive index intermediate to bulk materials, to fabricate discrete GRIN profile materials. A process to fabricate nanolayered polymer GRIN optics from these materials through thermoforming and finishing steps is reviewed. A collection of technology-demonstrating previously reported nanolayered GRIN case studies is presented that include: (1) the optical performance of a f/# 2.25 spherical GRIN plano-convex singlet with one quarter (2) the weight of a similar BK7 lens and a bio-inspired aspheric human eye GRIN lens. Original research on the fabrication and characterization of a Luneburg inspired GRIN ball lens is presented as a developing application of the nanolayered polymer technology.

  19. Extraction of complex refractive index dispersion from SPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakkach, Mohamed; Moreau, Julien; Canva, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonnance (SPR) techniques have been mostly set-up as angular reflectivity interrogation mode using quasi-monochromatic light or as spectral reflectivity interrogation mode at one given wavelength, providing information about variation of effective optical thickness ?n.e above the metal surface. In this communication we present a dual mode sensor working both in angular and spectral interrogation modes. A white light illuminates the sensor surface and the reflectivity spectra in TE and TM polarization are measured with a spectrometer. By changing the angular coupling conditions, a complete reflectivity surface R(?, ?) can be measured. The 2D reflectivity decrease valley is affected by both the real and imaginary part of the optical index of the dielectric medium as well as their spectral dispersion. With such experimental data set, it is possible to back calculate the dispersion of the complex refractive index of the dielectric layer. This is demonstrated using a turquoise dye doped solution. According to the Kramers-Kronig relations, the imaginary part of the refractive index for an absorbing medium is proportional to the absorption while the real part presents a large dispersion around the absorption wavelength. The reflectivity surface R(?, ?) was measured from 500 nm to 750 nm over about 8° angular range. The whole complex refractive optical index of the doped solution, absorbing around 630 nm, was reconstructed from the SPR reflectivity experimental data, using a homemade program based on an extended Rouard method to fit the experimental angular plasmon data for each wavelength. These results show that the classical SPR technique can be extended to acquire precise spectral information about biomolecular interactions occurring on the metallic layer.

  20. Methods comparison to retrieve the refractive index of small scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.-M.; Piera, J.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation tools to generate the inherent optical properties of small scatterers are useful to complement data difficult to measure, as for instance their angular scattering features. However, in most cases, shapes are reduced to homogeneous spheres, which is a gross simplification for any particles in water, and the inner complex refractive index is estimated using some approximations. In this paper, several methods for the retrieval of the refractive indices are used in three different examples modelling different shapes and particle size distributions. The error associated with each method is discussed and analysed. It is finally demonstrated that those inverse methods using a genetic algorithm provide optimal estimations relative to other techniques that, although faster, are less accurate. The obtained results suggest that phytoplankton models can be improved using this kind of algorithms and a suitable shape.

  1. Imaging based refractometer for hyperspectral refractive index detection

    DOEpatents

    Baba, Justin S.; Boudreaux, Philip R.

    2015-11-24

    Refractometers for simultaneously measuring refractive index of a sample over a range of wavelengths of light include dispersive and focusing optical systems. An optical beam including the range of wavelengths is spectrally spread along a first axis and focused along a second axis so as to be incident to an interface between the sample and a prism at a range of angles of incidence including a critical angle for at least one wavelength. An imaging detector is situated to receive the spectrally spread and focused light from the interface and form an image corresponding to angle of incidence as a function of wavelength. One or more critical angles are identified and corresponding refractive indices are determined.

  2. A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times Eric Chung1 for reconstructing the index of refraction of a medium from travel time measurements. The method is based on the so of refraction allows us to compute the solution in physical space. Numerical examples including isotropic

  3. Tunable Metallic Photonic Crystals with an Effective Negative Index of Refraction

    E-print Network

    Mojahedi, Mohammad

    Tunable Metallic Photonic Crystals with an Effective Negative Index of Refraction Mark S. Wheeler The design of negative refractive index (NRI) metamaterials is an exciting field of research, even though metamaterials [2-4]. Although in general PCs can produce "negative refraction" with and without BW behavior

  4. A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times

    E-print Network

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    A new phase space method for recovering index of refraction from travel times Eric Chung 1 for reconstructing the index of refraction of a medium from travel time measurements. The method is based on the so of refraction allows us to compute the solution in physical space. Numerical examples including isotropic

  5. Modified Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules for meromorphic total refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Saarinen, Jarkko J.; Vartiainen, Erik M.

    2003-08-01

    Modified Kramers-Kronig relations and corresponding sum rules are shown to hold for the total refractive index that can be presented as a sum of complex linear and nonlinear refractive indices, respectively. It is suggested that a self-action process, involving the degenerate third-order nonlinear susceptibility, can yield a negative total refractive index at some spectral range.

  6. Three-Dimensional Holographic Refractive-Index Measurement of Continuously Flowing Cells in a Microfluidic Channel

    E-print Network

    Sung, Yongjin

    The refractive index of biological specimens is a source of intrinsic contrast that can be explored without any concerns of photobleaching or harmful effects caused by extra contrast agents. In addition, the refractive ...

  7. Planar waveguide refractive-index profiling using modal intensity distributions.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, J; Kurki, J

    1982-12-01

    The intensity distributions of optical modes in planar waveguides were examined using a conventional near-field scanning apparatus. A new method is given, where the mode penetration depths are used for refractive-index profiling. The method was experimentally tested using planar optical waveguides fabricated with silver-sodium ion exchange into soda-lime glass. The observation of the modal intensity distributions was also used to ease the propagation constant measurement and to examine the waveguide quality, including the scattering and modal cross-coupling properties. PMID:20401062

  8. Refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Liu, H.; Sheng, C.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, S. N.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber. The 5.3um diameter microfiber is fabricated by drawing a commercial optical fiber. When the microfiber is immersed into a liquid with larger refractive index than the effective index of fiber mode, the light will leak out through the leaky radiation process. The variation of refractive index of liquid can be monitored by measuring radiation angle of light. The refractive index sensitivity can be over 400 degree/RIU in theory. In the experiment, the variation value 0.001 of refractive index of liquid around this microfiber can be detected through this technique. This work provides a simple and sensitive method for refractive index sensing application.

  9. Refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Liu, H; Sheng, C; Zhu, C; Zhu, S N

    2014-05-19

    In this work we present a refractive index sensor based on the leaky radiation of a microfiber. The 5.3um diameter microfiber is fabricated by drawing a commercial optical fiber. When the microfiber is immersed into a liquid with larger refractive index than the effective index of fiber mode, the light will leak out through the leaky radiation process. The variation of refractive index of liquid can be monitored by measuring radiation angle of light. The refractive index sensitivity can be over 400 degree/RIU in theory. In the experiment, the variation value 0.001 of refractive index of liquid around this microfiber can be detected through this technique. This work provides a simple and sensitive method for refractive index sensing application. PMID:24921381

  10. Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siyu; Yan, Fengping; Singh, Leena; Cao, Wei; Xu, Ningning; Hu, Xiang; Singh, Ranjan; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    The realization of high refractive index is of significant interest in optical imaging with enhanced resolution. Strongly coupled subwavelength resonators were proposed and demonstrated at both optical and terahertz frequencies to enhance the refractive index due to large induced dipole moment in meta-atoms. Here, we report an alternative design for flexible free-standing terahertz metasurface in the strong coupling regime where we experimentally achieve a peak refractive index value of 14.36. We also investigate the impact of the nearest neighbor coupling in the form of frequency tuning and enhancement of the peak refractive index. We provide an analytical circuit model to explain the impact of geometrical parameters and coupling on the effective refractive index of the metasurface. The proposed meta-atom structure enables tailoring of the peak refractive index based on nearest neighbor coupling and this property offers tremendous design flexibility for transformation optics and other index-gradient devices at terahertz frequencies. PMID:26561192

  11. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  12. Dark matter constraints from a cosmic index of refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2010-09-15

    The dark matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects in the propagation and attenuation of light. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter and a new possibility for its direct detection. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of distant gamma-ray bursts to realize a direct limit on the electric charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter of |{epsilon}|/M<1x10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% C.L.

  13. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2009-04-01

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects: the real part yields dispersive effects in propagation, and the imaginary part yields such in attenuation. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts to limit the charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter to |{var_epsilon}|/M < 1.8 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% CL.

  14. High refractive index sensitivity sensing in gold nanoslit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jun; Kan, Qiang; Geng, Zhao-Xin; Xie, Yi-Yang; Wang, Chun-Xia; Chen, Hong-Da

    2014-08-01

    The extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomenon of nano-periodic aperture array in metallic film has been widely investigated and used in biosensors. The surface plasmon resonance and cavity mode in some periodic nanostructures, such as nanohole and nanoslit, cause EOTs at certain wavelengths. This resonance wavelength is sensitive to the refractive index on the surface of periodic nanostructures. Therefore, the metallic nanostructures are expected to be good sensing elements. The sensing performances of gold nanoslit arrays are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are utilized to explore their transmission spectra and steady-state field intensity distributions. The electron beam evaporation, electron beam lithography, and ion milling are applied to the gold nanoslit arrays with different widths and periods. The sensing performances of the gold nanoslit array are characterized via transmission spectra in four kinds of refractive index samples. The highest sensitivity reaches 726 nm/RIU when the width of the gold nanoslit array is 38.5 nm.

  15. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540?nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300?arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540?nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  16. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    E-print Network

    S. Gardner; D. C. Latimer

    2010-06-08

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects in the propagation and attenuation of light. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter and a new possibility for its direct detection. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of distant gamma-ray bursts to realize a direct limit on the electric-charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter of |varepsilon|/M < 1 x 10^{-5} eV^{-1} at 95% CL.

  17. Refractive-index measurement and inverse correction using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Roth, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    We describe a novel technique for determination of the refractive index of hard biological tissue as well as nonopaque technical samples based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our method relies on an inverse refractive-index correction (I-RIC), which matches a measured feature geometry distorted due to refractive-index boundaries to its real geometry. For known feature geometry, the refractive index can be determined with high precision from the best match between the distorted and corrected images. We provide experimental data for refractive-index measurements on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and on an ex vivo porcine cranial-bone, which are compared to reference measurements and previously published data. Our method is potentially capable of in vivo measurements on rigid biological tissue such as bone as, for example, is required to improve guidance in robot-aided surgical interventions and also for retrieving complex refractive-index profiles of compound materials. PMID:26625050

  18. Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

  19. Refractive index sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating and stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueliang; Zheng, Shilie; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2012-05-01

    A Refractive index sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating and stimulated Brillouin scattering is proposed and demonstrated. The cladding modes of the tilted fiber Bragg grating is sensitive to the surrounding refractive index and the approach relies on refractive index dependent resonance wavelength shift of the modes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is introduced to measure the wavelength shift due to its narrow bandwidth, which enhances the wavelength resolution to 0.25 pm and provides much higher refractive index sensitivity than traditional wavelength readout methods. This kind sensor is suitable to sense a very small variation of refractive index and the sensitivities can reach to a resolution of 1.27 × 10(-4) RIU with the refractive index ranging from 1.3405 to 1.4025 and a resolution of 2.49 × 10(-5) RIU ranging from 1.4025 to 1.4219, respectively. PMID:22565710

  20. An alternative method to determine the refractive index of AlxGa1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. A. A.; Sephton, B.; Minnaar, E.; Wagener, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Certain characterizations of AlxGa1-xN epilayers require knowledge of the refractive index. Four theoretical models are reviewed, and a simple method to obtain the refractive index n of AlxGa1-xN is proposed. Values of the refractive index obtained at various wavelengths and Al concentrations are compared to the theoretical models, as well as to previously obtained experimental results. Acceptable agreement with both theoretical and experimental values are obtained.

  1. Fractal anisotropy in tissue refractive index fluctuations: potential role in precancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Chatterjee, Subhasri; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, P. K.; Pradhan, A.; Ghosh, N.

    2014-05-01

    Differential interference contrast images (DIC) are the direct representation of the refractive index fluctuations of human cervical tissues. These refractive index fluctuations are known to follow self-similar behaviour and in general are multifractal in nature. In this present study, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) on refractive index fluctuations from DIC images has been performed by unfolding the tissue-images horizontally and vertically. Our analysis clearly shows that refractive index fluctuations of human cervical tissues are anisotropic-fractal in nature and anisotropy reduced as cancer progress.

  2. 3-D photo-patterning of refractive index structures in photosensitive thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George (Albuquerque, NM); Potter, Kelly Simmons (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a three-dimensional refractive index structure in a photosensitive material using photo-patterning. The wavelengths at which a photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation is first determined and then a portion of the surface of the photosensitive material is optically irradiated at a wavelength at which the photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index using a designed illumination system to produce a three-dimensional refractive index structure. The illumination system can be a micro-lenslet array, a macroscopic refractive lens array, or a binary optic phase mask. The method is a single-step, direct-write procedure to produce a designed refractive index structure.

  3. Anal. Chem. 1995, 67,3767-3774 Variable Index of Refraction Ultrathin Films

    E-print Network

    Anal. Chem. 1995, 67,3767-3774 Variable Index of Refraction Ultrathin Films Formedfrom Self[(p-phenylene)methylenelbis(phosphonate)(AZO). Byvaryingthe ratio of DBP toAZO monolayersin the ZP multilayer film,the indexof refraction canbe controlled of refraction of the ZP multilayerson transparent substrates. ZPfilmsconsistingof 100%DBP and 100% AZO

  4. Photonic bandgap engineering with inverse opal multistacks of different refractive index contrasts

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    Photonic bandgap engineering with inverse opal multistacks of different refractive index contrasts but from materials with different refractive indices. Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 are infiltrated into opal templates by atomic layer deposition. Stacking multiple inverse opal structures with different refractive

  5. Gradient Refractive Index Optics IOL: Theoretical Background and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Malyugin, Boris; Morozova, Tatiana; Cherednik, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present the theoretical optical background and clinical results of a new multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) concept–gradient refractive index optics (Gradiol). Patients and Methods: Original mathematical modeling software was used to calculate optimal construction of the MIOL optic constructed from two polymer materials with different refractive indices. Gradiol lenses were manufactured from hydrophobic acrylic utilizing original step-by-step polymerization technology with the final power difference of of 3.5 D between optic components. Non-comparative prospective clinical study included 26 patients (29 eyes) who were candidates for MIOL implantation. All surgeries were performed at the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex State Institution, Moscow, Russia. After implantation of the Gradiol lenses, the postoperative evaluations included distance (best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)) and near visual acuity (NVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and amplitude of pseudoaccommodation. Subjective patient's satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire (VF-14). Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.5 ± 5.7 years (range 27-82 years). All surgical procedures were uneventful. At 6 months postoperatively, the mean uncorrected distance VA was 0.73 ± 0.18, mean uncorrected near VA was 0.57 ± 0.19, mean corrected distance VA was 0.89 ± 0.15, mean corrected near VA was 0.84 ± 0.07, and amplitude of pseudoaccommodation was 4.75 ± 0.5 D. Eighty-six percent of patients were spectacle independent for daily activities and reading. Optical disturbances that were functionally significant were reported by 10.7% of patients postoperatively. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of this study confirmed the theoretical calculations of constructing MIOL optics from materials with different refractive indices. PMID:24669143

  6. Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Hadley, G. Ronald (Alburquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

  7. High refractive index chalcogenide glass for photonic crystal applications.

    PubMed

    Paivasaari, Kimmo; Tikhomirov, Victor K; Turunen, Jari

    2007-03-01

    A high refractive index Te-enriched bulk chalcogenide glass Ge(20)As(20)Se(14)Te(46) (n approximately 3.3) has been patterned by ablation using four- and two-beam interference femto-second laser setups operating at 800 nm. The regular arrays of 0.8 mum diameter and more than 0.8 mum depth holes and/or grooves of typical size of 1x1 mm(2) have been written on the surface of the glass in a time-scale of 1 second with 50 femtosecond pulses. The high photosensitivity of this narrow-gap semiconductor glass to the femtosecond irradiation is ascribed to a free electron absorption typical of metals, which is caused by laser-induced heating of the glass. PMID:19532468

  8. Textile inspired flexible metamaterial with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgnies, L.; Lheurette, É.; Lippens, D.

    2015-04-01

    This work introduces metallo-dielectric woven fabric as a metamaterial for phase-front manipulation. Dispersion diagram as well as effective medium parameters retrieved from reflection and transmission coefficients point out negative values of refractive index. By numerical simulations, it is evidenced that a pair of meandered metallic wires, arranged in a top to bottom configuration, can yield to a textile metamaterial with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability. While the effective negative permittivity stems from the metallic grid arrangement, resonating current loop resulting from the top to bottom configuration of two meandered metallic wires in near proximity produces magnetic activity with negative permeability. By adjusting the distance between pairs of metallic wires, the electric plasma frequency can be shifted to overlap the magnetic resonance. Finally, it is shown that the woven metamaterial is insensitive to the incident angle up to around 60°.

  9. A simple design method of negative refractive index metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lee, Wangju; Choi, Jaeick

    2009-11-01

    We propose a very simple design method of negative refractive index (NRI) materials that can overcome some drawbacks of conventional resonant-type NRI materials. The proposed NRI materials consist of single or double metallic patterns printed on a dielectric substrate. Our metamaterials (MTMs) show two properties that are different from other types of MTMs in obtaining effective negative values of permittivity ( ?) and permeability ( ?) simultaneously; the geometrical outlines of the metallic patterns are not confined within any specific shape, and the metallic patterns are printed on only one side of the dielectric substrate. Therefore, they are very easy to design and fabricate using common printed circuit board (PCB) technology according to the appropriate application. Excellent agreement between the experiment and prediction data ensures the validity of our design approach.

  10. Refractive Index Profiles of Copper Ion Exchange Glass Planar Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hong-Yun; Teng, Chuan-Xin; Zhao, Xiao-Wei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-08-01

    Glass planar optical waveguides are fabricated by the copper ion-exchange technique. The refractive index (RI) profiles of waveguides are reconstructed by the inverse Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (IWKB) method. Cu+ and Cu2+ ion concentrations are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, and the mechanism of RI changes is analyzed. The model between the RI and ion concentrations is proposed by taking both Cu+ and Cu2+ into account, according to polarizability changes among Cu+, Cu2+ and Na+. The results show that the contribution of Cu2+ is not negligible, and the reason for the RI change is of Cu+ and Cu2+. With the exchange time increasing, the redox process between Cu+ and Cu2+ will play an important role on RI profiles.

  11. Beam propagation in gradient refractive-index media.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G N; Hwang, S H

    1992-09-01

    A generalized beam propagation method is described that uses the ABCD matrices to treat optical systems that have modest amounts of aberrations including gradient refractive-index elements. We can make calculations from any point in the near or far field to any other point by using appropriate numerical algorithms. The variation of the reduced length is discussed as a limitation to accuracy. The diffraction properties of a complex stigmatic system may be represented by those of an equivalent elementary system. This facilitates calculations using the standard diffraction operations for homogeneous media. The modified propagation technique replaces the large number of diffraction steps commonly used for the split-step solution of inhomogeneous media with one step for stigmatic media and in general no more than a few steps for aberrated media. Maxwell's fisheye lens is discussed in detail to show application of the method. PMID:20733694

  12. Inline fiber interference-based refractive-index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liu, Yun; Liu, Zigeng; Yu, Qingxu; Peng, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We report two fiber multiple-mode interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The interference between the core and the cladding modes of a PCF is utilized. We use two methods to form a coupling point, and the cladding modes are excited from the fundamental core mode. One method is blowing compressed gas into the air holes and discharging at the coupling point; the air holes will expand due to gas expansion in the discharge process. Similarly, the other is discharging at the coupling point after the air is exhausted from the air holes, and the holes will contract during the process. By making another coupling point at a different location along the fiber, the proposed PCF interferometers are implemented. Experimental results show that the sensitivities of the two devices can achieve 1.54 and 1.45 nm for a 0.01 refractive index change.

  13. Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhuo; Yao, X. Steve; Yao, Hui; Liang, Yan; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Yanni; Wang, Guanhua; Lan, Shoufeng

    2009-05-01

    We describe a novel method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the accurate measurement of the refractive index of in vitro human teeth. We obtain the refractive indices of enamel, dentin, and cementum to be 1.631+/-0.007, 1.540+/-0.013, and 1.582+/-0.010, respectively. The profile of the refractive index is readily obtained via an OCT B scan across a tooth. This method can be used to study the refractive index changes caused by dental decay and therefore has great potential for the clinical diagnosis of early dental caries.

  14. The photon transport equation for turbid biological media with spatially varying isotropic refractive index.

    PubMed

    Premaratne, Malin; Premaratne, Erosha; Lowery, Arthur

    2005-01-24

    Using the principle of energy conservation and laws of geometrical optics, we derive the photon transport equation for turbid biological media with spatially varying isotropic refractive index. We show that when the refractive index is constant, our result reduces to the standard radiative transfer equation and when the medium is lossless and free of scattering to the well known geometrical optics equations in refractive media. PMID:19488365

  15. Refractive Index Measurement within a Photonic Crystal Fibre Based on Short Wavelength Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Cicero; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin; Groothoff, Nathaniel

    2007-01-01

    A new class of refractive index sensors using solid core photonic crystal fibres is demonstrated. Coherent scattering at the cladding lattice is used to optically characterize materials inserted into the fibre holes. The liquid to solid phase transition of water upon freezing to ice 1h is characterized by determining the refractive index.

  16. Gradient polymer network liquid crystal with a large refractive index change

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Gradient polymer network liquid crystal with a large refractive index change Hongwen Ren,1,* Su Xu,2 and Shin-Tson Wu2 1 Department of polymer Nano-Science and Tech., Chonbuk National University gradient polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) with a large refractive index change is demonstrated

  17. RELATIONSHIP OF FLY ASH COMPOSITION, REFRACTIVE INDEX, AND DENSITY TO IN-STACK OPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the refractive index, density, and composition of fly ash from coal-fired boilers, aimed at determining: (1) the interrelationship of refractive index and composition, and (2) the significance of ash properties on in-stack plume opa...

  18. New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Jared J; Namnabat, Soha; Kim, Eui Tae; Himmelhuber, Roland; Moronta, Dominic H; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam G; Kim, Kyung-Jo; van der Laan, John; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Dereniak, Eustace L; Mackay, Michael E; Char, Kookheon; Glass, Richard S; Norwood, Robert A; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2014-05-21

    Polymers for IR imaging: The preparation of high refractive index polymers (n = 1.75 to 1.86) via the inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur is reported. High quality imaging in the near (1.5 ?m) and mid-IR (3-5 ?m) regions using high refractive index polymeric lenses from these sulfur materials was demonstrated. PMID:24659231

  19. Reflection based Extraordinary Optical Transmission Fiber Optic Probe for Refractive Index Sensing.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Yang, Qingbo; Huang, Jie; Wang, Hanzheng; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai

    2014-03-31

    Fiber optic probes for chemical sensing based on the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomenon are designed and fabricated by perforating subwavelength hole arrays on the gold film coated optical fiber endface. The device exhibits a red shift in response to the surrounding refractive index increases with high sensitivity, enabling a reflection-based refractive index sensor with a compact and simple configuration. By choosing the period of hole arrays, the sensor can be designed to operate in the near infrared telecommunication wavelength range, where the abundant source and detectors are available for easy instrumentation. The new sensor probe is demonstrated for refractive index measurement using refractive index matching fluids. The sensitivity reaches 573 nm/RIU in the 1.333~1.430 refractive index range. PMID:24574579

  20. Reflection based Extraordinary Optical Transmission Fiber Optic Probe for Refractive Index Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Yang, Qingbo; Huang, Jie; Wang, Hanzheng; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Fiber optic probes for chemical sensing based on the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomenon are designed and fabricated by perforating subwavelength hole arrays on the gold film coated optical fiber endface. The device exhibits a red shift in response to the surrounding refractive index increases with high sensitivity, enabling a reflection-based refractive index sensor with a compact and simple configuration. By choosing the period of hole arrays, the sensor can be designed to operate in the near infrared telecommunication wavelength range, where the abundant source and detectors are available for easy instrumentation. The new sensor probe is demonstrated for refractive index measurement using refractive index matching fluids. The sensitivity reaches 573 nm/RIU in the 1.333~1.430 refractive index range. PMID:24574579

  1. Determination of average refractive index of spin coated DCG films for HOE fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, T. J.; Campbell, Eugene W.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    1993-01-01

    The refractive index of holographic emulsions is an important parameter needed for designing holographic optical elements (HOE's). Theoretical calculations of the accuracy required for the refractive index and thickness of emulsions needed to meet predetermined Bragg angle conditions are presented. A modified interferometric method is used to find average refractive index of the unexposed and the developed dichromated gelatin holographic films. Slanted transmission HOE's are designed considering the index and thickness variations, and used to verify the index measurement results. The Brewster angle method is used to measure surface index of the unexposed and the developed films. The differences between average index and surface index are discussed. Theoretical calculation of the effects of index variation on diffraction efficiency, and experimental results for index modulation variation caused by process changes are also presented.

  2. Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo

    2006-10-15

    Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

  3. On retrieving refractive index of dust-like particles using shape distributions of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Merikallio, S.; Räisänen, P.

    2015-06-01

    Ellipsoid-based retrievals are widely used for investigating optical properties of non-ellipsoidal atmospheric particles, such as dust. In this work, the applicability of ellipsoids for retrieving the refractive index of dust-like target model particles from scattering data is investigated. This is a pure modeling study, where stereogrammetrically retrieved model dust shapes are used as targets. The primary objective is to study whether the refractive index of these target particles can be inverted from their scattering matrices using ellipsoidal model particles. To achieve this, first scattering matrices for the target model particles with known refractive indices are computed. On one hand, a non-negative least squares fitting is performed, separately for different scattering matrix elements, for a set of 46 differently shaped ellipsoids by using different assumed refractive indices. Then, the fitting error is evaluated to establish whether the ellipsoidal base best matches the target scattering matrix elements when the correct refractive index is assumed. On the other hand, we also test whether the ellipsoids best match the target data with the correct refractive index, if a predefined (uniform) shape distribution for ellipsoids is assumed, instead of optimizing the shape distribution separately for each tested refractive index. The results show that for both of these approaches using the ellipsoids with the true refractive index produces good results, but also that for each element even better results are acquired by using wrong refractive indices. In addition, the best agreement is found for different scattering matrix elements using different refractive indices. The findings imply that the inversion of refractive index of non-ellipsoidal particles may not be reliable using ellipsoids. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter between the best-match ellipsoid ensemble and the target particles may give rise to major differences in simulated aerosol radiative effects.

  4. Retrieving microphysical properties of dust-like particles using ellipsoids: the case of refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Merikallio, S.; Räisänen, P.

    2015-10-01

    Distributions of ellipsoids are often used to simulate the optical properties of non-ellipsoidal atmospheric particles, such as dust. In this work, the applicability of ellipsoids for retrieving the refractive index of dust-like target model particles from scattering data is investigated. This is a pure modeling study, in which stereogrammetrically retrieved model dust shapes are used as targets. The primary objective is to study whether the refractive index of these target particles can be inverted from their scattering matrices using ellipsoidal model particles. To achieve this, first scattering matrices for the target model particles with known refractive indices are computed. First, a non-negative least squares fitting is performed, individually for each scattering matrix element, for 46 differently shaped ellipsoids by using different assumed refractive indices. Then, the fitting error is evaluated to establish whether the ellipsoid ensemble best matches the target scattering matrix elements when the correct refractive index is assumed. Second, we test whether the ellipsoids best match the target data with the correct refractive index, when a predefined (uniform) shape distribution for ellipsoids is assumed, instead of optimizing the shape distribution separately for each tested refractive index. The results show not only that for both of these approaches using ellipsoids with the true refractive index produces good results but also that for each scattering matrix element even better results are acquired by using wrong refractive indices. In addition, the best agreement is obtained for different scattering matrix elements using different refractive indices. The findings imply that retrieval of refractive index of non-ellipsoidal particles whose single-scattering properties have been modeled with ellipsoids may not be reliable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter between the best-match ellipsoid ensemble and the target particles may give rise to major differences in simulated aerosol radiative effects.

  5. Refractive index change during exposure for 193-nm chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Keun; Sohn, Young-Soo; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Eun-Mi; Byun, Sung Hwan; An, Ilsin; Lee, Kun-Sang; Park, In-Ho

    1999-06-01

    Some of the important areas to be improved for lithography simulation are getting correct exposure parameters and determining the change of refractive index. It is known that the real and imaginary refractive indices are changed during exposure. We obtained these refractive index changes during exposure for 193 nm chemically amplified resists. The variations of the transmittance as well as the resist thickness were measured during ArF excimer laser exposure. We found that the refractive index change is directly related to the concentration of the photo acid generator and de-protected resin. It is important to know the exact values of acid concentration from the exposure parameters since a small difference in acid concentration magnifies the variation in the amplified de-protection during post exposure bake. We developed and used a method to extract Dill ABC exposure parameters for 193 nm chemically amplified resist from the refractive index change upon exposure.

  6. Preliminary Error Budget for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Gubbels, Timothy; Barnes, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements. The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those in the IPCC Report. A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO Project will implement a spaceborne earth observation mission designed to provide rigorous SI traceable observations (i.e., radiance, reflectance, and refractivity) that are sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables, including: 1) Surface temperature and atmospheric temperature profile 2) Atmospheric water vapor profile 3) Far infrared water vapor greenhouse 4) Aerosol properties and anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing 5) Total and spectral solar irradiance 6) Broadband reflected and emitted radiative fluxes 7) Cloud properties 8) Surface albedo There are two methods the CLARREO mission will rely on to achieve these critical decadal change benchmarks: direct and reference inter-calibration. A quantitative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods has led to the recommended CLARREO mission approach. The project consists of two satellites launched into 90-degree, precessing orbits separated by 90 degrees. The instrument suite receiver on each spacecraft includes one emitted infrared spectrometer, two reflected solar spectrometers: dividing the spectrum from ultraviolet through near infrared, and one global navigation receiver for radio occultation. The measurements will be acquired for a period of three years minimum, with a five-year lifetime goal, enabling follow-on missions to extend the climate record over the decades needed to understand climate change. The current work concentrates on the reflected solar instrument giving an overview of its design and calibration approach. The calibration description includes the approach to achieving an SI-traceable system on orbit. The calibration overview is followed by a preliminary error budget based on techniques currently in place at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  7. Quantum vacuum emission from a refractive-index front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Maxime; König, Friedrich

    2015-08-01

    A moving boundary separating two otherwise homogeneous regions of a dielectric is known to emit radiation from the quantum vacuum. An analytical framework based on the Hopfield model, describing a moving refractive-index step in 1 +1 dimensions for realistic dispersive media has been developed by S. Finazzi and I. Carusotto [Phys. Rev. A 87, 023803 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.023803. We expand the use of this model to calculate explicitly spectra of all modes of positive and negative norms. Furthermore, for lower step heights we obtain a unique set of mode configurations encompassing black-hole and white-hole setups. This leads to a realistic emission spectrum featuring black-hole and white-hole emission for different frequencies. We also present spectra as measured in the laboratory frame that include all modes, in particular a dominant negative-norm mode, which is the partner mode in any Hawking-type emission. We find that the emission spectrum is highly structured into intervals of emission with black-hole, white-hole, and no horizons. Finally, we estimate the number of photons emitted as a function of the step height and find a power law of 2.5 for low step heights.

  8. Double high refractive-index contrast grating VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Micha?; Sarza?a, Robert P.; Lott, J. A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are typically used as the highly reflecting mirrors of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In order to provide optical field confinement, oxide apertures are often incorporated in the process of the selective wet oxidation of high aluminum-content DBR layers. This technology has some potential drawbacks such as difficulty in controlling the uniformity of the oxide aperture diameters across a large-diameter (? 6 inch) production wafers, high DBR series resistance especially for small diameters below about 5 ?m despite elaborate grading and doping schemes, free carrier absorption at longer emission wavelengths in the p-doped DBRs, reduced reliability for oxide apertures placed close to the quantum wells, and low thermal conductivity for transporting heat away from the active region. A prospective alternative mirror is a high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) monolithically integrated with the VCSEL cavity. Two HCG mirrors potentially offer a very compact and simplified VCSEL design although the problems of resistance, heat dissipation, and reliability are not completely solved. We present an analysis of a double HCG 980 nm GaAs-based ultra-thin VCSEL. We analyze the optical confinement of such a structure with a total optical thickness is ~1.0? including the optical cavity and the two opposing and parallel HCG mirrors.

  9. Refractive index matching improves optical object detection in paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, J. M. S.; Heikkinen, S. M.; Fabritius, T. E. J.; Haapala, A. T.; Myllylä, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    The demand for high-quality recycled pulp products has increased the need for an efficient deinking process. Assessing process efficiency via residual ink on test sheets has so far been limited to the sheet surface due to the poor transparency of paper. A refractive index matching method was studied to obtain a quantitative measure of particles within the volume of a paper sheet. In actual measurements a glass plate with etched lines from 8.5 µm to 281.1 µm wide was placed beneath the layers of cleared paper, and visible lines were counted with a microscope. Three different paper grades were tested with transparentizing agents. A diffusion theory-based regression model was used to find a correlation between transparency, paper grammage and paper thickness. These equations enable the determination of the size of an object detectable from a paper with a certain transparentizing agent or the parameters of a test sheet needed to detect objects of a known size. Anise oil was found to be the better of the two agents used, and they both had better transparentizing ability than air or water. The transparent paper grammage of the paper grades was determined for all the tested media. Paper's transparency was found to depend more on paper's thickness than grammage.

  10. Optical polymers with tunable refractive index for nanoimprint technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landwehr, J.; Fader, R.; Rumler, M.; Rommel, M.; Bauer, A. J.; Frey, L.; Simon, B.; Fodor, B.; Petrik, P.; Schiener, A.; Winter, B.; Spiecker, E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to realize a versatile high throughput production of micro-optical elements, UV-curable polymer composites containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The composites are based on an industrial prototype epoxy polymer. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were synthesized by the nonaqueous sol method and in situ sterically stabilized by three different organic surfactants. The composites exhibit high transparency. Distinct alteration of optical transmission properties for visible light and near IR wavelength range could be avoided by adaption of the stabilizing organic surfactant. Most importantly, the refractive index (RI) of the composites that depends on the fraction of incorporated inorganic nanoparticles could be directly tuned. E.g. the RI at a wavelength of 635 nm of a composite containing 23 wt% titanium dioxide nanoparticles is increased to 1.626, with respect to a value of 1.542 for the pure polymer. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the prepared inorganic-organic nanocomposites are well suited for the direct fabrication of low-cost micro-optical elements by nanoimprint lithography. A low response of the optical composite properties to temperature treatment up to 220 °C with a shrinkage of only about 4% ensures its application for integrated micro-optical elements in industrial production.

  11. Plasmonic circular resonators for refractive index sensors and filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-05-01

    A plasmonic refractive index sensor based on a circular resonator is proposed. With all three dimensions below 1 ?m, the sensor has a compact and simple structure granting it ease-of-fabrication and ease-of-use. It is capable of sensing trace amounts of liquid or gas samples. The sensing properties are investigated using finite elements method. The results demonstrate that the plasmonic sensor has a relatively high sensitivity of 1,010 nm/RIU, and the corresponding sensing resolution is 9.9 × 10-5 RIU. The sensor has a relatively high quality factor of 35, which is beneficial for identifying each transmission spectrum. More importantly, the sensitivity is not sensitive to changes of structure parameters, which means that the sensitivity of the sensor is immune to the fabrication deviation. In addition, with a transmittance of 5% at the resonant wavelength, this plasmonic structure can also be employed as a filter. In addition, by filling material like LiNbO3 or liquid crystal in the circular resonator, this filter can realize an adjustable wavelength-selective characteristic in a wide band.

  12. Plasmonic circular resonators for refractive index sensors and filters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index sensor based on a circular resonator is proposed. With all three dimensions below 1 ?m, the sensor has a compact and simple structure granting it ease-of-fabrication and ease-of-use. It is capable of sensing trace amounts of liquid or gas samples. The sensing properties are investigated using finite elements method. The results demonstrate that the plasmonic sensor has a relatively high sensitivity of 1,010 nm/RIU, and the corresponding sensing resolution is 9.9?×?10(-5) RIU. The sensor has a relatively high quality factor of 35, which is beneficial for identifying each transmission spectrum. More importantly, the sensitivity is not sensitive to changes of structure parameters, which means that the sensitivity of the sensor is immune to the fabrication deviation. In addition, with a transmittance of 5% at the resonant wavelength, this plasmonic structure can also be employed as a filter. In addition, by filling material like LiNbO3 or liquid crystal in the circular resonator, this filter can realize an adjustable wavelength-selective characteristic in a wide band. PMID:25991915

  13. Pilon's Lab UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and its mutants

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    Pilon's Lab ­ UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Chlamydomonas,k Wavelength, (nm) #12;Pilon's Lab ­ UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index.040 0.045 0.050 Numberfrequency Equivalent diameter, ds (m) CC125 (nm) Refraction index, n Absorption

  14. EXACT EXPRESSIONS AND ACCURATE APPROXIMATIONS FOR THE DEPENDENCES OF RADIUS AND INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SOLUTIONS OF

    E-print Network

    EXACT EXPRESSIONS AND ACCURATE APPROXIMATIONS FOR THE DEPENDENCES OF RADIUS AND INDEX OF REFRACTION and index of refraction, and for aerosol particles that are hygroscopic, both of these quantities vary to the volume-equivalent dry radius) and index of refraction on RH for aqueous solutions of single solutes. Both

  15. Fresnel reflectance in refractive index estimation of light scattering solid particles in immersion liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räty, J.; Niskanen, I.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2010-06-01

    The refractive index of homogenous particle population can be determined by the so-called immersion liquid method. The idea is to find a known liquid whose refractive index matches the index of the particles. We report on a method that simultaneously obtains the refractive index of particles and that of the immersion liquid. It is based on a system using internal light reflection and Fresnel's theory. The method includes a series of straightforward reflection measurements and a fitting procedure. The validity of the method was tested with CaF2 particles. The method has applications within scientific studies of microparticles and nanoparticles or micro-organism in suspensions. It can be also be utilized in industry for the detection of the refractive index of products involving particles for the purpose of improvement of product quality.

  16. The study of refractive index distribution of 3-D optical waveguide in cross-sectional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Zigang; Yang, Yongjia; Sun, Guangchun

    2009-10-01

    A buried 3-D optical waveguide have been fabricated by Tl+-Na+ ion-exchange technology on BK7 glass substrates, the refractive-index profile of the waveguides in cross-sectional were determined with the interference method technique; The refractive-index distribution function n(x,y) for optical waveguides in cross-sectional was improved, and the refractive index profile was reconstructed by MATLAB, and the shapes of the index profile in the cross-sectional are in good agreement with experimental results; The shapes of the refractive-index distribution of 3-D optical waveguide in cross-sectional can be reconstructed by the improved function n(x,y) easily.

  17. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the index of refraction on the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux in semitransparent materials, such as some ceramics, is investigated analytically. In the case considered here, a plane layer of a ceramic material is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces; the material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. It is shown that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained in a simple manner from the results for an index of refraction of unity.

  18. Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on elliptic microfibers fabricated by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-05-01

    A highly-birefringent elliptic microfiber is fabricated by use of the CO2-laser machining and fusion tapering methods. The fiber ellipse can be well controlled with modification of the CO2 laser output power. Both positive and negative sensitivities are observed for the structure to be used in the refractive index sensing application, in contrast to the previously-reported microfiber devices. Moreover, the maximum obtained sensitivity is as high as 195348nm/RIU (refractive index unit) around refractive index of 1.35887, which is one order of magnitude higher than other microfiber counterparts. The temperature-cross sensitivity of 0.007nm/°C is quite low.

  19. Reflectivity of a disordered monolayer estimated by graded refractive index and scattering models.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Ruth; Garcí-Valenzuela, Augusto; Fernández-Guasti, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Reflectivity of a random monolayer, consisting of transparent spherical particles, is estimated using a graded refractive index model, an effective medium approach, and two scattering models. Two cases, a self-standing film and one with a substrate, are considered. Neither the surrounding medium nor the substrate are absorbing materials. Results at normal incidence, with different particle sizes, covering ratios and refractive indexes, are compared. The purpose of this work is to find under which circumstances, for reflectivity at normal incidence, a particle monolayer behaves as a graded refractive index film. PMID:23201948

  20. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-10-10

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  1. The effects of refractive index heterogeneity within kidney tissue on multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Young, P A; Clendenon, S G; Byars, J M; Dunn, K W

    2011-05-01

    Although multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy has improved the depth at which useful fluorescence images can be collected in biological tissues, the reach of multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy is nonetheless limited by tissue scattering and spherical aberration. Scattering can be reduced in fixed samples by mounting in a medium whose refractive index closely matches that of the fixed material. Using optical 'clearing', the effects of refractive index heterogeneity on signal attenuation with depth are investigated. Quantitative measurements show that by mounting kidney tissue in a high refractive index medium, less than 50% of signal attenuates in 100 ?m of depth. PMID:21118239

  2. Self-organization of dissipationless solitons in positive- and negative-refractive-index materials

    SciTech Connect

    Skarka, V.; Aleksic, N. B.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    A generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation describing dissipative solitons dynamics in negative-refractive-index materials is derived from Maxwell equations. This equation having only real terms with opposite sign differs from the usual Ginzburg-Landau equation for positive-refractive-index media. A cross-compensation between the saturating nonlinearity excess, losses, and gain makes obtained self-organized solitons dissipationless and exceptionally robust. In the presence of such solitons medium becomes effectively dissipationless. The compensation of losses is of particular interest for media with resonant character of interactions like negative-refractive-index materials.

  3. Refractive Index for Atomic Waves: Theory and Detailed Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champenois, C.; Audouard, E.; Duplàa, P.; Vigué, J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes new theoretical results and calculations concerning the recently introduced index of refraction of a gas for atomic waves. More precisely, the motion of the atoms of the gas is taken into account and the equation describing the Doppler and Fizeau effects is introduced. The case where the atoms of the wave and the gas have spin 1/2 is also discussed and the rotatory power and circular dichroism of an optically pumped gas is calculated. Finally, the index of the rare gases for sodium waves is calculated. The results show how important it is to take into account glory scattering and Doppler averaging to make a meaningful comparison with experiments. The index appears to be very sensitive to the precise value of the quantum parameter B = 2? D_e?^2 (in atomic unit). Using the available interaction potential curves, we obtained a reasonably good agreement between the measurements and the corresponding calculated values. However, some experimental results appear difficult to explain with the best available interaction potentials. Ce travail présente une étude théorique de l'indice de réfraction pour une onde de matière se propageant dans un gaz. Le calcul de l'indice prend en compte le mouvement des atomes du gaz et met en évidence les effets Doppler et Fizeau. Le cas où les atomes du gaz et ceux de l'onde ont un spin 1/2 est également discuté, ce qui permet le calcul du pouvoir rotatoire et du dichroïsme circulaire d'un gaz optiquement pompé. Finalement, l'indice de l'hélium, du néon, de l'argon, du krypton et du xénon est calculé pour une onde de sodium. Ces calculs montrent l'importance des effets de gloire et de la moyenne thermique. Ces effets doivent donc être pris en compte pour l'interprétation précise des résultats expérimentaux. De plus, il apparaît que l'indice dépend fortement du paramètre quantique B = 2? D_e?^2 (en unité atomique). En utilisant les potentiels sodium gaz rares disponibles dans la littérature, nous obtenons un accord raisonnable entre l'indice calculé et les résultats expérimentaux. Cependant, il reste difficile de rendre compte de certaines valeurs expérimentales avec les meilleurs potentiels actuellement disponibles.

  4. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  5. Method of producing optical quality glass having a selected refractive index

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Optical quality glass having a selected refractive index is produced by a two stage drying process. A gel is produced using sol-gel chemistry techniques and first dried by controlled evaporation until the gel volume reaches a pre-selected value. This pre-selected volume determines the density and refractive index of the finally dried gel. The gel is refilled with solvent in a saturated vapor environment, and then dried again by supercritical extraction of the solvent to form a glass. The glass has a refractive index less than the full density of glass, and the range of achievable refractive indices depends on the composition of the glass. Glasses having different refractive indices chosen from an uninterrupted range of values can be produced from a single precursor solution.

  6. Vacuum birefringence in strong magnetic fields: (II) Complex refractive index from the lowest Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori; Department of Particle and Nuclear Studies, Graduate University for Advanced Studies , 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801

    2013-07-15

    We compute the refractive indices of a photon propagating in strong magnetic fields on the basis of the analytic representation of the vacuum polarization tensor obtained in our previous paper. When the external magnetic field is strong enough for the fermion one-loop diagram of the polarization tensor to be approximated by the lowest Landau level, the propagating mode in parallel to the magnetic field is subject to modification: The refractive index deviates from unity and can be very large, and when the photon energy is large enough, the refractive index acquires an imaginary part indicating decay of a photon into a fermion–antifermion pair. We study dependences of the refractive index on the propagating angle and the magnetic-field strength. It is also emphasized that a self-consistent treatment of the equation which defines the refractive index is indispensable for accurate description of the refractive index. This self-consistent treatment physically corresponds to consistently including the effects of back reactions of the distorted Dirac sea in response to the incident photon. -- Highlights: •Vacuum birefringence and photon decay are described by the complex refractive index. •Resummed photon vacuum polarization tensor in the lowest Landau level is used. •Back reactions from the distorted Dirac sea are self-consistently taken into account. •Self-consistent treatment drastically changes structure in photon energy dependence. •Dependences on photon propagation angle and magnetic-field strength are presented.

  7. Measurement of refractive index in optical fiber prefabricated stick with scanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongying; Chen, Jiabu; Gao, Qiu

    2007-12-01

    The refractive index of optical fiber Prefabricated stick has great effect on the transmission characteristic of optical fiber. Consequently, it is necessary to measure the distribution of refractive index. In this paper, a new method is proposed to measure the distribution of refractive index, which uses a thin light beam to scan the optical fiber Prefabricated stick. When a thin light beam irradiates on the optical fiber prefabricated stick, the light is converged because the optical fiber prefabricated stick acts as a columnar lens. After passing by a series of refraction, the light passes through the optical fiber prefabricated stick. Based on the model of refractive index distribution in the optical fiber prefabricated stick, the theoretic output point can be calculated. At the same time, the practical light output point can also be got through experiments. An evaluation function can be constructed with these two values. The model of refractive index distribution in the optical fiber prefabricated stick can be corrected by Monte-Carlo method gradually. At last the evaluation function value will become very little and the practical refractive index distribution can be got.

  8. Direction dependency of extraordinary refraction index in uniaxial nematic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Jerneja Pavlin; Natasa Vaupotic; Mojca Cepic

    2012-11-06

    The article presents a straightforward experiment that directly and illustratively demonstrates double refraction. For this purpose, two liquid crystalline cells were designed, which enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of the extraordinary refractive index direction dependency in a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal.

  9. High-speed varifocal imaging with a tunable acoustic gradient index of refraction lens

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Craig B.

    (TAG) index of refraction lens as a fast varifocal element. The optical power of the TAG lens varies crystals for focusing a beam. Recently, TAG lenses emerged as a new generation of high-speed tunable correspond to the static refractive in- dex and to the speed of sound in the acoustic me- dium, respectively

  10. Measuring the refractive index of thin transparent films using an extended cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetjen, Christopher; Hallsted, Jonathan; Kleinert, Michaela

    2013-12-01

    We report on a novel method for determining refractive indices of thin layers of liquids or gases, based on the use of extended cavity diode lasers. Measurements for air, water, and vegetable oil show excellent agreement with accepted values. Applications in determining the refractive index of thin optical coatings and biological cells are discussed.

  11. Sensing dynamic cytoplasm refractive index changes of adherent cells with quantitative phase microscopy using incorporated microspheres as optical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przibilla, Sabine; Dartmann, Sebastian; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Greve, Burkhard; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

    2012-09-01

    The intracellular refractive index is an important parameter that describes the optical density of the cytoplasm and the concentration of the intracellular solutes. The refractive index of adherently grown cells is difficult to access. We present a method in which silica microspheres in living cells are used to determine the cytoplasm refractive index with quantitative phase microscopy. The reliability of our approach for refractive index retrieval is shown by data from a comparative study on osmotically stimulated adherent and suspended human pancreatic tumor cells. Results from adherent human fibro sarcoma cells demonstrate the capability of the method for sensing of dynamic refractive index changes and its usage with microfluidics.

  12. A study on refractive index sensors based on optical micro-ring resonators

    E-print Network

    Tsigaridas, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    In this work the behavior of optical micro-ring resonators, especially when functioning as refractive index sensors, is studied in detail. Two configurations are considered, namely a linear waveguide coupled to a circular one and two linear waveguides coupled to each other through a circular one. The optimum coupling conditions are derived and it is shown that in both cases the condition for the resonant wavelength, i.e. the wavelength at which the transmission spectrum exhibits a dip (peak), is the same and depends only on the geometrical characteristics of the circular waveguide and the effective refractive index of the propagating mode. The latter, as well as the corresponding mode profile, can be easily calculated through numerical analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is defined based on the dependence of the effective refractive index on the refractive index of the environment. Using a result of waveguide perturbation theory, the geometrical characteristics of the core of the circular waveguide that m...

  13. Velocity Measurement by Scattering from Index of Refraction Fluctuations Induced in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lading, Lars; Saffman, Mark; Edwards, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Induced phase screen scattering is defined as scatter light from a weak index of refraction fluctuations induced by turbulence. The basic assumptions and requirements for induced phase screen scattering, including scale requirements, are presented.

  14. Targeted alteration of real and imaginary refractive index of biological cells by histological staining

    E-print Network

    Taflove, Allen

    Targeted alteration of real and imaginary refractive index of biological cells by histological of epithe- lial cells caused by histological stains such as hematox- ylin and eosin-containing cytostain. We

  15. Refractive index of r-cut sapphire under shock pressure range 5 to 65?GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiuxia; Li, Jiabo; Li, Jun; Li, Xuhai; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Wenjun; Meng, Chuanmin; Zhou, Xianming

    2014-09-07

    High-pressure refractive index of optical window materials not only can provide information on electronic polarizability and band-gap structure, but also is important for velocity correction in particle-velocity measurement with laser interferometers. In this work, the refractive index of r-cut sapphire window at 1550?nm wavelength was measured under shock pressures of 5–65?GPa. The refractive index (n) decreases linearly with increasing shock density (?) for shock stress above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL): n?=?2.0485 (± 0.0197)???0.0729 (± 0.0043)?, while n remains nearly a constant for elastic shocks. This behavior is attributed to the transition from elastic (below HEL) to heterogeneous plastic deformation (above HEL). Based on the obtained refractive index-density relationship, polarizability of the shocked sapphire was also obtained.

  16. Design and manufacturing of all-dielectric optical metamaterial with gradient index of refraction

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, Chih-Hung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Gradient index (GRIN) materials offer the most general manipulation over wave fields of light compared to conventional refractive optics, where the light is deflected by the curved surface. The creative way to implementing ...

  17. THz triangulation and stand-off measurement of the refractive index

    E-print Network

    THz triangulation and stand-off measurement of the refractive index Christian Wiegand,1, Michael@physik.uni-kl.de Abstract: We have constructed a pulsed THz imaging system based on the triangulation method. The system

  18. Equivalent refractive-index structure constant of non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Zhu, Wenyue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Rao, Ruizhong

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between the non-Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant and the Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant is derived by using the refractive-index structure function and the variance of refractive-index fluctuations. It shows that the non-Kolmogorov structure constant is proportional to the Kolmogorov structure constant and the scaling factor depends on the outer scale and the spectral power law. For a fixed Kolmogorov structure constant, the non-Kolmogorov structure constant increases with a increasing outer scale for the power law less than 11/3, the trend is opposite for the power law greater than 11/3. This equivalent relation provides a way of obtaining the non-Kolmogorov structure constant by using the Kolmogorov structure constant. PMID:26368405

  19. Change in the refractive index of a photorefractive crystal during formation of a spatially screened soliton

    SciTech Connect

    Assel'born, Sergei A; Kundikova, Nataliya D; Novikov, Igor' V

    2010-02-28

    A change in the refractive index of a photorefractive barium-sodium niobate crystal in an alternating electric field during the propagation of intensity-modulated coherent radiation in it is studied. It is shown experimentally that a change in the refractive index in the soliton regime in a photorefractive crystal with a small nonlocal response is independent of the external-field amplitude and intensity-modulation depth. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  20. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  1. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (6 Stephanie La., Manorville, NY 11949)

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  2. Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Mirjam; Scholze, Jana; Müller, Paul; Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Chalut, Kevin J; Guck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduce digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a marker-free method to determine the refractive index of single, spherical cells in suspension. The refractive index is a conclusive measure in a biological context. Cell conditions, such as differentiation or infection, are known to yield significant changes in the refractive index. Furthermore, the refractive index of biological tissue determines the way it interacts with light. Besides the biological relevance of this interaction in the retina, a lot of methods used in biology, including microscopy, rely on light-tissue or light-cell interactions. Hence, determining the refractive index of cells using DHM is valuable in many biological applications. This chapter covers the main topics that are important for the implementation of DHM: setup, sample preparation, and analysis. First, the optical setup is described in detail including notes and suggestions for the implementation. Following that, a protocol for the sample and measurement preparation is explained. In the analysis section, an algorithm for the determination of quantitative phase maps is described. Subsequently, all intermediate steps for the calculation of the refractive index of suspended cells are presented, exploiting their spherical shape. In the last section, a discussion of possible extensions to the setup, further measurement configurations, and additional analysis methods are given. Throughout this chapter, we describe a simple, robust, and thus easily reproducible implementation of DHM. The different possibilities for extensions show the diverse fields of application for this technique. PMID:25640428

  3. Method of determining effects of heat-induced irregular refractive index on an optical system.

    PubMed

    Song, Xifa; Li, Lin; Huang, Yifan

    2015-09-01

    The effects of an irregular refractive index on optical performance are examined. A method was developed to express a lens's irregular refractive index distribution. An optical system and its mountings were modeled by a thermomechanical finite element (FE) program in the predicted operating temperature range, -45°C-50°C. FE outputs were elaborated using a MATLAB optimization routine; a nonlinear least squares algorithm was adopted to determine which gradient equation best fit each lens's refractive index distribution. The obtained gradient data were imported into Zemax for sequential ray-tracing analysis. The root mean square spot diameter, modulation transfer function, and diffraction ensquared energy were computed for an optical system under an irregular refractive index and under thermoelastic deformation. These properties are greatly reduced by the irregular refractive index effect, which is one-third to five-sevenths the size of the thermoelastic deformation effect. Thus, thermal analyses of optical systems should consider not only thermoelastic deformation but also refractive index irregularities caused by inhomogeneous temperature. PMID:26368895

  4. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Woodruff, Steven D. (Ames, IA)

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

  5. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

  6. Quantification of nanoscale nuclear refractive index changes during the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, Rajan K.; Uttam, Shikhar; Wang, Pin; Staton, Kevin; Choi, Serah; Bakkenist, Christopher J.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-07-01

    Intrigued by our recent finding that the nuclear refractive index is significantly increased in malignant cells and histologically normal cells in clinical histology specimens derived from cancer patients, we sought to identify potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena. The cell cycle is an ordered series of events that describes the intervals of cell growth, DNA replication, and mitosis that precede cell division. Since abnormal cell cycles and increased proliferation are characteristic of many human cancer cells, we hypothesized that the observed increase in nuclear refractive index could be related to an abundance or accumulation of cells derived from cancer patients at a specific point or phase(s) of the cell cycle. Here we show that changes in nuclear refractive index of fixed cells are seen as synchronized populations of cells that proceed through the cell cycle, and that increased nuclear refractive index is strongly correlated with increased DNA content. We therefore propose that an abundance of cells undergoing DNA replication and mitosis may explain the increase in nuclear refractive index observed in both malignant and histologically normal cells from cancer patients. Our findings suggest that nuclear refractive index may be a novel physical parameter for early cancer detection and risk stratification.

  7. NOTE: Refractive index measurement for biomaterial samples by total internal reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. L.; Chen, J. Y.; Xu, L.; Wang, P. N.

    2006-10-01

    The refractive index of biological tissue is a fundamental parameter in applications of optical diagnosis and laser treatments. In the present work, the refractive indices and thermo-optic coefficients of some basic biomaterials, such as blood plasma, haemoglobin solution and lipid membrane, were studied by the method of total internal reflection at the wavelengths of 532 and 632.8 nm that are the most frequently used laser wavelengths in the biomedical field. The effects of the sample concentration and the temperature on refractive index were measured, and empirical relationships were summarized, accompanied by a theoretical explanation based on molecular polarization theory. The results provide some fundamental data for the refractive indices of these biomaterials under variant conditions, and also demonstrate that the total internal reflection method is a feasible and reliable way to measure the refractive indices of biological samples.

  8. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on adiabatically tapered microfiber long period gratings.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen Bin; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Lin, Bo; Ng, Choong Leng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a refractive index sensor based on a long period grating (LPG) inscribed in a special photosensitive microfiber with double-clad profile. The fiber is tapered gradually enough to ensure the adiabaticity of the fiber taper. In other words, the resulting insertion loss is sufficiently small. The boron and germanium co-doped inner cladding makes it suitable for inscribing gratings into its tapered form. The manner of wavelength shift for refractive indices (RIs) differs from conventional LPG, and the refractive index detection limit is 1.67 × 10??. PMID:24141267

  9. Low loss two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah; Mittler, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive indices are fabricated under a variety of conditions. By modifying the conventional two-step ion exchange, the losses and the effective diffusion depth can be decreased without a significant effect on the surface refractive index. The influence of the first step, K+-Na+ ion exchange, performed time dependably on the surface refractive index change is investigated. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is performed to establish the diffusion profiles of various ions.

  10. Targeted alteration of real and imaginary refractive index of biological cells by histological staining.

    PubMed

    Cherkezyan, L; Subramanian, H; Stoyneva, V; Rogers, J D; Yang, S; Damania, D; Taflove, A; Backman, V

    2012-05-15

    Various staining techniques are commonly used in biomedical research to investigate cellular morphology. By inducing absorption of light, staining dyes change the intracellular refractive index due to the Kramers-Kronig relationship. We present a method for creating 2D maps of real and imaginary refractive indices of stained biological cells using their thickness and absorptance. We validate our technique on dyed polystyrene microspheres and quantify the alteration in refractive index of stained biological cells. We reveal that specific staining of individual organelles can increase their scattering cross-section by orders of magnitudes, implying a major impact in the field of biophotonics. PMID:22627509

  11. Effects of refractive index mismatch in optical CT imaging of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki S, Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proposing an image reconstruction technique, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc). The proposed method takes care of refractive index mismatches present in gel dosimeter scanner at the boundary, and also corrects for the interior ray refraction. Polymer gel dosimeters with high dose regions have higher refractive index and optical density compared to the background medium, these changes in refractive index at high dose results in interior ray bending. Methods: The inclusion of the effects of refraction is an important step in reconstruction of optical density in gel dosimeters. The proposed ray tracing algorithm models the interior multiple refraction at the inhomogeneities. Jacob’s ray tracing algorithm has been modified to calculate the pathlengths of the ray that traverses through the higher dose regions. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along its path and is used as the weight matrix. Algebraic reconstruction technique and pixel based reconstruction algorithms are used for solving the reconstruction problem. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The experimental dosimetric results are also presented. Results: The results show that the proposed scheme ART-rc is able to reconstruct optical density inside the dosimeter better than the results obtained using filtered backprojection and conventional algebraic reconstruction approaches. The quantitative improvement using ART-rc is evaluated using gamma-index. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive indices are discussed. The effects of modeling of interior refraction in the dose region are presented. Conclusions: The errors propagated due to multiple refraction effects have been modeled and the improvements in reconstruction using proposed model is presented. The refractive index of the dosimeter has a mismatch with the surrounding medium (for dry air or water scanning). The algorithm reconstructs the dose profiles by estimating refractive indices of multiple inhomogeneities having different refractive indices and optical densities embedded in the dosimeter. This is achieved by tracking the path of the ray that traverses through the dosimeter. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out and results are found to be matching that of experimental results.

  12. Experimental determination of refractive index of condensed reflectin in squid iridocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Amitabh; DeMartini, Daniel G.; Eck, Elizabeth; Morse, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Loliginid squid dynamically tune the structural iridescence of cells in their skin for active camouflage and communication. Bragg reflectors in these cells consist of membrane-bound lamellae periodically alternating with low refractive index extracellular spaces; neuronal signalling induces condensation of the reflectin proteins that fill the lamellae, consequently triggering the expulsion of water. This causes an increase in refractive index within the lamellae, activating reflectance, with the change in lamellar thickness and spacing progressively shifting the wavelength of reflected light. We used micro-spectrophotometry to measure the functionally relevant refractive index of the high-index lamellae of the Bragg reflectors containing the condensed reflectins in chemically fixed dermal iridocytes of the squid, Doryteuthis opalescens. Our high-magnification imaging spectrometer allowed us to obtain normalized spectra of optically distinct sections of the individual, subcellular, multi-layer Bragg stacks. Replacement of the extracellular fluid with liquids of increasing refractive index allowed us to measure the reflectivity of the Bragg stacks as it decreased progressively to 0 when the refractive index of the extracellular medium exactly matched that of the reflectin-filled lamellae, thus allowing us to directly measure the refractive index of the reflectin-filled lamellae as ncondensed lamellae ? 1.44. The measured value of the physiologically relevant ncondensed lamellae from these bright iridocytes falls within the range of values that we recently determined by an independent optical method and is significantly lower than values previously reported for dehydrated and air-dried reflectin films. We propose that this directly measured value for the refractive index of the squid's Bragg lamellae containing the condensed reflectins is most appropriate for calculations of reflectivity in similar reflectin-based high-index layers in other molluscs. PMID:24694894

  13. Experimental determination of refractive index of condensed reflectin in squid iridocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Amitabh; DeMartini, Daniel G; Eck, Elizabeth; Morse, Daniel E

    2014-06-01

    Loliginid squid dynamically tune the structural iridescence of cells in their skin for active camouflage and communication. Bragg reflectors in these cells consist of membrane-bound lamellae periodically alternating with low refractive index extracellular spaces; neuronal signalling induces condensation of the reflectin proteins that fill the lamellae, consequently triggering the expulsion of water. This causes an increase in refractive index within the lamellae, activating reflectance, with the change in lamellar thickness and spacing progressively shifting the wavelength of reflected light. We used micro-spectrophotometry to measure the functionally relevant refractive index of the high-index lamellae of the Bragg reflectors containing the condensed reflectins in chemically fixed dermal iridocytes of the squid, Doryteuthis opalescens. Our high-magnification imaging spectrometer allowed us to obtain normalized spectra of optically distinct sections of the individual, subcellular, multi-layer Bragg stacks. Replacement of the extracellular fluid with liquids of increasing refractive index allowed us to measure the reflectivity of the Bragg stacks as it decreased progressively to 0 when the refractive index of the extracellular medium exactly matched that of the reflectin-filled lamellae, thus allowing us to directly measure the refractive index of the reflectin-filled lamellae as ncondensed lamellae ? 1.44. The measured value of the physiologically relevant ncondensed lamellae from these bright iridocytes falls within the range of values that we recently determined by an independent optical method and is significantly lower than values previously reported for dehydrated and air-dried reflectin films. We propose that this directly measured value for the refractive index of the squid's Bragg lamellae containing the condensed reflectins is most appropriate for calculations of reflectivity in similar reflectin-based high-index layers in other molluscs. PMID:24694894

  14. Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always February 2004 We analyze refraction of electromagnetic wave packets on passing from an isotropic positive to an isotropic negative-refractive-index medium. We definitively show that in all cases the energy is always

  15. All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index Chiyan Luo, Steven G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos*

    E-print Network

    All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index Chiyan Luo, Steven G. Johnson, and J 13 May 2002 We describe an all-angle negative refraction effect that does not employ a negative effective index of refraction and involves photonic crystals. A few simple criteria sufficient to achieve

  16. Refraction of nonlinear beams by localized refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Assanto, Gaetano; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-11-15

    The propagation of solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of localized nonuniformities is studied. These nonuniformities can be caused by external electric fields, other light beams, or any other mechanism which results in a modified director orientation in a localized region of the liquid-crystal cell. The net effect is that the solitary wave undergoes refraction and trajectory bending. A general modulation theory for this refraction is developed, and particular cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular perturbations are considered. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  17. Refraction of nonlinear beams by localized refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assanto, Gaetano; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-11-01

    The propagation of solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of localized nonuniformities is studied. These nonuniformities can be caused by external electric fields, other light beams, or any other mechanism which results in a modified director orientation in a localized region of the liquid-crystal cell. The net effect is that the solitary wave undergoes refraction and trajectory bending. A general modulation theory for this refraction is developed, and particular cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular perturbations are considered. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  18. Error analysis of optical fiber refractive-index profiling using the focusing method.

    PubMed

    Iwai, T; Kobayashi, S

    1988-06-01

    The cause of measurement error in refractive-index profiling by the focusing method is investigated by comparison of intensity distributions and reconstructed refractive-index profiles obtained by the experiment, ray tracing, and diffraction integral. It is shown that the variations of intensity distribution and refractiveindex profile experimentally obtained are between those obtained by ray tracing and diffraction integral. Therefore, the focusing method based on ray optics generates a great deal of the measurement error for the small size fiber sample due to the diffraction. In particular, the diffraction produced by the index depression of the MCVD fiber causes much degradation of the measurement accuracy not only in the reconstruction of the index depression but also in that of the whole refractive-index profile. PMID:20531757

  19. Humidity contribution to the refractive index structure function C 2

    E-print Network

    Chang, Mark J. L.

    on these complex works are well known and available in the literature: Greenwood, 5 Hufnagel--Valley, 6 SLC­Day and SLC­Night. 7 These models are used to predict the strength of weak clear air turbulence's refractive at 5 minutes. The LOA­004 instrument comprises of a single modulated infrared transmitter whose output

  20. Long period grating inscribed in multimode fibre interferometer and its application in refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Haoyu; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    A long period grating (LPG) is inscribed by a femtosecond laser in the multimode region of a singlemode-multimode-singlemode fibre device to provide a compact refractive index sensor. An average sensitivity of 39 nm/RIU and a resolvable index change of 2.56×10-4 are obtained experimentally with a 44.4 mm long multimode fibre over a measured refractive index range of 1.33-1.35. Because of its compactness, ease of fabrication, linear response, high sensitivity, easy connectivity to other fiberized optical components and low cost, this refractometer could find various applications in chemical and biological sensing.

  1. Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Micheletto, Ruggero; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Fujii, Takashi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2008-10-27

    Surface plasmon resonance sensors exploit the high sensitivity to local perturbations of plasma waves in a thin metal layer. These devices have a wide range of applications as biomedical, environmental, industrial, and homeland security. We concentrate on the theoretical aspects of the sensing principle. By calculations at various indexes of refraction we proved that using substrate material of higher index, sensitivity and dynamics range improve conspicuously. Finally, we show experimental data taken using a special transparent ceramic material of exceptionally high index of refraction n=2.04. Tests demonstrate sensitivity about one order of magnitude better than those obtained with conventional BK7 glass.

  2. Refractive Index of a Transparent Liquid Measured with a Concave Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the refractive index "n" of a substance or medium is part of every introductory physics course. Various approaches to determine this index have been developed over the years based on the different ways light reflects and transmits in the medium. In this paper, the authors would like to present a simple geometrical derivation of the…

  3. Guiding light in optically induced ring lattices with a low-refractive-index core

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jianke

    bandgap fiber with a low-index core. While the ring lattice is optically induced in a bulk crystalGuiding light in optically induced ring lattices with a low-refractive-index core Xiaosheng Wang, California 94132 Jianke Yang Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington

  4. Complex Refractive Index of Ammonium Nitrate in the 2-20 micron Spectral Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Norman, Mark L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Cutten, Dean R.

    2002-01-01

    Using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorbance/transmittance spectral data for ammonium sulfate (AMS), calcium carbonate (CAC) and ammonium nitrate (AMN), comparisons were made with previously published complex refractive indices data for AMS and CAC to infer experimental parameters to determine the imaginary refractive index for AMN in the infrared wavelength range from 2 to 20 microns. Kramers-Kronig mathematical relations were applied to calculate the real refractive index for the three compositions. Excellent agreement for AMS and CAC with the published values was found, validating the complex refractive indices obtained for AMN. Backscatter calculations using a lognormal size distribution for AMS, AMN, and CAC aerosols were performed to show differences in their backscattered spectra.

  5. The use of a conical lens to find the refractive index of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino; Salas Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the basic idea is to determine the refractive index of liquids unknown using a conical lens. The measurement of the refractive index of liquids is an important work in engineering and science since is one of the most important optical parameter. The adulteration problem is increasing day by day; therefore it is necessary to implement new and simple devices for measure the refractive index of several materials. There is a great variety of interferometric methods that may be used for determining the refractive index. However, these methods either need sophisticated equipment or have low accuracy. Our system consists of a conical lens coupled to a cylindrical container with a liquid whose composition can be changed easily or adulterated. The diameter of the emergent beam of the container is associated to the specific index of refraction of each substance. Any adulteration of the liquid will be reflected in the diameter of the beam, which will be detected by a charge-coupled device (CCD). Our hypothesis is supported by developed mathematical calculations and numerical simulations.

  6. High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on adiabatic tapered optical fiber deposited with nanofilm by ALD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Dong, Yanhua; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-06-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thickness of Al2O3 nanofilm is coated around fiber taper precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the high refractive index of the Al2O3 nanofilm, an asymmetry Fabry-Perot like interferometer is constructed along the fiber taper. Based on the ray-optic analysis, total internal reflection happens on the nanofilm-surrounding interface. With the ambient refractive index changing, the phase delay induced by the Goos-Hänchen shift is changed. Correspondingly, the transmission resonant spectrum shifts, which can be utilized for realizing high sensitivity sensor. The high sensitivity sensor with 6008 nm/RIU is demonstrated by depositing 3000 layers Al2O3 nanofilm as the ambient refractive index is close to 1.33. This high sensitivity refractive index sensor is expected to have wide applications in biochemical sensors. PMID:26072758

  7. Three-Dimensional Holographic Refractive-Index Measurement of Continuously Flowing Cells in a Microfluidic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yongjin; Lue, Niyom; Hamza, Bashar; Martel, Joseph; Irimia, Daniel; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The refractive index of biological specimens is a source of intrinsic contrast that can be explored without any concerns of photobleaching or harmful effects caused by extra contrast agents. In addition, the refractive index contains rich information related to the metabolism of cells at the cellular and subcellular levels. Here, we report a no-moving-parts approach that provides three-dimensional refractive-index maps of biological samples continuously flowing in a microfluidic channel. Specifically, we use line illumination and off-axis digital holography to record the angular spectra of light scattered from flowing samples at high speed. Applying the scalar diffraction theory, we obtain accurate refractive-index maps of the samples from the measured spectra. Using this method, we demonstrate label-free three-dimensional imaging of live RKO human colon cancer cells and RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells, and obtain the volume, dry mass, and density of these cells from the measured three-dimensional refractive-index maps. Our results show that the reported method, alone or in combination with the existing flow cytometry techniques, shows promise as a quantitative tool for stain-free characterization of a large number of cells.

  8. Analysis of interferograms of refractive index inhomogeneities produced in optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjányi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Optical homogeneity of materials intended for optical applications is one of the criterions which decide on an appropriate application method for the material. The existence of a refractive index inhomogeneity inside a material may disqualify it from utilization or by contrary, provide an advantage. For observation of a refractive index inhomogeneity, even a weak one, it is convenient to use any of interferometric methods. They are very sensitive and provide information on spatial distribution of the refractive index, immediately. One can use them also in case when the inhomogeneity evolves in time, usually due to action of some external fields. Then, the stream of interferograms provides a dynamic evolution of a spatial distribution of the inhomogeneity. In the contribution, there are presented results of the analysis of interferograms obtained by observing the creation of a refractive index inhomogeneity due to illumination of thin layers of a polyvinyl-alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer and a plate of photorefractive crystal, lithium niobate, by light and a refractive index inhomogeneity originated at the boundary of two layers of polydimethylsiloxane. The obtained dependences can be used for studying of the mechanisms responsible for the inhomogeneity creation, designing various technical applications or for diagnostics of fabricated components.

  9. Precise formula for calculating corrections to the refractive index for laser satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, E. P.

    The paper considers the derivation and accuracy evaluation of a formula for calculating the refractive index for laser rangefinding measurements of earth satellites. The derivation is carried out on the basis of Hopfield's (1969) two-quartic tropospheric refractivity profile for correcting satellite data. The derived formula provides for an accuracy up to 1 cm for a zenith distance z not greater than 80 deg.

  10. Determination of Diameter and Index of Refraction of Textile Fibers by Laser Backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    H. Okuda; B. Stratton; L. Meixler; P. Efthimion; D.Mansfield

    2003-07-24

    A new method was developed to determine both diameters and indices of refraction and hence the birefringence of cylindrical textile and industrial fibers and bundles by measuring intensity patterns of the scattered light over an interval of scattering angles. The measured intensity patterns are compared with theoretical predictions (Mie theory) to determine fiber diameter and index of refraction. It is shown that the method is simple and accurate and may be useful as an on-line, noncontact diagnostic tool in real time.

  11. Pilon's Lab UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp. and

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    Pilon's Lab ­ UCLA www.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Botryococcus.seas.ucla.edu/~pilon/ Refraction and absorption index of Botryococcus braunii 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 Numberfrequency Equivalent diameter, ds (m) (nm) Refraction index, n

  12. Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction from a Combination of Aerosol in Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Liou, K. N.; Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hartley, W. S.; Ismail, S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.

    2000-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in estimates of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate stems from uncertainties in the determination of their microphysical properties, including the aerosol complex index of refraction, which in turn determines their optical properties. A novel technique is used to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction in distinct vertical layers from a combination of aerosol in situ size distribution and remote sensing measurements during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). In particular, aerosol backscatter measurements using the NASA Langley LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument and in situ aerosol size distribution data are utilized to derive vertical profiles of the "effective" aerosol complex index of refraction at 815 nm (i.e., the refractive index that would provide the same backscatter signal in a forward calculation on the basis of the measured in situ particle size distributions for homogeneous, spherical aerosols). A sensitivity study shows that this method yields small errors in the retrieved aerosol refractive indices, provided the errors in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter are less than 30% and random in nature. Absolute errors in the estimated aerosol refractive indices are generally less than 0.04 for the real part and can be as much as 0.042 for the imaginary part in the case of a 30% error in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter. The measurements of aerosol optical depth from the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) are successfully incorporated into the new technique and help constrain the retrieved aerosol refractive indices. An application of the technique to two TARFOX case studies yields the occurrence of vertical layers of distinct aerosol refractive indices. Values of the estimated complex aerosol refractive index range from 1.33 to 1.45 for the real part and 0.001 to 0.008 for the imaginary part. The methodology devised in this study provides, for the first time, a complete set of vertically resolved aerosol size distribution and refractive index data. yielding the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties required for the determination of aerosol-induced radiative flux changes.

  13. Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction from a Combination of Aerosol in Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Liou, K. N.; Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hartley, W. S.; Ismail, S.

    2000-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in estimates of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate stems from uncertainties in the determination of their microphysical properties, including the aerosol complex index of refraction, which in turn determines their optical properties. A novel technique is used to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction in distinct vertical layers from a combination of aerosol in situ size distribution and remote sensing measurements during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). In particular, aerosol backscatter measurements using the NASA Langley LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) instrument and in situ aerosol size distribution data are utilized to derive vertical profiles of the 'effective' aerosol complex index of refraction at 815 nm (i.e., the refractive index that would provide the same backscatter signal in a forward calculation on the basis of the measured in situ particle size distributions for homogeneous, spherical aerosols). A sensitivity study shows that this method yields small errors in the retrieved aerosol refractive indices, provided the errors in the lidar derived aerosol backscatter are less than 30% and random in nature. Absolute errors in the estimated aerosol refractive indices are generally less than 0.04 for the real part and can be as much as 0.042 for the imaginary part in the case of a 30% error in the lidar-derived aerosol backscatter. The measurements of aerosol optical depth from the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) are successfully incorporated into the new technique and help constrain the retrieved aerosol refractive indices. An application of the technique to two TARFOX case studies yields the occurrence of vertical layers of distinct aerosol refractive indices. Values of the estimated complex aerosol refractive index range from 1.33 to 1.45 for the real part and 0.001 to 0.008 for the imaginary part. The methodology devised in this study provides, for the first time a complete set of vertically resolved aerosol size distribution and refractive index data, yielding the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties required for the determination of aersol-induced radiative flux changes

  14. Composition-tuned refractive index and oscillator parameters in TlGaInS layered mixed crystals ( 0?x?1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.

    2010-09-01

    The optical properties of TlGa xIn 1- xS 2 mixed crystals have been studied through transmission and reflection measurements in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm. These measurements allowed determination of the spectral dependence of the refractive index for all compositions of the mixed crystals studied. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the Wemple-DiDomenico single-effective-oscillator model. The compositional dependences of the refractive index dispersion parameters (oscillator energy, dispersion energy and zero-frequency refractive index) were revealed.

  15. High-refractive-index transparent coatings enhance the optical fiber cladding modes refractometric sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Renoirt, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Chao; Debliquy, Marc; Olivier, Marie-Georges; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2013-11-18

    The high order cladding modes of standard single mode optical fiber appear in quasi-degenerate pairs corresponding to mostly radially or mostly azimuthally polarized light. In this work, we demonstrate that, in the presence of a high-refractive-index coating surrounding the fiber outer surface, the wavelength spacing between the orthogonally polarized cladding modes families can be drastically enhanced. This behavior can be advantageously exploited for refractometric sensing purposes. For this, we make use of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) as spectral combs to excite the orthogonally polarized cladding modes families separately. TFBGs were coated with a nanometer-scale transparent thin film characterized by a refractive index value close to 1.9, well higher than the one of pure silica. This coating brings two important assets: an ~8-fold increase in refractometric sensitivity is obtained in comparison to bare TFBGs while the sensitivity is extended to surrounding refractive index (SRI) values above 1.45. PMID:24514423

  16. Index of refraction, Rayleigh scattering length, and Sellmeier coefficients in solid and liquid argon and xenon

    E-print Network

    Grace, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Like all the noble elements, argon and xenon are scintillators, \\emph{i.e.} they produce light when exposed to radiation. Large liquid argon detectors have become widely used in low background experiments, including dark matter and neutrino research. However, the index of refraction of liquid argon at the scintillation wavelength has not been measured and current Rayleigh scattering length calculations disagree with measurements. Furthermore, the Rayleigh scattering length and index of refraction of solid argon and solid xenon at their scintillation wavelengths have not been previously measured or calculated. We introduce a new calculation using previously measured data in liquid and solid argon and xenon to extrapolate the optical properties at the scintillation wavelengths using the Sellmeier dispersion relationship. As a point of validation, we compare our extrapolated index of refraction for liquid xenon against the measured value and find agreement within the uncertainties. This method results in a Rayle...

  17. Efficient approximations of dispersion relations in optical waveguides with varying refractive-index profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutian; Zhu, Jianxin

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of computing the eigen-modes for the varying refractive-index profile in an open waveguide. We first approximate the refractive-index by a piecewise polynomial of degree two, and the corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem (eigenvalue problem) of the Helmholtz operator in each layer can be solved analytically by the Kummer functions. Then, analytical approximate dispersion equations are established for both TE and TM cases. Furthermore, the approximate dispersion equations converge fast to the exact ones for the continuous refractive-index function as the maximum value of the subinterval sizes tends to zero. Suitable numerical methods, such as Müller's method or the chord secant method, may be applied to the dispersion relations to compute the eigenmodes. Numerical simulations show that our method is very practical and efficient for computing eigenmodes. PMID:25969285

  18. A Naked Eye Refractive Index Sensor with a Visible Multiple Peak Metamaterial Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Heli; Song, Kun; Zhou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    We report a naked eye refractive index sensor with a visible metamaterial absorber. The visible metamaterial absorber consisting of a silver dendritic/dielectric/metal structure shows multiple absorption peaks. By incorporating a gain material (rhodamine B) into the dielectric layer, the maximal magnitude of the absorption peak can be improved by about 30%. As the metamaterial absorber is sensitive to the refractive index of glucose solutions, it can function as a sensor that quickly responds to variations of the refractive index of the liquid. Meanwhile, since the response is presented via color changes, it can be clearly observed by the naked eyes. Further experiments have confirmed that the sensor can be used repeatedly. PMID:25822141

  19. Lattice and electronic contributions to the refractive index of CuWO?

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Fuertes, J.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Segura, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2014-09-14

    We report an investigation of the refractive index dispersion and anisotropy in CuWO? by means of interference measurements in two extinction directions from mid infrared to the visible region of the energy spectrum. The analysis of the refractive index dispersion yields ?(?)=4.5(1) for light polarization parallel to the c-axis and ?(?)=5.3(1) with respect to the other extinction axis. In addition, we report reflectance measurements carried out from the far infrared to the near ultraviolet to study the lattice and electronic contributions to the refractive index of CuWO?. We have determined the wavenumbers of nine infrared active lattice modes and compared them with previous ab initio calculations. The value of the Penn gap, 7eV, as well as the origin of a structure observed at 4.4 eV in the reflectance spectrum, is discussed in the context of the CuWO? electronic structure.

  20. Color matrix refractive index sensors using coupled vertical silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Khorasaninejad, M; Abedzadeh, N; Walia, J; Patchett, S; Saini, S S

    2012-08-01

    Vivid colors are demonstrated in silicon nanowires with diameters ranging from 105 to 346 nm. The nanowires are vertically arranged in a square lattice with a pitch of 400 nm and are electromagnetically coupled to each other, resulting in frequency-dependent reflection spectra. Since the coupling is dependent on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanowires, the arrays can be used for sensing. A simple sensor is demonstrated by observing the change in the reflected color with changing refractive index of the surrounding medium. A refractive index resolution of 5 × 10(-5) is achieved by analyzing bright-field images captured with an optical microscope equipped with a charge coupled device camera. PMID:22823137

  1. Femtosecond pulse shaping by modulating the refractive index modulation of volume holographic grating.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaona; Dai, Ye; Gao, Zixuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xihua; Ma, Guohong

    2013-03-25

    Based on the modified Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory, time- and frequency-domain diffractions of a femtosecond pulse from transmitted volume holographic gratings (VHGs) are theoretically studied. Results show that when the refractive index modulation of the VHG changes in a certain range, the number of temporal diffracted pulse will evolve from one to two, then to three, and this pulse number evolution is periodic. This particular phenomenon can be explained by diffraction intensity spectrum and the overmodulation effect of refractive index modulation of transmitted VHG. Moreover, we find centers of all temporal diffracted pulses translate along the negative time axis, and the translation is irrelevant to the refractive index modulations. We will use time delay of volume grating to give a reasonable explanation. PMID:23546138

  2. Optical extinction, refractive index, and multiple scattering for suspensions of interacting colloidal particles

    E-print Network

    Alberto Parola; Roberto Piazza; Vittorio Degiorgio

    2014-07-21

    We provide a general microscopic theory of the scattering cross-section and of the refractive index for a system of interacting colloidal particles, exact at second order in the molecular polarizabilities. In particular: a) we show that the structural features of the suspension are encoded into the forward scattered field by multiple scattering effects, whose contribution is essential for the so-called "optical theorem" to hold in the presence of interactions; b) we investigate the role of radiation reaction on light extinction; c) we discuss our results in the framework of effective medium theories, presenting a general result for the effective refractive index valid, whatever the structural properties of the suspension, in the limit of particles much larger than the wavelength; d) by discussing strongly-interacting suspensions, we unravel subtle anomalous dispersion effects for the suspension refractive index.

  3. Measurement of the refractive index of hemoglobin solutions for a continuous spectral region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Xiaowan; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the refractive index of hemoglobin solutions over a wide wavelength range remains challenging. A famous detour approach is the Kramers-Kronig (KK) analysis which can resolve the real part of complex refractive index from the imaginary part. However, KK analysis is limited by the contradiction between the requirement of semi-infinite frequency range and limited measured range. In this paper, based on the Multi-curve fitting method (MFM), continuous refractive index dispersion (CRID) of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions are measured using a homemade symmetrical arm-linked apparatus in the continuous wavelength range with spectral resolution of about 0.259nm. A novel method to obtain the CRID is proposed. PMID:26203379

  4. Gamma radiation-induced refractive index change in Ge- and N-doped silica

    SciTech Connect

    Brichard, Benoit; Butov, Oleg V.; Golant, Konstantin M.; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto

    2008-03-01

    We measured the change of the refractive index over a wide wavelength range in Ge- and N-doped high purity (fiber optics grade) silica glasses subjected to gamma irradiation. The radiation-induced change of the refractive index tends to be greater in the infrared part of the spectrum compare to the values measured in the UV-visible part of the spectrum. By means of the Kramers-Kronig relations, we estimate that a weak broadening of the optical vibration band of the silica network adds to this effect. The paper also discusses the difference observed in the spectral behavior of the induced refractive index change for both types of doped glass.

  5. Measurement of the refractive index of hemoglobin solutions for a continuous spectral region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Xiaowan; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-07-01

    Determination of the refractive index of hemoglobin solutions over a wide wavelength range remains challenging. A famous detour approach is the Kramers-Kronig (KK) analysis which can resolve the real part of complex refractive index from the imaginary part. However, KK analysis is limited by the contradiction between the requirement of semi-infinite frequency range and limited measured range. In this paper, based on the Multi-curve fitting method (MFM), continuous refractive index dispersion (CRID) of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions are measured using a homemade symmetrical arm-linked apparatus in the continuous wavelength range with spectral resolution of about 0.259nm. A novel method to obtain the CRID is proposed. PMID:26203379

  6. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  7. Two-dimensional refractive index and stresses profiles of a homogenous bent optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, W A; Wahba, H H; Shams El-Din, M A

    2014-11-01

    We present a significant contribution to the theory of determining the refractive index profile of a bent homogenous optical fiber. In this theory we consider two different processes controlling the index profile variations. The first is the linear index variation due to stress along the bent radius, and the second is the release of this stress on the fiber surface. This release process is considered to have radial dependence on the fiber radius. These considerations enable us to construct the index profile in two dimensions normal to the optical axis, considering the refraction of light rays traversing the fiber. This theory is applied to optical homogenous bent fiber with two bending radii when they are located orthogonal to the light path of the object arm in the holographic setup (like the Mach-Zehnder interferometer). Digital holographic phase shifting interferometry is employed in this study. The recorded phase shifted holograms have been combined, reconstructed, and processed to extract the phase map of the bent optical fiber. A comparison between the extracted optical phase differences and the calculated one indicates that the refractive index profile variation should include the above mentioned two processes, which are considered as a response for stress distribution across the fiber's cross section. The experimentally obtained refractive index profiles provide the stress induced birefringence profile. Thus we are able to present a realistic induced stress profile due to bending. PMID:25402912

  8. Refractive index sensing using V-shaped polymer optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-11-01

    Although polymer optical fiber (POF) tapers with high flexibility have been used to measure the refractive indices (RIs) of liquids, their fabrication have caused some inconvenience including the need to use external heat sources or chemicals. Here, as an alternative, we develop a simple, secure, and low-cost method of measuring RIs of liquids using V-shaped bent POFs. When the bending angle is 120° (experimentally optimized), with increasing RI, the transmitted power increases almost linearly with a dependence coefficient of approximately 210 dB/RI unit.

  9. Aerosol optical properties and the aerosol refractive index archive

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    . A suitable electronic location for new data was also required. The Aerosol Re- fractive index Archive, ARIA index data. The data base can be found at [1]. Figure 1: ARIA home page [1] A simple human readable file Mie theory. Figure 2: ARIA Saharan dust [1] The database is now "live" but is still under development

  10. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The index of refraction can considerably influence the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow in semitransparent materials such as some ceramics. For external radiant heating, the refractive index influences the amount of energy transmitted into the interior of the material. Emission within a material depends on the square of its refractive index, and hence this emission can be many times that for a biackbody radiating into a vacuum. Since radiation exiting through an interface into a vacuum cannot exceed that of a blackbody, there is extensive reflection at the internal surface of an interface, mostly by total internal reflection. This redistributes energy within the layer and tends to make its temperature distribution more uniform. The purpose of the present analysis is to show that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained very simply from the results for an index of refraction of unity. For the situation studied here, the layer is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces. The material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. For simplicity the index of refraction is unity in the medium surrounding the layer. The surfaces of the layer are assumed diffuse. This is probably a reasonable approximation for a ceramic layer that has not been polished. When transmitted radiation or radiation emitted from the interior reaches the inner surface of an interface, the radiation is diffused and some of it thereby placed into angular directions for which there is total internal reflection. This provides a trapping effect for retaining energy within the layer and tends to equalize its temperature distribution. An analysis of temperature distributions in absorbing-emitting layers, including index of refraction effects, was developed by Gardon (1958) to predict cooling and heat treating of glass plates. The interfaces were optically smooth; the resulting specular reflections were computed from the Fresnel reflection laws. This provides a somewhat different behavior than for diffuse interfaces. A similar application was for heating that occurs in a window of a re-entry vehicle (Fowle et al., 1969). A number of recent papers (Rokhsaz and Dougherty, 1989; Ping and Lallemand, 1989; Crosbie and Shieh, 1990) further examined the effects of Fresnel boundary reflections and nonunity refractive index. Other examples of analyses of both steady and transient heat transfer to single or multiple plane layers (Amlin and Korpela, 1979; Tarshis et al., 1969) have used diffuse assumptions at the interfaces as in the present study

  11. First measurements of the index of refraction of gases for lithium atomic waves

    E-print Network

    Marion Jacquey; Matthias Büchner; Gérard Trénec; Jacques Vigué

    2007-05-15

    We report here the first measurements of the index of refraction of gases for lithium waves. Using an atom interferometer, we have measured the real and imaginary part of the index of refraction $n$ for argon, krypton and xenon, as a function of the gas density for several velocities of the lithium beam. The linear dependence of $(n-1)$ with the gas density is well verified. The total collision cross-section deduced from the imaginary part is in very good agreement with traditional measurements of this quantity. Finally, as predicted by theory, the real and imaginary parts of $(n-1)$ and their ratio $\\rho$ exhibit glory oscillations.

  12. Temperature-dependent index of refraction of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Bhatt, R; Ganesamoorthy, S; Saxena, A; Karnal, A K; Gupta, P K; Sinha, A K; Deb, S K

    2011-11-01

    We present temperature-dependent refractive index along crystallographic b[010] and a direction perpendicular to (100)-plane for monoclinic phase (?) Ga(2)O(3) single crystal grown by the optical floating zone technique. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical result of Litimein et al.1. Also, the Sellmeier equation for wavelengths in the range of 0.4-1.55 ?m is formulated at different temperatures in the range of 30-175 °C. The thermal coefficient of refractive index in the above specified range is ~10(-5)/°C. PMID:22086027

  13. Determination of refraction nonlinear index, for effect thermal, of solutions with nanoparticles of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Vargas, A.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Cornejo-Monroy, D.; Mata-Chávez, R. I.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Castaño-Meneses, V.

    2013-09-01

    Research of nonlinear optical properties of materials for manufacturing opto-electronic devices, had a great growth in the last years. The solutions with nanoparticle metals present nonlinear optical properties. In this work we present the results of characterizing, analyzing and determining the magnitude and sign of the nonlinear refractive index, using the z-scan technique in solutions with nanoparticles of gold, lipoic acid and sodium chloride. We used a continuous Argon laser at 514 nm with variable power, an 18 cms lens, and a chopper. We determined the nonlinear refractive index in the order of 10-9. These materials have potential applications mainly as optical limiters.

  14. Real-time compensation of the refractive index of air in distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Jay; Chun, Byung Jae; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    A two-color scheme of heterodyne laser interferometer is devised for distance measurements with the capability of real-time compensation of the refractive index of the ambient air. A fundamental wavelength of 1555 nm and its second harmonic wavelength of 777.5 nm are generated, with stabilization to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to provide fractional stability of the order of 3.0 × 10-12 at 1 s averaging. Achieved uncertainty is of the order of 10-8 in measuring distances of 2.5 m without sensing the refractive index of air in adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26480151

  15. A single-image method for x-ray refractive index CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittone, A.; Gasilov, S.; Brun, E.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2015-05-01

    X-ray refraction-based computer tomography imaging is a well-established method for nondestructive investigations of various objects. In order to perform the 3D reconstruction of the index of refraction, two or more raw computed tomography phase-contrast images are usually acquired and combined to retrieve the refraction map (i.e. differential phase) signal within the sample. We suggest an approximate method to extract the refraction signal, which uses a single raw phase-contrast image. This method, here applied to analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging, is employed to retrieve the index of refraction map of a biological sample. The achieved accuracy in distinguishing the different tissues is comparable with the non-approximated approach. The suggested procedure can be used for precise refraction computer tomography with the advantage of a reduction of at least a factor of two of both the acquisition time and the dose delivered to the sample with respect to any of the other algorithms in the literature.

  16. Electromagnetic Casimir effect and the spacetime index of refraction

    E-print Network

    B. Nazari; M. Nouri-Zonoz

    2012-02-29

    In [5] we investigated the response of vacuum energy to a gravitational field by considering a Casimir apparatus in a weak gravitational field. Our approach was based on a conjecture involving the interpretation of spacetime as a refractive medium and its effect on vacuum energy composed of virtual massless scalar particles. There it was shown how the case of virtual photons as the constituents of vacuum could be inferred from that of the massless scalar field. Here we explicitly show how the same conjecture applies to the electromagnetic vacuum composed of virtual photons. Specifically we show that the boundary conditions imposed on the components of the vector field, decomposed into two scalar fields, result in the same frequency shift for photons. Using the same decomposition and employing our conjecture, we also calculate the electromagnetic energy density for the Casimir apparatus in a weak gravitational field.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of Caf2, Suprasil 3001, and S-FTM16 for the Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Grupp, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we measured absolute refractive indices at temperatures from 100 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.42 to 3.6 microns for CaF2, Suprasil 3001 fused silica, and S-FTM16 glass in support of lens designs for the Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) for ESA's Euclid dark energy mission. We report absolute refractive index, dispersion (dn/d?), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for these materials. In this study, materials from different melts were procured to understand index variability in each material. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. For calcium fluoride (CaF2) and S-FTM16, we compare our current measurements with CHARMS measurements of these materials made in the recent past for other programs. We also compare Suprasil 3001's indices to those of other forms of fused silica we have measured in CHARMS.

  18. Temperature-dependent refractive index measurements of CaF2, Suprasil 3001, and S-FTM16 for the Euclid near-infrared spectrometer and photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Grupp, Frank U.

    2015-09-01

    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we measured absolute refractive indices at temperatures from 100 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.42 to 3.6 microns for CaF2, Suprasil 3001 fused silica, and S-FTM16 glass in support of lens designs for the Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) for ESA's Euclid dark energy mission. We report absolute refractive index, dispersion (dn/d?), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for these materials. In this study, materials from different melts were procured to understand index variability in each material. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. For calcium fluoride (CaF2) and S-FTM16, we compare our current measurements with CHARMS measurements of these materials made in the recent past for other programs. We also compare Suprasil 3001's indices to those of other forms of fused silica we have measured in CHARMS.

  19. Bending effect on modal interference in a fiber taper and sensitivity enhancement for refractive index measurement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Tan, Yanzhen; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the bending effect of microfiber on interference fringes in a compact taper-based modal interferometer and sensitivity for refractive index (RI) measurement. For the bend curvature ranging from 0 to 0.283 mm(-1), the measured RI sensitivity distinctively increases from 342.5 nm/RIU (refractive-index unit) to 1192.7 nm/RIU around RI = 1.333 and from 3847.1 nm/RIU to 11006.0 nm/RIU around RI = 1.430, respectively. Theoretical analysis reveals that such enhancement is determined by the dispersion property of the intermodal index rather than other parameters, such as the variation of the straightforward evanescent field. The magnitude of sensitivity varies as a function of the microfiber bend curvature. Approaching a critical curvature (the intermodal-index dispersion factor approaches zero), the sensitivity is significantly enhanced, exhibiting great potential in RI sensing areas. PMID:24216892

  20. Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Lu, F; Chen, F; Shi, B R; Wang, K M; Shen, D Y

    2001-08-01

    Multienergy Cu(+) ions with total dose of ~10(14) ions/cm(2) were implanted into LiNbO(3) crystals to form a nearly homogenous damage profile from the sample surface to the end of the ions' track. The extraordinary refractive-index enhancement was found in the damage region by observation of the dark mode. The extraordinary index showed an increasing trend until the ion dose reached a critical value. The largest index enhancement was ~0.0132. By use of low-dose ion implantation, we determined that the decreased spontaneous polarization caused the extraordinary index increase. PMID:18360410

  1. Active metamaterials: sign of refraction index and gain-assisted dispersion management

    E-print Network

    Alexander A. Govyadinov; Mikhail A. Noginov; Viktor A. Podolskiy

    2007-04-27

    We derive an approach to define the causal direction of the wavevector of modes in optical metamaterials, which in turn, determines signs of refractive index and impedance as a function of {\\it real and imaginary} parts of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. We use the developed technique to demonstrate that the interplay between resonant response of constituents of metamaterials can be used to achieve efficient dispersion management. Finally we demonstrate broadband dispersion-less index and impedance matching in active nanowire-based negative index materials. Our work opens new practical applications of negative index composites for broadband lensing, imaging, and pulse-routing.

  2. Nondestructive determination of refractive index profile of an optical fiber: backward light scattering method.

    PubMed

    Saekeang, C; Chu, P L

    1979-04-01

    A new nondestructive technique is presented for determining the refractive index profile of an optical fiber from its backscattered pattern arising from a normally incident laser beam to the fiber axis. The proposed method requires no sample preparation or index matching liquid. The principle of the method is to construct a deflection function from the measured pattern. The index profile can then be determined by the inversion of an Abel integral equation. Good agreement is obtained between the index profile determined by this technique and that measured by the near-field scanning technique. PMID:20208886

  3. Relationship between the Kramers-Kronig relations and negative index of refraction

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Mark C; Kussow, Adil-Gerai

    2010-01-01

    The condition for a negative index of refraction with respect to the vacuum index is established in terms of permittivity and permeability susceptibilities. It is found that the imposition of analyticity to satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations is a sufficiently general criterion for a physical negative index. The satisfaction of the Kramers-Kronig relations is a manifestation of the principle of causality and the predicted frequency region of negative index agrees with the Depine-Lakhtakia condition for the phase velocity being anti-directed to the Poynting vector, although the conditions presented here do not assume {\\it a priori} a negative solution branch for n.

  4. Relationship between the Kramers-Kronig relations and negative index of refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, Alkim; Kussow, Adil-Gerai

    2010-11-15

    The condition for a negative index of refraction with respect to the vacuum index is established in terms of permittivity and permeability susceptibilities. It is found that the imposition of analyticity to satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations is a sufficiently general criterion for a physical negative index. The satisfaction of the Kramers-Kronig relations is a manifestation of the principle of causality and the predicted frequency region of negative index agrees with the Depine-Lakhtakia condition for the phase velocity being antidirected to the Poynting vector, although the conditions presented here do not assume a priori a negative solution branch for n.

  5. Infrared intensities of liquids. XVII. Infrared refractive indices from 8000 to 350 cm - 1, absolute integrated absorption intensities, transition moments, and dipole moment derivatives of methan-d3-ol and methanol-d4 at 25 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertie, John E.; Zhang, Shuliang L.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reports absolute infrared absorption intensities of liquids methan-d3-ol (CD3OH) and methanol-d4 (CD3OD) at 25 °C between 8000 and 350 cm-1. Measurements were made by multiple attenuated total reflection spectroscopy with the CIRCLE cell, and by transmission spectroscopy with transmission cells fitted with calcium fluoride windows. In both cases, the spectra were converted to infrared real and imaginary refractive index spectra. The refractive indices obtained by these two methods agreed excellently and were combined to yield an imaginary refractive index spectrum k(?˜) between 7244 and 350 cm-1 for CD3OH and between 5585 and 350 cm-1 for CD3OD. The imaginary refractive index spectrum was arbitrarily set to zero from 8000 to 7244 cm-1 (CD3OH) or 5585 cm-1 (CD3OD), where k is always less than 4×10-6, in order that the real refractive index can be calculated below 8000 cm-1 by Kramers-Krönig transformation. The results are reported as graphs and tables of the refractive indices between 8000 and 350 cm-1, from which all other infrared properties of the two liquids can be calculated. The estimated accuracy, not precision, of the imaginary refractive index is ±3%, except for ±10%, where k is less than 4×10-5. The estimated accuracy of the real refractive index is better than ±0.5%. In order to obtain molecular information from the measurements, the spectra of the imaginary polarizability multiplied by wave number ?˜?m` were calculated under the assumption of the Lorentz local field. The area under these ?˜?m` spectra was separated into the integrated intensities of different vibrations. The magnitudes of the transition moments were calculated from the integrated intensities, and the double harmonic approximation was used to calculate the magnitudes of the dipole moment derivatives of the liquid-state molecules with respect to the normal coordinates. Dipole moment derivatives with respect to internal coordinates were calculated under the simplest approximations, the validity of which is demonstrated by the experimental data in many cases. The consistency of the dipole moment derivatives with respect to internal coordinates obtained for different isotopomers is shown through their relative rotational corrections. Results are presented for the O-H, O-D, C-H, and C-D stretches; the C-O-H in-plane bending; and the D-C-O-H and D-C-O-D torsion vibrations.

  6. Using plasma experiments to illustrate a complex index of refraction W. Gekelman and P. Pribyl

    E-print Network

    Carter, Troy

    Using plasma experiments to illustrate a complex index of refraction W. Gekelman and P. Pribyl's ionospheric plasma have frequencies low enough to be audible by the human ear. Whistlers were first noticed with respect to the magnetic field. Laboratory experiments that verify the wave propagation have been done

  7. Enhanced refractive index without absorption via both coherent and incoherent fields in a semiconductor quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Biqi; Wang, Zhiping; Shui, Tao; Yu, Benli

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a ladder-type semiconductor quantum well. It is found that the enhanced positive or negative refraction index without absorption can be easily obtained in this solid-state system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in solid-state optical communication.

  8. Influence of the refractive index and dispersion of spectacle lens on its imaging properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri; Novak, Pavel

    2007-12-01

    The paper shows an influence of the refractive index and dispersion of the spectacle lens on its imaging properties. Relations are presented for calculation of radii of curvature of anastigmatic spectacle lenses and their chromatic aberration. Moreover, the formulas are derived for calculation of the change of astigmatism of spectacle lens due to dispersion of spectacle lens material.

  9. Single tapered fiber tip for simultaneous measurements of thickness, refractive index and distance to a sample.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Carlos; Monzón-Hernández, David; Hernández-Romano, Iván; Villatoro, Joel

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate the capability of an air cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), built with a tapered lead-in fiber tip, to measure three parameters simultaneously, distance, group refractive index and thickness of transparent samples introduced in the cavity. Tapering the lead-in fiber enhances the light coupling back efficiency, therefore is possible to enlarge the air cavity without a significant deterioration of the fringe visibility. Fourier transformation, used to analyze the reflected optical spectrum of our FPI, simplify the calculus to determine the position, thickness and refractive index. Samples made of 7 different glasses; fused silica, BK7, BalF5, SF2, BaF51, SF15, and glass slides were used to test our FPI. Each sample was measured nine times and the results for position, thickness and refractive index showed differences of ± 0.7%, ± 0.1%, and ± 0.16% respectively. The evolution of thickness and refractive index of a block of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer due to temperature changes in the range of 25°C to 90°C were also measured. The coefficients of the thermal expansion and thermo-optic estimated were ? = 4.71x10(-4)/°C and dn/dT = -4.66 x10(-4) RIU/°C, respectively. PMID:26368188

  10. Variable Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in Semitransparent Scattering Multilayered Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    A simple set of equations is derived for predicting the temperature distribution and radiative energy flow in a semitransparent layer consisting of an arbitrary number of laminated sublayers that absorb, emit, and scatter radiation. Each sublayer can have a different refractive index and optical thickness. The plane composite region is heated on each exterior side by a different amount of incident radiation. The results are for the limiting case where heat conduction within the layers is very small relative to radiative transfer, and is neglected. The interfaces are assumed diffuse, and all interface reflections are included in the analysis. The thermal behavior is readily calculated from the analytical expressions that are obtained. By using many sublayers, the analytical expressions provide the temperature distribution and heat flow for a diffusing medium with a continuously varying refractive index, including internal reflection effects caused by refractive index gradients. Temperature and heat flux results are given to show the effect of variations in refractive index and optical thickness through the multilayer laminate.

  11. Analytical Modelling of a Refractive Index Sensor Based on an Intrinsic Micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Cano-Contreras, Martin; Gallegos-Arellano, Eloisa; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Hernández-García, Juan C; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work a refractive index sensor based on a combination of the non-dispersive sensing (NDS) and the Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS) principles is presented. Here, in order to have one reference and one measurement channel a single-beam dual-path configuration is used for implementing the NDS principle. These channels are monitored with a couple of identical optical detectors which are correlated to calculate the overall sensor response, called here the depth of modulation. It is shown that this is useful to minimize drifting errors due to source power variations. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of a refractive index sensing setup, based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is described. Here, the changes over the FPI pattern as the exit refractive index is varied are analytically modelled by using the characteristic matrix method. Additionally, our simulated results are supported by experimental measurements which are also provided. Finally it is shown that by using this principle a simple refractive index sensor with a resolution in the order of 2.15 × 10(-4) RIU can be implemented by using a couple of standard and low cost photodetectors. PMID:26501277

  12. Measuring the Refractive Index of Highly Crystalline Monolayer MoS2 with High Confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yaoguang; Wan, Yi; Rong, Xin; Xie, Ziang; Wang, Wei; Dai, Lun

    2015-02-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) has attracted much attention, due to its attractive properties, such as two-dimensional properties, direct bandgap, valley-selective circular dichroism, and valley Hall effect. However, some of its fundamental physical parameters, e.g. refractive index, have not been studied in detail because of measurement difficulties. In this work, we have synthesized highly crystalline monolayer MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrates via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and devised a method to measure their optical contrast spectra. Using these contrast spectra, we extracted the complex refractive index spectrum of monolayer MoS2 in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 750 nm. We have analyzed the pronounced difference between the obtained complex refractive index spectrum and that of bulk MoS2. The method presented here is effective for two-dimensional materials of small size. Furthermore, we have calculated the color contour plots of the contrast as a function of both SiO2 thickness and incident light wavelength for monolayer MoS2 using the obtained refractive index spectrum. These plots are useful for both fundamental study and device application.

  13. Convective Assembly of Antireflective Silica Coatings with Controlled Thickness and Refractive Index

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    by Fraunhofer, and a few years later, Poisson and Fresnel defined the phenomenon as destructive interference variety of technological applications from optical filters and photovoltaics (solar cells, photodetectors) coating achieves effectively 0% reflection at a specific wavelength when its refractive index, nc, meets

  14. Analytical Modelling of a Refractive Index Sensor Based on an Intrinsic Micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Cano-Contreras, Martin; Gallegos-Arellano, Eloisa; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Hernández-García, Juan C.; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work a refractive index sensor based on a combination of the non-dispersive sensing (NDS) and the Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS) principles is presented. Here, in order to have one reference and one measurement channel a single-beam dual-path configuration is used for implementing the NDS principle. These channels are monitored with a couple of identical optical detectors which are correlated to calculate the overall sensor response, called here the depth of modulation. It is shown that this is useful to minimize drifting errors due to source power variations. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of a refractive index sensing setup, based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is described. Here, the changes over the FPI pattern as the exit refractive index is varied are analytically modelled by using the characteristic matrix method. Additionally, our simulated results are supported by experimental measurements which are also provided. Finally it is shown that by using this principle a simple refractive index sensor with a resolution in the order of 2.15 × 10?4 RIU can be implemented by using a couple of standard and low cost photodetectors. PMID:26501277

  15. Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium to the host red blood cells (RBCs). To study these modifications, we investigate two intrinsic indicators to host red blood cells (RBCs). Major struc- tural changes include the formation of parasitophorus

  16. Effect of scintillometer height on structure parameter of the refractive index of air measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scintillometers measure amount of scintillations by emitting a beam of light over a horizontal path and expresses as the atmospheric turbulence structure parameter as the refractive index of air (Cn**2). Cn**2 represents the turbulent strength of the atmosphere and describes the ability of the atmos...

  17. Glasses having a low non-linear refractive index for laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Faulstich, Marga (Mainz, DE); Jahn, Walter (Ingelheim, DE); Krolla, Georg (Mainz, DE); Neuroth, Norbert (Mainz-Mombach, DE)

    1980-01-01

    Glass composition ranges are described which permit the introduction of laser activators into fluorphosphate glass with exceptionally high fluorine content while forming glasses of high crystallization stability and permitting the realization of large melt volumes. The high fluorine content imparts to the glasses an exceptionally low nonlinear refractive index n.sub.2 down to O,4 .times.10.sup.-13 esu.

  18. Ultraviolet complex refractive index of Martian dust Laboratory measurements of terrestrial analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T.; Pang, K.

    1975-01-01

    The optical complex index of refraction of four candidate Martian surface materials has been determined between 0.185 and 0.4 microns using a modified Kubelka-Munk scattering theory. The cadidate materials were limonite, andesite, montmorillonite, and basalt. The effect of scattering has been removed from the results. Also presented are diffuse reflection and transmission data on these samples.

  19. Sensors and Actuators B 123 (2007) 594605 Fiber optic sensing of liquid refractive index

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    Sensors and Actuators B 123 (2007) 594­605 Fiber optic sensing of liquid refractive index Argha-Bhayad, a Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India b; accepted 28 September 2006 Available online 13 November 2006 Abstract An optical fiber, partially stripped

  20. Measuring the Refractive Index of Highly Crystalline Monolayer MoS2 with High Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yaoguang; Wan, Yi; Rong, Xin; Xie, Ziang; Wang, Wei; Dai, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) has attracted much attention, due to its attractive properties, such as two-dimensional properties, direct bandgap, valley-selective circular dichroism, and valley Hall effect. However, some of its fundamental physical parameters, e.g. refractive index, have not been studied in detail because of measurement difficulties. In this work, we have synthesized highly crystalline monolayer MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrates via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and devised a method to measure their optical contrast spectra. Using these contrast spectra, we extracted the complex refractive index spectrum of monolayer MoS2 in the wavelength range of 400?nm to 750?nm. We have analyzed the pronounced difference between the obtained complex refractive index spectrum and that of bulk MoS2. The method presented here is effective for two-dimensional materials of small size. Furthermore, we have calculated the color contour plots of the contrast as a function of both SiO2 thickness and incident light wavelength for monolayer MoS2 using the obtained refractive index spectrum. These plots are useful for both fundamental study and device application. PMID:25676089

  1. The refractive index of krypton for lambda in the closed interval 168-288 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The index of refraction of krypton has been measured at 27 wavelengths between and including 168 and 288 nm. The probable error of each measurement is plus or minus 0.1%. Our results are compared with other measurements. Our data are about 3.8% smaller than those of Abjean et al.

  2. Retrieval of aerosol refractive index from extinction spectra with a damped harmonic-oscillator band model

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    in the stratosphere are composed of sulphuric acid solution or, in the case of polar stratospheric clouds, ternary of stratospheric aerosol.1 Knowledge of the aero- sol's refractive index is of key importance to deter- mine across a broad range of stratospherically rele- vant temperatures and compositions. Although current

  3. New optics element boasts effective negative refractive index July 14, 2008

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    New optics element boasts effective negative refractive index July 14, 2008 Led by Sri Sridhar, the researchers were able to develop an optical microlens with a step-like surface, instead of a smooth surface. These microlenses function in the infrared frequency range, which is used for optical communications, and use

  4. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  5. Fiber optic trapping of low-refractive-index particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Khyati Samarendra; Liberale, Carlo; Mohanty, Samarendra Kumar; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Cabrini, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Garbin, Valeria; Prasciolu, Mauro; Cojoc, Dan; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2006-02-01

    Since the low index particles are repelled away from the highest intensity point, trapping them optically requires either a rotating Gaussian beam or optical vortex beams focused by a high numerical microscope objective. However, the short working distance of these microscope objectives puts a limit on the depth at which these particles can be manipulated. Here, we show that axicon like structure built on tip of a single mode optical fiber produces a focused beam that is able to trap low index particles. In fact, in addition to transverse trapping inside the dark conical region surrounded by high intensity ring, axial trapping is possible by the balance of scattering force against the buoyancy of the particles. The low-index particle system consisted of an emulsion of water droplets in acetophenone. When the fiber was kept horizontal, the low index spheres moved away along the beam and thus could be transported by influence of the scattering force. However in the vertical position (or at an angle) of the fiber, the particles could be trapped stably both in transverse and axial directions. Chain of such particles could also be trapped and transported together by translation of the fiber. Using escape force technique, transverse trapping force and thus efficiency for particle in Mie regime was measured. Details of these measurements and theory showed that trapping of Raleigh particle is possible with such axicon-tip fibers. This ability to manipulate low-index spheres inside complex condensed environments using such traps will throw new insights in the understanding of bubble-bubble and bubble-wall interactions, thus probing the physics behind sonoluminescence and exploring new applications in biology and medicine.

  6. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  7. Measuring and sensing a complex refractive index by laser reflection near the critical angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Valenzuela, Augusto; Pena-Gomar, M.; Fajardo-Lira, C.

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the use of laser reflection near the critical angle for different refractometric measurements. We consider using dynamic reflectometry to obtain direct measurements of the angle differential of the reflectivity. From the angular profile of the differential reflectivity it is possible to obtain measurements of the absolute values of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index (RI). For sensing purposes we consider monitoring the reflectance and/or its angular derivative near the critical angle for high- resolution sensing. We give simple and general formulas to estimate the resolution of the different measurements and give some estimates based on our experimental system. We show that a single instrument may be able to measure the real and imaginary parts of the RI with an uncertainty in the order of 10-6. In sensing variations of the RI, the same instrument may yield a resolution of the order of 10-7 for slow variations. However, if the RI is modulated harmonically in time, the same instrument might detect an amplitude of modulation as low as approximately 10-10. In addition, we study the applicability of the technique to turbid media consisting of particles in suspension. We illustrate the potential of the technique for that application with a few experiments on liquid milk and on water suspensions of polystyrene particles. We give experimental evidence showing it is possible to sense the physical state of particles in solution even when the particles have a diameter as large as the wavelength. We also show that the RI of a liquid sample can be monitored through a physical or chemical process even if the liquid is vigorously stirred.

  8. Prism-pair interferometer for precise measurement of the refractive index of optical glass by using a spectrum lamp.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    A prism-pair interferometer for a spectrum lamp was developed for precise measurement of the refractive index of a prism of optical glass. Previously we reported the prism-pair interferometer with a He-Ne laser light source, resulting in a measurement uncertainty of 1.1×10??. However, most of the refractive-index values managed by optical glass manufacturers are conventionally measured with spectrum lamps. We have optimized the prism-pair interferometer for spectrum lamps and implemented a signal-processing technique from Fourier-transform spectroscopy. When the refractive index is measured, the wavelength of the spectrum lamp is simultaneously calibrated by part of the interferometer, so that the resulting refractive index is traceable to a national standard of length. The combined standard uncertainty for a refractive index measured with the e-line (546 nm) of a Hg lamp is 6.9×10??. PMID:24921862

  9. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  10. Instrumentation and First Results of the Reflected Solar Demonstration System for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Jennings, Don; Rabin, Douglas; Daw, Adrian; Lundsford, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission key goals include enabling observation of high accuracy long-term climate change trends, use of these observations to test and improve climate forecasts, and calibration of operational and research sensors. The spaceborne instrument suites include a reflected solar spectroradiometer, emitted infrared spectroradiometer, and radio occultation receivers. The requirement for the RS instrument is that derived reflectance must be traceable to Sl standards with an absolute uncertainty of <0.3% and the error budget that achieves this requirement is described in previo1L5 work. This work describes the Solar/Lunar Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS), a calibration demonstration system for RS instrument, and presents initial calibration and characterization methods and results. SOLARIS is an Offner spectrometer with two separate focal planes each with its own entrance aperture and grating covering spectral ranges of 320-640, 600-2300 nm over a full field-of-view of 10 degrees with 0.27 milliradian sampling. Results from laboratory measurements including use of integrating spheres, transfer radiometers and spectral standards combined with field-based solar and lunar acquisitions are presented. These results will be used to assess the accuracy and repeatability of the radiometric and spectral characteristics of SOLARIS, which will be presented against the sensor-level requirements addressed in the CLARREO RS instrument error budget.

  11. Dynamical measurement of refractive index distribution using digital holographic interferometry based on total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiwei; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Zhao, Jianlin

    2015-10-19

    We present a method for dynamically measuring the refractive index distribution in a large range based on the combination of digital holographic interferometry and total internal reflection. A series of holograms, carrying the index information of mixed liquids adhered on a total reflection prism surface, are recorded with CCD during the diffusion process. Phase shift differences of the reflected light are reconstructed exploiting the principle of double-exposure holographic interferometry. According to the relationship between the reflection phase shift difference and the liquid index, two dimensional index distributions can be directly figured out, assuming that the index of air near the prism surface is constant. The proposed method can also be applied to measure the index of solid media and monitor the index variation during some chemical reaction processes. PMID:26480394

  12. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections.

  13. High performance low refractive index materials for photonics I: preliminary characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Anna B.; John, ?ukasz; Szafert, S?awomir

    2011-09-01

    The series of inorganic-organic hybrid materials were prepared from silane precursors by the sol-gel process. The resulted perfluorinated organosilicate liquid oligomers were applied on glass substrates and cured by heat yielding hard, clear and well adhering films. The films porosity, water contact angle, refractive index, and absorption in UV-Vis and IR were measured to characterize optical and physicochemical properties of the prepared films. The perfluorinated organosilicate films exhibited excellent optical transparency, low refractive indices, low porosity as well as non-wetting, hydrophobic behavior.

  14. High performance low refractive index materials for photonics I: preliminary characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Anna B.; John, ?ukasz; Szafert, S?awomir

    2012-02-01

    The series of inorganic-organic hybrid materials were prepared from silane precursors by the sol-gel process. The resulted perfluorinated organosilicate liquid oligomers were applied on glass substrates and cured by heat yielding hard, clear and well adhering films. The films porosity, water contact angle, refractive index, and absorption in UV-Vis and IR were measured to characterize optical and physicochemical properties of the prepared films. The perfluorinated organosilicate films exhibited excellent optical transparency, low refractive indices, low porosity as well as non-wetting, hydrophobic behavior.

  15. New measures of the refractive index in liquids using speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Gale, M. Fernanda; Molinaro, Sergio; Hogert, Elsa N.; Gaggioli, Néstor G.

    2006-01-01

    New results obtained with the method to measure the refractive index in liquids by using a speckle pattern are presented. When a laser beam impinges obliquely on a transparent rectangular cell, its direction of propagation undergoes a lateral shift when the cell is filled with a liquid. The shift depends only on the refractive index of the liquid, on the distance between the parallel walls of the cell and on the incident angle. Similarly, if the cell is illuminated by a speckle pattern, the latter suffers a displacement when the liquid is introduced. A CCD camera records the transmitted speckle pattern before and after filling of the cell with the liquid. The images are stored in a PC and processed with software to obtain the refractive index. The advantage in determining the displacement through the use of a speckle pattern is that a sub pixel processing can be made of the shifting caused by the liquid. The refractive indices of some liquids were performed, with errors under 1%: acetone, alcohol, water, xylene, butanol, dilution of butanol in xylene and a saturated solution of salt in water.

  16. A numerical method for determining refractive index of a glass sample from its implicit transcendental function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, R.; S?n?r, E.; Feeney, M.; Yükselici, M. H.; Ince, A. T.

    2008-07-01

    The refractive index of a glass sample was determined from an implicit function of its optical path within the sample arm of a Michelson interferometer. On rotation of the sample from normal incidence, the light beam suffers increasing refraction, causing the optical path for air to decrease whilst that for the glass sample increases. This is observed as a shift in the number of fringes, which were captured and counted in real time on a computer, as rotation proceeded. The angle of rotation and the fringe shift were entered into an implicit function of optical path versus refractive index written to an Excel worksheet. A refractive index matching the wavelength of the He-Ne laser light source was read-off to three decimal places. A new source of uncertainty has been identified, misalignment on a micrometer scale of the laser normal to the sample surface. Whilst driving the sample to find normal incidence a finite angular region of insensitivity (dead space) occurs due to misalignment of the laser normal to the sample surface by a few micrometers. A linearization technique was employed to compensate for this offset and hence reduce its uncertainty contribution.

  17. All-optical on-chip sensor for high refractive index sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yazhao; Salemink, H. W. M.

    2015-01-19

    A highly sensitive sensor design based on two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The geometric structure of the cavity is modified to gain a high quality factor, which enables a sensitive refractive index sensing. A group of slots with optimized parameters is created in the cavity. The existence of the slots enhances the light-matter interactions between confined photons and analytes. The interactions result in large wavelength shifts in the transmission spectra and are denoted by high sensitivities. Experiments show that a change in refractive index of ?n???0.12 between water and oil sample 1 causes a spectral shift of 23.5?nm, and the spectral shift between two oil samples is 5.1?nm for ?n???0.039. These results are in good agreement with simulations, which are 21.3 and 7.39?nm for the same index changes.

  18. Temperature-dependent refractive index measurements of S-FPL51, S-FTM16, and S-TIM28 to cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.; Henry, Ross M.

    2013-09-01

    Using NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS), we measured absolute refractive indices for three infrared glasses from Ohara for lens designs for instruments at two of the world's largest, ground-based, astronomical observatories - the present W.M. Keck Observatory and the future Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). MOSFIRE (Keck), a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph and wide-field camera, has demonstrated diffraction limited performance at 120 K in part owing to our absolute refractive index measurements of Ohara S-FPL51 and S-FTM16 covering wavelengths and temperatures from 0.5 to 2.6 ?m and 30 to 300 K, respectively. Measured index uncertainties range from 0.7-3.5E-5 and 0.7-2.9E-5 for S-FPL51 and S-FTM16, respectively, depending on wavelength and temperature, and for the latter on which test prism. NIRMOS (GMT), a near infrared multiple object imager/spectrograph, uses S-TIM28 in its imaging lens design. We measured S-TIM28's indices for wavelengths and temperatures from 0.40 to 2.8 ?m and 25 to 300 K, respectively with uncertainties ranging from 1.6- 3.0E-5. Absolute indices and their wavelength and temperature derivatives for these infrared glasses are reported along with coefficients for temperature-dependent Sellmeier fits of the measured index data to enable accurate computation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. We compare our measurements to those in the literature.

  19. Nondestructive measurement of two-dimensional refractive index profiles by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Di; Leger, James R.

    2015-06-01

    We present a method for calculating a two-dimensional refractive index field from measured boundary values of beam position and slope. By initially ignoring the dependence of beam trajectories on the index field and using cubic polynomials to approximate these trajectories, we show that the inverse problem can be reduced to set of linear algebraic equations and solved using a numerical algorithm suited for inverting sparse, ill-conditioned linear systems. The beam trajectories are subsequently corrected using an iterative ray trace procedure so that they are consistent with the ray equation inside the calculated index field. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through computer simulation, where a hypothetical test index field is reconstructed on a 15 × 15 discrete grid using 800 interrogating rays and refractive index errors (RMS) less than 0.5% of the total index range (nmax-nmin) are achieved. In the subsequent error analysis, we identify three primary sources of error contributing to the reconstruction of the index field and assess the importance of data redundancy. The principles developed in our approach are fully extendable to three-dimensional index fields as well as more complex geometries.

  20. Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebener, P.; Straub, J.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.; Gallagher, J. S.

    1990-05-01

    Based on a comprehensive collection of data previously obtained by Thormählen et al. on the experimental refractive index of water and steam from the 1870s to the present, a new formulation is presented for the range of 0.2 to 2.5 ?m in wave-length, -10 to +500 °C in temperature and 0 to 1045 kg m-3 in density. The Lorentz-Lorentz function or molar refraction, a strong function of wavelength but only weakly dependent on density and temperature, is fitted to a selected set of accurate refractive index data. The NBS/NRC equation of state for water and steam, the new international standard, is used to convert the experimental pressures to density. The deviations of all experimental data from the formulation are shown. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of the formulation is presented. Although the formulation does not represent to within their accuracy the data from the best sets in the visible range for liquid water below the boiling point, we show that inconsistencies between data sets, and minor deficiencies of the equation of state, prevent further improvement of a formulation based on data over as wide a range as considered here. It is shown that the best refractive index data can be used to discriminate between the various formulations of the equation of state of water and steam. It is demonstrated that several recent formulations of optical properties of liquid water over large ranges of wavelength need improvement in the range covered here. The new formulation is used to generate tables of the refractive index of water and steam at six wavelengths in the visible, near-infrared and near-ultraviolet, from 0 to 500 °C and up to 100 MPa in pressure.

  1. On the mechanism of photoinduced refractive index changes in phosphosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, Yu V; Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G

    2010-05-26

    The photoinduced growth of the refractive index of phosphosilicate glass during Bragg grating inscription and the thermal decay of the grating have a number of unusual features. The observed index variations are interpreted in terms of a new model for photoinduced glass network rearrangement. The model assumes the formation of photoinduced voids (nanopores) in the glass network near point defects. The nanopores may migrate through the network via bond switching when the network is in a 'soft' state. The photoinduced variations in network density lead to index variations. (fibres)

  2. Reconstruction of 3D refractive index profiles of PM PANDA optical fiber using digital holographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, H. H.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the refractive indices distributions on the two birefringent axes of polarization maintaining (PM) PANDA type optical fiber are reconstructed. The local refraction of the incident rays crossing the PM optical fiber is considered. Off-axis digital holographic interferometric phase shifting arrangement is employed in this investigation. The recorded mutual phase shifted holograms, starts with 0° with steps of ?/4, are combined and numerically reconstructed in the image plane to obtain the optical interference phase map. Consequently, the optical phase differences due to the PM optical fiber are extracted after unwrapping and background subtraction of the enhanced optical interference phase map. The birefringence and the beat length in the two directions, fast and slow axes of PM optical fiber, of polarizations in the core region are calculated. This holographic technique and the advanced analysis of the phase shifting permit the calculation of the 3D refractive index distributions for PM PANDA optical fiber.

  3. Methods to calibrate and scale axial distances in confocal microscopy as a function of refractive index.

    PubMed

    Besseling, T H; Jose, J; Van Blaaderen, A

    2015-02-01

    Accurate distance measurement in 3D confocal microscopy is important for quantitative analysis, volume visualization and image restoration. However, axial distances can be distorted by both the point spread function (PSF) and by a refractive-index mismatch between the sample and immersion liquid, which are difficult to separate. Additionally, accurate calibration of the axial distances in confocal microscopy remains cumbersome, although several high-end methods exist. In this paper we present two methods to calibrate axial distances in 3D confocal microscopy that are both accurate and easily implemented. With these methods, we measured axial scaling factors as a function of refractive-index mismatch for high-aperture confocal microscopy imaging. We found that our scaling factors are almost completely linearly dependent on refractive index and that they were in good agreement with theoretical predictions that take the full vectorial properties of light into account. There was however a strong deviation with the theoretical predictions using (high-angle) geometrical optics, which predict much lower scaling factors. As an illustration, we measured the PSF of a correctly calibrated point-scanning confocal microscope and showed that a nearly index-matched, micron-sized spherical object is still significantly elongated due to this PSF, which signifies that care has to be taken when determining axial calibration or axial scaling using such particles. PMID:25444358

  4. Refractive index degeneration in older lenses: A potential functional correlate to structural changes that underlie cataract formation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Pierscionek, Barbara; Yagi, Naoto; Regini, Justyn; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2015-11-01

    A major structure/function relationship in the eye lens is that between the constituent proteins, the crystallins and the optical property of refractive index. Structural breakdown that leads to cataract has been investigated in a number of studies; the concomitant changes in the optics, namely increases in light attenuation have also been well documented. Specific changes in the refractive index gradient that cause such attenuation, however, are not well studied because previous methods of measuring refractive index require transparent samples. The X-ray Talbot interferometric method using synchrotron radiation allows for measurement of fine changes in refractive index through lenses with opacities. The findings of this study on older human lenses show disruptions to the refractive index gradient and in the refractive index contours. These disruptions are linked to location in the lens and occur in polar regions, along or close to the equatorial plane or in lamellar-like formations. The disruptions that are seen in the polar regions manifest branching formations that alter with progression through the lens with some similarity to lens sutures. This study shows how the refractive index gradient, which is needed to maintain image quality of the eye, may be disturbed and that this can occur in a number of distinct ways. These findings offer insight into functional changes to a major optical parameter in older lenses. Further studies are needed to elicit how these may be related to structural degenerations reported in the literature. PMID:26297613

  5. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of birefringent wave plates

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Y.-L

    2008-04-01

    A nondestructive measurement system based on a position sensing detector (PSD) and a laser interferometer for determining the thickness and refractive indices of birefringent optical wave plates has been developed. Unlike previous methods presented in the literature, the proposed metrology system allows the refractive index and thickness properties of the optical plate to be measured simultaneously. The experimental results obtained for the e-light and o-light refractive indices of a commercially available birefringent optical wave plate with refractive indices of no=1.542972 and ne=1.552033 are found to be accurate to within 0.004132 and 0.000229, respectively. Furthermore, the experimentally derived value of the wave plate thickness deviates by no more than 0.9 {mu}m from the analytically derived value of 453.95 {mu}m. Overall, the experimental results confirm that the proposed metrology system provides a simple yet highly accurate means of obtaining simultaneous measurements of the refractive indices and thickness of birefringent optical wave plates.

  6. Direct measurements of the nonlinear index of refraction of water at 815 and 407 nm using single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry

    E-print Network

    Milchberg, Howard

    Direct measurements of the nonlinear index of refraction of water at 815 and 407 nm using single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry was used to measure the nonlinear index of refraction due to the optical index of refraction of water is a key physi- cal parameter for any underwater use of high-powered lasers

  7. Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu,* and H. Liu

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials Z. G. Dong, S. N to evalu- ate its refraction behavior. Four frequency bands, namely, the stop band, left-handed band, ultralow-index band, and positive-index band, are distinguished according to the refracted field

  8. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Steven J.; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  9. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven J; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Meek, Keith M

    2015-10-20

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  10. Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2010-08-15

    We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional 'hard core' of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.

  11. Refractive index sensor based on combination of tilted fiber Bragg grating and waist-enlarged fusion bitaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohang; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Jingyi; Li, Yi; Dong, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    Refractive index measurement by using the combination of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) and a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper (WEFBT) is proposed and demonstrated. The both devices can couple light between core and cladding modes with coupling coefficients depending on ambient refractive index. It is found that the proposed refractive index sensor offers two measurement ranges respectively from 1.333 to 1.428 and from 1.383 to 1.453 when different sensing segment is used, in addition to advantages of reflection operation mode and intensity-modulated measurement.

  12. Diffractive Optical Analysis for Refractive Index Sensing using Transparent Phase Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    We report the implementation of a micro-patterned, glass-based photonic sensing element that is capable of label-free biosensing. The diffractive optical analyzer is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk as well as surface refractive index changes. The differential read-out suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6?×?10?7 was achieved with this technique with scope for further improvement. PMID:26578408

  13. Diffractive Optical Analysis for Refractive Index Sensing using Transparent Phase Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    We report the implementation of a micro-patterned, glass-based photonic sensing element that is capable of label-free biosensing. The diffractive optical analyzer is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk as well as surface refractive index changes. The differential read-out suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6?×?10(-7) was achieved with this technique with scope for further improvement. PMID:26578408

  14. Contribution of the Refractive Index Fluctuations to the Length Noise in Displacement Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, Miroslava; Hrabina, Jan; Sarbort, Martin; Oulehla, Jindrich; Cíp, Ondrej; Lazar, Josef

    2015-10-01

    We report on investigations of how fast changes of the refractive index influence the uncertainty of interferometric displacement measurements. Measurement of position within a limited range is typical for precise positioning of coordinate measuring systems, such as nanometrology standards combined with scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The varying refractive index of air contributes significantly to the overall uncertainty; it plays a role especially in case of longer-range systems. In our experiments we have observed that its fast variations, seen as length noise, are not linearly proportional to the measuring beam path and play a significant role only over distances longer than 50 mm. Thus, we found that over longer distances the length noise rises proportionally. The measurements were performed under conditions typical for metrology SPM systems

  15. Large third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficient based on gold nanoparticle aggregate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Songang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xingxing; Luo, Si; Gong, Hanmo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Qiu, Min

    2015-10-01

    Au nanoparticles show large third-order nonlinear effect and ultra-fast response. Here a high nonlinear aggregate film based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles is reported and its third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficient is measured by Z-scan experiment. The third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficient of the Au nanoparticle aggregate film (?1 = 9.2 × 10-9 cm2/W) is found to be larger than that of an 8-nm-thick sputtered Au film (?2 = 6.5 × 10-9 cm2/W). This large nonlinear effect can be attributed to the strong field enhancement due to localized plasmon resonances between Au nanoparticles. The result shows that the self-assembled Au nanoparticle aggregate film could be a promising candidate as a third-order nonlinear optical material.

  16. Exciton effects in the index of refraction of multiple quantum wells and superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahen, K. B.; Leburton, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of the index of refraction of multiple quantum wells and superlattices are presented. The model incorporates both the bound and continuum exciton contributions for the gamma region transitions. In addition, the electronic band structure model has both superlattice and bulk alloy properties. The results indicate that large light-hole masses, i.e., of about 0.23, produced by band mixing effects, are required to account for the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that superlattice effects rapidly decrease for energies greater than the confining potential barriers. Overall, the theoretical results are in very good agreement with the experimental data and show the importance of including exciton effects in the index of refraction.

  17. Properties of material in the submillimeter wave region (instrumentation and measurement of index of refraction)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lally, J.; Meister, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Properties of Materials in the Submillimeter Wave Region study was initiated to instrument a system and to make measurements of the complex index of refraction in the wavelength region between 0.1 to 1.0 millimeters. While refractive index data is available for a number of solids and liquids there still exists a need for an additional systematic study of dielectric properties to add to the existing data, to consider the accuracy of the existing data, and to extend measurements in this wavelength region for other selected mateials. The materials chosen for consideration would be those with useful thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics. The data is necessary for development of optical components which, for example, include beamsplitters, attenuators, lenses, grids, all useful for development of instrumentation in this relatively unexploited portion of the spectrum.

  18. New SPR PCF D-type optical fiber sensor configuration for refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, D. F.; Guerreiro, A.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a new geometry sensing configuration for refractive index, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) D-type optical fiber with a thin gold layer, using the finite element method (FEM). The configuration is analyzed in terms of the loss. The results are compared with a conventional SPR D-type and with a PCF D-type optical fiber sensor for refractive index measurement. The simulation results show an improvement of the sensitivity and resolution (3.70×103nm/RIU and 2.72×10-5RIU, respectively, when considering an accurately spectral variation detection of 0.1nm).

  19. Femtosecond laser fabrication of long period fiber gratings and applications in refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Benye; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Xiao, Hai

    2011-11-01

    An improved point-by-point inscription method is proposed to fabricate long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) by using a laser operating at 800 nm with 35 fs duration pulses. The sensitivity to misalignment between the core and the focus is reduced by scanning a rectangular part on the fiber. LPFGs with an attenuation depth of 20 dB are achieved within the wavelength range of 1465-1575 nm. Characterization of the temperature sensitivity and thermal stability of the LPFGs is presented. A 5.6 nm wavelength shift and a 1.2 dB decrease in the attenuation peak are observed following heat treatment at 600 °C for 4 h. The fabricated LPFGs are used as refractive index sensors. The effect of heat treatment on the response of the LPFGs to refractive index changes is also studied.

  20. Three-dimensional shape measurement based on dual-refractive-index digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-ou; Hu, Feng-jun; Wang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    A novel phase-imaging method based on dual-refractive-index digital holography has been presented, which in principle can be arbitrarily large compared to the wavelength and does not involve the usual phase unwrapping by detection of phase discontinuity. The method consists of the generation and combination of two phase maps in a digital holography system by use of two separate refractive indexes which varies with the air density in an air chamber where a recorded 3D object is in. For example, we have reconstructed the surface of a remote control keypad of size 5 mm×5 mm and maximum axial depth 0.631 mm, and the experimental result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  1. Refractive Index Sensor Based on a 1D Photonic Crystal in a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Pedro S.; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental demonstrations performed with several ethanol solutions ranging from a purity of 96.00% (n = 1.36356) to 95.04% (n = 1.36377) yielded a sensitivity (??/?n) of 836 nm/RIU and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 × 10?5 RIU, which is, however, still one order of magnitude higher than the theoretical lower limit of the limit of detection 1.3 × 10?6 RIU. PMID:22294930

  2. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index based on multiple configuration of FBG in generating multi wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Nizam; Shaari, Sahbudin; Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Menon, Susthitha; Zakaria, Osman

    2015-06-01

    A reliable method for measurement of the nonlinear refractive index through application of multi wavelength phenomenon. Multi wavelength realisation based on Erbium doped fibre laser (EDFL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A combination of 15 m high efficiency Erbium doped fibre (EDF) and a 20 m Photonic Crystal Fibre (PCF) as main catalyst to suppress the homogenous broadening of EDF and to obtain highly stability of multi wavelength through insertion of a set of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) in the cavity. This PCF has zero dispersion of 1040 nm which mismatch from transmission window of 1550 nm. A reliable repeatability of multi wavelength based on multiple configuration of FBGs less than 0.2% obtained. This consistent results influence in determination of nonlinear refractive index by relation of four wave mixing (FWM).

  3. Influence of the refractive index on EGFP fluorescence lifetimes in mixtures of water and glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhling, Klaus; Davis, Daniel M.; Petrasek, Zdenek; Siegel, Jan; Phillips, David

    2001-07-01

    As a precursor to applying fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to studies of intercellular communication in molecular immunology, we have investigated the fluorescence lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in mixtures of water and glycerol using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). We find that the EGFP lifetime decreases with increasing glycerol content. This is accounted for quantitatively by the refractive index dependence of the fluorescence lifetime as predicted by the Strickler Berg formula which relates the fluorescence lifetime to the absorption spectrum. The solvent viscosity has no influence on the fluorescence lifetime. We also discuss the refractive index dependence of the GFP fluorescence lifetime in more complex systems. The findings are particularly relevant for the interpretation of FLIM of GFP expressed in environments such as bacteria and cells.

  4. Pressure dependence of the refractive index in wurtzite and rocksalt indium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, R.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We have performed high-pressure Fourier transform infrared reflectance measurements on a freestanding InN thin film to determine the refractive index of wurtzite InN and its high-pressure rocksalt phase as a function of hydrostatic pressure. From a fit to the experimental refractive-index curves including the effect of the high-energy optical gaps, phonons, free carriers, and the direct (fundamental) band-gap in the case of wurtzite InN, we obtain pressure coefficients for the low-frequency (electronic) dielectric constant ?{sub ?}. Negative pressure coefficients of ?8.8?×?10{sup ?2?}GPa{sup ?1} and ?14.8?×?10{sup ?2?}GPa{sup ?1} are obtained for the wurtzite and rocksalt phases, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the electronic band structure and the compressibility of both phases.

  5. The refractive index and electronic gap of water and ice increase with increasing pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ding; Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Determining the electronic and dielectric properties of water at high pressure and temperature is an essential prerequisite to understand the physical and chemical properties of aqueous environments under supercritical conditions, for example, in the Earth interior. However, optical measurements of compressed ice and water remain challenging, and it has been common practice to assume that their band gap is inversely correlated with the measured refractive index, consistent with observations reported for hundreds of materials. Here we report ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations showing that both the refractive index and the electronic gap of water and ice increase with increasing pressure, at least up to 30?GPa. Subtle electronic effects, related to the nature of interband transitions and band edge localization under pressure, are responsible for this apparently anomalous behaviour. PMID:24861665

  6. Band gap and refractive index tunability in thallium based layered mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    Compositional variation of the band gap energy and refractive index of TlMeX2-type (Me = Ga or In and X = S or Se) layered mixed crystals have been studied by the transmission and reflection measurements in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The analysis of absorption data of TlGa1-xInxSe2, TlGa(S1-xSex)2, TlGa1-xInxS2, and TlIn(Se1-xSx)2 mixed crystals revealed the presence of both optical indirect and direct transitions. It was found that the energy band gaps of mixed crystals decrease at the replacing of gallium atoms by indium and of sulfur atoms by selenium ones. Through the similar replacing of atoms (smaller atoms by larger ones) in the studied mixed crystals, the refractive index shows the quite opposite behavior.

  7. Diffractive Optical Analysis for Refractive Index Sensing using Transparent Phase Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj

    2015-11-01

    We report the implementation of a micro-patterned, glass-based photonic sensing element that is capable of label-free biosensing. The diffractive optical analyzer is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk as well as surface refractive index changes. The differential read-out suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6?×?10?7 was achieved with this technique with scope for further improvement.

  8. Determination of refractive index and concentration of iodine solutions using opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?pi?ska, Miros?awa; Starczewska, Anna; Szala, Janusz

    2014-03-01

    The determination of refractive index of iodine-ethanol solutions using SiO2 opals has been presented. For the first time concentration of solution iodine in ethanol has been determined by applying a simple method of using opal and de Feijter's relation. Basing on wavelength of diffraction peaks the appropriate formula describing concentration of iodine ethanol solution has been evolved. The uncertainty of the determined concentration has been established, too. The coefficient dnc/dC = 0.0201(4) (% w/w-1) of the linear dependence between refractive index and the concentration of iodine solution has been determined. The procedure of calibration of the used opal sensor is described. The opal sensor is not distracted by the measurement and can be used repeatedly.

  9. Refractive-index-matched hydrogel materials for measuring flow-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byron, Margaret L.; Variano, Evan A.

    2013-02-01

    In imaging-based studies of flow around solid objects, it is useful to have materials that are refractive-index-matched to the surrounding fluid. However, materials currently in use are usually rigid and matched to liquids that are either expensive or highly viscous. This does not allow for measurements at high Reynolds number, nor accurate modeling of flexible structures. This work explores the use of two hydrogels (agarose and polyacrylamide) as refractive-index-matched models in water. These hydrogels are inexpensive, can be cast into desired shapes, and have flexibility that can be tuned to match biological materials. The use of water as the fluid phase allows this method to be implemented immediately in many experimental facilities and permits investigation of high-Reynolds-number phenomena. We explain fabrication methods and present a summary of the physical and optical properties of both gels, and then show measurements demonstrating the use of hydrogel models in quantitative imaging.

  10. SOLITONS: Nonlinear dynamics of optical pulses in fibres with a travelling refractive-index-change wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskii, Igor'O.; Sementsov, Dmitrii I.

    2009-03-01

    Dynamics of soliton-like wave packets in fibres with a travelling refractive-index-change wave is studied. It is shown that both a soliton-like propagation regime of a pulse and a self-compression regime in the region of normal group velocity dispersion are possible. It is also shown that in the case of a copropagating or counterpropagating pulse and optically inhomogeneous wave nonreciprocal effects appear.

  11. Light-bullet modes in self-induced-transparency media with refractive-index modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauboer, Miriam; Kurizki, Gershon; Malomed, Boris A.

    2002-06-01

    We predict the existence of a new type of spatiotemporal soliton (so-called light bullets) in two-dimensional self-induced-transparency media with refractive-index modulation in the direction transverse to that of pulse propagation. These self-localized guided modes are found in an approximate analytical form. Their existence and stability are confirmed by numerical simulations, and they may have advantageous properties for signal transmission.

  12. Refractive index dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, M. T.; Houlihan, J.; Piwonski, T.; O'Driscoll, I.; Williams, D. P.; O'Reilly, E. P.; Uskov, A. V.; Huyet, G.

    2013-07-01

    The refractive index dynamics of an InAs/InGaAs/GaAs dots-in-a-well semiconductor optical amplifier is calculated and compared with experimental results. The fast and slow recovery timescales together with the behaviour with increasing injection are reproduced and explained in terms of the density of carriers available in upper quantum dot and continuum states. Also, a Coulomb-mediated shift of the dot susceptibility is suggested as responsible for the fast recovery of the phase.

  13. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-02-20

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented.

  14. The optimal design of photonic crystal optical devices with step-wise linear refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ji; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Si-Qi; Chen, Wan-Jin; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2015-10-01

    In the paper, we have studied one-dimensional step-wise linear photonic crystal with and without defect layer, and analyzed the effect of defect layer position, thickness, refractive index real part and imaginary part on the transmissivity, electric field distribution and output electric field intensity. By calculation, we have obtained a set of optimal parameters, which can be optimally designed optical device, such as optical amplifier, attenuator, optical diode by the step-wise linear photonic crystal.

  15. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Zahedpour, S; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M

    2015-12-15

    We measure the nonlinear refractive index coefficients in N2, O2, and Ar from visible through mid-infrared wavelengths (?=0.4-2.4???m). The wavelengths investigated correspond to transparency windows in the atmosphere. Good agreement is found with theoretical models of ?(3). Our results are essential for accurately simulating the propagation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses in the atmosphere. PMID:26670514

  16. Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chun; Huang, Wenqian Ronny; Ahr, Frederike; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-11-16

    Optical rectification with tilted pulse fronts in lithium niobate crystals is one of the most promising methods to generate terahertz (THz) radiation. In order to achieve higher optical-to-THz energy efficiency, it is necessary to cryogenically cool the crystal not only to decrease the linear phonon absorption for the generated THz wave but also to lengthen the effective interaction length between infrared pump pulses and THz waves. However, the refractive index of lithium niobate crystal at lower temperature is not the same as that at room temperature, resulting in the necessity to re-optimize or even re-build the tilted pulse front setup. Here, we performed a temperature dependent measurement of refractive index and absorption coefficient on a 6.0 mol% MgO-doped congruent lithium niobate wafer by using a THz time-domain spectrometer (THz-TDS). When the crystal temperature was decreased from 300 K to 50 K, the refractive index of the crystal in the extraordinary polarization decreased from 5.05 to 4.88 at 0.4 THz, resulting in ~1° change for the tilt angle inside the lithium niobate crystal. The angle of incidence on the grating for the tilted pulse front setup at 1030 nm with demagnification factor of -0.5 needs to be changed by 3°. The absorption coefficient decreased by 60% at 0.4 THz. These results are crucial for designing an optimum tilted pulse front setup based on lithium niobate crystals. PMID:26698455

  17. Experimental study of liquid refractive index sensing based on a U-shaped optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Yan, Haitao; Li, Liben; Wang, Ming

    2013-12-01

    A U-shaped optical fiber sensing system designed to measure the refractive index of liquid had been proposed. The sensing mechanism of U-shaped optical fiber was discussed. A general single-mode fiber was bent into U-shaped and partially cladding of U-shaped fiber was corroded by HF acid buffer solution. Powers of different diameters of U-shaped fibers had been measured by many experiments. The results showed that the diameter of U-shaped fiber cladding 40 ?m and the diameter of U-shaped was 1 cm were suitable to measure liquid refractive index. Then, this U-shaped optical fiber was immersed in liquid, such as pure water, ethanol, acetone and isopropanol, respectively. The evanescent field of the U-shaped fiber should be modulated by the liquid. The optical signal in the U-shaped fiber was measured with the optical spectrum analyzers(OSA). Finally, the experimental results were analyzed, and the spectra in the air was selected as a reference. The relative intensity was obtained for the different liquid. These results showed that the relative intensity of the liquid had a good linear relationship. This sensing device could accurately demarcate refractive index of liquid. It is simple, low cost, and it can also be applied in measuring the level of liquid.

  18. Performance limits to the operation of nanoplasmonic chemical sensors: noise-equivalent refractive index and detectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksic, Zoran; Jaksic, Olga; Matovic, Jovan

    2009-04-01

    We considered figures of merit for chemical and biological sensors based on plasmonic structures and utilizing adsorption/desorption mechanism. The operation of these devices in general is limited by noise determining the minimum detectable refractive-index change. We dedicated our work to the intrinsic noise mechanisms connected with the plasmonic process itself. In contrast, most of the available literature is almost exclusively dedicated to the external noise sources (illumination source and photodetector). Reviewing the refractive-index fluctuations caused by thermal, adsorption-desorption and 1/f noise, we observed a striking analogy between the qualitative behavior of noise in (nano)plasmonic devices and that in semiconductor infrared detectors. The power spectral densities for noise in both of these have an almost identical shape; the adsorption-desorption noise corresponds to generation-recombination processes in detectors, while the other two mechanisms exist in the both types of the devices. Thus the large and mature existing apparatus for infrared detector noise analysis may be applied to the plasmonic sensors. Based on the observed analogy, we formulated the noise-equivalent refractive-index and the specific detectivity as the figures of merit to analyze the ultimate performance of plasmon sensors. The approach is valid for conventional surface plasmon resonance sensors, but also for nanoplasmonic and metamaterial-based devices.

  19. Determining the refractive index of shocked [100] lithium fluoride to the limit of transmissibility

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, P. A. Scharff, R. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Knudson, M. D.

    2014-07-21

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a common window material used in shock- and ramp-compression experiments because it displays a host of positive attributes in these applications. Most commonly, it is used to maintain stress at an interface and velocimetry techniques are used to record the particle velocity at that interface. In this application, LiF remains transparent to stresses up to 200?GPa. In this stress range, LiF has an elastic-plastic response with a very low (<0.5?GPa) elastic precursor and exhibits no known solid-solid phase transformations. However, because the density dependence of the refractive index of LiF does not follow the Gladstone-Dale relation, the measured particle velocity at this interface is not the true particle velocity and must be corrected. For that reason, the measured velocity is often referred to as the apparent velocity in these types of experiments. In this article, we describe a series of shock-compression experiments that have been performed to determine the refractive index of LiF at the two most commonly used wavelengths (532?nm and 1550?nm) between 35 and 200?GPa to high precision. A modified form of the Gladstone-Dale relation was found to work best to fit the determined values of refractive index. In addition, we provide a direct relationship between the apparent and true particle velocity to correct experimentally obtained wave profiles by others using these velocimetry techniques.

  20. Zoned near-zero refractive index fishnet lens antenna: Steering millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Orazbayev, B. Beaskoetxea, U. Beruete, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.

    2014-03-28

    A zoned fishnet metamaterial lens is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths to work as a negative near-zero refractive index lens suitable for compact lens antenna configurations. At the design frequency f?=?56.7?GHz (?{sub 0}?=?5.29?mm), the zoned fishnet metamaterial lens, designed to have a focal length FL?=?9?{sub 0}, exhibits a refractive index n?=??0.25. The focusing performance of the diffractive optical element is briefly compared with that of a non-zoned fishnet metamaterial lens and an isotropic homogeneous zoned lens made of a material with the same refractive index. Experimental and numerically-computed radiation diagrams of the fabricated zoned lens are presented and compared in detail with that of a simulated non-zoned lens. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, demonstrating an enhancement generated by the zoned lens of 10.7?dB, corresponding to a gain of 12.26?dB. Moreover, beam steering capability of the structure by shifting the feeder on the xz-plane is demonstrated.

  1. Correction of stain variations in nuclear refractive index of clinical histology specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Bista, Rajan K.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-11-01

    For any technique to be adopted into a clinical setting, it is imperative that it seamlessly integrates with well-established clinical diagnostic workflow. We recently developed an optical microscopy technique--spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM) that can extract the refractive index of the cell nucleus from the standard histology specimens on glass slides prepared via standard clinical protocols. This technique has shown great potential in detecting cancer with a better sensitivity than conventional pathology. A major hurdle in the clinical translation of this technique is the intrinsic variation among staining agents used in histology specimens, which limits the accuracy of refractive index measurements of clinical samples. In this paper, we present a simple and easily generalizable method to remove the effect of variations in staining levels on nuclear refractive index obtained with SL-QPM. We illustrate the efficacy of our correction method by applying it to variously stained histology samples from animal model and clinical specimens.

  2. Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammarling, Krister; Hilborn, Jöns; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy

    2014-02-01

    Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (?-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR.

  3. Refractive index profile forming possibilities in planar waveguides produced by ion exchange method for amplitude sensors applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozi?ski, Roman; Kotyczka, Tomasz

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents the possibility of forming refractive index profiles in planar waveguides produced by ion exchange method in soda-lime glass - Ag+ admixture arrangement. The influence of refractive profile shape on modal attenuation distribution was analysed. Diffusion and heating processes were considered in all the calculations. Numerical simulations of processes were based on experimentally gained thermal diffusion coefficients of exchanged ions.

  4. All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di

    2014-03-03

    We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1–6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz–18?GHz)

  5. Refractive index gradient measurement across the thickness of a dielectric film by the prism coupling method

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Viktor I; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya; Seminogov, V N

    2012-08-31

    A method is proposed for measuring the refractive index gradient n(z) in nonuniformly thick dielectric films. The method is based on the excitation of waveguide modes in a film using the prism coupling technique and on the calculation of n(z) and film thickness H{sub f} with the help of the angular positions of the TE or TM modes. The method can be used for an arbitrary shape of the index modulation over the film thickness in the limit of a small gradient [{Delta} n(z)/n(z) || 1]. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1-6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12 GHz-18 GHz).

  7. A novel acousto-optic modulation-deflection mechanism using refractive index grating as graded index beam router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangjoo, Alireza; Reza Baezzat, Mohammad; Razavizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    A novel acousto-optic modulation mechanism will be addressed in this paper. Focused Gaussian beam passing through acousto-optic media experiences different refractive index regions arising from acoustic waves generated by ultrasonic source. In this way according to the snell's law of refraction the beam propagation path will be altered when these periodic traveling waves reach the incoming radiation where a typical p-n junction photodiode located inside the rising or falling lobe of the undiffracted Gaussian beam senses these small lateral deflections. Due to small variations of the refractive index the magnitude of deflection will be up to tens of micron outside the modulator. Hence, sharp intensity gradient is required for detecting such small beam movements by appropriate lens configuration to focus the Gaussian profile on the detector junction area. In the other words intensity profile of zero order beam oscillates proportional to the time dependent amplitude of the acoustic waves versus previous methods that intensity of diffracted beam changes with applied ultrasonic intensity. The extracted signal properties depend on the beam collimation, quality of beam profile and depth of focus inside the modulator. The first experimental approach was proceeded using a collimated 532 nm diode laser source (TEM00), distilled water as interaction media and 10 MHz transducer as ultrasonic generator where a cylindrical glass column with input-output flat windows was used for liquid support. The present method has advantages over common acoustooptical techniques as low cost, simplicity of operation, direct modulation of the signal and minimum alignment requirement.

  8. The role of macromolecular crowding in the evolution of lens crystallins with high molecular refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huaying; Magone, M. Teresa; Schuck, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high concentrations in order to provide transparency and generate a high refractive power of the lens. The crystallin families prevalent in the highest density lens tissues are ?-crystallins in vertebrates and S-crystallins in cephalopods. As shown elsewhere, in parallel evolution, both have evolved molecular refractive index increments 5-10% above those of most proteins. Although this is a small increase, it is statistically very significant and can be achieved only by very unusual amino acid compositions. In contrast, such a molecular adaptation to aid in the refractive function of the lens did not occur in crystallins that are preferentially located in lower density lens tissues, such as vertebrate ?-crystallin and taxon-specific crystallins. In the current work, we apply a model of non-interacting hard spheres to examine the thermodynamic contributions of volume exclusion at lenticular protein concentrations. We show that the small concentration decrease afforded by the higher molecular refractive index increment of crystallins can amplify nonlinearly to produce order of magnitude differences in chemical activities, and lead to reduced osmotic pressure and the reduced propensity for protein aggregation. Quantitatively, this amplification sets in only at protein concentrations as high as those found in hard lenses or the nucleus of soft lenses, in good correspondence to the observed crystallin properties in different tissues and different species. This suggests that volume exclusion effects provide the evolutionary driving force for the unusual refractive properties and the unusual amino acid compositions of ?-crystallins and S-crystallins.

  9. Engineering of parallel plasmonic-photonic interactions for on-chip refractive index sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-07-01

    Ultra-narrow linewidth in the extinction spectrum of noble metal nanoparticle arrays induced by the lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs) is of great significance for applications in plasmonic lasers and plasmonic sensors. However, the challenge of sustaining LPRs in an asymmetric environment greatly restricts their practical applications, especially for high-performance on-chip plasmonic sensors. Herein, we fully study the parallel plasmonic-photonic interactions in both the Au nanodisk arrays (NDAs) and the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs). Different from the dipolar interactions in the conventionally studied orthogonal coupling, the horizontal propagating electric field introduces the out-of-plane ``hot spots'' and results in electric field delocalization. Through controlling the aspect ratio to manipulate the ``hot spot'' distributions of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the NCAs, we demonstrate a high-performance refractive index sensor with a wide dynamic range of refractive indexes ranging from 1.0 to 1.5. Both high figure of merit (FOM) and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be maintained under these detectable refractive indices. Furthermore, the electromagnetic field distributions confirm that the high FOM in the wide dynamic range is attributed to the parallel coupling between the superstrate diffraction orders and the height-induced LSPR modes. Our study on the near-field ``hot-spot'' engineering and far-field parallel coupling paves the way towards improved understanding of the parallel LPRs and the design of high-performance on-chip refractive index sensors.Ultra-narrow linewidth in the extinction spectrum of noble metal nanoparticle arrays induced by the lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs) is of great significance for applications in plasmonic lasers and plasmonic sensors. However, the challenge of sustaining LPRs in an asymmetric environment greatly restricts their practical applications, especially for high-performance on-chip plasmonic sensors. Herein, we fully study the parallel plasmonic-photonic interactions in both the Au nanodisk arrays (NDAs) and the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs). Different from the dipolar interactions in the conventionally studied orthogonal coupling, the horizontal propagating electric field introduces the out-of-plane ``hot spots'' and results in electric field delocalization. Through controlling the aspect ratio to manipulate the ``hot spot'' distributions of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the NCAs, we demonstrate a high-performance refractive index sensor with a wide dynamic range of refractive indexes ranging from 1.0 to 1.5. Both high figure of merit (FOM) and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be maintained under these detectable refractive indices. Furthermore, the electromagnetic field distributions confirm that the high FOM in the wide dynamic range is attributed to the parallel coupling between the superstrate diffraction orders and the height-induced LSPR modes. Our study on the near-field ``hot-spot'' engineering and far-field parallel coupling paves the way towards improved understanding of the parallel LPRs and the design of high-performance on-chip refractive index sensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03159a

  10. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  11. Three-Dimensional Velocity Measurement Reconstruction for a Rod Bundle Array using Matched Refractive Index Particle Tracking Velocimetry 

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Denny L

    2013-08-09

    geometry using a novel matched refractive index particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique over a 3D volume cross section of a prototypical nuclear fuel rod bundle. Velocimetry tracking will be performed in order to characterize the mechanics...

  12. Engineering of parallel plasmonic-photonic interactions for on-chip refractive index sensors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-07-28

    Ultra-narrow linewidth in the extinction spectrum of noble metal nanoparticle arrays induced by the lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs) is of great significance for applications in plasmonic lasers and plasmonic sensors. However, the challenge of sustaining LPRs in an asymmetric environment greatly restricts their practical applications, especially for high-performance on-chip plasmonic sensors. Herein, we fully study the parallel plasmonic-photonic interactions in both the Au nanodisk arrays (NDAs) and the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs). Different from the dipolar interactions in the conventionally studied orthogonal coupling, the horizontal propagating electric field introduces the out-of-plane "hot spots" and results in electric field delocalization. Through controlling the aspect ratio to manipulate the "hot spot" distributions of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the NCAs, we demonstrate a high-performance refractive index sensor with a wide dynamic range of refractive indexes ranging from 1.0 to 1.5. Both high figure of merit (FOM) and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be maintained under these detectable refractive indices. Furthermore, the electromagnetic field distributions confirm that the high FOM in the wide dynamic range is attributed to the parallel coupling between the superstrate diffraction orders and the height-induced LSPR modes. Our study on the near-field "hot-spot" engineering and far-field parallel coupling paves the way towards improved understanding of the parallel LPRs and the design of high-performance on-chip refractive index sensors. PMID:26133011

  13. Refractive index, sound velocity and thickness of thin transparent films from multiple angles picosecond ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, R.; Devos, A.

    2005-05-01

    We present a method for refractive indices and longitudinal sound velocity measurements from picosecond ultrasonic experiments made at different probe incidence angles. For transparent or semitransparent materials such as dielectrics or semiconductors, picosecond ultrasonic experiments can lead to oscillations in the reflectivity curves whose frequency depends on the refractive indices, the sound velocity and the experiments angle. From these data we establish a simple method for the calculation of the refractive indices and verify it on a GaAs sample. We show on fluorinated silica glass and aluminum nitride practical applications of this method on thin films. From two experiments we measure the refraction index and the sound velocity of these materials, with no assumption on the materials properties or on the sample layers' thicknesses. Here the materials are buried under a thin aluminum film. It illustrates the fact that the method can be applied to multilayers. From the same experiments we then derive the thickness of the layers. It shows that this method can render picosecond ultrasonic experiments independent from other characterization means.

  14. An SPR-based sensor with an extremely large dynamic range of refractive index measurements in the visible region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Akhilesh K.; Mishra, Satyendra K.; Verma, Rajneesh K.

    2015-11-01

    A promising GaP prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensor in the Kretschmann configuration with an extremely large dynamic range of refractive index detection is proposed. The prism base is coated with a gold layer and then a thin layer of silicon. The sensor is studied theoretically in terms of sensitivity and detection accuracy. The proposed sensor shows the potential of sensing media with a refractive index varying from gaseous to very dense liquid with appreciably high sensitivity.

  15. The Cryogenic, High-Accuracy, Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS): A New Facility for Cryogenic Infrared through Vacuum Far-Ultraviolet Refractive Index Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2004-01-01

    The optical designs of future NASA infrared (IR) missions and instruments, such as the James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near-Mixed Camera (NIRCam), will rely on accurate knowledge of the index of refraction of various IR optical materials at cryogenic temperatures. To meet this need, we have developed a Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS). In this paper we discuss the completion of the design and construction of CHARMS as well as the engineering details that constrained the final design and hardware implementation. In addition, we will present our first light, cryogenic, IR index of refraction data for LiF, BaF2, and CaF2, and compare our results to previously published data for these materials.

  16. Infrared Spectra, Index of Refraction, and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla; Ferrante, Robert; Moore, William; Hudson, Reggie

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrite ices known or suspected to be in Titan's atmosphere are presented from 2.5 to 200 microns (4000 to 50 per cm ). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan's winter pole. Ices studied include: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C 2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. For each of these molecules we report new measurements of the index of refraction, n, determined in both the amorphous- and crystallinephase at 670 nm. Spectra were measured and optical constants were calculated for each nitrite at a variety of temperatures including 20, 35, 50, 75, 95, and 110 K, in the amorphous- and crystalline-phase. This laboratory effort uses a dedicated FTIR spectrometer to record transmission spectra of thin-film ice samples. Laser interference is used to measure film thickness during condensation onto a transparent cold window attached to the tail section of a closed-cycle helium cryostat. Optical constants, real (n) and imaginary (k) refractive indices, are determined using Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis. Our calculation reproduces the complete spectrum, including all interference effects. Index of refraction measurements are made in a separate dedicated FTIR spectrometer where interference deposit fringes are measured using two 670 nm lasers at different angles to the ice substrate. A survey of these new measurements will be presented along with a discussion of their validation, errors, and application to Titan data.

  17. Air cavity-based Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor fabricated using a sawing technique for refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Hwang, Sung Hwan; Rho, Byung Sup

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a refractive index sensor based on a fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer with an open air cavity fabricated using a one-step mechanical sawing technique. The sensor head consists of a short FP cavity near the fiber patch cord tip, which was assembled by joining a ceramic ferrule and a single-mode fiber together. Owing to the open air cavity in the sensor head, various liquid samples with different refractive index can fill in-line air cavity, which makes the device usable as a refractometer. Moreover, due to the sensor head encircled with the robust ceramic ferrule, the device is attractive for sensing measurement in harsh environments. The sensor was tested in different refractive index solutions. The experimental result shows that the attenuation peak wavelength of the sensor is shifted toward a shorter wavelength with increasing refractive index, and the refractive index sensitivity is ˜92.5 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) and 73.75 dB/RIU. The proposed sensor can be used as an in-line refractometer for many potential applications in the sensing field.

  18. Analysis of the refractive index change of optical waveguide in LiNbO3 using a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-han; Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xue-song; Feng, Jie; Zhou, Zi-gang; Chen, Jang-jun

    2014-11-01

    We used a commercially available 75 MHz regeneratively amplified laser system emitting 50 femtosecond pulses of energies up to 3nJ at a wavelength of 800 nm. All waveguides were fabricated by focussing the femotsecond pulse train polarised parallel to the x-axis to a distance of approximately 125 ?m below the sample surface using a 0.65 NA, ×40 microscope objective and translating the sample along the y axis. To find the optimum waveguide fabrication parameters the translation speed was varied from 2 to 100 ?m/s. We introduces a method of measuring the refractive index of optical waveguide in ten micrometer. Useing CCD to measure the two-dimensional near-field light intensity distribution of the output cross-section of the waveguide, by measuring the two-dimensional near-field light intensity distribution of the output cross-section of the waveguide can be calculated the two-dimensional distribution of refractive index of waveguides. The context detailedly gives measurement results about femtosecond laser inducing the near-field intensity of lithium niobate optical waveguide cross-section and calculations of refractive index of optical waveguide. The results show that the refractive index of waveguides showed a large central, gradually reduce and the change of refractive index in the range of 0.001. This method is of great significance to measure the optical waveguide refractive index distribution.

  19. Spatial Resolution and Refractive Index Contrast of Resonant Photonic Crystal Surfaces for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Triggs, G. J.; Fischer, M.; Stellinga, D.; Scullion, M. G.; Evans, G. J. O.; Krauss, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast ?n. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10?2. We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At ?n = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 ?m parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45° results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for ?n < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 ?m for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution. PMID:26356353

  20. Direct measurement of the x-ray refractive index by Fresnel diffraction at a transparent edge.

    PubMed

    Gayer, C W; Hemmers, D; Stelzmann, C; Pretzler, G

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring x-ray refractive indices by transparent edge diffraction without recourse to the Kramers-Kronig relations. The method requires a coherent x-ray source, a transparent sample with a straight edge, and a high resolution x-ray detector. Here, we use the aluminum K? radiation originating from a laser-produced plasma to coherently illuminate the edge of thin aluminum and beryllium foils. The resulting diffraction patterns are recorded with an x-ray CCD camera. From least-squares fits of Fresnel diffraction modeling to the measured data we determine the refractive index of Al and Be at the wavelength of the Al K? radiation (0.834 nm, 1.49 keV). PMID:23632552

  1. Determining the unique refractive index properties of solid polystyrene aerosol using broadband Mie scattering from optically trapped beads.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie H; King, Martin D; Ward, Andrew D

    2013-12-21

    A method is described to measure the refractive index dispersion with wavelength of optically trapped solid particles in air. Knowledge of the refraction properties of solid particles is critical for the study of aerosol; both in the laboratory and in the atmosphere for climate studies. Single micron-sized polystyrene beads were optically trapped in air using a vertically aligned counter-propagating configuration of focussed laser beams. Each bead was illuminated using white light from a broadband light emitting diode (LED) and elastic scattering within the bead was collected onto a spectrograph. The resulting Mie spectra were analysed to accurately determine polystyrene bead radii to ±0.4 nm and values of the refractive index to ±0.0005 over a wavelength range of 480-700 nm. We demonstrate that optical trapping combined with elastic scattering can be used to both accurately size polystyrene beads suspended in air and determine their wavelength dependent refractive index. The refractive index dispersions are in close agreement with reported values for polystyrene beads in aqueous dispersion. Our results also demonstrate a variation in the refractive index of polystyrene, from bead to bead, in a commercial sample. The measured variation highlights that care must be taken when using polystyrene beads as a calibration aerosol. PMID:24196002

  2. Dielectric refractive index dependence of the focusing properties of a dielectric-cylinder-type decagonal photonic quasicrystal flat lens and its photon localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Exian; Fan, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    The focusing properties of a dielectric-cylinder-type decagonal photonic quasicrystal flat lens observed at different dielectric refractive indexes are numerically analyzed, showing that, within certain index ranges, the lens can generate images with a resolution below the diffraction limit for a point source. The lens exhibits a double focusing effect within a range of refractive indexes and induces ring photon localization near a certain dielectric refractive index for the point source with the TM mode.

  3. Dopant-dependent reflectivity and refractive index of microcrystalline molybdenum-bronze thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid

    2002-05-01

    Reflectivity spectra of HxMoO3 and LixMoO3 thin films were measured over the photon energy range from 0.4 to 4.2 eV. It was found that microcrystalline molybdenum bronzes have reflectances between 6% and 30% over the concentration x, range 0?x?0.64. Values for the real part of the refractive index n were also determined from the refined reflectivity data using different numerical techniques depending upon the dispersive and nondispersive regions in the data. The values of high-frequency dielectric constant ?hf of ZxMoO3 (Z=H+,Li+) bronzes were determined from the refractive index data to estimate the effective electronic masses involved in the optical and/or polaronic transitions. We interpret the optical data using the modified Drude-Zener model together with a single-oscillator model to differentiate between bound and free electronic states. Using a single-oscillator model, the oscillator energy Ea and the dispersion energy Ed were found to increase and decrease, respectively, with increasing x values, opposite to what occurs in crystalline molybdenum bronzes. These findings support the fact that Bloch electrons are almost absent in the investigated microcrystalline bronzes. The small reflectivity crests and the observed shift of the minimum reflectivity (or minimum refractive index) toward higher frequency with increasing x value in ZxMoO3 appear to be consistent with polaronic hopping, which arises from the excitation of electrons from localized in-gap states of Mo5+ ions into higher impurity states of Mo6+ (or Mo4+) ions within the optical band gap.

  4. Higher-order nonlinearity of refractive index: the case of argon.

    PubMed

    Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A; Levis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    The nonlinear coefficients, n4, of the time-dependent refractive index for argon are calculated in the non-resonant optical regime. Second-order polynomial fitting of DC-Kerr, ?((2))(-?; ?, 0, 0), electric field induced second harmonic generation (ESHG), ?((2))(-2?; ?, ?, 0), and static second-order hyperpolarizability, ?((2))(0; 0, 0, 0), is performed using an auxiliary electric field approach to obtain the corresponding fourth-order optical properties. A number of basis sets are investigated for the fourth-order hyperpolarizability processes at 800 nm at coupled cluster singles and doubles level of theory, starting with the t-aug-cc-pV5Z basis set and expanding that basis set by adding diffuse functions and polarization functions. Comparison shows that the results obtained with the t-aug-cc-pV5Z basis are in very good agreement with the results obtained using the q-aug-cc-pV5Z, t-aug-cc-pV6Z, and q-aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets. To calculate the nonlinear refractive index n4, an approximate formula is suggested which expresses the related degenerate six-wave mixing coefficient, ?((4))(-?; ?, -?, ?, -?, ?), in terms of the DC-Kerr, ?((4))(-?; ?, 0, 0, 0, 0), ESHG, ?((4))(-2?; ?, ?, 0, 0, 0), and the static fourth-order hyperpolarizability coefficients. The higher-order nonlinear refractive index n4 is found to be positive over the wavelengths 300 nm-2000 nm. In the infrared spectral range, the obtained values of n4 are in qualitative agreement with the results of Kramers-Kronig-based calculations. PMID:24908017

  5. Ultrahigh refractive index sensing performance of plasmonic quadrupole resonances in gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Zehui; Lei, Dang Yuan; Lam, Chi Hang; Wang, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The refractive index sensing properties of plasmonic resonances in gold nanoparticles (nanorods and nanobipyramids) are investigated through numerical simulations. We find that the quadruple resonance in both nanoparticles shows much higher sensing figure of merit (FOM) than its dipolar counterpart, which is attributed mainly to the reduction in resonance linewidth. More importantly, our results predict that at the same sensing wavelength, the sensing FOM of the quadrupole mode can be significantly boosted from 3.9 for gold nanorods to 7.4 for gold nanobipyramids due to the geometry-dependent resonance linewidth, revealing a useful strategy for optimizing the sensing performance of metal nanoparticles.

  6. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  7. Structural properties of aqueous metoprolol succinate solutions. Density, viscosity, and refractive index at 311 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Kalyankar, T. M.

    2013-06-01

    Density, viscosity and refractive index of aqueous solutions of metoprolol succinate of different concentrations (0.005-0.05 mol dm-3) were measured at 38°C. Apparent molar volume of resultant solutions were calculated and fitted to the Masson's equation and apparent molar volume at infinite dilution was determined graphically. Viscosity data of solutions has been fitted to the Jone-Dole equation and viscosity A- and B-coefficients were determined graphically. Physicochemical data obtained were discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  8. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations. PMID:22131677

  9. Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Pérot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, A. Q.; Lim, C. S.; Yap, P. H.; Hosseini, Habib Mir M.

    2006-11-01

    This letter reports the measurement of single living cells' refractive index (RI) using an on-chip fiber-based Fabry-Pérot cavity by a differential method. In experiment a single cell is captured into the cavity, then the spectral shift in response to the buffer change and the cell presence/absence can be used to determine the cell's RI and size. Experiment on kidney cancer cells measures an effective RI of 1.399 at 0.1% accuracy. Compared with other approaches, the differential method eliminates uncertain factors and thus ensures high accuracy. The microchip facilitates automatic detection and makes it promising for label-free drug screening.

  10. Sensitivity of the Lidar ratio to changes in size distribution and index of refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, B. T. N.

    1986-01-01

    In order to invert lidar signals to obtain reliable extinction coefficients, sigma, a relationship between sigma and the backscatter coefficient, beta, must be given. These two coefficients are linearly related if the complex index of refraction, m, particle shape size distribution, N, does not change along the path illuminated by the laser beam. This, however, is generally not the case. An extensive Mie computation of the lidar ratio R = beta/sigma and the sensitivity of R to the changes in a parametric space defined by N and m were examined.

  11. Fabrication of elliptic microfibers with CO2 laser for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-06-15

    We propose a convenient method for achieving highly birefringent (HiBi) elliptic microfibers by use of the CO2-laser machining and the flame-brushing techniques. With optimization of fabrication process, a high birefringence of up to 2.10×10(-2) is experimentally obtained. Especially, within a polarization Sagnac interferometer acting as a refractive index (RI) sensor, both positive and abnormal negative sensitivity is measured, dependent on the geometrical variables of the HiBi microfiber. The maximum RI sensitivity is ?195,348??nm/RI-unit around RI=1.35887, which is the highest among the microfiber devices as reported, to our knowledge. PMID:24978529

  12. Highly birefringent suspended-core photonic microcells for refractive-index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Jin, Wa; Liao, Changrui; Ma, Jun; Jin, Wei; Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut; Wang, Yiping

    2014-08-01

    An in-line photonic microcell with a highly birefringent suspended microfiber core is fabricated by locally heating and pressurizing selected air-holes of an endless single mode photonic crystal fiber. The microfiber core has rhombus-like cross-sectional geometry and could achieve a high birefringence of up to 10-2. The microfiber core is fixed at the center of the microcell by thin struts attached to an outer jacket tube, which protects and isolates the microfiber from environmental contaminations. Highly sensitive and robust refractive index sensors based on such microcells are experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Estimation of refractive index and density of lubricants under high pressure by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Fujishiro, I.; Kawakami, H.

    1994-07-01

    Employing a diamond-anvil cell, Brillouin scattering spectra of 90° and 180° angles for synthetic lubricants (paraffinic and naphthenic oils) were measured and sound velocity, density, and refractive index under high pressure were obtained. The density obtained from the thermodynamic relation was compared with that from Lorentz-Lorentz's formula. The density was also compared with Dowson's density-pressure equation of lubricants, and density-pressure characteristics of the paraffinic oil and naphthenic oil were described considering the molecular structure for solidified lubricants. The effect of such physical properties of lubricants on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings, gears and traction drives was considered.

  14. Enhancing the efficiency of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers with the tapered refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Lingbao; Hou Zhiling; Jing Jian; Jin Haibo; Du Chaohai

    2013-04-15

    The nonlinear analysis of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) based on anomalous Doppler effect in a slab waveguide is presented. A method of tapered refractive index (TRI) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of slow-wave ECM. The numerical calculations show that the TRI method can significantly enhance the efficiency of slow-wave ECM with the frequency ranging from the microwave to terahertz band. The effect of beam velocity spread on the efficiency has also been studied. Although the velocity spread suppresses the efficiency significantly, a great enhancement of efficiency can still be introduced by the TRI method.

  15. Negative Index of Refraction Observed in a Single Layer of ClosedRing Magnetic Dipole Resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Harteneck, Bruce; Cabrini,Stefano; Anderson, Erik H.

    2007-11-27

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of a singlelayer of metallic single closed ring resonators on free-standing thinmembrane at near-normal and grazing angles of incidence. When themagnetic component of the light is perpendicular to the ring plane, weobserve a negative index of refraction down to -1 around 150 terahertz(THz), attributed to a strong magnetic dipolar resonance and a broadelectric resonance in this metamaterial. We experimentally identify thedifferent resonance modes and the spectral region of negative refractiveindex on a series of samples with different feature and lattice sizes,comparing to electromagnetic simulations.

  16. Determining the refractive index and thickness of thin films from prism coupler measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, S. T.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method of determining thin film parameters from mode indices measured using a prism coupler is described. The problem is reduced to doing two least squares straight line fits through measured mode indices vs effective mode number. The slope and y intercept of the line are simply related to the thickness and refractive index of film, respectively. The approach takes into account the correlation between as well as the uncertainty in the individual measurements from all sources of error to give precise error tolerances on the best fit values. Due to the precision of the tolerances, anisotropic films can be identified and characterized.

  17. Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng Jie

    2011-02-10

    Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

  18. Vacuum energy and the spacetime index of refraction: A new synthesis

    E-print Network

    M. Nouri-Zonoz

    2010-10-06

    In 1+3 (threading) formulation of general relativity spacetime behaves analogous to a medium with a specific index of refraction with respect to the light propagation. Accepting the reality of zero point energy, through the equivalence principle, we elevate this analogy to the case of virtual photon propagation in a quantum vacuum in a curved background spacetime. Employing this new idea one could examine the response of vacuum energy to the presence of a stationary gravitational field in its different quantum field theoretic manifestations such as Casimir effect and Lamb shift. The results are given explicitly for a Casimir apparatus in the weak field limit of a Kerr hole.

  19. Refractive index measured by laser beam displacement at {lambda}=1064 nm for solvents and deuterated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, David P.

    2011-07-20

    The refractive index of a liquid is determined with 0.0003 accuracy from measurements of laser beam displacement by a liquid-filled standard 10 mm spectrophotometer cell. The apparatus and methods are described and the results of measurements at {lambda}=1064 nm and T=25.0 deg. C for 30 solvents and deuterated solvents are presented. Several sources of potential systematic errors as large as 0.003 are identified, the most important being the curvature of the liquid cell windows. The measurements are analyzed accounting for the significant imperfections of the apparatus.

  20. Highly birefringent suspended-core photonic microcells for refractive-index sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Jin, Wa; Ma, Jun; Jin, Wei Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut; Liao, Changrui; Wang, Yiping

    2014-08-11

    An in-line photonic microcell with a highly birefringent suspended microfiber core is fabricated by locally heating and pressurizing selected air-holes of an endless single mode photonic crystal fiber. The microfiber core has rhombus-like cross-sectional geometry and could achieve a high birefringence of up to 10{sup ?2}. The microfiber core is fixed at the center of the microcell by thin struts attached to an outer jacket tube, which protects and isolates the microfiber from environmental contaminations. Highly sensitive and robust refractive index sensors based on such microcells are experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Nanowire-based refractive index sensor on the tip of an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevec, Simon; Donlagic, Denis

    2013-05-01

    This letter presents a refractive index sensor created at the tip of an optical fiber that utilizes silica nanowire within a radius of between 225 nm and 600 nm, as a sensing element. Sensitivity in excess of 800 nm/RIU was demonstrated within an aquatic medium, while the entire sensor structure was shorter than 1 mm with a diameter equal to or less than the standard fiber diameter. The presented sensor structure is made entirely from silica and provides the mechanical protection of sensitive nanowire. The proposed sensor is thus a robust and self-sustained structure, which does not require any complex packing.

  2. Integrated optical waveguides: refractive-index profile control by temperature and electric-field programming.

    PubMed

    Kapila, D; Plawsky, J L

    1995-12-01

    Ion exchange is often used to manufacture integrated optical waveguides in glasses and crystals. The manufacture of low-loss, compact, integrated optical waveguides can be achieved by varying the processing conditions (the temperature and the electric field) during the ion exchange. We have simulated the formation of waveguides in glass with a molten salt silver ion-exchange technique and have shown that, by simply linearly varying the temperature and electric field during processing of waveguides, one can tailor the refractive-index profiles to produce low-loss parabolic and hyperbolic secant dopant profiles or any other generic dopant profile. PMID:21068898

  3. Fiber-optic refractive-index sensor for use in fresh concrete.

    PubMed

    Ansari, F; Chen, Q Y

    1991-10-01

    We describe the development of a portable fiber-optic refractive-index sensor for detecting the air-bubble content in fresh concrete. The sensor uses a low-power visible laser diode as the light source. Data processing is performed in real time by a lap-top microcomputer. We introduce a new digital image-processing methodology for the interpretation of reflected-light intensity signals. Sensor performance is examined through laboratory and field studies on concrete poured at actual highway sites. PMID:20706503

  4. Triangular lattice of carbon nanotube arrays for negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Rybczynski, J.; Wang, D.Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z.F.

    2005-04-11

    Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres has been utilized in a two-step masking technique to prepare triangular lattices of catalytic nanodots at low cost. Subsequent triangular lattices of aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon substrate are achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Nickel is used both in the nanodots and in the secondary mask. The triangular lattices of carbon nanotube arrays as two-dimensional photonic crystals show higher geometrical symmetry than the hexagonal lattices previously reported, enabling broader applications including negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect.

  5. Dielectric black holes induced by a refractive index perturbation and the Hawking effect

    E-print Network

    F. Belgiorno; S. L. Cacciatori; G. Ortenzi; L. Rizzi; V. Gorini; D. Faccio

    2010-11-23

    We consider a 4D model for photon production induced by a %superluminal refractive index perturbation in a dielectric medium. We show that, in this model, we can infer the presence of a Hawking type effect. This prediction shows up both in the analogue Hawking framework, which is implemented in the pulse frame and relies on the peculiar properties of the effective geometry in which quantum fields propagate, as well as in the laboratory frame, through standard quantum field theory calculations. Effects of optical dispersion are also taken into account, and are shown to provide a limited energy bandwidth for the emission of Hawking radiation.

  6. Refractive index measurement using an optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, SaiHim; Brake, Joshua H.; Joy, Cody; Kim, Seunghyun

    2015-03-01

    We proposed a low cost optical cavity based biosensor with a differential detection for point-of-care diagnosis. Two lasers at different wavelengths are used for the differential detection. This method enhances the sensitivity through higher responsivity and noise cancelation. To reduce noise further, especially due to the unstable low cost laser diode output, we employed a referencing method in which a reference pixel value in each CMOS image frame is subtracted from all other pixels. To validate the designed structure and demonstrate the sensitivity of it, we perform refractive index measurements of fluids with our design. In this presentation, we will discuss our design, simulation results, and measurement results.

  7. Spatiotemporal collapse in a nonlinear waveguide with a randomly fluctuating refractive index.

    PubMed

    Gaididei, Y B; Christiansen, P L

    1998-07-15

    Analytical results, based on the virial theorem and the Furutsu-Novikov theorem, of the spatiotemporal evolution of a pulse in a nonlinear waveguide with a randomly fluctuating refractive index are presented. For initial conditions in which total collapse occurs in a homogeneous waveguide, random fluctuations postpone the collapse. Sufficiently large-amplitude and short-wavelength fluctuations can cause an initially localized pulse to spread instead of contracting. We show that the disorder can be applied to induce a high degree of controllability of the spatiotemporal extent of the pulses in the nonlinear waveguide. PMID:18087437

  8. Thermal oscillatory behavior analysis and dynamic modulation of refractive index in microspherical resonator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanlong; Wang, Yue; Guo, Zhen; Wu, Junfeng; Wu, Yihui

    2015-04-01

    The thermal nonlinear effects in whispering-gallery-mode resonators are characterized by oscillatory behavior in the transmission spectrum. Although the thermal linewidth broadening is proven to be practical in mode-locking and dynamic control of the optical path, the oscillatory behavior always leads to instability of mode-locking and influences the control accuracy. We theoretically and experimentally illustrate the thermal oscillatory behavior using a model that combines slow and fast thermal relaxation processes of the microsphere and fluctuations of the pump wavelength. We also report dynamic modulation of the refractive index based on the fast thermal relaxation process. PMID:25831396

  9. Nonlocal nonlinear refractive index of gold nanoparticles synthesized by ascorbic acid reduction: comparison of fitting models

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena Ortega, A.; Arroyo Carrasco, M.L.; Méndez Otero, M.M.; Gayou, V.L.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Martínez Gutiérrez, H.; Iturbe Castillo, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal gold nanoparticles under continuous wave illumination is investigated with the z-scan technique. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using ascorbic acid as reductant, phosphates as stabilizer and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as surfactant agent. The nanoparticle size was controlled with the CTAC concentration. Experiments changing incident power and sample concentration were done. The experimental z-scan results were fitted with three models: thermal lens, aberrant thermal lens and the nonlocal model. It is shown that the nonlocal model reproduces with exceptionally good agreement; the obtained experimental behaviour. PMID:25705090

  10. Measurements of the complex refractive index of volcanic ash at 450, 546.7, and 650 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. G. C.; Reed, B. E.; Grainger, R. G.; Peters, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    The detection and quantification of volcanic ash is extremely important to the aviation industry, civil defense organizations, and those in peril from volcanic ashfall. To exploit the remote sensing techniques that are used to monitor a volcanic cloud and return information on its properties, the effective complex refractive index of the volcanic ash is required. This paper presents the complex refractive index determined in the laboratory at 450.0 nm, 546.7 nm, and 650.0 nm for volcanic ash samples from eruptions of Aso (Japan), Grímsvötn (Iceland), Chaitén (Chile), Etna (Italy), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), Tongariro (New Zealand), Askja (Iceland), Nisyros (Greece), Okmok (Alaska), Augustine (Alaska), and Spurr (Alaska). The Becke line method was used to measure the real part of the refractive index with an accuracy of 0.01. The values measured differed between eruptions and were in the range 1.51-1.63 at 450.0 nm, 1.50-1.61 at 546.7 nm, and 1.50-1.59 at 650.0 nm. A novel method is introduced to derive the imaginary part of the refractive index from the attenuation of light by ash. The method has a precision in the range 10-3-10-4. The values for the ash imaginary refractive index ranged 0.22-1.70 × 10-3 at 450.0 nm, 0.16-1.93 × 10-3 at 546.7 nm, and 0.15-2.08 × 10-3 at 650.0 nm. The accuracy of Becke and attenuation methods was assessed by measuring the complex refractive index of Hoya neutral density glass and found to have an accuracy of <0.01 and <2 × 10-5 for the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index, respectively.

  11. Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Hong; Lipschultz, Kristen A.; Anheier, Norman C.; McCloy, John S.

    2012-04-01

    A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study the refractive index properties of forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) grade zinc sulfide samples prepared with unique planar grain orientations and locations with respect to the CVD growth axis. This study was motivated by prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements that suggested refractive index may vary according to grain orientation. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 {mu}m at two temperature set points (30 C and 90 C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of planar grain orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible, and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths was found to agree well with prior published measurements.

  12. Measurements of the imaginary part of the refractive index between 300 and 700 nanometers for Mount St. Helens ash

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption properties, expressed as a wavelength-dependent imaginary index of refraction, of the Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption were measured between 300 and 700 nanometers by diffuse reflectance techniques. The measurements were made for both surface and stratospheric samples. The stratospheric samples show imaginary index values that decrease from approximately 0.01 to 0.02 at 300 nanometers to about 0.0015 at 700 nanometers. The surface samples show less wavelength variation in imaginary refractive index over this spectral range.

  13. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOEpatents

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

    1999-03-16

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

  14. Temperature insensitive refractive index sensor based on concatenated long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saurabh M.; Bock, Wojtek J.; Mikulic, Predrag

    2013-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature immune biosensor based on two concatenated LPGs incorporating a suitable inter-grating-space (IGS). Compensating the thermal induced phase changes in the grating region by use of an appropriate length of the IGS the temperature insensitivity has been achieved. Using standard telecommunication grade single-mode fibers we show that a length ratio of ~8.2 is sufficient to realize the proposed temperature insensitivity. The resulting sensor shows a refractive index sensitivity of 423.28 nm/RIU displaying the capability of detecting an index variation of 2.36 × 10-6 RIU in the bio-samples. The sensor can also be applied as a temperature insensitive WMD channel isolation filter in the optical communication systems, removing the necessity of any external thermal insulation packaging.

  15. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  16. Influence of nonlinear dispersion of the refraction index on the Sagnac effect in semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Peter G.; Osi?ski, Marek

    2007-02-01

    Mutually contradicting previously reported theoretical results on the effects of a dispersive active medium in a ring laser on its sensitivity to rotation are critically analyzed. A measure of the rotation rate in the active ring resonator is the beating frequency ?? between the counterpropagating waves whose frequencies are shifted in opposite directions due to the Sagnac effect. ?? is shown to be inversely proportional to the group index of the medium filling the cavity. A comparison of the results obtained considering the resting and rotating frames confirms the applicability of Fresnel's original expression for the optical drag effect to the analysis of the Sagnac effect in an active laser gyro. The frequency splitting ?? is sensitive to dispersion via the group refractive index.

  17. Conical photonic crystals for enhancing light extraction efficiency from high refractive index materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Hsieh, Chih-Hung; Choi, Hyungryul J; Gardener, Jules; Singh, Bipin; Knapitsch, Arno; Lecoq, Paul; Barbastathis, George

    2015-08-24

    We propose, analyze and optimize a two-dimensional conical photonic crystal geometry to enhance light extraction from a high refractive index material, such as an inorganic scintillator. The conical geometry suppresses Fresnel reflections at an optical interface due to adiabatic impedance matching from a gradient index effect. The periodic array of cone structures with a pitch larger than the wavelength of light diffracts light into higher-order modes with different propagating angles, enabling certain photons to overcome total internal reflection (TIR). The numerical simulation shows simultaneous light yield gains relative to a flat surface both below and above the critical angle and how key parameters affect the light extraction efficiency. Our optimized design provides a 46% gain in light yield when the conical photonic crystals are coated on an LSO (cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate) scintillator. PMID:26368241

  18. Refractive Index and Hygroscopic Stability of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As Native Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, O.; Epstein, R.J.; HOu, H.; Hall, D.C.; Kou, L.; Luo, Y.; Wu, H.

    1999-07-08

    The authors present prism coupling measurements on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As native oxides showing the dependence of refractive index on composition (0.3 {le} x {le} 0.97), oxidation temperature (400 {le} T {le} 500), and carrier gas purity. Index values range from n = 1.490 (x = 0.9, 400) to 1.707 (x = 0.3, 500 C). The oxides are shown to adsorb moisture, increasing their index by up to 0.10 (7%). Native oxides of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As (x {le} 0.5) have index values up to 0.27 higher and are less hygroscopic when prepared with a small amount of O{sub 2} in the N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O process gas. The higher index values are attributed to a greater degree of oxidation of the Ga in the film.

  19. Corneal imaging and refractive index measurement using a combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Tom; Chong, Shau Poh; Zhou, Yifeng; Moloney, Gregory; Tang, Shuo

    2013-02-01

    Refractive index (RI) is the optical property of a medium that describes its ability to bend incident light. The corneal refractive index is an especially important measurement in corneal and intraocular refractive surgery where its precise estimation is necessary to obtain accurate surgical outcomes. In this study, we calculated the corneal RI using a combined multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. MPM excites and detects nonlinear signals including two photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). TPEF signals are observed from NADH in the cytoplasm, allowing MPM to image the cellular structures in the corneal epithelium and endothelium. SHG signals are observed from collagen, an abundant connective tissue found in the stroma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) produces cross-sectional, structural images based on the interference fringes created by the reflected light from the sample and reference arms. Our system uses a single sub-10 fs Ti: sapphire laser source which is good for both MPM excitation and OCT resolution. The MPM and OCT images are coregistered when they are taken successively because their axial resolutions are similar and the system shares the laser source and the scanning unit. We can calculate the RI by measuring the optical thickness and the optical path length of the cornea from the MPM and OCT images respectively. We have imaged and calculated the RI of murine and piscine corneas. We were able to see the epithelial, stromal, and endothelial layers and compare their relative thicknesses and the organization of the stromal collagen lamellae. Our results showed that our system can provide both functional and structural information about the cornea and measure the RI of multi-layered tissues.

  20. Coherent control of refractive index in far-detuned {Lambda} systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Chris; Anisimov, Petr M.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2011-12-15

    Enhancement and control of the index of refraction in a mixture of two three-level atomic species that form a pair of far-detuned {Lambda} schemes under two-photon resonance has been studied. We employ the density-matrix approach to properly take population relaxation into account and to describe the interaction of each {Lambda} system with the electromagnetic fields. Both {Lambda} systems are driven by a corresponding far-detuned coherent field at one atomic transition and are probed by the same weak field. In the dressed-state basis, it represents a superposition of effective two-level subsystems with the positions, widths, and amplitudes of the resonances controlled by the driving fields and allows for efficient control of the susceptibility of the total system; leading to refractive index (RI) enhancement with vanishing absorption in the absence of amplification. We analyze the experimental implementation of such a system in a cell of Rb atoms with a natural abundance of isotopes. An upper limit estimate of the RI enhancement is obtained.

  1. Surface Plasmon Scattering in Exposed Core Optical Fiber for Enhanced Resolution Refractive Index Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M.

    2015-01-01

    Refractometric sensors based on optical excitation of surface plasmons on the side of an optical fiber is an established sensing architecture that has enabled laboratory demonstrations of cost effective portable devices for biological and chemical applications. Here we report a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) configuration realized in an Exposed Core Microstructured Optical Fiber (ECF) capable of optimizing both sensitivity and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabrication of a rough metal coating suitable for spectral interrogation of scattered plasmonic wave using chemical electroless plating technique on a 10 ?m diameter exposed core of the ECF. Performance of the sensor in terms of its refractive index sensitivity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of SPR response is compared to that achieved with an unstructured bare core fiber with 140 ?m core diameter. The experimental improvement in FWHM, and therefore the detection limit, is found to be a factor of two (75 nm for ECF in comparison to 150 nm for the large core fiber). Refractive index sensitivity of 1800 nm/RIU was achieved for both fibers in the sensing range of aqueous environment (1.33–1.37) suitable for biosensing applications. PMID:26426022

  2. Extraction of light trapped due to total internal reflection using porous high refractive index nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peng; Sun, Fangfang; Yao, Hanchao; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Bo; Xie, Bo; Han, Min; Wang, Guanghou

    2014-07-21

    TiO? nanoparticle layers composed of columnar TiO? nanoparticle piles separated with nanoscale pores were fabricated on the bottom surface of the hemispherical glass prism by performing gas phase cluster beam deposition at glancing incidence. The porosity as well as the refractive index of the nanoparticle layer was precisely tuned by the incident angle. Effective extraction of the light trapped in the substrate due to total internal reflection with the TiO? nanoparticle layers was demonstrated and the extraction efficiency was found to increase with the porosity. An enhanced Rayleigh scattering mechanism, which results from the columnar aggregation of the nanoparticles as well as the strong contrast in the refractive index between pores and TiO? nanoparticles in the nanoporous structures, was proposed. The porous TiO? nanoparticle coatings were fabricated on the surface of GaN LEDs to enhance their light output. A nearly 92% PL enhancement as well as a 30% EL enhancement was observed. For LED applications, the enhanced light extraction with the TiO? nanoparticle porous layers can be a supplement to the microscale texturing process for light extraction enhancement. PMID:24927071

  3. PIV Measurements of Turbulent Flow Over a Permeable Wall using a Refractive-Index Matching Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Blois, G.; Best, J. L.; Christensen, K. T.

    2013-11-01

    Turbulent flows over permeable walls occur in a variety of natural environments and engineering applications. Unlike classical and widely-studied flows over impermeable walls, the peculiar dynamics of flow generated by permeable walls are poorly understood. Early studies suggest that the well-known higher energy dissipation induced by permeability (as compared to impermeable walls with similar roughness) can be explained by unveiling the flow interactions within the transition layer that forms at the interface between the overlying flow and the permeable wall. To overcome the challenges associated with quantifying the flow character both above and within a permeable wall, a Refractive-Index-Matching (RIM) approach was employed. Doing so facilitated optical access to the fluid flowing through the permeable wall, thus yielding direct PIV pore-space flow measurements within the transition layer. The permeable wall was formed by packing acrylic spheres in a cubic arrangement and was then immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium iodide at a concentration and temperature that ensured accurate refractive index match with the wall. Measurements were focused on the flow across the wall interface and the turbulent attributes of these surface-subsurface interactions were detailed.

  4. Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal waveguide platform for refractive index sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Hemant Sankar; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Pal, Suchandan

    2014-01-01

    A photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platform based on ring-shaped holes in a silicon-on-insulator substrate is proposed in order to realize a refractive index sensor with an improved sensitivity. The three-dimensional finite-difference time domain method is used to analyze the proposed design. The sensitivity is estimated by measuring the shift in the upper band-edge of the output transmission spectrum. Sensitivity analysis of a conventionally designed PhC waveguide, followed by modification of the structure, has been carried out for improving the sensitivity by introducing a row of holes that forms the line defect. Further improvement in sensitivity is obtained by replacing the defect row of holes by ring-shaped holes, which shows a significantly high sensitivity along with considerable output signal strength. The optimized design shows a wavelength shift of 210 nm for a change in ambient refractive index from air (RI=1) to xylene (RI=1.5), corresponding to an average sensitivity of 420 nm/RIU.

  5. Waveguides and nonlinear index of refraction of borate glass doped with transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Fonseca, Ruben D.; De Boni, Leonardo; Diniz, Andre Rosa S.; Hernandes, Antonio C.; Ferreira, Paulo H. D.; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to write 3D waveguides by femtosecond laser micromachining and the nonlinear refractive index (n2) spectrum of a new borate glass matrix, containing zinc and lead oxides - (BZP) have been investigated. The transparent matrix was doped with transition metals (CdCl2, Fe2O3, MnO2 and CoO) in order to introduce electronic transitions in visible spectrum, aiming to evaluate their influence on the waveguides and n2 spectrum. We observed that n2 is approximately constant from 600 to 1500 nm, exhibiting an average value of 4.5 × 10-20 m2/W, which is about twice larger than the one for fused silica. The waveguide profile is influenced by the self-focusing effect of the matrix owing to its positive nonlinear index of refraction in the wavelength used for micromachining. A decrease in the waveguide loss of approximately four times was observed for the sample doped with Fe in comparison to the other ones, which may be associated with the change in the optical gap energy.

  6. Vacuum energy and the spacetime index of refraction: A new synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri-Zonoz, M.; Nazari, B.

    2010-08-01

    In 1+3 (threading) formulation of general relativity spacetime behaves analogous to a medium with a specific index of refraction with respect to the light propagation. Accepting the reality of zero-point energy, through the equivalence principle, we elevate this analogy to the case of virtual photon propagation in a quantum vacuum in a curved background spacetime. Employing this new idea (conjecture) one could examine the response of vacuum energy to the presence of a weak stationary gravitational field in its different quantum field theoretic manifestations such as Casimir effect and Lamb shift. As an evidence in favor of the proposed conjecture, employing quantum field theory in curved spacetime, we explicitly calculate the effect of a weak static gravitational field on virtual massless scalar particles in a Casimir apparatus. It is shown that, as expected from the proposed conjecture, both the frequency and renormalized energy of the virtual scalar field are affected by the gravitational field through its index of refraction. Generalizations to weak stationary spacetimes and virtual photons are also discussed.

  7. Effective group index of refraction in non-thermal plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, A.; Sadegzadeh, S.

    2015-11-01

    Plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) are periodic arrays that consist of alternate layers of micro-plasma and dielectric. These structures are used to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. This paper presents a survey of research on the effect of non-thermal plasma with bi-Maxwellian distribution function on one dimensional PPC. A plasma with temperature anisotropy is not in thermodynamic equilibrium and can be described by the bi-Maxwellian distribution function. By using Kronig-Penny's model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes in one dimensional non-thermal PPC (NPPC) is derived. The band structure, group velocity vg, and effective group index of refraction neff(g) of such NPPC structure with TeO2 as the material of dielectric layers have been studied. The concept of negative group velocity and negative neff(g), which indicates an anomalous behaviour of the PPCs, are also observed in the NPPC structures. Our numerical results provide confirmatory evidence that unlike PPCs there are finite group velocity and non-zero effective group indexes of refraction in photonic band gaps (PBGs) that lie in certain ranges of normalized frequency. In other words, inside the PBGs of NPPCs, neff(g) becomes non-zero and photons travel with a finite group velocity. In this special case, this velocity varies alternately between 20c and negative values of the order 103c (c is the speed of light in vacuum).

  8. Vacuum energy and the spacetime index of refraction: A new synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri-Zonoz, M.; Nazari, B.

    2010-08-15

    In 1+3 (threading) formulation of general relativity spacetime behaves analogous to a medium with a specific index of refraction with respect to the light propagation. Accepting the reality of zero-point energy, through the equivalence principle, we elevate this analogy to the case of virtual photon propagation in a quantum vacuum in a curved background spacetime. Employing this new idea (conjecture) one could examine the response of vacuum energy to the presence of a weak stationary gravitational field in its different quantum field theoretic manifestations such as Casimir effect and Lamb shift. As an evidence in favor of the proposed conjecture, employing quantum field theory in curved spacetime, we explicitly calculate the effect of a weak static gravitational field on virtual massless scalar particles in a Casimir apparatus. It is shown that, as expected from the proposed conjecture, both the frequency and renormalized energy of the virtual scalar field are affected by the gravitational field through its index of refraction. Generalizations to weak stationary spacetimes and virtual photons are also discussed.

  9. CMOS image sensor-based immunodetection by refractive-index change.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-01-01

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is an intriguing technology for the development of a novel biosensor. Indeed, the CMOS image sensor mechanism concerning the detection of the antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) interaction at the nanoscale has been ambiguous so far. To understand the mechanism, more extensive research has been necessary to achieve point-of-care diagnostic devices. This research has demonstrated a CMOS image sensor-based analysis of cardiovascular disease markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin I, Ag-Ab interactions on indium nanoparticle (InNP) substrates by simple photon count variation. The developed sensor is feasible to detect proteins even at a fg/mL concentration under ordinary room light. Possible mechanisms, such as dielectric constant and refractive-index changes, have been studied and proposed. A dramatic change in the refractive index after protein adsorption on an InNP substrate was observed to be a predominant factor involved in CMOS image sensor-based immunoassay. PMID:22975915

  10. Method of time resolved refractive index measurements of x-ray laser heated solids

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. O.; Kuenzel, S.; Fajardo, M.; Vinko, S. M.; Sardinha, A. B.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2013-04-15

    With the advent of new x-ray light-sources worldwide, the creation of dense, uniformly heated plasma states arising from intense x-ray irradiation of solids has been made possible. In the early stages of x-ray solid heating, before significant hydrodynamic motion occurs, the matter exists in a highly non-equilibrium state. A method based on wavefront sensing is proposed to probe some of the fundamental properties of these states. The deflection and absorption of a high harmonic probe beam propagated through the plasma can be measured with a wavefront sensor, and allow for the determination of the complex refractive index (RI) of the plasma, giving a 2D map of the optical properties as function of time in a pump-probe arrangement. A solid heating model has been used to estimate the expected temperatures of x-ray heated thin foils, and these temperatures are used in three separate models to estimate the changes in the refractive index. The calculations show the changes induced on an extreme ultra-violet (XUV) probe beam by a solid density thin foil plasma are significant, in terms of deflection angle and absorption, to be measured by already existing XUV Hartmann wavefront sensors. The method is applicable to a wide range of photon energies in the XUV (10 s to several 100 s of eV) and plasma parameters, and can add much needed experimental data to the fundamental properties of such dense plasma states.

  11. Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 ?m thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

  12. Optimization of long-period grating-based refractive index sensor by bent-fiber interference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpu; Xie, Lingxiao; Zhang, Yang; Peng, Wei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to enhance the refractive index (RI) sensitivity and eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity of a long-period grating (LPG) -based refractive index sensor by bent-fiber interference. The approach is based on a hybrid structure composed of an LPG and a bent-fiber intermodal interferometer. The bent-fiber intermodal interferometer has a simple structure, which consists of a bare fiber semi-circular bending region with a 5 mm bending radius. As the RI increases, the resonance wavelength of the LPG moves toward a shorter wavelength, while the resonance wavelength of the bent-fiber intermodal interferometer shifts to a longer wavelength. The separation of two resonance dips increases with the RI; using two resonance dips allows us to measure an RI with a higher sensitivity than if we had only used one resonance dip. However, as the temperature increases, the separation of the two resonance dips is constant. This approach can effectively enhance the RI sensitivity and eliminate temperature cross-sensitivity. PMID:26560567

  13. Index of refraction and its temperature dependence of calcium fluoride near 157 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, John H.; Gupta, Rajeev; Griesmann, Ulf; Jou, Ted E.

    1999-07-01

    We have made accurate measurement near 157 nm of the relative index of refraction, its dispersion, and its temperature dependence for two grades of calcium fluoride in N2 gas. Accurate measurements of these quantities are needed for the design of lens system for 157 nm F2 excimer-laser-based exposure tools for photolithography. These optical properties were measured with precision goniometer on prisms of the materials in a N2 atmosphere using the minimum deviation method. The dispersion was determined using line emission radiation from a deuterium lamp at several wavelengths near 157 nm. Values of the relative refractive index for two grades of calcium fluoride in N2 gas corrected to a temperature of 20 degrees C and a pressure of one standard atmosphere are well within our 7 ppm estimated uncertainty forth measurements. The temperature of the samples and the surrounding medium were controlled to 0.05 degrees C, which enabled accurate measurements of the temperature dependencies of the indices around room temperature near 157 nm.

  14. Liposomes with High Refractive Index Encapsulants as Tunable Signal Amplification Tools in Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Christoph; Hirsch, Thomas; Baeumner, Antje J

    2015-11-01

    One major goal in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is the reliable detection of small molecules as well as low analyte concentrations. This can be achieved by a viable signal amplification strategy. We therefore investigated optimal liposome characteristics for use as a signal enhancement system for SPR sensors, as liposomes excel not only at versatility but also at colloidal stability and ease of functionalization. These characteristics include the encapsulation of high refractive index markers, lipid composition, liposome size, and surface modifications to best match the requirements of the SPR system. Our studies of the binding of biotinylated liposomes to surface-immobilized streptavidin show that the refractive index of the encapsulant has a major influence on the SPR signal and outweighs the influence of the thin lipid bilayer. Thus, the signal amplification properties of liposomes can be adjusted to the respective needs of any analytical task by simply exchanging the encapsulant solution. In this work, a maximum enhancement factor of 23 was achieved by encapsulating a 500 mM sucrose solution. Dose-response studies with and without liposome enhancement revealed an improvement of the limit of detection from 10 nmol L(-1) to 320 pmol L(-1) streptavidin concentration with a much higher sensitivity of 3 mRIU per logarithmic unit of the concentration between 500 pmol L(-1) and 10 nmol L(-1). PMID:26455696

  15. High refractive index immersion liquid for super-resolution 3D imaging using sapphire-based aNAIL optics

    E-print Network

    Laskar, Junaid M; Herminghaus, Stephan; Daniels, Karen E; Schröter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Optically-transparent immersion liquids with refractive index (n ~ 1.77) to match sapphire-based aplanatic numerical aperture increasing lens (aNAIL) are necessary for achieving deep 3D imaging with high spatial resolution. We report that antimony tribromide (SbBr$_{3}$) salt dissolved in liquid diiodomethane (CH$_{2}$I$_{2}$) provides a new high refractive index immersion liquid for optics applications. The refractive index is tunable from n = 1.74 (pure) to n = 1.873 (saturated), by adjusting either salt concentration or temperature; this allows it to match (or even exceed) the refractive index of sapphire. Importantly, the solution gives excellent light transmittance in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range, an improvement over commercially-available immersion liquids. This refractive index matched immersion liquid formulation has enabled us to develop a sapphire-based aNAIL objective that has both high numerical aperture (NA = 1.17) and long working distance (WD = 12 mm). This opens up new possibilities ...

  16. Structure variation of the index of refraction of GaAs-AlAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahen, K. B.; Leburton, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the index refraction of various GaAs-AlAs superlattices is presented for the first time. The calculation is performed by using a hybrid approach which combines the k-p method with the pseudopotential technique. Appropriate quantization conditions account for the influence of the superstructures on the electronic properties of the systems. The results of the model are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In comparison with the index of refraction of the corresponding AlGaAs alloy, characterized by the same average mole fraction of Al, the results indicate that the superlattice index of refraction values attain maxima at the various quantized transition energies. For certain structures the difference can be as large as 2 percent. These results suggest that the waveguiding and dispersion relation properties of optoelectronic devices can be tailored to design for specific optical application by an appropriate choice of the superlattice structure parameters.

  17. Index of refraction of GaAs-Al(x)Ga(1-x)As superlattices and multiple quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahen, K. B.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study of the index of refraction of superlattices and its variation as a function of frequency and the superlattice parameters, i.e., layer width and AlAs composition, is presented. Gamma-region exciton and valence-band mixing effects are included in the model. It is found that these two effects have an important influence on the value of the index of refraction and that superstructure effects rapidly decrease for energies greater than the superlattice potential barriers. Because of the quasi-two-dimensional character of the Gamma-region excitons, the results indicate that the superlattice index of refraction can vary by about two percent at the quantized, bound-exciton, transition energies. Overall, the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Effect of surface plasmon polaritons on the sensitivity of refractive index measurement using total internal reflection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan Entezar, S.

    2015-05-01

    The phase difference between two p-polarized and s-polarized plane waves which are reflected under total internal reflection from the base of a prism with a thin metal coating is studied. Typically such a quantity can be used to measure the refractive index of a test material using the total internal reflection method. It is shown that due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the interface between the tested dielectric material and the thin metal layer, the p-polarized light experiences a large phase shift which enlarges the phase difference between the p-polarized and the s-polarized waves. As a result, the sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases and the error in determining the refractive index decreases.

  19. Lifetime Reduction and Enhanced Emission of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W M; Karle, Timothy J; Gibson, Brant C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and emission properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the reduction of the lifetime of NV(-) centers, and hence an increase in the emission rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% reduction in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the emission rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media. PMID:26109500

  20. Experimental analysis of distributed pump absorption and refractive index changes in Yb-doped fibers using acousto-optic interaction.

    PubMed

    Alcusa-Sáez, E P; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2015-03-01

    In-fiber acousto-optic interaction is used to characterize the refractive index changes at the C band in a single-mode ytterbium-doped optical fiber under 980 nm pumping. The transmission notch created by the acoustic-induced coupling between the core mode and a cladding mode shifts to longer wavelengths when the pump is delivered to the fiber. The electronic contribution to the refractive index change is quantified from the wavelength shift. Using a time-resolved acousto-optic method, we investigate the distribution of pump absorption, and the resulting refractive index change profile, along sections of ytterbium-doped fiber exceeding 1 m long under different pump power levels. PMID:25723408

  1. Lifetime Reduction and Enhanced Emission of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W.M.; Karle, Timothy J.; Gibson, Brant C.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and emission properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the reduction of the lifetime of NV? centers, and hence an increase in the emission rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% reduction in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the emission rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media. PMID:26109500

  2. Negative refractive index of metallic cross-I-shaped pairs: origin and evolution with pair gap width.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y G; Wang, X C; Ong, C K

    2008-07-01

    A structured composite of the negative index of refraction was fabricated by one layer of cross-I-shaped metal pairs. In this structure, the electric and magnetic inclusions were effectively integrated into one small unit. We varied the spacing of the cross pair to control the location of the magnetic resonance mode and their intercoupling with the electric mode. The frequency dependences of permittivity, permeability, and refractive indices with different gap widths of the pairs were systematically discussed by free-space measurement as well as numerical simulation. A spacing window dependent on the geometrical parameters was found in which the real part of the refractive index could have a negative value. The one-layer cross-pair pattern proposed in this work can be extended to three-dimensional structures with well-controlled interlayer coupling that will greatly facilitate the fabrication and measurement of negative-index materials in high frequencies. PMID:18764072

  3. On-chip integrated differential optical microring refractive index sensing platform based on a laminar flow scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwan; Popescu, Paula; Harfouche, Mark; Sendowski, Jacob; Dimotsantou, Maria-Eleni; Flagan, Richard C; Yariv, Amnon

    2015-09-01

    We propose an on-chip integrated differential optical microring refractive index sensing platform which leverages laminar flow conditions. Close spacing between a sensing and a reference resonator, and sharing the same microfluidic channel allows the two resonators to experience similar environmental disturbances, such as temperature fluctuations and fluidic-induced transients, achieving reliable and sensitive sensing performance. We obtain a noise floor of 80.0 MHz (0.3 pm) and a bulk refractive index sensitivity of 17.0 THz per refractive index unit (RIU) (64.2 nm/RIU), achieving a limit of detection of 1.4×10-5 RIU in a 30 min and an 8°C window. PMID:26368723

  4. A CCD based approach to high-precision size and refractive index determination of levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M. D.; Lermer, N.; Whitten, W. B.; Ramsey, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    We describe a fast and convenient method of high precision size and refractive index determination of electrodynamically levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction. The diffraction data were obtained with a 16-bit, unintensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and converted into angle-resolved elastic scattering intensity patterns by means of a carefully determined set of transformation parameters. The angular scattering patterns were analyzed without any a priori estimate of the droplet size and only a nominal estimate (?2%) of the refractive index. Experimental angular scattering patterns were fit to calculated patterns from Mie theory using a graded step-size and scaling algorithm and optimized with respect to both droplet diameter and refractive index (real part only) with a precision of ?3 parts in 104 and 1 part in 103, respectively. Potential application to quantitative fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, as well as mixture analysis in microdroplets is discussed.

  5. Fiber Optic Sensor for the Measurement of Concentration and Refractive Index of Liquids Based on Intensity Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, A. L.; Shaligram, A. D.

    This paper reports the use of fiber optic sensor consists of two-fiber probe and reflector for the measurement of concentration and refractive index of liquids based on the reflective intensity modulation. Conventionally such a sensor is used for measuring micro-displacement of fiber tip with reference to the reflector. In one of the previously reported work we have established that if the separation between fiber tips and reflector is maintained constant the same arrangement can be directly used for sensing refractive index changes of medium. The liquid under test fills the gap between probe and reflector. Depending upon the refractive index of liquid, angle of emittance will change which will decide the received output power by receiving fiber. Apart from pure solvents which have different refractive indices, there are mixtures of various types which also alter the refractive index of a given medium. The developed sensor is used to detect the concentration of the alcohols like methanol & ethylene glycol in mixture with water.

  6. Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti{sup 3+}:Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolopoulos, V.; Laversenne, L.; Colomb, T.; Depeursinge, C.; Salathe, R.P.; Pollnau, M.; Osellame, R.; Cerullo, G.; Laporta, P.

    2004-08-16

    We have employed femtosecond laser writing in order to induce refractive-index changes and waveguides in Ti{sup 3+}-doped sapphire. Doping the sapphire crystal with an appropriate ion significantly reduces the threshold for creating structural changes, thus enabling the writing of waveguide structures. Passive and active buried channel waveguiding is demonstrated and images of the guided modes, propagation-loss values, fluorescence spectra, and output efficiencies are presented. The guiding area is located around the laser-damaged region, indicating that the guiding effect is stress induced. Refractive-index changes are measured by digital holography. Proper active doping should enable femtosecond processing and waveguide writing in various crystalline materials.

  7. Mechanisms of the refractive index change in femtosecond laser-irradiated Au{sup 3+}-doped silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Quanzhong; Qiu Jianrong; Jiang Xiongwei; Zhao Chongjun; Zhu Congshan

    2004-12-15

    We report on the refractive index change in Au{sup 3+}-doped silicate glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser and successive heat treatment. The refractive index of the irradiated area increased after the femtosecond laser irradiation and decreased with increasing annealing temperature up to 450 deg. C and then increased again with increasing annealing temperature. Absorption spectra of the glass samples before and after femtosecond laser irradiation and after further annealing manifested the formation of color centers after laser irradiation, disappearance of color centers after annealing at 300 deg. C, and precipitation of gold nanoparticles after annealing at high temperature. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  8. Study of the Composition and Spectral Characteristics of a HDG-Prism Disperse System (GRISM) by Refractive Index Phase Matching

    E-print Network

    Jo, Chon-Gyu; Im, Song-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The composition and characteristics of a GRISM gained by refractive index matching between a refractive index modulation type HDG and a prism is investigated, the HDG being built by processing silver halide emulsion with halide vapor. The GRISM has been stable under external influences like humidity or ultraviolet light exposure. The mercury atomic spectrum obtained by a GRISM based on a HDG with a spatial frequency of 600mm-1 shows yellow dual lines with the wavelength difference of 2.1nm sufficiently separated.

  9. Oscillation of the refractive index at the focal region of a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakura, Masaaki; Terazima, Masahide

    2004-07-01

    The temporal evolution of refractive-index change produced by a tightly focused femtosecond (fs) laser pulse inside a soda-lime glass plate was investigated by use of a transient lens method with subpicosecond time resolution. An oscillating behavior of the light intensity in the central region of the probe beam was observed 0-1500 ps after irradiation of the plate. The oscillation was interpreted in terms of a rapid temperature increase and the ensuing propagation of the pressure wave. This study is to our knowledge the first real-time observation of refractive-index change inside a glass induced by a fs laser pulse.

  10. Analysis on the variation of Ar and He plasma refractive index with temperature in CO2 laser beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhe; Zhang, Fengming; Yang, Decai

    1998-08-01

    According to the quasi-neutrality equation, the law of partial pressure, pressure equation, Saha equation and the principle of superposition on plasma refractive index, the Ar, He plasma's electron density, atom density, ion density and the variation of refractive index with changing of temperature are calculated when the pressure is 1,3,5,7 atm. respectively. Moreover it is analyzed that Ar, He plasma act on CO2 laser beam welding from the point of view that plasma and laser affect each other.

  11. Combined Use of Satellite and Surface Observations to Infer the Imaginary Part of Refractive Index of Saharan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinyuk, Alexander; Torres, Omar; Dubovik, Oleg; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for retrieval of the imaginary part of refractive index of desert dust aerosol in the near UV part of spectrum. The method uses Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of the top of the atmosphere radiances at 331 and 360 run and aerosol optical depth provided by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Obtained values of imaginary part of refractive index retrieved for Saharan dust aerosol at 360 nm are significantly lower than previously reported values. The average retrieved values vary between 0.0054 and 0.0066 for different geographical locations. Our findings are in good agreement with the results of several recent investigations.

  12. Superlensing effect for surface acoustic waves in a pillar-based phononic crystal with negative refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to ?1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (?)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.

  13. Refractive index engineering by fast ion implantations: a generic method for constructing multi-components electro-optical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranat, Aharon J.; Gumennik, Alexander; Ilan, Harel

    2010-02-01

    Refractive index engineering (RI_Eng) by ion implantations is a generic methodology for constructing multi-component integrated circuits of electrooptic and nanophotonic devices with sub-wavelength features operating in the visible - near IR wavelengths. The essence of the method is to perform spatially selective implantations for sculpting complex 3D pre-designed amorphized patterns with sub-wavelength features and reduced refractive index within the volume of the substrate. A number of devices that were constructed in a substrate of potassium lithium tantalate niobate are described, including a submerged slab waveguide, an optical wire and a channel waveguide array.

  14. Variation of refractive index in strained In(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, U.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs heterostructures and strained-layer superlattices can be used as optical waveguides. For such applications it is important to know explicitly the refractive index variation with mismatch strain and with alloying in the ternary layer. Starting from the Kramers-Kronig integral dispersion relations, a model has been developed from which the refractive index change in the ternary layer of In(x)Ga(1-x)As-GaAs heterojunctions can be calculated. The results are presented and discussed. The expected changes in a superlattice have been qualitatively predicted.

  15. Measuring the refractive index around intersubband transition resonance in GaN/AlN multi quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elad; Nevet, Amir; Pesach, Asaf; Monroy, Eva; Schacham, Shmuel E; Orenstein, Meir; Segev, Mordechai; Bahir, Gad

    2013-02-11

    We present the direct measurement of the refractive index distribution (spectral dispersion) arising from an intersubband transition in GaN/AlN multi quantum wells structure. The measurement is carried out through a novel interferometric technique. The measured interferogram yields a change in the refractive index varying from -5 × 10(-3) to 6 × 10(-3) as a function of the wavelength, introduced by the intersubband resonance at 1.5 µm. These results compare well with those derived using Kramers-Kronig transform of the measured absorption spectrum. PMID:23481836

  16. Refractive index measurement of turbid media by transmission of backscattered light near the critical angle.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Tello, H; García-Valenzuela, A

    2014-07-20

    We investigate experimentally the determination of the effective refractive index (RI) of a turbid particle suspension from the angle dependence of light scattered by the particles and then transmitted into a transparent prism of higher RI. We assembled a versatile experimental device that may be recognized as an Abbe-type refractometer in which the sample is illuminated from the prism side and use it to measure the intensity profile of diffuse light refracted into the prism around the critical angle. By fitting a recently proposed theoretical model we extract the complex RI of turbid suspensions of particles from the measured intensity profiles. We show that the real part of the effective RI is readily obtained with good precision regardless of how the sample is illuminated, whereas obtaining the imaginary part is done with less precision but nevertheless useful measurements can be obtained. The effective RI obtained with this method compares very well with the so-called van de Hulst effective RI and the one derived from Keller's model of the effective propagation constant. PMID:25090216

  17. Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE 2 and NMC temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; Wang, P.-H.; Chiou, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor concentrations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and collocated temperatures provided by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) from 1986 to 1990 are used to deduce seasonally and zonally averaged acidity, density, and refractive index of stratospheric aerosols. It is found that the weight percentage of sulfuric acid in the aerosols increases from about 60 just above the tropopause to about 86 at 35 km. The density increases from about 1.55 to 1.85 g/cu cm between the same altitude limits. Some seasonal variations of composition and density are evident at high latitudes. The refractive indices at 1.02, 0.694, and 0.532 micrometers increase, respectively, from about 1.425, 1.430, and 1.435 just above the tropopause to about 1.445, 1.455, and 1.458 at altitudes above 27 km, depending on the season and latitude. The aerosol properties presented can be used in models to study the effectiveness of heterogeneous chemistry, the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols, and the extinction and backscatter of aerosols at different wavelengths. Computed aerosol surface areas, rate coefficients for the heterogeneous reaction ClONO2 + H2O yields HOCl + HNO3 and aerosol mass concentrations before and after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 are shown as sample applications.

  18. Press-patterned diffraction gratings on high refractive index polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Ramil L.; Rich, Rebecca; Shih, Wu-Sheng; Senapati, Udayan; Holmes, Doug

    2005-03-01

    Press-patterning of polymers to yield optical structures is being pursued in optics and photonics to yield low-cost optical components. This is a promising technology for the low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of polymeric photonic components. The processing of such imprinted photonic components is usually done using a metallic shim where a pattern is generated on the shim by electroforming or electroplating. The shims are then used to replicate patterns on plastics and polymers under high temperatures and pressures. Under the correct conditions, the polymer flows and replicates a diffraction grating. Polymeric diffraction gratings and holograms have applications in a multitude of photonic applications for diffractive optics. This requires materials that are transparent in the visible region, and preferably have relatively high refractive indices in order to achieve a high diffraction efficiency. In addition, in order to facilitate processing by the press-patterning method that will be further described in this paper, polymeric materials that are amenable to spin-coating and show good thermoplastic behavior are also desired. Optically transparent, high-refractive index polyimides were tested for their ability to be processed and patterned using a press-patterning method. A process that allowed the materials to be patterned were developed, and measurements were taken to validate the results. Our initial results showed successful press-patterned polyimide films with grating structures having submicron line and trench widths and step heights of less than 0.5 microns.

  19. Low-repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides in KTP crystals: analysis of anisotropic refractive index changes.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Ali; Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Romero, Carolina; Moreno, Pablo; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Aguiló, Magdalena; Solé, Rosa Maria; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2015-06-15

    We report on the direct low-repetition rate femtosecond pulse laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in KTP crystals and the characterization of refractive index changes after the thermal annealing of the sample, with the focus on studying the potential for direct laser fabricating Mach-Zehnder optical modulators. We have fabricated square cladding waveguides by means of stacking damage tracks, and found that the refractive index decrease is large for vertically polarized light (c-axis; TM polarized) but rather weak for horizontally polarized light (a-axis; TE polarized), this leading to good near-infrared light confinement for TM modes but poor for TE modes. However, after performing a sample thermal annealing we have found that the thermal process enables a refractive index increment of around 1.5x10(-3) for TE polarized light, while maintaining the negative index change of around -1x10(-2) for TM polarized light. In order to evaluate the local refractive index changes we have followed a multistep procedure: We have first characterized the waveguide cross-sections by means of Raman micro-mapping to access the lattice micro-modifications and their spatial extent. Secondly we have modeled the waveguides following the modified region sizes obtained by micro-Raman with finite element method software to obtain a best match between the experimental propagation modes and the simulated ones. Furthermore we also report the fabrication of Mach-Zehnder structures and the evaluation of propagation losses. PMID:26193514

  20. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  1. Tailoring the index of refraction of nanocrystalline hafnium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Mirella; Murphy, N. R.; Ramana, C. V.

    2014-03-10

    Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films were grown by sputter-deposition by varying the growth temperature (T{sub s}?=?25–700?°C). HfO{sub 2} films grown at T{sub s}?index of refraction (n) profiles derived from spectroscopic ellipsometry analyses follow the Cauchy dispersion relation. Lorentz-Lorenz analysis (n{sub (?)}?=?550?nm) and optical-model adopted agree well with the XRR data/analyses. A direct T{sub s}-?-n relationship suggests that tailoring the optical quality is possible by tuning T{sub s} and the microstructure of HfO{sub 2} films.

  2. Proposal for a broadband THz refractive-index sensor based on quantum-cascade laser arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Khanal, Sudeep; Wu, Chongzhao; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-02-23

    Many molecules have strong and characteristic rotational and vibrational transitions at terahertz (THz) frequencies, which makes this frequency range unique for applications in spectroscopic sensing of chemical and biological species. Here, we propose a broadband THz sensor based on arrays of single-mode QCLs, which could be utilized for sensing of the refractive-index of solids or liquids in reflection geometry. The proposed scheme does not require expensive THz detectors and consists of no movable parts. A recently developed antenna-feedback geometry is utilized to enhance optical coupling between two single-mode QCLs, which facilitates optical downconversion of the THz frequency signal to microwave regime. Arrays of THz QCLs emitting at discrete frequencies could be utilized to provide more than 2 THz of spectral coverage to realize a broadband, low-cost, and portable THz sensor. PMID:25836511

  3. Demonstration of complex refractive index of graphene waveguide by microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baicheng; Wu, Yu; Wang, Zegao; Cheng, Yang; Rao, Yunjiang; Gong, Yuan; Chen, Yuanfu; Li, Yanrong

    2013-12-01

    The complex refractive index (CRI) of graphene waveguide (GW) is of great importance for modeling and developing graphene-based photonic or optoelectronic devices. In this paper, the CRI of the GW is investigated theoretically and experimentally, it is found that the CRI of the GW will modulate the intensity and phase of transmitting light. The phase alterations are obtained spectrally by a Microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MMZI), experimental results demonstrate that the CRIs of the GW vary from 2.91-i13.92 to 3.81-i14.64 for transmitting wavelengths ranging from 1510 to 1590 nm. This method cannot only be used to determine the CRI of the GW optically and provide one of the fundamental parameters for designing graphene-based optic devices for communication and sensing applications, but also is adoptable in graphene-based transformation optics for determination of the CRI of the GW at other wavelengths. PMID:24514531

  4. Domain reversal properties and refractive index changes of magnesium doped lithium niobate upon ion exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Jentjens, L.; Hattermann, H.; Peithmann, K.; Haaks, M.; Maier, K.; Koesters, M.

    2008-02-01

    Irradiation of optical damage resistant, magnesium doped lithium niobate crystals with fast, high-energy {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions changes important material properties. In the interaction region, where the ions transmit through the material, the ferroelectric coercive field E{sub C} is diminished from 6.0 kV mm{sup -1} down to 5.0-5.4 kV mm{sup -1} after transmission of 41 MeV {sup 3}He{sup 2+} particles. This enables easier domain reversal in irradiated crystals compared to untreated material. Besides, large changes of the refractive index of the crystals on the order of 6x10{sup -3} are induced by the treatment. Moderate annealing treatments do not diminish {delta}n, but refresh the coercive field.

  5. Water-Soluble Gold Nanoparticles: From Catalytic Selective Nitroarene Reduction in Water to Refractive Index Sensing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wusheng; Pleixats, Roser; Shafir, Alexandr

    2015-11-01

    Water-soluble gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) stabilized by a nitrogen-rich poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-tagged substrate have been prepared by reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 in water at room temperature. The morphology and size of the nanoparticles can be controlled by simply varying the gold/stabilizer ratio. The nanoparticles have been fully characterized by TEM, high-resolution (HR) TEM, electron diffraction (ED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV/Vis, powder XRD, and elemental analysis. The material is efficient as a recyclable catalyst for the selective reduction of nitroarenes with NaBH4 to yield the corresponding anilines in water at room temperature. Furthermore, the potential ability of the Au NPs as a refractive index sensor owing to their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect has also been assessed. PMID:26241218

  6. Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, L. Carlie, N.; Humeau, A.; Boudebs, G.; Jain, H.; Miller, A.C.; Richardson, K.

    2007-12-04

    The nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) of new germanium-based sulfo-selenide glasses has been measured at 1064 nm using Z-scan technique, with picosecond pulses emitted by a 10 Hz Q-switched mode-locked Nd:Yag laser. We have determined the impact of the progressive replacement of S by Se on the nonlinear properties of these glasses. The value of n{sub 2} strongly increases with the substitution of S by Se, up to 350 times the n{sub 2} for fused silica. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the increase of Ge-Se bond units in the glass network is responsible for the increase of n{sub 2}. The suitability of these glasses for optical switching at telecommunication wavelengths based on such nonlinear properties has been also confirmed.

  7. Casimir effect in a weak gravitational field and the spacetime index of refraction

    E-print Network

    B. Nazari; M. Nouri-Zonoz

    2010-10-07

    In a recent paper [arXiv:0904.2904] using a conjecture it is shown how one can calculate the effect of a weak stationary gravitational field on vacuum energy in the context of Casimir effect in an external gravitational field treated in 1+3 formulation of spacetime decomposition.. In this article, employing quntum field theory in curved spacetime, we explicitly calculate the effect of a weak static gravitational field on virtual massless scalar particles in a Casimir apparatus. It is shown that, as expected from the proposed conjecture, both the frequency and renormalized energy of the virtual scalar field are affected by the gravitational field through its index of refraction. This could be taken as a strong evidence in favour of the proposed conjecture. Generalizations to weak {\\it stationary} spacetimes and virtual photons are also discussed.

  8. Effect of Refractive Index Variation on Two-Wavelength Interferometry for Fluid Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    1998-01-01

    Two wavelength interferometry can in principle be used to measure changes in both temperature and concentration in a fluid, but measurement errors may be large if the fluid dispersion is small. This paper quantifies the effects of uncertainties in dn/dT and dn/dC on the measured temperature and concentration when using the simple expression dn = (dn/dT)dT + (dn/dC)dC. For the data analyzed here, ammonium chloride in water from -5 to 10(exp infinity) C over a concentration range of 2-14% and for wavelengths 514.5 and 633 nm, it is shown that the gradients must be known to within 0.015% to produce a modest 10% uncertainty in the measured temperature and concentration. These results show that real care must be taken to ensure the accuracy of refractive index gradients when using two wavelength interferometry for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration.

  9. Elliptical-core two mode fiber sensors and devices incorporating photoinduced refractive index gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Jonathan A.; Miller, Mark S.; Starr, Suzanne E.; Fogg, Brian R.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.; Vengsarkar, Ashish M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of experiments performed using germanium-doped, elliptical core, two-mode optical fibers whose sensitivity to strain was spatially varied through the use of chirped, refractive-index gratings permanently induced into the core using Argon-ion laser light are presented. This type of distributed sensor falls into the class of eighted-fiber sensors which, through a variety of means, weight the strain sensitivity of a fiber according to a specified spatial profile. We describe results of a weighted-fiber vibration mode filter which successfully enhances the particular vibration mode whose spatial profile corresponds to the profile of the grating chirp. We report on the high temperature survivability of such grating-based sensors and discuss the possibility of multiplexing more than one sensor within a single fiber.

  10. Topological insulator metamaterials with tunable negative refractive index in the optical region.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tun; Wang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    A blueshift tunable metamaterial (MM) exhibiting a double-negative refractive index based on a topological insulator (bismuth selenide, Bi2Se3) has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. The potential of Bi2Se3 as a dielectric interlayer of the multilayer MM is explored. The optical response of elliptical nanohole arrays penetrating through Au/Bi2Se3/Au films is numerically investigated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The blueshift tuning range of the MM is as high as 370 nm (from 2,140 to 1,770 nm) after switching the Bi2Se3 between its trigonal and orthorhombic states. PMID:24330596

  11. Research on the change of complex refractive index of porcine muscle during natural dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuanze; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-04-01

    The physical changes of tissue are complicated to evaluate during optical clearing (OC) treatment. Monitoring the changes of optical parameters, including the complex refractive index (CRI), helps people better understand the OC process. From the imaginary part of CRI, we can deduce the extinction coefficient of tissue. Based on the total internal reflection method, the time-dependent CRI of porcine muscle during natural dehydration is well determined. Results show that the real RI increases continuously with the increase of dehydration time, whereas the extinction coefficient initially increases and then decreases. Finally, the extinction coefficient becomes much smaller than the initial value, which demonstrates that better tissue optical clarity is obtained. The change tendency of the extinction coefficient of tissue is used to qualitatively explain the dynamic change of transmittance of a natural dehydrated tissue. Consequently, CRI, especially its imaginary part, is a very useful optical parameter by which to evaluate the OC effect.

  12. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on two cascaded microfiber knots with Vernier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhilin; Sun, Qizhen; Jia, Weihua; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on two cascaded microfiber knots with vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated by theoretical arithmetic. Deriving from high proportional evanescent field of microfiber and sharp spectrum fringes induced by vernier effect, a slight change of ambient RI will cause large variation of effective RI and significant wavelength shift of resonant peaks, indicating high sensitivity and resolution of the proposed compound resonator. Numerical analysis demonstrates a high sensitivity of 10000nm/RIU and a resolution of 5.57×10-5 RIU at the ambient RI around 1.33 for the fiber diameter of 1?m and cavity radii of R1 = 500?m, R2 = 547.62?m

  13. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on cascaded microfiber knots with Vernier effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhilin; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Borui; Luo, Yiyang; Lu, Wengao; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Lin

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a refractive index (RI) sensor based on cascaded microfiber knot resonators (CMKRs) with Vernier effect. Deriving from high proportional evanescent field of microfiber and spectrum magnification function of Vernier effect, the RI sensor shows high sensitivity as well as high detection resolution. By using the method named "Drawing-Knotting-Assembling (DKA)", a compact CMKRs is fabricated for experimental demonstration. With the assistance of Lorentz fitting algorithm on the transmission spectrum, sensitivity of 6523nm/RIU and detection resolution up to 1.533 × 10(-7)RIU are obtained in the experiment which show good agreement with the numerical simulation. The proposed all-fiber RI sensor with high sensitivity, compact size and low cost can be widely used for chemical and biological detection, as well as the electronic/magnetic field measurement. PMID:25836883

  14. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Jonghee; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  15. Determination of thickness, refractive index, and spectral scattering of an inhomogeneous thin film with rough interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pradeep, J. Anto; Agarwal, Pratima

    2010-08-15

    The magnitude of spectral transmittance and reflectance is affected by the presence of inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness. Therefore, the methods, based on the magnitude of spectral transmittance and reflectance, are not adequate for the determination of thickness and optical constants of films with inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness. The present article proposes a method for the determination of thickness and refractive index using only the positions of the interference fringes in spectral transmittance and reflectance at two different angles of incidence. The proposed method is verified through numerical simulations, which result in <1% error for the film thickness. The complete parametrical dependence of spectral transmittance and reflectance of inhomogeneous film with rough interfaces on a substrate have been worked out for the film on transparent and opaque substrates, respectively. The spectrum envelopes have been solved simultaneously and the mathematical formulae are given for the determination of spectral scattering due to inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness for both transmittance and reflectance cases.

  16. Optimizing Multiple Analyte Injections in Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors with Analytes having Different Refractive Index Increments

    PubMed Central

    Mehand, Massinissa Si; Srinivasan, Bala; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors have been successfully applied to the study of the interactions between macromolecules and small molecular weight compounds. In an effort to increase the throughput of these SPR-based experiments, we have already proposed to inject multiple compounds simultaneously over the same surface. When specifically applied to small molecular weight compounds, such a strategy would however require prior knowledge of the refractive index increment of each compound in order to correctly interpret the recorded signal. An additional experiment is typically required to obtain this information. In this manuscript, we show that through the introduction of an additional global parameter corresponding to the ratio of the saturating signals associated with each molecule, the kinetic parameters could be identified with similar confidence intervals without any other experimentation. PMID:26515024

  17. Hybrid tilted fiber grating based refractive index and liquid level sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhijun; Mou, Chengbo; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Kaimin; Wang, Hushan; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    We report a refractive index (RI) and liquid level sensing system based on a hybrid grating structure comprising of a 45° and an 81° tilted fiber gratings (TFGs) that have been inscribed into a single mode fiber in series. In this structure, the 45°-TFG is used as a polarizer to filter out the transverse electric (TE) component and enable the 81°-TFG operating at single polarization for RI and level sensing. The experiment results show a lower temperature cross-sensitivity, only about 7.33 pm/°C, and a higher RI sensitivity, being around 180 nm/RIU at RI=1.345 and 926 nm/RIU at RI=1.412 region, which are significantly improved in comparison with long period fiber gratings. The hybrid grating structure has also been applied as a liquid level sensor, showing 3.06 dB/mm linear peak ratio sensitivity.

  18. Progress Toward Development of Low-Temperature Microwave Refractive Index Gas Thermometry at NRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, P. M. C.; Hill, K. D.

    2015-03-01

    Progress toward the development of a low-temperature microwave refractive index gas thermometry implementation for primary thermometry at NRC is reported. A prototype quasi-spherical copper resonator has been integrated into a cryogenic system with a 5 K base temperature, and preliminary microwave measurements in vacuum have been completed to characterize the resonator between 5 K and 297 K. The dependence of experimental results on spectral fitting background terms, 1st- and 2nd-order shape corrections, and waveguide corrections has also been explored. The current NRC results agree with previous room-temperature measurements on the same resonator at NIST, and indicate no significant change in resonator shape between room temperature and low temperature. The temperature dependences of the resonator electrical conductivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient, as obtained from the microwave resonances, agree with published literature values for oxygen-free high-conductivity copper measured using other techniques.

  19. Correcting spherical aberrations induced by an unknown medium through determination of its refractive index and thickness.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, Daniel; Rastogi, Pramod; Hack, Erwin

    2011-09-26

    In imaging and focusing applications, spherical aberration induces axial broadening of the point spread function (PSF). A transparent medium between lens and object of interest induces spherical aberration. We propose a method that first obtains both the physical thickness and the refractive index of the aberration inducing medium in situ by measuring the induced focal shifts for paraxial and large angle rays. Then, the fourth order angle dependence of the optical path difference inside the medium is used to correct the spherical aberration using a phase-only spatial light modulator. The obtained measurement accuracy of 3% is sufficient for a complete compensation as demonstrated in a model microscope with NA 0.3 with glass plate induced axial broadening of the PSF by a factor of 5. PMID:21996881

  20. Quantitative Mass Density Image Reconstructed from the Complex X-Ray Refractive Index

    PubMed Central

    Mukaide, Taihei; Iida, Atsuo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Takada, Kazuhiro; Noma, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new analytical X-ray computed tomography technique for visualizing and quantifying the mass density of materials comprised of low atomic number elements with unknown atomic ratios. The mass density was obtained from the experimentally observed ratio of the imaginary and real parts of the complex X-ray refractive index. An empirical linear relationship between the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of the materials and X-ray energy was found for X-ray energies between 8 keV and 30 keV. The mass density image of two polymer fibers was quantified using the proposed technique using a scanning-type X-ray microbeam computed tomography system equipped with a wedge absorber. The reconstructed mass density agrees well with the calculated one. PMID:26114770

  1. On the feasibility of optical-CT imaging in media of different refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, Leith; Oldham, Mark

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Achieving accurate optical-CT 3D dosimetry without the use of viscous refractive index (RI) matching fluids would greatly increase convenience. Methods: Software has been developed to simulate optical-CT 3D dosimetry for a range of scanning configurations including parallel-beam, point, and converging light sources. For each configuration the efficacy of three refractive media was investigated: air, water, a fluid closely matched to PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and perfect matching (RI = 1.00, 1.33, 1.49, and 1.501 respectively). Reconstructions were performed using both filtered backprojection (FBP) and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The efficacy of the three configurations and the two algorithms was evaluated by calculating the usable radius (i.e., the outermost radius where data were accurate to within 2%), and gamma ({Gamma}) analysis. This definition recognizes that for optical-CT imaging, errors are greatest near the edge of the dosimeter, where refraction can be most pronounced. Simulations were performed on three types of dose distribution: uniform, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and brachytherapy (Cs-137). Results: For a uniformly irradiated dosimeter the usable radius achieved with filtered backprojection was 68% for water-matching and 31% for dry-scanning in air. Algebraic reconstruction gave usable radii of 99% for both water and air (dry-scanning), indicating greater recovery of useful data for the uniform distribution. FBP and ART performed equally well for a VMAT dose distribution where less dose is delivered near the edge of the dosimeter. In this case, the usable radius was 86% and 53% for scanning in water and air, respectively. For brachytherapy, the usable radius was 99% and 98% for scanning in water and air, respectively using FBP, and a major decrease was seen with ART. Point source geometry provided 1%-2% larger usable radii than parallel geometry. Converging geometry recovered less usable dosimetry data (up to 10% reduced usable radii) than point and parallel geometries. A further disadvantage of converging geometry was an increased requirement on detector size by up to 18 Degree-Sign . Conclusions: For applications where dose information is not required in the periphery of the dosimeter, some dry and low-viscous matching configurations may be feasible. For all three dose distributions (uniform, VMAT, brachytherapy) the point source geometry produced slightly more favorable results (an extra 1%-2% usable radii) than parallel and converging. When dosimetry is required on the periphery, best results were obtained using close refractive matching and ART. A concern for water or dry-scanning is the increase in required detector size, introducing potential cost penalties for manufacturing.

  2. Equation of state, refractive index and polarizability of compressed water to 7 GPa and 673 K.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Mantegazzi, Davide; Bass, Jay D; Reusser, Eric

    2013-02-01

    The equation of state (EoS), refractive index n, and polarizability ? of water have been determined up to 673 K and 7 GPa from acoustic velocity measurements conducted in a resistively heated diamond anvil cell using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Measured acoustic velocities compare favorably with previous experimental studies but they are lower than velocities calculated from the extrapolation of the IAPWS95 equation of state above 3 GPa at 673 K and deviations increase up to 6% at 7 GPa. Densities calculated from the velocity data were used to propose an empirical EoS suitable in the 0.6-7 GPa and 293-673 K range with a total estimated uncertainty of 0.5% or less. The density model and thermodynamic properties derived from the experimental EoS have been compared to several EoS proposed in the literature. The IAPWS95 EoS provides good agreement, although underestimates density by up to 1.2% at 7 GPa and 673 K and the thermodynamic properties deviate greatly (10%-20%) outside the estimated uncertainties above 4 GPa. The refractive index n of liquid water increases linearly with density and do not depend intrinsically on temperature. The polarizability decreases with pressure by less than 4% within the investigated P-T range, suggesting strong intermolecular interactions in H(2)O that are consistent with the prevalence of the hydrogen bond network in the fluid. The results will allow the refinement of interaction potentials that consider polarization effects for a better understanding of solvent-solvent and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature conditions. PMID:23406131

  3. Radio refractive index in the lowest 100-m layer of the troposphere in Akure, South Western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, S. E.; Ajewole, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the radio refractive index “in altitudes of” first 100 m of the troposphere is important for the planning and design of microwave communication “links”. For this reason, measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were conducted in Akure “(7.15°N, 5.12°E)” to determine the radio refractive index. “Wireless meteorological sensors were positioned at the ground surface and at 100 m altitude on a 202 m high tower owned by the Nigerian Television Authority (hereafter NTA) which is now idle due to the relocation of the television house”. The measurements were “made” every “30 min” and round the clock. “Statistical” distributions of the refractive index modulus, “its” vertical gradient, and the diurnal and seasonal variations of the refractivity modulus were determined from the measured “data”. The results obtained show that the local climate has an appreciable influence on the radio refractivity. The curve of the seasonal variation of the vertical gradient of the radio refractive modulus has some minima points corresponding to the dry and the rainy seasons in Akure. The results obtained also show that the values of the refractive modulus at the “100 m” altitude were high in the morning and late evening/night hours while they “show” minima during the afternoon hours. Thus, the worst propagation condition obtained for Akure was observed in the afternoon “within” the time window “from 15:00 to 18:00” local time (hereafter LT) during the dry months and from roughly 17:00 to 19:00 LT during the rainy season.

  4. MOVPE growth of ZnSe/ZnMgS distributed Bragg reflectors with high refractive-index contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, T.; Suemune, I.; Tanaka, S.

    2000-06-01

    ZnSe/ZnMgS distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a high refractive-index contrast were grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The difference of the refractive indices between ZnSe and Zn 0.27Mg 0.73S was estimated to be about 0.52 at 510 nm, which is very large compared with previous II-VI DBRs. The maximum reflectivity of the grown ZnSe/Zn 0.27Mg 0.73S DBRs (with only 5-periods) was measured to be 93% at 510 nm at room temperature. DBRs with a high refractive-index contrast can reduce the penetration depth of light into the DBR and have the potential to increase the strength of the exciton-photon coupling in a microcavity.

  5. The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrsitz, S.; Reinhart, F. K.; Gourgon, C.; Herres, N.; Vonlanthen, A.; Sigg, H.

    2000-06-01

    The refractive indices of AlxGa1-xAs epitaxial layers (0.176?x?1) are accurately determined below the band gap to wavelengths, ?<3 ?m. The layers are grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy metal organic and chemical vapor deposition with thicknesses ranging from 4 to 10 ?m. They form improper waveguide structures with the GaAs substrate. The measurements are based on the excitation of the improper waveguide modes with grating couplers at 23 °C. The refractive indices of the layers are derived from the modal propagation constants in the range of 730 nmrefractive index is investigated in the same spectral range. From the effective indices of the TE and TM modes, we derive the strain-induced birefringence and the elasto-optic coefficients. High-resolution x-ray diffraction is used to determine the strain of the layers. The layer compositions are obtained with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The measurement range of the refractive index is extended from the direct gap to ?<3 ?m by observing the Fabry-Pérot interference fringes of the transmission spectra of isolated layers. The measured values of the refractive index and the elasto-optic coefficient are compared to calculated data based on semiempirical models described in the literature. Published data of the index of refraction on GaAs, AlAs and GaP are analyzed to permit the development of a modified Sellmeier approximation. The experimental data on AlxGa1-xAs can be fitted over the entire composition range 0?x?1 to provide an accurate analytical description as a function of composition, wavelength, and temperature.

  6. Measurement of change in refractive index in polymeric flexible substrates using wide field interferometry and digital fringe analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2012-12-10

    Indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymeric films are widely used as substrates for future optoelectronic devices, such as organic LEDs, organic thin film transistors, and organic solar cells. These PET substrates are thin, flexible, and rugged. But residual stresses are trapped in polymeric substrates due to their manufacturing process, and this leads to the birefringence in flexible displays. In this paper we report the measurement of the change in refractive index of PET substrates using Mach-Zehnder interferometry and the Fourier transform fringe analysis technique. Change in refractive index was observed by means of bending the PET substrate. This change in birefringence varies the optical path difference between the two arms of the interferometer, leading to the fringe shift. From the fringe shift the phase change was extracted as a function of bending, and the change in the refractive index was determined experimentally for two wavelengths, i.e., red and green color lasers. We found that the value of change in the refractive index of these substrates increases on bending of the substrates. PMID:23262537

  7. Refractive index of solutions of human hemoglobin from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet range: Kramers-Kronig analysis.

    PubMed

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Zhernovaya, Olga; Tuchin, Valery; Douplik, Alexandre

    2012-11-01

    Because direct measurements of the refractive index of hemoglobin over a large wavelength range are challenging, indirect methods deserve particular attention. Among them, the Kramers-Kronig relations are a powerful tool often used to derive the real part of a refractive index from its imaginary part. However, previous attempts to apply the relations to solutions of human hemoglobin have been somewhat controversial, resulting in disagreement between several studies. We show that this controversy can be resolved when careful attention is paid not only to the absorption of hemoglobin but also to the dispersion of the refractive index of the nonabsorbing solvent. We present a Kramers-Kroning analysis taking both contributions into account and compare the results with the data from several studies. Good agreement with experiments is found across the visible and parts of near-infrared and ultraviolet regions. These results reinstate the use of the Kramers-Kronig relations for hemoglobin solutions and provide an additional source of information about their refractive index. PMID:23123974

  8. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bui, Hao Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  9. Laser-Based Measurement of Refractive Index Changes: Kinetics of 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol Hydrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bert; Zare, Richard N.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which a simple laser-based apparatus is used for measuring the change in refractive index during the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycidol into glycerine. Gives a schematic of the experimental setup and discusses the kinetic analysis. (MVL)

  10. Characterization of light-induced modification of the nonlinear refractive index using a one-laser-shot nonlinear imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Boudebs, G.; Araujo, Cid B. de

    2004-10-25

    We report the exploitation of a one-laser-shot measurement technique to study photo-induced effects in semiconductor-doped glasses. The technique, based on the use of a phase object in a 4f coherent imaging system, allows one to characterize the kinetics of the nonlinear refractive index of samples versus the light exposure time.

  11. Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, L.; Carlie, N.; Chen, H.; Gaylord, S.; Massera, J.; Boudebs, G.; Hu, J.; Agarwal, A.; Kimerling, L.; Richardson, K.

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we report results of n{sub 2} measurements of new chalcogenide glasses in the Ge-Sb-S-Se system using a modified Z-Scan technique. Measurements were made with picosecond pulses emitted by a 10 Hz Q-switched mode-locked Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm under conditions suitable to characterize ultrafast nonlinearities. The nonlinear index increases up to 500 times the n{sub 2} of fused silica with an increase in the Ge/Se ratio and a decrease with an increase of the Ge/Sb ratio. We confirmed, using Raman spectroscopy, that the nonlinear refractive index depends on the number of Ge-S(Se) and Sb-S(Se) bonds in the glass network. Sulfide glasses were shown to have a nonlinear FOM near or <1, at 1064 nm. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we report results of n{sub 2} measurements of new chalcogenide glasses in the Ge-Sb-S-Se system using a modified Z-Scan technique. n{sub 2} is found to increase with an increase of normalized photon energy, regardless of chalcogen type, but does not depend on the concentration of lone pair electron.

  12. Self-assembly of graded refractive index in squids: a patchy colloid explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Heiney, Paul; Sweeney, Alison

    2015-03-01

    Squids have a spherical eye lens that achieves both acute and highly sensitive vision underwater. The spherical shape necessitates a graded refractive index (GRIN) to form sharp images. This index variation comes from a gradient in protein packing fraction ranging from approximately 0.05 to 1.0. This presents a materials conundrum: optical transparency requires that the protein density fluctuation at length scales > 100 nm is minimized throughout the lens, something that is difficult to achieve with simple spherical particles. Here we show that squids have accomplished this by evolving a suite of proteins that can act as patchy colloids with specific low valence (M=2 or M=3). We conducted small x-ray scattering (SAXS) at different radial positions of the lens, and performed a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate structures consistent with the SAXS result. This analysis suggests that lens proteins may form a density gradient gel structure, with density mediated by a tightly controlled protein coordination number in each region. Patchy colloid theory may therefore explain both the GRIN and the transparency evolved in the lens.

  13. Optical detection enhancement in porous volumetric microfluidic capture elements using refractive index matching fluids.

    PubMed

    Wiederoder, M S; Peterken, L; Lu, A X; Rahmanian, O D; Raghavan, S R; DeVoe, D L

    2015-08-21

    Porous volumetric capture elements in microfluidic sensors are advantageous compared to planar capture surfaces due to higher reaction site density and decreased diffusion lengths that can reduce detection limits and total assay time. However a mismatch in refractive indices between the capture matrix and fluid within the porous interstices results in scattering of incident, reflected, or emitted light, significantly reducing the signal for optical detection. Here we demonstrate that perfusion of an index-matching fluid within a porous matrix minimizes scattering, thus enhancing optical signal by enabling the entire capture element volume to be probed. Signal enhancement is demonstrated for both fluorescence and absorbance detection, using porous polymer monoliths in a silica capillary and packed beds of glass beads within thermoplastic microchannels, respectively. Fluorescence signal was improved by a factor of 3.5× when measuring emission from a fluorescent compound attached directly to the polymer monolith, and up to 2.6× for a rapid 10 min direct immunoassay. When combining index matching with a silver enhancement step, a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1) human IgG and a 5 log dynamic range was achieved. The demonstrated technique provides a simple method for enhancing optical sensitivity for a wide range of assays, enabling the full benefits of porous detection elements in miniaturized analytical systems to be realized. PMID:26160546

  14. In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andrew J; Ruderman, Sarah; DelaCruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K; Backman, Vadim

    2012-04-01

    Polarization-gated spectroscopy is an established method to depth-selectively interrogate the structural properties of biological tissue. We employ this method in vivo in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model to monitor the morphological changes that occur in the field of a tumor during early carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate a statistically significant change in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function for AOM-treated rats versus saline-treated controls. Since refractive index is linearly proportional to mass density, these refractive-index changes can be directly linked to alterations in the spatial distribution patterns of macromolecular density. Furthermore, we found that alterations in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function shape were an indicator of both present and future risk of tumor development. These results suggest that noninvasive measurement of the shape of the refractive-index correlation function could be a promising marker of early cancer development. PMID:22559696

  15. In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its applicationto detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Ruderman, Sarah; DelaCruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-04-01

    Polarization-gated spectroscopy is an established method to depth-selectively interrogate the structural properties of biological tissue. We employ this method in vivo in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model to monitor the morphological changes that occur in the field of a tumor during early carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate a statistically significant change in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function for AOM-treated rats versus saline-treated controls. Since refractive index is linearly proportional to mass density, these refractive-index changes can be directly linked to alterations in the spatial distribution patterns of macromolecular density. Furthermore, we found that alterations in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function shape were an indicator of both present and future risk of tumor development. These results suggest that noninvasive measurement of the shape of the refractive-index correlation function could be a promising marker of early cancer development.

  16. Best fit refractive index of matching liquid for 3D NIPAM gel dosimeters using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Jay; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chen, De-Shiou; Wang, Tzu-Hwei; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The accuracy of an optical computed tomography (CT)-based dosimeter is significantly affected by the refractive index (RI) of the matching liquid. Mismatched RI induces reflection and refraction as the laser beam passes through the gel phantom. Moreover, the unwanted light rays collected by the photodetector produce image artifacts after image reconstruction from the collected data. To obtain the best image quality, this study investigates the best-fit RI of the matching liquid for a 3D NIPAM gel dosimeter. The three recipes of NIPAM polymer gel used in this study consisted of 5% gelatin, 5% NIPAM and 3% N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, which were combined with three compositions (5, 10, and 20 mM) of Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride. Results were evaluated using a quantitative evaluation method of the gamma evaluation technique. Results showed that the best-fit RI for the non-irradiated NIPAM gel ranges from 1.340 to 1.346 for various NIPAM recipes with sensitivities ranging from 0.0113 to 0.0227. The greatest pass rate of 88.00% is achieved using best-fit RI=1.346 of the matching liquid. The adoption of mismatching RI decreases the gamma pass rate by 2.63% to 16.75% for all three recipes of NIPAM gel dosimeters. In addition, the maximum average deviation is less than 0.1% for the red and transparent matching liquids. Thus, the color of the matching liquid does not affect the measurement accuracy of the NIPAM gel dosimeter, as measured by optical CT.

  17. Effective broadband refractive index retrieval by a white light optical particle counter.

    PubMed

    Flores, J Michel; Trainic, Miri; Borrmann, Stephan; Rudich, Yinon

    2009-09-28

    A new approach to retrieve the effective broadband refractive indices (nbroad,eff) of aerosol particles by a white light aerosol spectrometer (WELAS) optical particle counter (OPC) is presented. Using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA)-OPC system, the nbroad,eff are obtained for both laboratory and field applications. This method was tested in the laboratory using substances with a wide range of optical properties. With the obtained nbroad,eff, WELAS aerosol size distributions can be corrected. Therefore, this method can be used for instrument calibration in both laboratory and field measurements. The retrieved effective broadband refractive indices for the scattering aerosols were: ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, AS) nbroad,eff=1.52(+/-0.01)+i0.0, glutaric acid (HOOC(CH2)3COOH, GA) nbroad,eff=1.45(+/-0.01)+i0.0, and sodium chloride (NaCl) nbroad,eff=1.49(+/-0.02)+i0.0, all within 4% of literature values. A lightly absorbing substance, Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA), was also measured, and its retrieved nbroad,eff is like that of a pure scatterer, with a value of nbroad,eff=1.53(+/-0.01)+i0.0. The retrieved real part of nbroad,eff is in accordance with literature values and the imaginary part with the behavior of the white light spectrum of the WELAS, which is not sensitive below a wavelength of 380 nm, where SRFA mainly absorbs. For absorbing substances, nigrosine and various mixtures of nigrosine with AS and GA were measured. For nigrosine, nbroad,eff=1.64(+/-0.04)+i0.20(+/-0.03) was retrieved, in very good agreement with values found in the literature. The nbroad,eff retrieved by this method for the mixtures was in accordance with the complex refractive index expected. The nbroad,eff retrieved by this method would be similar to the values obtained using the solar spectrum. PMID:19727501

  18. Phase-dependent high refractive index without absorption in a four-level inverted-Y atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Qiang Zeng; Fu-Ti Liu; Yu-Ping Wang; Zeng-Hui Gao

    2015-01-31

    We consider a closed four-level inverted-Y system in the presence and the absence of a microwave field. It is found that due to the quantum coherence between the two lower levels, either induced by the spontaneous decay or by the microwave field, the refraction – absorption properties of the system can be modulated by controlling the relative phase of the applied fields in both driven ways. In particular, by properly setting the values of the relative phase, the desirable high index of refraction without absorption can be achieved. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  19. Simultaneous monitoring the real and imaginary parts of the analyte refractive index using liquid-core photonic bandgap Bragg fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwen; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous monitoring of the real and imaginary parts of the liquid analyte refractive index by using a hollow-core Bragg fiber. We apply this two-channel fiber sensor to monitor concentrations of various commercial cooling oils. The sensor operates using spectral monitoring of the fiber bandgap center wavelength, as well as monitoring of the fiber transmission amplitude at mid-bandgap position. The sensitivity of the fiber sensor to changes in the real part of the core refractive index is found to be 1460nm/Refractive index unit (RIU). By using spectral modality and effective medium theory, we determine the concentrations of the two commercial fluids from the measured refractive indices with an accuracy of ~0.57% for both low- and high-loss oils. Moreover, using an amplitude-based detection modality allows determination of the oil concentration with accuracy of ~1.64% for low-loss oils and ~2.81% for the high-loss oils. PMID:26368402

  20. Determination of the refractive index of ?-NaYF4/Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals using spectroscopic refractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Zvyagin, A. V.; Igumnov, S. M.; Molchanova, S. I.; Nazarov, M. M.; Nechaev, A. V.; Savelyev, A. G.; Tyutyunov, A. A.; Khaydukov, E. V.; Panchenko, V. Ya.

    2015-04-01

    A method for measuring refractive index n of nanosize particles in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges is proposed. The method is based on comparing refractive index n colloid of a colloid solution of nanoparticles in several solvents with refractive indices n solvent of corresponding pure solvents and has an accuracy of ±2 × 10-4. Upconversion nanosize phosphors (UCNPs) are synthesized in the form of a ?-NaYF4 crystalline matrix doped with Yb3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ rare earth ions. UCNPs have a doped core with a diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and undoped shell with a thickness of 3-5 nm. Synthesized nanocrystals possess intense photoluminescence in the blue, green, and red spectral ranges upon excitation by IR radiation with a wavelength of 977 nm. Using a spectroscopic refractometer, the dispersion of the refractive index of ?-NaYF4/Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals was measured for the first time in the spectral range of 450-1000 nm with an accuracy of ±2 × 10-4.

  1. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic information, are presented in this paper.

  2. Towards Silk Fiber Optics: Refractive Index Characterization, Fiber Spinning, and Spinneret Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzberg, Joshua David

    Of the many biologically derived materials, whose historical record of use by humans underscores an ex-vivo utility, silk is interesting for it's contemporary repurposing from textile to biocompatible substrate. And while even within this category silk is one of several materials studied for novel repurposing, it has the unique character of being evolutionarily developed specifically for fiber spinning in vivo. The work discussed here is inspired by taking what nature has given, to explore the in vitro spinning of silk towards biocompatible fiber optics applications. A common formulation of silk used in biomedical studies for re-forming it into the various structures begins with the silkworm cocoon, which is degummed and dissolved into an aqueous solution of its miscible protein, fibroin, and post-treated to fabricate solid structures. In the first aim, the optical refractive index (RI) of various post-treatment methods is discussed towards determining RI design techniques. The methods considered in this work for re-forming a solid fiber from the reconstituted silk fibroin (RSF) solution borrow from the industrial techniques of gel spinning, and dry-spinning. In the second aim, methods are applied to RSF and quality of the spun fibers discussed. A feature common to spinning techniques is passing the (silk) material through a spinneret of specific shape. In the third aim, fluid flow through a simplified native silkworm spinneret is modeled towards bio-inspired lessons in design. In chapter 1 the history, reconstitution, are discussed towards understanding the fabrication of several optical device examples. Chapter 2 then prefaces the experiments and measurements in fiber optics by reviewing electromagnetic theory of waveguide function, and loss factors, to be considered in actual device fabrication. Chapter 3 presents results and discussion for the first aim, understanding design principles for the refractive index of RSF. From this point, industrial fiber-spinning approaches are reviewed from a theoretical and methodological perspective in chapter 4. Thus, chapter 5 presents results for the second aim, efforts to apply these techniques using RSF. Chapter 6 discusses the third aim, understanding the design of the silkworm spinneret by an idealized model of natural and reconstituted silk fibroin flow. While the ultimate goal of a structurally and optically smooth and uniform fiber remains elusive, this work serves as a guide for future efforts.

  3. Index of refraction of gases for matter waves: effect of the motion of the gas particles on the calculation of the index

    E-print Network

    Caroline Champenois; Marion Jacquey; Steven Lepoutre; Matthias Büchner; Gérard Trénec; Jacques Vigué

    2007-11-09

    Two different formulae relating the index of refraction $n$ of gases for atom waves to the scattering amplitude have been published. We show here that these two formulae are not consistent with the definition of the total scattering cross-section while the formula developed by one of us (C.C.) in her thesis is in agreement with this standard knowledge. We discuss this result, in particular in the neutron case for which such an index was first introduced. We finally evaluate the index of refraction as a function of well known quantities and we discuss the order of magnitude of the ratio of $(n-1)/n_t$, where $n_t$ is the gas density.

  4. Influence of Surfactant Bilayers and Substrate Immobilization on the Refractive Index Sensitivity of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahjamali, Mohammad; Large, Nicolas; Martinsson, Erik; Zaraee, Negin; Schatz, George; Aili, Daniel; Mirkin, Chad

    2015-03-01

    Shape-controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generally involves the use of surfactants to regulate the nucleation growth process and to obtain colloidally stable AuNPs. The surfactants adsorb on the NP surface making further functionalization difficult and therefore limit their practical use in many applications such as bio- and molecular sensing, surface-enhanced spectrosopies, and NP assembly. Herein, we report on how cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAX, X =Cl-, Br-) , a common surfactant used in anisotropic AuNPs synthesis, affectsthe nanoparticle sensitivity to local dielectric environment changes and limitsrefractometric plasmonic sensing. We experimentally and theoretically show that the CTAX bilayer significantly reduces the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of anisotropic AuNPs such as flat and concave nanocubes, nanorods, and nanoprisms. We show that the RI sensitivity can be improvedby up to 40% by removing the CTAXfrom immobilized AuNPs using oxygen plasma treatment. The substrate effect on the RI sensitivity caused by NP immobilization isalso investigated. The strategy presented herein is a simple andeffective method to improvethe RI sensitivity of CTAX-stabilized AuNPs, thus increasing their potential in nanoplasmonic sensingand in biomedical applications.

  5. Ultra-thin silver-coated tilted fiber grating for surface and bulk refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xuhui; Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Albert, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-thin silver-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensor with clear surface plasmon resonance (SPR) together with strong evanescent wave in transmission for "surface" and "bulk" surrounding refractive index (SRI) measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The thickness of the silver coating over the fiber surface is precisely controlled at 12~16 nm (much thinner than 40~50 nm for traditional SPR excitation). The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with the broader absorption of the surface plasmon and thus provide a unique tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon and identify the "surface" SRI changes with high accuracy. Meanwhile, the ultra-thin nanometric-coating permits part of high-order cladding modes to become leaky modes which have a large sensitivity to variations in the background solution for "bulk" SRI measurement. Experimental results show that above two resonances have an inverse amplitude responses to the SRI changing. Biological solutions (urine of rats with different concentration of Aquaporin) with different RI ranging from 1.3400 to 1.3408 were clearly discriminated in-situ by using the differential amplitude monitoring between "cut-off" cladding resonance and plasmonic resonance, with an amplitude variation sensitivity of ~8100 dB/RIU and a limit of detection of ~10-5 RIU.

  6. Graphene-deposited photonic crystal fibers for continuous refractive index sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y C; Tou, Z Q; Chow, K K; Chan, C C

    2015-11-30

    We present a pilot demonstration of an optical fiber based refractive index (RI) sensor involving the deposition of graphene onto the surface of a segment of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The fabrication process is relatively simple and only involves the fusion splicing of a PCF between two single mode fibers. The deposition process relies only on the cold transfer of graphene onto the PCF segment, without the need for further physical or chemical treatment. The graphene overlay modified the sensing scheme of the MZI RI sensor, allowing the sensor to overcome limitations to its detectable RI range due to free spectral range issues. This modification also allows for continuous measurements to be obtained without the need for reference values for the range of RIs studied and brings to light the potential for simultaneous dual parameter sensing. The sensor was able to achieve a RI sensitivity of 9.4 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.33-1.38 and a sensitivity of 17.5 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.38-1.43. It also displayed good repeatability and the results obtained were consistent with the modeling. PMID:26698755

  7. Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of solid tissue-equivalent phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    Tissue-equivalent phantom is becoming widespread as a substitute in the biological field to verify optical theories, test measuring systems and study the tissue performances for varying boundary conditions, sample size and shape at a quantitative level. Compared with phantoms made with Intralipid solution, ink and other liquid substances, phantom in solid state is stable over time, reproducible, easy to handle and has been testified to be a suitable optical simulator in the visible and near-infrared region. We present accurate determination of the complex refractive index (RI) of a solid tissueequivalent phantom using extended derivative total reflection method (EDTRM). Scattering phantoms in solid state were measured for p-polarized and s-polarized incident light respectively. The reflectance curves of the sample as a function of incident angle were recorded. The real part of RI is directly determined by derivative of the reflectance curve, and the imaginary part is obtained from nonlinear fitting based on the Fresnel equation and Nelder-Mead simplex method. The EDTRM method is applicable for RI measurement of high scattering media such as biotissue, solid tissue-equivalent phantom and bulk material. The obtained RI information can be used in the study of tissue optics and biomedical field.

  8. Bulk photons in asymmetrically warped spacetimes and non-trivial vacuum refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, K.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Pasipoularides, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider asymmetrically warped brane models, or equivalently brane models where the background metric is characterized by different time and space warp factors. The main feature of these models is that 4D Lorentz symmetry is violated for fields which propagate in the bulk, such as gravitons. In this paper we examine the case of bulk photons in asymmetrically warped brane models. Although our results are general, we examine here two specific but characteristic solutions: 1) AdS-Schwarzschild 5D Black Hole solution and 2) AdS-Reissner Nordstrom 5D Black Hole solution. We show that the standard Lorentz invariant dispersion relation for 4D photons is corrected by nonlinear terms which lead to an Energy-dependent speed of light. Specifically, we obtain a sub-luminous Energy-dependent refractive index of the form neff(ømega) = 1+cG ømega2, where ømega is the energy of the photon, and the factor cG is always positive and depends on the free parameters of the model. Finally, comparing the results with recent data from the MAGIC Telescope, claiming a delayed arrival of photons from the Active Galactic Nucleus of Mk501, we impose concrete restrictions to the two sets of models examined in this work. We shall also discuss briefly other possible astrophysical constraints on our models.

  9. Flow over interacting barchan dunes studied in a refractive-index-matched environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z.; Jiang, N.; Blois, G.; Barros, J. M.; Best, J. L.; Christensen, K. T.

    2013-11-01

    Barchan dunes are three-dimensional topographic features characterized by a crescentic shape. Very common on Earth's surface, barchans are produced by unidirectional flows in regions of sediment starvation and are characterized by migration rates that are a function of their volume. This results in complex dune-to-dune interaction mechanisms that are poorly understood. In order to quantify the flow structure produced by interacting barchans, PIV measurements were made wherein the dune models were immersed in a flowing fluid that was refractive-index-matched to the dune material. Doing so provided full optical access to the obstructed regions of flow and eliminated reflections from the liquid-solid boundaries, allowing near-wall data to be collected. Clear barchan models with different volumetric ratios were arranged in tandem, and flow-field measurements were made in multiple streamwise-wall-normal and streamwise-spanwise planes. Ensemble-averaged flow fields and Reynolds stresses were obtained for different barchan spacings and compared to the reference case of an isolated barchan. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis was employed to study the spatial characteristics of the energy distribution both between and downstream of the aligned dunes.

  10. Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Zhou, Jianhua; Liu, Tianran; Tao, Yuting; Jiang, Ruibin; Liu, Mingxuan; Xiao, Guohui; Zhu, Jinhao; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wang, Xuehua; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Jianfang

    2013-08-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based sensing has found wide applications in medical diagnosis, food safety regulation and environmental monitoring. Compared with commercial propagating surface plasmon resonance (PSPR)-based sensors, LSPR ones are simple, cost-effective and suitable for measuring local refractive index changes. However, the figure of merit (FOM) values of LSPR sensors are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of PSPR ones, preventing the widespread use of LSPR sensors. Here we describe an array of submicrometer gold mushrooms with a FOM reaching ~108, which is comparable to the theoretically predicted upper limit for standard PSPR sensors. Such a high FOM arises from the interference between Wood’s anomaly and the LSPRs. We further demonstrate the array as a biosensor for detecting cytochrome c and alpha-fetoprotein, with their detection limits down to 200?pM and 15?ng?ml-1, respectively, suggesting that the array is a promising candidate for label-free biomedical sensing.

  11. Electrical modulation of the complex refractive index in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Teissier, J; Laurent, S; Manquest, C; Sirtori, C; Bousseksou, A; Coudevylle, J R; Colombelli, R; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I

    2012-01-16

    We have demonstrated an integrated three terminal device for the modulation of the complex refractive index of a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL). The device comprises an active region to produce optical gain vertically stacked with a control region made of asymmetric coupled quantum wells (ACQW). The optical mode, centered on the gain region, has a small overlap also with the control region. Owing to the three terminals an electrical bias can be applied independently on both regions: on the laser for producing optical gain and on the ACQW for tuning the energy of the intersubband transition. This allows the control of the optical losses at the laser frequency as the absorption peak associated to the intersubband transition can be electrically brought in and out the laser transition. By using this function a laser modulation depth of about 400 mW can be achieved by injecting less than 1 mW in the control region. This is four orders of magnitude less than the electrical power needed using direct current modulation and set the basis for the realisation of electrical to optical transducers. PMID:22274462

  12. Small Dielectric Spheres with High Refractive Index as New Multifunctional Elements for Optical Devices.

    PubMed

    Tribelsky, Michael I; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Litman, Amelie; Eyraud, Christelle; Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The future of ultra-fast optical communication systems is inevitably connected with progress in optical circuits and nanoantennas. One of the key points of this progress is the creation of elementary components of optical devices with scattering diagrams tailored for redirecting the incident light in a desired manner. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a small, simple, spatially homogeneous dielectric subwavelength sphere with a high refractive index and low losses (as some semiconductors in the visible or near infrared region) exhibits properties allowing to utilize it as a new multifunctional element for the mentioned devices. This can be achieved by taking advantage of the coherent effects between dipolar and multipolar modes, which produce anomalous scattering effects. The effects open a new way to control the directionality of the scattered light. The directional tuning can be obtained in a practical way just by a change in the frequency of the incident wave, and/or by a well-chosen diameter of the sphere. Dielectric nanoparticles with the required optical properties in the VIS-NIR may be now readily fabricated. These particles could be an efficient alternative to the widely discussed scattering units with a more complicated design. PMID:26201445

  13. Small Dielectric Spheres with High Refractive Index as New Multifunctional Elements for Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribelsky, Michael I.; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Litman, Amelie; Eyraud, Christelle; Moreno, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The future of ultra-fast optical communication systems is inevitably connected with progress in optical circuits and nanoantennas. One of the key points of this progress is the creation of elementary components of optical devices with scattering diagrams tailored for redirecting the incident light in a desired manner. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a small, simple, spatially homogeneous dielectric subwavelength sphere with a high refractive index and low losses (as some semiconductors in the visible or near infrared region) exhibits properties allowing to utilize it as a new multifunctional element for the mentioned devices. This can be achieved by taking advantage of the coherent effects between dipolar and multipolar modes, which produce anomalous scattering effects. The effects open a new way to control the directionality of the scattered light. The directional tuning can be obtained in a practical way just by a change in the frequency of the incident wave, and/or by a well-chosen diameter of the sphere. Dielectric nanoparticles with the required optical properties in the VIS-NIR may be now readily fabricated. These particles could be an efficient alternative to the widely discussed scattering units with a more complicated design.

  14. Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS? for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    As a noncentrosymmetric crystal with spin-polarized band structure, MoS2 nanomaterials have attracts increasing attention in many areas such as lithium ion batteries, flexible electronic devices, photoluminescence and valleytronics. The investigation of MoS2 is mainly focused on the electronics and spintronics instead of optics, which restrict its applications as key elements of photonics. In this work, we demonstrate the first observation of the polarization-dependent optical absorption of the MoS2 thin film, which is integrated onto an optical waveguide device. With this feature, a novel optical sensor combining MoS2 thin-film and a microfluidic structure has been constituted to achieve the sensitive monitoring of refractive index. Our work indicates the MoS2 thin film as a complementary material to graphene for the optical polarizer in the visible light range, and explores a new application direction of MoS2 nanomaterials for the construction of photonic circuits. PMID:25516116

  15. Light extraction analysis of organic light emitting diodes fabricated on high refractive index glass scattering layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, N.; Fukumoto, N.; Wada, N.; Ohgawara, M.

    2015-02-01

    Optical analysis was performed for Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) formed on a high refractive index glass (high-n-glass) scattering layer. Angular dependency of luminance for OLEDs fabricated on high-n-glass substrate with a hemisphere high-n-glass lens has a good agreement with the emitting directivity calculated by an interference simulation. Applying this emitting directivity, ray trace simulation was performed for OLEDs on various types of substrates and hemisphere lenses. The calculated out-coupled light flux has a good agreement with the measured values. From the experimental and simulation results, it can be concluded that out-coupling efficiency is 1.7 times compared to the reference, and about 55% of lights out of the OLED device can be extracted to the air by the high-n-glass scattering layer. In this case, the probability of light out-coupling as a function of emitting angle starts at 66% at 0°, and still remains more than 30% up to 70° from the normal direction.

  16. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Eric J.; Mont-Eton, Michael E.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C.; Mays, David C.

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media.

  17. Bulk photons in Asymmetrically Warped Space-times and Non-trivial Vacuum Refractive Index

    E-print Network

    K. Farakos; N. E. Mavromatos; P. Pasipoularides

    2009-01-20

    We consider asymmetrically warped brane models, or equivalently brane models where the background metric is characterized by different time and space warp factors. The main feature of these models is that 4D Lorentz symmetry is violated for fields which propagate in the bulk, such as gravitons. In this paper we examine the case of bulk photons in asymmetrically warped brane models. Although our results are general, we examine here two specific but characteristic solutions: 1) AdS-Schwarzschild 5D Black Hole solution and 2) AdS-Reissner Nordstrom 5D Black Hole solution. We show that the standard Lorentz invariant dispersion relation for 4D photons is corrected by nonlinear terms which lead to an Energy-dependent speed of light. Specifically, we obtain a sub-luminous Energy-dependent refractive index of the form n_{eff}(\\omega)=1+c_{G} \\omega^2, where \\omega is the energy of the photon, and the factor c_G is always positive and depends on the free parameters of the model. Finally, comparing the results with recent data from the MAGIC Telescope, claiming a delayed arrival of photons from the Active Galactic Nucleus of Mk501, we impose concrete restrictions to the two sets of models examined in this work. We shall also discuss briefly other possible astrophysical constraints on our models.

  18. Anomalous behavior of neutron refraction index in a perfect crystal near the Bragg reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasitsa, M. V.; Braginetz, Yu P.; Vezhlev, E. O.; Semenikhin, S. Yu; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Fedorov, V. V.; Voronin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Anomalous behavior of neutron refraction index in a perfect crystal near Bragg resonance was studied. This phenomenon is connected with the resonance behavior of potential of neutron interaction with crystal near the Bragg reflex. The amplitude of this resonance is equal to magnitude of g-harmonic of neutron interaction potential Vg and width is about the Bragg width of reflex. Recently, it was shown that for the case of noncentrosymmetric crystal this effect result in a large electric field acting on a neutron (value of the field can reach about 108V/cm) . This effect is planed using to search for the electric dipole moment of a neutron. If the degree of crystal imperfect is less than the Bragg reflection width (case of perfect crystal) the width of the reflex is determined by the own width of crystal reflex that is about 10-5 of the neutron energy. The value of g-harmonics of interaction of neutron with crystal Vg and optical potential of the interaction of neutron with crystal V0 are usually about the same. Therefore the variation of neutron energy on a 10-5 of its value will change significantly a potential of neutron interaction with crystal.

  19. Estimated Uncertainties in the Idaho National Laboratory Matched-Index-of-Refraction Lower Plenum Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Donald M. McEligot; Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Ryan C. Johnson

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for typical Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL MIR flow system. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The objective of the present report is to develop understanding of the magnitudes of experimental uncertainties in the results to be obtained in such experiments. Unheated MIR experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique, which will not even handle constant properties properly. This report addresses the general background, requirements for benchmark databases, estimation of experimental uncertainties in mean velocities and turbulence quantities, the MIR experiment, PIV uncertainties, positioning uncertainties, and other contributing measurement uncertainties.

  20. Characterizing Protein Complexes with UV absorption, Light Scattering, and Refractive Index Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainoff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Many modern pharmaceuticals and naturally occurring biomolecules consist of complexes of proteins and polyethylene glycol or carbohydrates. In the case of vaccine development, these complexes are often used to induce or amplify immune responses. For protein therapeutics they are used to modify solubility and function, or to control the rate of degradation and elimination of a drug from the body. Characterizing the stoichiometry of these complexes is an important industrial problem that presents a formidable challenge to analytical instrument designers. Traditional analytical methods, such as using florescent tagging, chemical assays, and mass spectrometry perturb the system so dramatically that the complexes are often destroyed or uncontrollably modified by the measurement. A solution to this problem consists of fractionating the samples and then measuring the fractions using sequential non-invasive detectors that are sensitive to different components of the complex. We present results using UV absorption, which is primarily sensitive to the protein fraction, Light Scattering, which measures the total weight average molar mass, and Refractive Index detection, which measures the net concentration. We also present a solution of the problem inter-detector band-broadening problem that has heretofore made this approach impractical. Presented will be instrumentation and an analysis method that overcome these obstacles and make this technique a reliable and robust way of non-invasively characterizing these industrially important compounds.

  1. Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yang; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-01

    As a noncentrosymmetric crystal with spin-polarized band structure, MoS2 nanomaterials have attracts increasing attention in many areas such as lithium ion batteries, flexible electronic devices, photoluminescence and valleytronics. The investigation of MoS2 is mainly focused on the electronics and spintronics instead of optics, which restrict its applications as key elements of photonics. In this work, we demonstrate the first observation of the polarization-dependent optical absorption of the MoS2 thin film, which is integrated onto an optical waveguide device. With this feature, a novel optical sensor combining MoS2 thin-film and a microfluidic structure has been constituted to achieve the sensitive monitoring of refractive index. Our work indicates the MoS2 thin film as a complementary material to graphene for the optical polarizer in the visible light range, and explores a new application direction of MoS2 nanomaterials for the construction of photonic circuits.

  2. How subvisible particles become invisible-relevance of the refractive index for protein particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Zölls, Sarah; Gregoritza, Manuel; Tantipolphan, Ruedeeporn; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Winter, Gerhard; Friess, Wolfgang; Hawe, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess the relevance of transparency and refractive index (RI) on protein particle analysis by the light-based techniques light obscuration (LO) and Micro-Flow Imaging (MFI). A novel method for determining the RI of protein particles was developed and provided an RI of 1.41 for protein particles from two different proteins. An increased RI of the formulation by high protein concentration and/or sugars at pharmaceutically relevant levels was shown to lead to a significant underestimation of the subvisible particle concentration determined by LO and MFI. An RI match even caused particles to become "invisible" for the system, that is, not detectable anymore by LO and MFI. To determine the influence of formulation RI on particle measurements, we suggest the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles to test a specific formulation for RI effects. In case of RI influences, we recommend also using a light-independent technique such as resonant mass measurement (RMM) (Archimedes) for subvisible particle analysis in protein formulations. PMID:23463514

  3. Refractive index matched suspensions as a tool for investigating entrainment by avalanches and debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Belinda; Ancey, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical gravity flows such as avalanches and debris flows are complicated mixtures of fluid and solids, often containing particle sizes of many orders of magnitude. In a debris flow, for example, the composition varies from head to tail, and from bottom to top due to particle size segregation and recirculation. In addition the solid components may have different masses and mechanical properties. For this reason, a complete understanding of substrate entrainment by this type of flow is still out of reach. A common strategy for advancing our understanding of the physics of processes like entrainment is to use a greatly simplified laboratory model of a debris flow, and take internal and bulk measurements. This idealized technique forms the basis of this study, in which a two-phase, monodisperse suspension of PMMA beads in a refractive-index matched suspending fluid flowed down a flume, encountering an entrainable region of the same suspension on the way. This study represents the first attempt of taking continuous internal velocity measurements inside a flowing, entraining model avalanche or debris flow in the laboratory. Interior PIV measurements of flow velocity were taken in the entrainable region, along with surface height measurements, to shed some light on the entrainment mechanisms and to see how the bulk flow responded. Further, some differential pressure measurements were made in the entrainable bed to see if pore-pressure peaks had any correlation with significant events during entrainment. We present our preliminary findings and discuss the suitability of the method to entrainment investigations.

  4. Refractive index, band gap energy, dielectric constant and polarizability calculations of ferroelectric Ethylenediaminium Tetrachlorozincate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanaraman, S.; Shajinshinu, P. M.; . Vijayalakshmi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Single crystal of Ethylenediaminium Tetrachlorozincate has been grown by slow evaporation method. The single crystal XRD study confirms the orthorhombic structure of the crystal. The presence of functional group vibrations are ascertained through FTIR and Raman studies. In optical studies, the insulating behaviour of the material is established by Tauc plot. The refractive index and the real dielectric constant of the crystal are calculated. The electronic polarizability in the high frequency optical region is also calculated from the dielectric constant values by using the Clausius-Mossotti equation. The large value of dielectric constant is identified through dielectric studies and it points to the ferroelectric behaviour of the material. Further an experimental study confirms the ferroelectric behaviour of the material. The total polarizability of the crystal owing to the space charge, dipole, ionic and electronic polarizability contributions is obtained experimentally, and it matches well with the theoretically obtained value from Penn analysis. Further, Plasmon energy and Fermi energy of the material are also calculated using Penn analysis.

  5. Cross-sectional imaging of refractive-index-matched liquid-granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Wei-Jay; Capart, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    In channelized liquid-granular flows, the liquid velocity, granular velocity and solid fraction all vary over transverse cross sections. A major experimental challenge is then to acquire internal measurements of these three fields. One useful first step, achievable using various materials, is to make the medium transparent by matching the refractive indexes of the liquid and granular phases. Taking full advantage of this optical access, however, requires the development of new imaging methods. In this paper, we propose a new approach applicable to steady uniform flows and spherical immersed grains. The approach combines laser scans in the transverse and longitudinal directions. Using the transverse scans, liquid and granular motions in the laser plane can be captured by particle-tracking velocimetry. The longitudinal scans, on the other hand, allow granular positions and velocities to be deduced from individual grain crossing events. These occur when flowing grains move across the laser plane and when the laser plane sweeps across stationary grains. The approach therefore applies to flows over erodible beds featuring both moving and stationary grains. Using suitable algorithms, we show how to process these scans to map granular velocity, liquid velocity and granular concentration over the entire flow cross section, at resolutions finer than the grain diameter by a factor of 10.

  6. Optical device for sensing the index of refraction of liquids with high turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Gomar, M.; Fajardo-Lira, C.; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Garcia-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2000-12-01

    We discuss the use of photo-reflectance near the critical angle (PRCA) to monitor small changes of the RI of highly turbid liquids. The theory of the reflectance of a laser beam near the critical angle for an external medium with a complex RI is summarized. The applicability of PRCA to sense highly turbid media is demonstrated experimentally on bovine milk samples. We give experimental results showing the temporal variation of the refractive index (RI) during three different processes in bovine milk: (1) Mechanical stirring, (2) temperature changes, and (3) pH variations around the isoelectric point of the casein micelles (micelle aggregation). RI changes in the order of a few times 1 X 10-3 are observed during the experiments. The experimental results show that the RI of milk can be used to track physico-chemical changes in time allowing one to measure the time constant of the different process. The design of a compact RI probe for in situ applications is discussed. The miniaturization of such a probe will probably limited by factors other than the loss of sensitivity. A novel angle-of-incidence control which requires only linear displacements of some of the optical components (no rotation) is proposed and shown to be feasible. Such an optical probe may be used in the dairy industry and in general in the food industry or food science research laboratories. It could give additional analytical power to the food scientist, engineer, or technician.

  7. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eric J; Mont-Eton, Michael E; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C; Mays, David C

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media. PMID:26628117

  8. Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yang; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    As a noncentrosymmetric crystal with spin-polarized band structure, MoS2 nanomaterials have attracts increasing attention in many areas such as lithium ion batteries, flexible electronic devices, photoluminescence and valleytronics. The investigation of MoS2 is mainly focused on the electronics and spintronics instead of optics, which restrict its applications as key elements of photonics. In this work, we demonstrate the first observation of the polarization-dependent optical absorption of the MoS2 thin film, which is integrated onto an optical waveguide device. With this feature, a novel optical sensor combining MoS2 thin-film and a microfluidic structure has been constituted to achieve the sensitive monitoring of refractive index. Our work indicates the MoS2 thin film as a complementary material to graphene for the optical polarizer in the visible light range, and explores a new application direction of MoS2 nanomaterials for the construction of photonic circuits. PMID:25516116

  9. Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, A.; Torchia, G. A.; Lifante, G.; Cantelar, E.; Lamela, J.; Jaque, F.; Roso, L.; Jaque, D.

    2009-04-01

    The effect that femtosecond laser filamentation has on the refractive index of Nd:YAG ceramics, and which leads to the formation of waveguide lasers, has been studied by micro-spectroscopy imaging, beam propagation experiments and calculations. From the analysis of the Nd3+ luminescence and Raman images, two main types of laser induced modifications have been found to contribute to the refractive-index change: (i) a lattice defect contribution localized along the self-focusing volume of the laser pulses, in which lattice damage causes a refractive-index decrease, and (ii) a lattice strain-field contribution around and inside the filaments, in which the pressure-driven variation of the inter-atomic distances causes refractive-index variations. Scanning near-field optical-transmission and end-coupling experiments, in combination with beam propagation calculations, have been used to quantitatively determine the corresponding contribution of each effect to the refractive-index field of double-filament waveguides. Results indicate that the strain-field induced refractive-index increment is the main mechanism leading to waveguiding, whereas the damage-induced refractive-index reduction at filaments leads to a stronger mode confinement.

  10. Characterization of refractive index change and fabrication of long period gratings in pure silica fiber by femtosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Farid; Joe, Hang-Eun; Min, Byung-Kwon; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2015-11-01

    Ultrafast laser induced refractive index (RI) change in the core of a standard telecommunication fiber is quantified using the spectral shift of an in-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based Fabry-Perot cavity. Measured RI change is used to design and then fabricate long period grating (LPG) in pure silica core single mode fiber (SMF) employing identical laser irradiation conditions used in core index characterization. A core length of 100 ?m within the 10 mm long cavity structure is scanned with ultrafast laser pulses, and the corresponding spectral shift is used to calculate index modification. The index change of 0.000449 found in characterization process is used to simulate the LPG in pure silica fiber. Identical index modulation written in pure silica fiber by femtosecond laser radiation provides a rejection band that is in good agreement with the simulation results. The fabricated LPG sensors are also characterized for ambient temperature and RI.

  11. High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisting, S. R.; Bohn, P. W.; Andideh, E.; Adesida, I.; Cunningham, B. T.; Stillman, G. E.; Harris, T. D.

    1990-09-01

    A GaAs-Al0.22Ga0.78As heterostructure was prepared and used as a multimode optical waveguide. Propagation constants for individual modes were measured by exciting one mode at a time via real-space surface grating couplers, and the resulting eigenmode distributions were used to obtain the refractive index of GaAs at a matrix of temperatures and photon energies spanning 40 Krefractive index at T=0 K were also obtained. The dominant error source in these measurements was uncertainty in the angular placement of the sample. These measurements agree well with the few pre-existing temperature-dependent measurements, but are an order of magnitude more precise.

  12. Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gaozhong; Zhang, Saifeng E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn; Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ningning; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn; Umran, Fadhil A.; Coghlan, Darragh; Blau, Werner J.; Cheng, Ya

    2014-04-07

    Spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) was observed directly when a focused He-Ne laser beam at 633?nm went through liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene dispersions. The diffraction pattern of SSPM was found to be distorted rapidly right after the incident beam horizontally passing through the dispersions, while no distortion for the vertically incident geometry. We show that the distortion is originated mainly from the non-axis-symmetrical thermal convections of the graphene nanosheets induced by laser heating, and the relative change of nonlinear refractive index can be determined by the ratio of the distortion angle to the half-cone angle. Therefore, the effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions can be tuned by changing the incident intensity and the temperature of the dispersions.

  13. Demonstration of higher colour response with ambient refractive index in Papilio blumei as compared to Morpho rhetenor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Fang, Xiaotian; Huang, Yiqiao; Liu, Qinglei; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Multilayer structures are known to produce vivid iridescent colouration in many butterflies. Morpho butterflies are well known for their high reflectance, which appears to remain high over a wide range of viewing angles. Thus these butterflies have served as the inspiration for sensing materials. Using microscopic images and videos, we visually demonstrate that the colour response with ambient refractive index of Papilio blumei is better than that of Morpho rhetenor. This result was also verified using measurements of the reflectance for different viewing angles. The finite-difference time-domain method was then used to simulate the microscopic pictures and reflections. Finally, the relationships between the structure, ambient refractive index, reflection and viewing angle are discussed in detail. PMID:24998707

  14. Negative index of refraction in a four-level system with magnetoelectric cross coupling and local field corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, F.

    2011-07-15

    This research focuses on a coherently driven four-level atomic medium with the aim of inducing a negative index of refraction while taking into consideration local field corrections as well as magnetoelectric cross coupling (i.e.,chirality) within the material's response functions. Two control fields are used to render the medium transparent for a probe field which simultaneously couples to an electric and a magnetic dipole transition, thus allowing one to test the permittivity and permeability of the material at the same time. Numerical simulations show that a negative index of refraction with low absorption can be obtained for a range of probe detunings while depending on number density and the ratio between the intensities of the control fields.

  15. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    SciTech Connect

    Sakalli, I. Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  16. Single mode tapered fiber-optic interferometer based refractive index sensor and its application to protein sensing.

    PubMed

    Yadav, T K; Narayanaswamy, R; Abu Bakar, M H; Kamil, Y Mustapha; Mahdi, M A

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate refractive index sensors based on single mode tapered fiber and its application as a biosensor. We utilize this tapered fiber optic biosensor, operating at 1550 nm, for the detection of protein (gelatin) concentration in water. The sensor is based on the spectroscopy of mode coupling based on core modes-fiber cladding modes excited by the fundamental core mode of an optical fiber when it transitions into tapered regions from untapered regions. The changes are determined from the wavelength shift of the transmission spectrum. The proposed fiber sensor has sensitivity of refractive index around 1500 nm/RIU and for protein concentration detection, its highest sensitivity is 2.42141 nm/%W/V. PMID:25321749

  17. Determination of refractive index dispersion using fiber-optic low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometer: implementation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpienko, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Maciej S.; J?drzejewska-Szczerska, Ma?gorzata

    2014-07-01

    We present the implementation and validation of low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometer for refractive index dispersion measurements of liquids. A measurement system has been created with the use of four superluminescent diodes with different optical parameters, a fiber-optic coupler and an optical spectrum analyzer. The Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity has been formed by the fiber-optic end and mirror surfaces mounted on a micromechanical stage. The positive result of the validation procedure has been determined through statistical analysis. All obtained results were 99.999% statistically significant and were characterized by a strong positive correlation (r>0.98). The accuracy of the measured result of implemented low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor is from 83% to 94%, which proves that the sensor can be used in the measurement of refractive index dispersion of liquids.

  18. Polarizability, volume expansion, and stress contributions to the refractive index change of Cu+-Na+ ion exchanged waveguides in glass.

    PubMed

    Oven, Robert

    2011-09-10

    The refractive index of optical waveguides formed by electric field assisted Cu(+)-Na(+) ion exchange in two types of glass is measured. Assuming, as in a previously published work, that the observed refractive index increase is solely due to polarizability changes, the difference in electronic polarizability between Cu(+) and Na(+) ions is determined by applying the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to the data. In our work, the concentration of exchanged ions, which is a necessary input to the Lorentz-Lorenz equation, is determined by combining optical data and electrical data obtained during the exchange. Values for the electronic polarizability difference are in agreement with that in the literature. However, when a correction is made, taking into consideration the measured volume expansion and stress in the glass, the calculated electronic polarizability difference is shown to increase by 19%. PMID:21946987

  19. Encapsulation of low-refractive-index SiO(2) nanorods by Al(2)O(3) with atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangho S; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Song, Woo-Bin; Talghader, Joseph J

    2007-11-26

    Thin films composed of SiO(2) nanorods or nanoporous SiO(2) (np- SiO(2)) are attractive for use as a low refractive index material in various types of optical coatings. However, the material properties of these films are unstable because of the high porosity of the films. This is particularly apparent in dry versus humid atmospheres where both the refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) vary dramatically. In this article, we demonstrate that np-SiO(2) can be encapsulated by depositing Al(2)O(3) with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), stabilizing these properties. In addition, this encapsulation ability is demonstrated successfully in a 4-pair distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) design. It is hoped that this technique will be useful in patterning specific regions of a film for optical and mechanical stability while other portions are ambient-interactive for sensing. PMID:19550917

  20. Anneal-induced enhancement of refractive index and hardness of silicophosphate glasses containing six-fold coordinated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Huidan Jiang, Qi; Li, Xiang; Ye, Feng; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Haoxuan; Chen, Guorong

    2015-01-12

    A considerable number of optical devices have significantly benefited from the development of phosphate glasses as substrate materials. Introducing silica into sodium phosphate is an effective method to enhance its mechanical and optical properties. Through annealing treatment, the tetrahedral silicon oxide network structure (Si{sup (4)}) can be transformed into an octahedral structure (Si{sup (6)}) with more constraints. Here, we use high-temperature Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to reveal the mechanism of transformation between the Si{sup (4)} and Si{sup (6)} silicon oxide structures. The increase of the Si{sup (6)} content results in the phosphate glasses having higher refractive index and hardness. Based on this, the refractive index contribution of SiO{sub 6} is obtained.

  1. High-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometric refractive index sensor based on two different ultra-abrupt tapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiufeng; Xu, Le; Wang, Sumei

    2015-02-01

    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder(MZ) interferometric refractive index(RI) sensor based on two different ultra-abrupt tapers is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The whole fabrication process is relatively simple. One taper is fabricated by the fusion-splicing method and the ratio of the waist diameter to the taper length is 1:1. The other taper is fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation with a ratio around 1:10. According to the experimental results, the spectral loss of the proposed MZ interferometric sensor has a linear response to the external RI change with a ultrahigh sensitivity of -412.02138 dB/RIU(refractive index unit) in the range of 1.3505-1.3684. The sensor has the potential application for RI measurement in chemical or biochemical sensing fields due to its low cost, simple structure and extremely high sensitivity.

  2. Negative refractive index and acoustic superlens from multiple scattering in single negative metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaina, Nadège; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2015-09-01

    Metamaterials, man-made composite media structured on a scale much smaller than a wavelength, offer surprising possibilities for engineering the propagation of waves. One of the most interesting of these is the ability to achieve superlensing--that is, to focus or image beyond the diffraction limit. This originates from the left-handed behaviour--the property of refracting waves negatively--that is typical of negative index metamaterials. Yet reaching this goal requires the design of `double negative' metamaterials, which act simultaneously on the permittivity and permeability in electromagnetics, or on the density and compressibility in acoustics; this generally implies the use of two different kinds of building blocks or specific particles presenting multiple overlapping resonances. Such a requirement limits the applicability of double negative metamaterials, and has, for example, hampered any demonstration of subwavelength focusing using left-handed acoustic metamaterials. Here we show that these strict conditions can be largely relaxed by relying on media that consist of only one type of single resonant unit cell. Specifically, we show with a simple yet general semi-analytical model that judiciously breaking the symmetry of a single negative metamaterial is sufficient to turn it into a double negative one. We then demonstrate that this occurs solely because of multiple scattering of waves off the metamaterial resonant elements, a phenomenon often disregarded in these media owing to their subwavelength patterning. We apply our approach to acoustics and verify through numerical simulations that it allows the realization of negative index acoustic metamaterials based on Helmholtz resonators only. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of a negative index acoustic superlens, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with spot width and resolution 7 and 3.5 times better than the diffraction limit, respectively. Our findings have profound implications for the physics of metamaterials, highlighting the role of their subwavelength crystalline structure, and hence entering the realm of metamaterial crystals. This widens the scope of possibilities for designing composite media with novel properties in a much simpler way than has been possible so far.

  3. Negative refractive index and acoustic superlens from multiple scattering in single negative metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kaina, Nadège; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2015-09-01

    Metamaterials, man-made composite media structured on a scale much smaller than a wavelength, offer surprising possibilities for engineering the propagation of waves. One of the most interesting of these is the ability to achieve superlensing--that is, to focus or image beyond the diffraction limit. This originates from the left-handed behavior--the property of refracting waves negatively--that is typical of negative index metamaterials. Yet reaching this goal requires the design of 'double negative' metamaterials, which act simultaneously on the permittivity and permeability in electromagnetics, or on the density and compressibility in acoustics; this generally implies the use of two different kinds of building blocks or specific particles presenting multiple overlapping resonances. Such a requirement limits the applicability of double negative metamaterials, and has, for example, hampered any demonstration of subwavelength focusing using left-handed acoustic metamaterials. Here we show that these strict conditions can be largely relaxed by relying on media that consist of only one type of single resonant unit cell. Specifically, we show with a simple yet general semi-analytical model that judiciously breaking the symmetry of a single negative metamaterial is sufficient to turn it into a double negative one. We then demonstrate that this occurs solely because of multiple scattering of waves off the metamaterial resonant elements, a phenomenon often disregarded in these media owing to their subwavelength patterning. We apply our approach to acoustics and verify through numerical simulations that it allows the realization of negative index acoustic metamaterials based on Helmholtz resonators only. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of a negative index acoustic superlens, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with spot width and resolution 7 and 3.5 times better than the diffraction limit, respectively. Our findings have profound implications for the physics of metamaterials, highlighting the role of their subwavelength crystalline structure, and hence entering the realm of metamaterial crystals. This widens the scope of possibilities for designing composite media with novel properties in a much simpler way than has been possible so far. PMID:26333466

  4. Nonlinear refractive index measurement on pure and Nd doped YAG ceramic by dual arm Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, P.; Ensley, T. R.; Hu, H.; Hagan, D. J.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Gaume, R.

    2015-06-01

    Transparent ceramics gain much attention as an alternative medium for high power ultra-short lasers because of its superior thermal properties over single crystals. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index is essential to understand the limit of such material for ultra-short laser generation. Dual arm Z-scan technique was employed to measure n2 for single crystal and ceramic at the same time to avoid any uncertainty due to different measuring times.

  5. Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

    2014-10-01

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

  6. Refractive-index-based calorimetric studies of RNAse T1 unfolding in small volumes using microinterferometric backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlne, Michael P.; Hubbard, Darren S.; Makhatadze, George I.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    1997-05-01

    Micro-interferometry, a novel technique developed by the authors, employs a linearly polarized laser, a fused silica capillary tube housing for the sample and a charged coupled device as a detector. A back scattered interference pattern, observed as a high contrast fringes, is produced when the laser is directed onto the capillary containing the sample. The positional change of the fringe pattern is a function of the refractive index of the media in the capillary. In the present work, the RNA enzyme RNase T1 is heated in the sample cell over a temperature range of 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Over this temperature range the molecule unfolds form the quaternary to the tertiary structure. This structure change is manifested as a refractive index change and is observed by monitoring the fringe position while ramping the cell temperature in a controlled fashion. From the refractive index response over the temperature range, the Gibbs free energy associated with unfolding is calculated. The authors show milli-degree temperature stability with a 0.1 micro-liter probe volume, thus demonstrating the application of this device in micro- calorimetric investigations.

  7. Influence of substrate refractive index and metallic structure size on resonant properties in terahertz split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Shi, Yulei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Li, Chenyu; Wu, Ani; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Cunlin

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials with subwavelength structural features show unique electromagnetic responses that are unattainable with natural materials. Modulation property is regarded as one of the most important features of metamaterials. At present, the development of such terahertz switches and modulators are relatively slow. So the research of the terahertz metamaterial is very meaningful. The light-control modulation, for example, could control the resonance characteristics of split ring resonators (SRRs) by changing dielectric property of the light layer. Due to the complicated effect in photo-excited layer, we could simplify the research to firstly study the influence of substrate's refractive index on the resonant behaviors, providing the way to further the investigation of complex problems. In addition, the shape and size of metal microstructure can produce important effect on electromagnetic response. Therefore, based on the finite-difference time-domain method, we have also simulated several SRR structures with different geometry. We find the calculated terahertz transmission spectra exhibit remarkable change, showing that the resonant dips have a red-shift phenomenon and the bandwidth gets narrow with the increased refractive index as well as the structure size. Compared with the geometry effect, the red-shift is more sensitive to the change in refractive index. This work could help us to choose the suitable substrate materials for sample fabrication to realize the specific features.

  8. Revised Formulation for the Refractive Index of Water and Steam as a Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Allan H.; Gallagher, John S.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.

    1998-07-01

    Schiebener et al. published a formulation for the refractive index of water and steam in 1990 [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677 (1990)]. It covered the ranges 0.2 to 2.5 ?m in wavelength, -12 to 500 °C in temperature, and 0 to 1045 kg m-3 in density. The formulation was adopted by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) in 1991. In the present article, the data, after conversion to ITS-90, have been refitted to the same functional form, but based on an improved equation of state for water adopted by IAPWS in 1995. The revised coefficients are reported, and some tabular material is provided. The revised refractive-index formulation was adopted by IAPWS in 1997 and is available as part of a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Database. For most conditions, the revised formulation does not differ significantly from the previous one. A substantial improvement has been obtained in supercooled water at ambient pressure, where the previous formulation was defective. Special attention has been paid to the behavior of the refractive index in the near infrared, where strongly oscillating data were reported after the correlation of Schiebener et al. had appeared, leading to subsequent curtailing of the range of validity of the formulation. Newer results do not show these oscillations. They are compared with the revised formulation.

  9. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  10. MATCHED-INDEX-OF-REFRACTION FLOW FACILITY FOR FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Donald M. McEligot; Richard Skifton; Hugh McIlroy

    2014-11-01

    Significant challenges face reactor designers with regard to thermal hydraulic design and associated modeling for advanced reactor concepts. Computational thermal hydraulic codes solve only a piece of the core. There is a need for a whole core dynamics system code with local resolution to investigate and understand flow behavior with all the relevant physics and thermo-mechanics. The matched index of refraction (MIR) flow facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a unique capability to contribute to the development of validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes through the use of state-of-the-art optical measurement techniques, such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV is a non-intrusive velocity measurement technique that tracks flow by imaging the movement of small tracer particles within a fluid. At the heart of a PIV calculation is the cross correlation algorithm, which is used to estimate the displacement of particles in some small part of the image over the time span between two images. Generally, the displacement is indicated by the location of the largest peak. To quantify these measurements accurately, sophisticated processing algorithms correlate the locations of particles within the image to estimate the velocity (Ref. 1). Prior to use with reactor deign, the CFD codes have to be experimentally validated, which requires rigorous experimental measurements to produce high quality, multi-dimensional flow field data with error quantification methodologies. Computational thermal hydraulic codes solve only a piece of the core. There is a need for a whole core dynamics system code with local resolution to investigate and understand flow behavior with all the relevant physics and thermo-mechanics. Computational techniques with supporting test data may be needed to address the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant during the transition from turbulent to laminar flow, including the possibility of an early laminarization of the flow (Refs. 2 and 3) (laminarization is caused when the coolant velocity is theoretically in the turbulent regime, but the heat transfer properties are indicative of the coolant velocity being in the laminar regime). Such studies are complicated enough that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models may not converge to the same conclusion. Thus, experimentally scaled thermal hydraulic data with uncertainties should be developed to support modeling and simulation for verification and validation activities. The fluid/solid index of refraction matching technique allows optical access in and around geometries that would otherwise be impossible while the large test section of the INL system provides better spatial and temporal resolution than comparable facilities. Benchmark data for assessing computational fluid dynamics can be acquired for external flows, internal flows, and coupled internal/external flows for better understanding of physical phenomena of interest. The core objective of this study is to describe MIR and its capabilities, and mention current development areas for uncertainty quantification, mainly the uncertainty surface method and cross-correlation method. Using these methods, it is anticipated to establish a suitable approach to quantify PIV uncertainty for experiments performed in the MIR.

  11. Effect of Scintillometer Height on Structure Parameter of the Refractive Index of Air Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Hartogensis, O.; Basu, S.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Scintillometers measure amount of scintillations by emitting a beam of light over a horizontal path and expresses as the atmospheric turbulence structure parameter as the refractive index of air (Cn2). Cn2 represents the turbulent strength of the atmosphere and describes the ability of the atmosphere to transport heat and humidity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of scintillometer height on Cn2 measurements and on the estimation of latent heat fluxes. The study was conducted during the 2009 summer growing season in the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) at Bushland [350 11' N, 1020 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL], Texas. Field experiment consisted of two steps: (1) cross-calibration of scintillometers and (2) measurement of Cn2 at different heights. In the first step, three large aperture scintillometers (LAS) were deployed across two large lysimeter fields with bare soil surfaces. During the 3-week cross-calibration period, all three scintillometers were installed at a 2-m height with a path length of 420 m. Cn2 was monitored at a 1-min interval and averaged for 15-min periods. Cn2 measurements were synchronized with weather station and weighing lysimeter measurements. After the cross-calibration period, scintillometers were installed at 2-, 2.5- and 3-m heights, and Cn2 measurements were continued for another 3-week period. In addition to the Cn2 measurements, net radiation (Rn) and soil heat fluxes (G) were measured in both lysimeter fields. Cn2 values were corrected for inner scale dependence before cross calibration and estimation of sensible heat fluxes. Measurements of wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity were used with Cn2 data to derive sensible heat fluxes. Latent heat fluxes were estimated as a residual from the energy balance and compared with lysimeter data. Results of cross calibration and effects of scintillometer height on the estimation of latent heat fluxes were reported and discussed.

  12. Photonic crystal fiber refractive-index sensor based on multimode interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liu, Yun; Liu, Zigeng; Peng, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We report a type of multimode fiber interferometers (MMI) formed in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). To excite the cladding modes from the fundamental core mode of a PCF, a coupling point is formed. To form the coupling point, we used the method that is blowing compressed gas into the air-holes and discharging at one point, and the air-holes in this point will expand due to gas expansion in the discharge process. By placing two coupling points in series, a very simple all-fiber MMI can be implemented. The detailed fabrication process is that the one end of the PCF is tightly sealed by a short section of single mode fiber (SMF) spliced to the PCF. The other end of the PCF is sealed into a gas chamber and the opened air holes are pressurized. The PCF is then heated locally by the fusion splicer and the holes with higher gas pressure will expand locally where two bubbles formed. We tested the RI responses of fabricated sensors at room temperature by immersing the sensor into solutions with different NaCl concentration. Experimental results show that as refractive-index (RI) increases, the resonance wavelength of the MMI moves toward longer wavelengths. The sensitivity coefficients are estimated by the linear fitting line, which is 46nm/RIU, 154mn/RIU with the interferometer lengths (IL) of 3mm and 6mm. The interferometer with larger IL has higher RI sensitivity. The temperature cross-sensitivity of the sensor is also tested. The temperature sensitivity can be as low as -16.0pm/°C.

  13. Antireflective coatings with adjustable refractive index and porosity synthesized by micelle-templated deposition of MgF2 sol particles.

    PubMed

    Bernsmeier, Denis; Polte, Jörg; Ortel, Erik; Krahl, Thoralf; Kemnitz, Erhard; Kraehnert, Ralph

    2014-11-26

    Minimizing efficiency losses caused by unwanted light reflection at the interface between lenses, optical instruments and solar cells with the surrounding medium requires antireflective coatings with adequate refractive index and coating thickness. We describe a new type of antireflective coating material with easily and independently tailorable refractive index and coating thickness based on the deposition of colloidal MgF2 nanoparticles. The material synthesis employs micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers as structure directing agent to introduce controlled mesoporosity into MgF2 film. The coatings thickness can be easily adjusted by the applied coating conditions. The coatings refractive index is determined by the materials porosity, which is controlled by the amount of employed pore template. The refractive index can be precisely tuned between 1.23 and 1.11, i.e., in a range that is not accessible to nonporous inorganic materials. Hence, zero reflectance conditions can be established for a wide range of substrate materials. PMID:25372504

  14. Polymers for refractive index change in intraocular lenses: a novel approach for photoinduced tuning of focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2006-02-01

    Before an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted during cataract surgery, biometric data of the patient's eye have to be determined to calculate the thickness and shape of the IOL. In particular the postoperative anterior chamber depth is an important parameter to predict the correct shape of the IOL. This value, however, cannot be measured without significant uncertainities. We present a solution to this problem, describe novel polymers suitable for IOLs which refractive indices can be changed non-invasively in a photo-induced process. The focal length can be modified by about 2 D, which is sufficient to achive ideal acuteness of vision for almost all patients with implanted IOLs. The change in refractive index is accomplished by linking or cleaving bonds between a sufficiently large number of side groups of the polymer main chain in a photoinduced cyloaddition or cycloreversion, respectively. The photochemical reaction can also be triggered by a two-photon process (TPA) using a pulsed laser system, i.e. the energy required for bond breaking is provided by two photons in the visible range. Light in the UV as well as the visible range of the spectrum cannot induce undesired changes of the refractive index owing to the strong UV-absorption of the cornea and photon densities much too low for TPA, respectively. Due to the excellent spatial resolution that can be achieved with two-photon processes not only modification of the refractive index of the entire lens but also selectively in well defined areas is possible enabling the correction for aberrations such as astigmatism.

  15. Refractive index determination using the central focal masking technique with dispersion colors.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures, precision, advantages and limitations of central focal masking ("dispersion staining'), a technique for determining the refractive indices of microfragments by the immersion method and for distinguishing between minerals in an immersion mount, are described. -J.A.Z.

  16. Evaluation of photoinduced change in refractive index of a polymer film doped with an azobenzene liquid crystal by means of a prism-coupling method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Hideo; Shishido, Atsushi; Ikeda, Tomiki

    2005-10-15

    The photoinduced change in refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with an azobenzene liquid crystal was measured by the prism-coupling method. Upon irradiation of the film with a high-pressure mercury lamp at 366 nm, the coupling angles shifted and then recovered to the initial position by turning off the light. The change in refractive index was found to be 2x10{sup -3}, which is attributed to the reversible photoisomerization of the azobenzene moieties.

  17. Colloidal Moderate-Refractive-Index Cu2 O Nanospheres as Visible-Region Nanoantennas with Electromagnetic Resonance and Directional Light-Scattering Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Jiang, Ruibin; Xie, Ya-Ming; Ruan, Qifeng; Yang, Baocheng; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Moderate-refractive-index dielectric nano-spheres are found to possess strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the visible region. Owing to the overlap of the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, moderate-refractive-index dielectric nanospheres exhibit directional forward scattering at the strongest scattering peak. Such directional scattering is experimentally observed on colloidal Cu2 O nanospheres, which are readily prepared through wet-chemistry methods. PMID:26484637

  18. Refraction index modulation induced with transverse electric field in double tunnel-coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, A. A.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya; Balagula, R. M.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Vasil'iev, A. P.; Duque, C. A.; Tiutiunnyk, A.; Akimov, V.; Restrepo, R. L.; Tulupenko, V. N.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Modulation of refraction index under transverse electric field was studied in structures with multiple tunnel-coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells in the spectral range corresponding to intersubband light absorption. The change of refraction index in electric field was calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation and experimentally determined spectra of intersubband light absorption in equilibrium conditions and under transverse electric field.

  19. Joint French-German radar measurements for the determination of the refractive index in the maritime boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essen, Helmut; Danklmayer, Andreas; Förster, Jörg; Behn, Mario; Hurtaud, Yvonick; Fabbro, Vincent; Castanet, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    To predict the performance of coastal and shipborne radars, it is essential to assess the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in the maritime boundary layer. To be independent upon environmental measurements, which are generally not as precise and reliable as they have to be for a proper input to simulation programs, usually based upon parabolic equation models, a method to retrieve the refractive index gradients in the low troposphere is the Refractivity from Clutter (RFC) algorithm. The propagation factor is computed from the received clutter power and is iteratively processed in order to retrieve the refractive index profiles. Under a respective French-German technical agreement a measurement program concerning radar propagation in the maritime boundary layer has been initiated, with contributions from ONERA-CERT, DGA MI / TN, Fraunhofer-FHR and the German Technical Center for Ships and Naval Weapons (WTD 71). The paper gives an overview on the RFC method with examples from the previous campaigns. It describes the experimental set-up and its methodology.

  20. Refractive Index Determination of SIO2 Layer in the UV/VIS/NIR Range: Spectrophotometric Reverse Engineering on Single and Bi-Layer Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Lemarchand, F.; Lequime, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use spectrophotometric measurements and a Clustering Global Optimization procedure to determine the complex refractive index of SiO2 layer from 250 nm to 1250 nm. A special commercial optical module allows the reflection and transmission measurements to be made under exactly the same illumination and measurement conditions. We compare the index determination results obtained from two different single layer SiO2 samples, with high and low index glass substrates, respectively. We then determine the refractive index of SiO2 for a bi-layer design in which the first deposited layer is Ta2O5. The corresponding solutions are discussed and we show that the real part of the complex refractive index obtained for a bi-layer is slightly different to that found for a single layer investigation. When SiO2 is included inside a thin film stack, we propose the use of an index determination method in which a bi-layer is used for the real part of the complex refractive index, and single layer determination is used for the imaginary part of the refractive index in the UV range.