Sample records for absolute thermal emf

  1. Thermoelectric eddy currents and transverse thermal emf in zonally inhomogeneous plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Anatychuk; O. Ya. Luste

    1969-01-01

    1.It has been shown possible to use an electrical-analog model to determine the potential distribution in zonally inhomogeneous media during the flow of thermoelectric eddy currents.2.It has been established that the thermoelectric eddy current leads to a transverse potential difference along an isotherm.3.It is suggested that the transverse emf be used to detect inhomogeneities in plates in contact, e.g., in

  2. Motional EMF demonstration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingman, Robert; Popescu, Sabin

    2001-03-01

    A simple quantitative motional emf experiment. The induced voltage is recorded in this computer-based experiment as a coil is moved through the field of a permanent magnet. Results compare closely with predicted values.

  3. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) information. Spatial variations and day-to-day changes in the visible oil concentration on the surface of the water were observed in performing these measurements. An assessment of the thermal imagery variation will be made based on the absolute calibration of the sensor to determine if the visible variation was due to properties of the reflected light or of the actual oil composition. Comparisons with satellite data (both SAR and thermal infrared images) and buoy data will also be included.

  4. Signal generation mechanisms, intracavity-gas thermal-diffusivity temperature dependence, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    the thermal diffusivities of gases with very high precision and resolution.2,3 The cavity consists of two, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements in a thermal-wave resonant cavity Jun Shen, Andreas Mandelis transfer mechanisms in a thermal-wave resonant cavity were explored theoretically and experimentally. Both

  5. The measurement of absolute thermal neutron flux using liquid scintillation counting techniques

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jack Vernon

    1960-01-01

    THE MEASUREMENT OF ABSOLUTE THERMAL NEUTRON FLUX USING LIQUID SClNTILLATION COUNTING TECHNIQUES A Thesis By Jack Vernon Halker Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject Nuclear Engineering THE MEASUREMENT OP ABSOLUTE THERMAL NEUTRON PLUX US ING LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING TECHNIQUES A Thesi. s By Jack Vernon Walker Approved as to style...

  6. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Good; R. Warden; P. F. Kaptchen; T. Finch; W. J. Emery

    2010-01-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated

  7. Thermal Imaging in the Chemistry Laboratory Thermal imaging devices take advantage of the fact that all objects with a temperature above absolute

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Thermal Imaging in the Chemistry Laboratory Thermal imaging devices take advantage of the fact that all objects with a temperature above absolute zero have thermal energy and will emit various wavelengths of thermal radiation (visible, infrared and ultra violet radiation). Thermal cameras convert

  8. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

  9. Nanoscale range finding of subsurface structures by measuring the absolute phase lag of thermal wave

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Jaehun; Kim, Kyeongtae; Hwang, Gwangseok; Kwon, Ohmyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sik [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Ho [Department of Mechanical and System Design Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Ki [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The need for a subsurface imaging technique to locate and characterize subsurface defects in multidimensional micro- and nanoengineered devices has been growing rapidly. We show that a subsurface heater can be located accurately using the phase lag of a thermal wave. We deduce that the absolute phase lag is composed of four components. Among the four components, we isolate the component directly related to the position and the structure of the periodic heat source. We demonstrate that the position of the heater can be estimated accurately from the isolated phase lag component.

  10. Human health effects of EMFs: The cost of doing nothing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF), as well as naturally occurring EMFs. Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of the population, especially children. While there has been strong evidence

  11. Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kušnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    We obtained estimates of the Johnson V absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) for 583 main-belt and near-Earth asteroids observed at Ond?ejov and Table Mountain Observatory from 1978 to 2011. Uncertainties of the absolute magnitudes in our sample are <0.21 mag, with a median value of 0.10 mag. We compared the H data with absolute magnitude values given in the MPCORB, Pisa AstDyS and JPL Horizons orbit catalogs. We found that while the catalog absolute magnitudes for large asteroids are relatively good on average, showing only little biases smaller than 0.1 mag, there is a systematic offset of the catalog values for smaller asteroids that becomes prominent in a range of H greater than ?10 and is particularly big above H ? 12. The mean (Hcatalog - H) value is negative, i.e., the catalog H values are systematically too bright. This systematic negative offset of the catalog values reaches a maximum around H = 14 where the mean (Hcatalog - H) is -0.4 to -0.5. We found also smaller correlations of the offset of the catalog H values with taxonomic types and with lightcurve amplitude, up to ?0.1 mag or less. We discuss a few possible observational causes for the observed correlations, but the reason for the large bias of the catalog absolute magnitudes peaking around H = 14 is unknown; we suspect that the problem lies in the magnitude estimates reported by asteroid surveys. With our photometric H and G data, we revised the preliminary WISE albedo estimates made by Masiero et al. (Masired, J.R. et al. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 741, 68-89) and Mainzer et al. (Mainzer, A. et al. [2011b]. Astrophys. J. 743, 156-172) for asteroids in our sample. We found that the mean geometric albedo of Tholen/Bus/DeMeo C/G/B/F/P/D types with sizes of 25-300 km is pV = 0.057 with the standard deviation (dispersion) of the sample of 0.013 and the mean albedo of S/A/L types with sizes 0.6-200 km is 0.197 with the standard deviation of the sample of 0.051. The standard errors of the mean albedos are 0.002 and 0.006, respectively; systematic observational or modeling errors can predominate over the quoted formal errors. There is apparent only a small, marginally significant difference of 0.031 ± 0.011 between the mean albedos of sub-samples of large and small (divided at diameter 25 km) S/A/L asteroids, with the smaller ones having a higher albedo. The difference will have to be confirmed and explained; we speculate that it may be either a real size dependence of surface properties of S type asteroids or a small size-dependent bias in the data (e.g., a bias towards higher albedos in the optically-selected sample of asteroids). A trend of the mean of the preliminary WISE albedo estimates increasing with asteroid size decreasing from D ? 30 down to ?5 km (for S types) showed in Mainzer et al. (Mainzer, A. et al. [2011a]. Astrophys. J. 741, 90-114) appears to be mainly due to the systematic bias in the MPCORB absolute magnitudes that progressively increases with H in the corresponding range H = 10-14.

  12. High reliability sheathed, beryllia insulated, tungsten-rhenium alloy thermocouple assemblies; their fabrication and EMF stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. W.; Hurst, W. S.; Scroger, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Tantalum sheathed, BeO insulated, W-3% Re/W-25% Re thermocouple assemblies were fabricated and their emf drift determined during 2059 hours of exposure at 2073 K in a gaseous helium environment. The sheathed thermocouple assemblies were constructed from aged thermoelements, specially heat-treated BeO insulators, and specially cleaned and etched tantalum sheaths. Their thermal emf drifts ranged from the equivalent of only -0.3 to -0.8 K drift per 1000 hours of exposure at 2073 K. No evidence of any gross chemical attack or degradation of the component materials was found. The emf drift and material behavior of some unsheathed, BeO insulated, W-3% Re/W-25% Re thermocouples at 2250 and 2400 K were also determined. Unsheathed thermocouples tested in an argon environment at 2250 K for 1100 hours and at 2400 K for 307 hours exhibited changes in thermal emf that typically ranged from the equivalent of a few degrees K to as much as +11 K. Post-test examinations of these thermocouples revealed some undesirable material degradation and interaction which included erosion of the BeO insulators and contamination of the thermoelements by tantalum from the tantalum blackbody enclosure in which the thermocouples were contained.

  13. EMF-Cancer Links: Yes, No, and Maybe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Taubes

    1993-01-01

    The controversy over whether or not low-level electromagnetic fields (EMF) can cause cancer has been smoldering for 15 years. This month it got a little hotter -- but there's still more smoke than fire. At the beginning of October, writer and EMF gadfly Paul Brodeur brought out his latest book exposing a purported EMF-cancer connection, entitled The Great Power-line Cover-up.

  14. Absolute measurement of thermal noise in a resonant short-range force experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Housworth, E. A.; Meyer, H. O.; Visser, G.; Weisman, E.; Long, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    Planar, double-torsional oscillators are especially suitable for short-range macroscopic force search experiments, since they can be operated at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. As a study of this limit, we report a measurement of the noise kinetic energy of a polycrystalline tungsten oscillator in thermal equilibrium at room temperature. The fluctuations of the oscillator in a high-Q torsional mode with a resonance frequency near 1 kHz are detected with capacitive transducers coupled to a sensitive differential amplifier. The electronic processing is calibrated by means of a known electrostatic force and input from a finite-element model. The measured average kinetic energy, Eexp = (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-21 J, is in agreement with the expected value of 1/2{{k}B}T.

  15. Development of an EMF Measurments Database, EMF Rapid Program, Project #5, Interim Report: April 1995-December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1998-03-01

    The EMF Measurements Database project is being implemented by T. Dan Bracken, Inc. as part of the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMF RAPID) Program. The Database is a collection of data sets that relate to measurement of electric and/or magnetic fields. This report describes activities during the period January 1997 to March 1998. Primary goals for the EMF Measurements Database are to develop a database structure that can accommodate the diversity of EMF data sets, provide guidance for production of future EMF data sets, and serve as an accessible repository of EMF measurement data. Specific objectives of the EMF Measurements Database are: o to presewe study descriptions, results and data; o to provide readily accessible, well-documented data; and - o to facilitate communication among researchers. In addition, the EMF Measurements Database will encourage additional analysis of existing data sets, facilitate analysis of data from multiple projects, support design of new studies, and permit future issues in EMF exposure assessment to be addressed with existing data. Preservation of study descriptions and data is accomplished with a formal, but open, structure. Specifications have been developed for the various elements of the database. Each data set in the database is formally described by a metadata file. The structured metadata file describes the origin, development, logical and physical structure, and distribution mechanism for each data set. The metadata for each data set is generated according to a specification developed for the EMF Measurements Database. The actual measurement data is contained in data products for each data set. The number and type of data product will vary by data set. Most of the data products available from the EMF Measurements Database can be downloaded from an Internet site. For some data sets, the data products will be maintained by other patties who may have their own access procedures.

  16. Dissociative recombination of the deuterated acetaldehyde ion, CD3CDO(+): product branching fractions, absolute cross sections and thermal rate coefficient.

    PubMed

    Vigren, Erik; Kami?ska, Magdalena; Hamberg, Mathias; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Thomas, Richard D; Semaniak, Jacek; Danielsson, Mathias; Larsson, Mats; Geppert, Wolf D

    2007-06-14

    Dissociative recombination of the deuterated acetaldehyde ion CD3CDO(+) has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING, located at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden. Product branching fractions together with absolute DR cross-sections were measured. The branching fractions were determined at a relative collision energy between the ions and the electrons of approximately 0 eV. With a probability of 34% the DR events resulted in no ruptures of bonds between heavy atoms (i.e. no breakage of the C-C bond or the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond). In the remaining 66% of the events one of the bonds between the heavy atoms was broken. The energy-dependent cross-section for the DR reaction was measured between approximately 0 and 1 eV relative kinetic energy. In the energy region between 1 meV and 0.2 eV the absolute cross section could be fitted by the expression sigma(E) = 6.8 x 10(-16)E(-1.28) cm(2), whereas in the energy interval between 0.2 and 1 eV the data were best fitted by sigma(E) = 4.1 x 10(-16)E(-1.60) cm(2). From these cross section data the thermal rate coefficient (as a function of the electron temperature), alpha(T) = 9.2 x 10(-7) (T/300)(-0.72) cm(3) s(-1) was obtained. PMID:17538730

  17. Appearance of thermochemical emf in some conducting materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Petrov; V. V. Maslikhov; V. D. Shcheglov

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of an emf in conductors when they are heated is described by the Seebeck and Thompson effects. If some part of the surface of a conductor is covered by a pyrotechnical material and ignited, then while the pyrotechnical material is burning and after it has burned, an emf arises at the ends of the conductor. The direction of

  18. Development of an EMF Measurements Database, EMF Rapid Program, Project #5, Interim Report: April 1995-December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-04-01

    The EMF measurement data sets in existence today were compiled with varying goals and techniques. Consequently, they have different information content as well as varying logical and physical structure. Future studies will continue to pursue varying goals and utilize techniques that cannot be known in advance. Primary goals for the EMF Measurements Database developed under the Department of Energy EMF RAPID Program are to develop a database structure that can accommodate the diversity of EMF data sets, provide guidance for production of future EMF data sets, and serve as an accessible repository of EMF measurement data. Specific objectives of the EMF Measurements Database are: o to preserve study descriptions, results and data; o to provide readily accessible, well-documented data; and o to facilitate communication among researchers. In addition, the EMF Measurements Database will encourage additional analysis of existing data sets, facilitate analysis of data from multiple projects, support design of new studies, and permit future issues in EMF exposure assessment to be addressed with existing data. Preservation of study descriptions and data is accomplished with a formal, but open, structure. Specifications have been developed for the various elements of the database. Each data set in the database is formally described by a metadata file. The structured metadata file describes the origin, development, logical and physical structure and distribution mechanism for each data set. The metadata for each data set is generated according to a specification developed for the EMF Measurements Database. The actual measurement data is contained in data Products for each data set. The number and type of data product will vary by data set. Most of the data products in the possession of the EMF Measurements Database are available for download from an Internet site. For some data sets, the data products will be maintained by other parties who may have their own access procedures. In addition, data set contributors or users can provide reports that describe results of the study and analysis of the data with text and figures. Guidelines have been developed for preparation of reports. Access to the EMF Measurements Database is provided via an Internet site (http://www.emf-data. erg). The site provides descriptive information in a home page, . . access to data products with a file transfer protocol (ftp) address, and links to other EMF-related sites.

  19. EMF monitoring-concepts, activities, gaps and options.

    PubMed

    Dürrenberger, Gregor; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data. PMID:25216256

  20. Characteristics of PM Synchronous Motor Drives with a trapezoidal EMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori; Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki

    A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with non-sinusoidal electromotive force (EMF) generates torque ripple even if the sinusoidal PWM inverter drives the PMSM. A new modified trapezoidal modulating signal for PWM inverter suitable for PMSM drive with non-sinusoidal EMF is proposed in this paper. A new modulating signal for the PMSM drive is determined by the condition of reducing torque ripple of the motor with various trapezoidal EMF. When the PWM inverter using modified trapezoidal modulating signal drives the PMSM having a non-sinusoidal EMF, the torque ripple of the motor can be reduced, the DC link voltage utilization is improved and reduction of switching loss can be obtained.

  1. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  2. Human health effects of EMFs: The cost of doing nothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter MD, David O.

    2010-04-01

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF), as well as naturally occurring EMFs. Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of the population, especially children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. ELF EMFs also increase risk of at least two types of neurodegenerative diseases. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of many reports of biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent evidence demonstrates elevations in risk of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their mobile phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing may result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing these diseases.

  3. Electromagnetic fields (EMF): do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)?

    PubMed

    Otto, Matthias; von Mühlendahl, Karl Ernst

    2007-10-01

    Possible adverse health effects of exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and especially the question of whether there exists a special vulnerability of children, have been a much discussed topic during the last two decades. Static fields produce health effects only in very rare and exceptional circumstances at extremely high field intensities. As for low-frequency EMF, the results of epidemiological research with respect to childhood leukaemia prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2001 to classify these fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans". Current hypotheses on the mechanism of such action are presented. The effect, if existent, appears to be not very important in relation to established other causes of childhood leukaemia. High-frequency EMF, as used in mobile and wireless communication (mobile telephony according to the GSM and UMTS standard, cordless DECT phones, wireless local area networks (WLAN), Bluetooth) and since many decades also in radio and television technology, are practically omnipresent. At high intensities, the generation of heat is the principal effect. Current guidelines, limits and regulations prevent any such effect. Mobile phone calls may, in certain circumstances, lead to local exposures close to limit values. Base stations typically produce exposures lower by 2-5 magnitudes. The discussion centres on the so-called non-thermal effects, which are supposedly occurring at field intensities, which are by orders of magnitude lower than those responsible for thermal effects. The reproducibility of these effects is usually poor, and no physiologic or pathogenic mechanism, so far, has been found to explain the alleged effects. Equally, epidemiologic studies have not furnished clear and reproducible data as arguments for negative health effects. Final results of the INTERPHONE study on the risk of brain tumours, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours associated with the use of mobile phones will be soon available. Preliminary results do not seem to indicate a substantial increase in risk. There are presently no scientific data supporting the concept of a special vulnerability of children and adolescents to high-frequency EMF, even if the usual caveats (developing organisms and structures may be more vulnerable, decades of life to come) are considered. The concept of precautionary measures adapted to such concerns is critically discussed. PMID:17765660

  4. Review of literature and studies on electro magnetic fields (EMF) generated by undersea power cables and associated influence on marine organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Switzer; Dallas Meggitt

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the available literature on EMF transmitted by submarine cables and the effects, if any, on marine organisms to assess the possible implications for environmental permitting of submarine power cables, such as those required for offshore wind, wave, tidal and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) projects. The potential for

  5. INVITED EDITORIAL: Do we know enough about EMF-induced health effects?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Repacholi

    1998-01-01

    Responsible Officer, International EMF Project, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland In this issue Dr Zenon Sienkiewicz summarises the biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). He concludes that there are few established consequences of EMF exposure at levels normally encountered by members of the general public, and that any health risk from these fields is likely to

  6. Exposure assessment for power frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and its application to epidemiologic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Bracken; L. I. Kheifets; S. S. Sussman

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggesting possible health effects associated with exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from the transmission, distribution, and use of electricity have motivated increased interest in and attention to EMF exposure assessment. The result has been new instruments, measurement approaches, and exposure models that can improve on what has been a weakness in past epidemiologic studies, namely EMF

  7. Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlbom, I C; Cardis, E; Green, A; Linet, M; Savitz, D; Swerdlow, A

    2001-01-01

    Exposures to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are a ubiquitous part of modern life. Concern about potential adverse health effects was initially brought to prominence by an epidemiologic report two decades ago from Denver on childhood cancer. We reviewed the now voluminous epidemiologic literature on EMF and risks of chronic disease and conclude the following: a) The quality of epidemiologic studies on this topic has improved over time and several of the recent studies on childhood leukemia and on cancer associated with occupational exposure are close to the limit of what can realistically be achieved in terms of size of study and methodological rigor. b) Exposure assessment is a particular difficulty of EMF epidemiology, in several respects: i) The exposure is imperceptible, ubiquitous, has multiple sources, and can vary greatly over time and short distances. ii) The exposure period of relevance is before the date at which measurements can realistically be obtained and of unknown duration and induction period. iii) The appropriate exposure metric is not known and there are no biological data from which to impute it. c) In the absence of experimental evidence and given the methodological uncertainties in the epidemiologic literature, there is no chronic disease for which an etiological relation to EMF can be regarded as established. d) There has been a large body of high quality data for childhood cancer, and also for adult leukemia and brain tumor in relation to occupational exposure. Among all the outcomes evaluated in epidemiologic studies of EMF, childhood leukemia in relation to postnatal exposures above 0.4 microT is the one for which there is most evidence of an association. The relative risk has been estimated at 2.0 (95% confidence limit: 1.27-3.13) in a large pooled analysis. This is unlikely to be due to chance but, may be, in part, due to bias. This is difficult to interpret in the absence of a known mechanism or reproducible experimental support. In the large pooled analysis only 0.8% of all children were exposed above 0.4 microT. Further studies need to be designed to test specific hypotheses such as aspects of selection bias or exposure. On the basis of epidemiologic findings, evidence shows an association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with occupational EMF exposure although confounding is a potential explanation. Breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and suicide and depression remain unresolved. PMID:11744509

  8. Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health.

    PubMed

    Ahlbom, I C; Cardis, E; Green, A; Linet, M; Savitz, D; Swerdlow, A

    2001-12-01

    Exposures to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are a ubiquitous part of modern life. Concern about potential adverse health effects was initially brought to prominence by an epidemiologic report two decades ago from Denver on childhood cancer. We reviewed the now voluminous epidemiologic literature on EMF and risks of chronic disease and conclude the following: a) The quality of epidemiologic studies on this topic has improved over time and several of the recent studies on childhood leukemia and on cancer associated with occupational exposure are close to the limit of what can realistically be achieved in terms of size of study and methodological rigor. b) Exposure assessment is a particular difficulty of EMF epidemiology, in several respects: i) The exposure is imperceptible, ubiquitous, has multiple sources, and can vary greatly over time and short distances. ii) The exposure period of relevance is before the date at which measurements can realistically be obtained and of unknown duration and induction period. iii) The appropriate exposure metric is not known and there are no biological data from which to impute it. c) In the absence of experimental evidence and given the methodological uncertainties in the epidemiologic literature, there is no chronic disease for which an etiological relation to EMF can be regarded as established. d) There has been a large body of high quality data for childhood cancer, and also for adult leukemia and brain tumor in relation to occupational exposure. Among all the outcomes evaluated in epidemiologic studies of EMF, childhood leukemia in relation to postnatal exposures above 0.4 microT is the one for which there is most evidence of an association. The relative risk has been estimated at 2.0 (95% confidence limit: 1.27-3.13) in a large pooled analysis. This is unlikely to be due to chance but, may be, in part, due to bias. This is difficult to interpret in the absence of a known mechanism or reproducible experimental support. In the large pooled analysis only 0.8% of all children were exposed above 0.4 microT. Further studies need to be designed to test specific hypotheses such as aspects of selection bias or exposure. On the basis of epidemiologic findings, evidence shows an association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with occupational EMF exposure although confounding is a potential explanation. Breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and suicide and depression remain unresolved. PMID:11744509

  9. Childhood Brain Tumors and Residential Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leeka I. Kheifets; Stanley S. Sussman; Susan Preston-Martin

    \\u000a Since 1979, several residential studies have examined the potential association between exposure to power-frequency (50-60\\u000a hertz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and childhood cancer (Feychting and Ahlbom 1993;Savitz et al. 1988;Wertheimer and Leeper 1979). The initial research in this field examined all childhood cancers as an endpoint, whereas most recently completed (Linet et al. 1997;London et al. 1991) and ongoing studies focus

  10. Dissociative recombination of fully deuterated protonated acetonitrile, CD3CND+: product branching fractions, absolute cross section and thermal rate coefficient.

    PubMed

    Vigren, Erik; Kami?ska, Magdalena; Hamberg, Mathias; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Thomas, Richard D; Danielsson, Mathias; Semaniak, Jacek; Andersson, Patrik U; Larsson, Mats; Geppert, Wolf D

    2008-07-21

    The dissociative recombination of fully deuterated protonated acetonitrile, CD(3)CND(+), has been investigated at the CRYRING heavy ion storage ring, located at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden. Branching fractions were measured at approximately 0 eV relative collision energy between the ions and the electrons and in 65% of the DR events there was no rupture of bonds between heavy atoms. In the remaining 35%, one of the bonds between the heavy atoms was broken. The DR cross-section was measured between approximately 0 eV and 1 eV relative collision energy. In the energy region between 1 meV and 0.1 eV the cross section data were best fitted by the expression sigma = 7.37 x 10(-16) (E/eV)(-1.23) cm(2), whereas sigma = 4.12 x 10(-16) (E/eV)(-1.46) cm(2) was the best fit for the energy region between 0.1 and 1.0 eV. From the cross section a thermal rate coefficient of alpha(T) = 8.13 x 10(-7) (T/300)(-0.69) cm(3) s(-1) was deduced. PMID:18597015

  11. Sensorless control strategy for salient-pole PMSM based on extended EMF in rotating reference frame

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeo Morimoto; Keisuke Kawamoto; Masayuki Sanada; Yoji Takeda

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel sensorless control strategy for a salient-pole permanent magnet synchronous motor. A new model of salient-pole PMSM using an extended electromotive force (EMF) in the rotating reference frame is utilized to estimate both position and speed. The extended EMF is estimated by a least-order observer, and the estimation position error are obtained from the extended EMF.

  12. EMF-protection sleep study near mobile phone base stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Leitgeb; Jörg Schröttner; Roman Cech; Reinhold Kerbl

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a \\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a   In einer Crossover-Studie wurde die mögliche kausale Rolle hochfrequenter (HF) elektromagnetischer Felder (EMF) für Schlafstörungen\\u000a in den Schlafzimmern von 43 elektrosensiblen Probanden (26 Frauen und 17 Männer) untersucht. Dabei wurde mit einem neuartigen\\u000a Studienansatz und mobilen Schirmen Schlafparameteränderungen nicht in Bezug auf zusätzliche, sondern auf den Schutz vor vorhandenen\\u000a Immissionen untersucht. In zufälliger Reihenfolge wurden dazu drei Bedingungen (Kontrolle,

  13. Overview of EMF 22 U.S. Transition Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Allen A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Reilly, J. M.; Weyant, John

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum 22 study included a set of U.S. transition scenarios designed to bracket a range of potential U.S. climate policy goals. Models from the six teams that participated in this part of the study include models that have been prominently involved in analyzing proposed U.S. climate legislation, as well as models that have been involved in the Climate Change Science Program and other parts of this EMF 22 study. This paper presents an overview of the results from the U.S. transition scenarios, and provides insights into the comparison of results from the participating models.

  14. EMF RAPID Program research agenda and communication plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The driving force behind the Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program, established by Section 2118 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, is the ``sense of the Congress that remedial action taken by the Government on electric and magnetic fields, if and as necessary, should be based on, and consistent with, scientifically valid research...`` Specifically, the legislation requires the development of a comprehensive program to: determine whether or not exposure to electric and magnetic fields produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electric energy affects human health; carry out research, development, and demonstration with respect to technologies to mitigate any adverse human health effects; and provide for the collection, compilation, publication, and dissemination of scientifically valid information to the public on the following subjects: (a) possible human health effects of electric and magnetic fields; (b) the types and extent of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields in various occupational and residential settings; (c) technologies to measure and characterize electric and magnetic fields; and (d) methods to assess and manage exposure to electric and magnetic fields. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the overall administration of the 5-year, and $65 million EMF RAPID Program. The program will be jointly funded by both Federal non-Federal sources with non-Federal contributions accounting for at least 50% of the total funding.

  15. Discussion of an EMF (electric and magnetic field) protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Afifi, A.A.; Banks, R.S.; Kheifets, L.I.; Newman, B. (Banks (Robert S.) Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    In 1989, three collaborating cancer research agencies initiated large-scale case-control studies of the postulated association between residential exposure to 50/60-Hz electric and magnetic fields and the induction of childhood leukemia. To facilitate design of the exposure assessment component of these studies, the Electric Power Research Institute sponsored a two-day workshop on February 6--8, 1989. The workshop's objective was to develop a detailed state-of-the science'' protocol for direct and/or surrogate measurements of a subject's EMF exposure history. Emphasis was placed on the difficulties inherent in measuring the exposure of small children. Attendees were divided into three working groups, addressing the following questions, respectively: How can historical exposure best be assessed; what should be measured outdoors; and what should be measured indoors Consensus on a single protocol was not found to be possible, given the state of knowledge about EMF exposure and the pathophysiology of childhood leukemia. However, the discussion produced a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in addressing the crucial questions of who and what should be measured, and when, where and how these measurements should take place. In particular, discussion focused on: personal monitoring versus area measurements; exposure metrics; relevant time periods over the subjects life for measurement; location and duration of measurements; and protocol development considerations. Attendees expressed strong interest in another, similar workshop sometime in the future. 1 tab.

  16. Public reaction to power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva A. Sebo; Stephen A. Sebo

    1996-01-01

    The presence of various power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects has always implied the need for technological control of their manifestations. The power frequency EMF effects are associated not only with the transmission and distribution lines of the electric power system, but also with work environments, office machines, illumination sources, home appliances, computers and entertainment systems, air conditioning,

  17. Electromagnetic fields (EMF): Do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Otto; Karl Ernst von Mühlendahl

    2007-01-01

    Possible adverse health effects of exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and especially the question of whether there exists a special vulnerability of children, have been a much discussed topic during the last two decades. Static fields produce health effects only in very rare and exceptional circumstances at extremely high field intensities. As for low-frequency EMF, the results

  18. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacchini, A. H.; Everington, M. L.; Augousti, A. T.; Walker, A. J.

    2007-07-01

    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 ?mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  19. Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: Concern for human health

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, C.; Costantini, E.; Kamal, M.A.; Reale, M.

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are abundantly present in modern society and in the last 20 years the interest about the possible effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) EMFs on human health has increased progressively. Epidemiological studies, designed to verify whether EMF exposure may be a potential risk factor for health, have led to controversial results. The possible association between EMFs and an increased incidence of childhood leukemia, brain tumors or neurodegenerative diseases was not fully elucidated. On the other hand, EMFs are widely used, in neurology, psychiatry, rheumatology, orthopedics and dermatology, both in diagnosis and in therapy. In vitro studies may help to evaluate the mechanism by which LF-EMFs affect biological systems. Invitro model of wound healing used keratinocytes (HaCaT), neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) as a model for analysis of differentiation, metabolism and functions related to neurodegenerative processes, and monocytic cell line (THP-1) was used as a model for inflammation and cytokines production, while leukemic cell line (K562) was used as a model for hematopoietic differentiation. MCP-1, a chemokine that regulates the migration and infiltration of memory T cells, natural killer (NK), monocytes and epithelial cells, has been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF. PMID:25561888

  20. A Unified Approach to Back-EMF Detection for Brushless DC Motor Drives without Current and Hall Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Shin Lai; Young-Kai Lin

    2006-01-01

    The main theme of this paper is to present a unified approach to back-EMF detection of brushless DC motor drives without using any current and Hall sensors. Theoretical analysis of back-EMF detection is presented, and followed by the relationship between PWM techniques and back-EMF detection. It will be shown that the back-EMF detection depends upon the PWM techniques and the

  1. Differentiation of K562 cells under ELF-EMF applied at different time courses.

    PubMed

    Ay?e, Inhan-Garip; Zafer, Akan; Sule, Oncul; I?il, I?al-Turgut; Kalkan, Tunaya

    2010-08-01

    The time-course of ELF-EMF application to biological systems is thought to be an important parameter determining the physiological outcome. This study investigated the effect of ELF-EMF on the differentiation of K562 cells at different time courses. ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 5 mT, 1 h) was applied at two different time-courses; first at the onset of hemin induction for 1 h, and second, daily 1 h for four days. While single exposure to ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease in differentiation, ELF-EMF applied everyday for 1 h caused an increase in differentiation. The effect of co-stressors, magnesium, and heat-shock was also determined and similar results were obtained. ELF-EMF increased ROS levels in K562 cells not treated with hemin, however did not change ROS levels of hemin treated cells indicating that ROS was not the cause. Overall, these results imply that the time-course of application is an important parameter determining the physiological response of cells to ELF-EMF. PMID:20707646

  2. Study of uranium solubility in gallium-indium eutectic alloy by emf method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Osipenko, A. G.; Raspopin, S. P.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium in Ga-In eutectic alloy as well as activity of uranium in U-Ga and U-In alloys were determined between 573 and 1073 K using electromotive force (emf) method.

  3. Sensorless control strategy for salient-pole PMSM based on extended EMF in rotating reference frame

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeo Morimoto; Keisuke Kawamoto; Masayuki Sanada; Yoji Takeda

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel sensorless control strategy for a salient-pole permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). A new model of a salient-pole PMSM using an extended electromotive force (EMF) in the rotating reference frame is utilized to estimate both position and speed. The extended EMF is estimated by a least-order observer, and the estimation position error is obtained from the extended

  4. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yury Grigoriev

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF

  5. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Wada, Kenichi [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kizagawa-Shi, Kyoto (Japan); Kurosawa, Atsushi [Inst. of Applied Energy, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan ); Roberts, Matthew [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-03-25

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 – 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 – 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change.

  6. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and brain cancer in adults and children: review and comment.

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, J. G.; van Wijngaarden, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental research on the potential carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has now been conducted for over two decades. Cancer epidemiology studies in relation to EMF have focused primarily on brain cancer and leukemia, both from residential sources of exposure in children and adults and from occupational exposure in adult men. Because genotoxic effects of EMF have not been shown, most recent laboratory research has attempted to show biological effects that could be related to cancer promotion. In this report, we briefly review residential and occupational EMF studies on brain cancer. We also provide a general review of experimental studies as they relate both to the biological plausibility of an EMF-brain cancer relation and to the insufficiency of such research to help guide exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. We conclude from our review that no recent research, either epidemiologic or experimental, has emerged to provide reasonable support for a causal role of EMF on brain cancer. PMID:11550314

  7. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Yury

    2010-04-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF radiation in everyday life. The need to determine appropriate standards stipulating the maximum acceptable short-term and long-term RF-EMF levels encountered by the public, and set such levels as general guidelines, is of great importance in order to help preserve the general public's health and that of the next generation of humanity.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute Optical Frequency Measurements of the Cesium D1 Transitions in a Thermal Atomic Beam using a Femtosecond Laser Frequency Comb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol E. Tanner; Scott Diddams

    2005-01-01

    High resolution spectroscopy of the cesium D1 line is performed in a thermal atomic beam using a narrow linewidth CW diode laser offset locked to a single tooth of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. A computer controlled RF synthesizer changes the offset frequency, thus scanning the optical frequency of the probe laser. A photodiode collects the fluorescence and the signal

  12. Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with non-sinusoidal back-EMF

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2009-05-15

    torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with sinusoidal back-EMF is discussed in detail. Secondly, the proposed two-phase conduction mode for DTC of BLDC motors is introduced in the constant torque region. In this control scheme, only...

  13. Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with non-sinusoidal back-EMF 

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2009-05-15

    This work presents the direct torque control (DTC) techniques, implemented in four- and six-switch inverter, for brushless dc (BLDC) motors with non-sinusoidal back- EMF using two and three-phase conduction modes. First of all, the classical direct...

  14. SCHEME FOR INCORPORATING DC MAGNETIC FIELDS INTO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF EMF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental data on calcium-ion release in chicken brain tissue suggest that biological effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are concentrated at certain combinations of DC magnetic field strength and "critical" AC magnetic field frequencies. e hypothesize that "active"...

  15. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    PubMed

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines. PMID:17495666

  16. EMF measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovskiy, I.; Sherbakov, V.; Morozov, Yu.

    2007-06-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) and manufacturing (M) is a novel layer-by-layer fabrication technique which has become increasingly popular due to its inherent flexibility for the manufacture of simple and complex 3D parts. Early we had been shown opportunity of selective laser sintering (SLS) of different type powder systems (intermetallics, ceramics, ferrites, high-temperature superconductors), traditional use for self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The non-thermal heating affect of an external electromagnetic field during SHS is related to the specific system under study due to differences in movement of defects and ions at the 'plasma-like' molten combustion wave front. We have developed and refined the testing scheme for electro-thermal phenomena studies which can directly influence on the SHS combustion wave front. This work studies electromotive force (EMF) measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions (Ni-Ti, Ni-Al). Analysis using an analog-digital-analog computer converter allowed some control of the laser movement and hence some control of the exothermal reaction - in so doing it provided near optimum conditions for forming layered 3D articles. Comparative results of structural-phase transformation during laser control SHS in reaction-capable compositions are presented.

  17. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. ... to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how ... white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count.

  18. Effects of 940 Hz EMF on luciferase solution: structure, function, and dielectric studies.

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Yahya; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Tavakkolnia, Iman; Khellat, Mohammad R; Shakiba-Herfeh, Mahdi; Saviz, Mehrdad; Faraji-Dana, Reza; Saboury, Ali A; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2013-09-01

    We designed a rectangular waveguide exposure system to study the effects of mobile phone frequency (940 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on luciferase structure and activity. The luciferase activity of exposed samples was significantly higher than that of unexposed samples. Dynamic light scattering of the exposed samples showed smaller hydrodynamic radii compared to unexposed samples (20 nm vs. 47 nm ± 5%). The exposed samples also showed less tendency to form aggregates, monitored by turbidity measurements at l = 360 nm. A microwave dielectric measurement was performed to study the hydration properties of luciferase solutions with a precision network analyzer over frequency ranges from 0.2 to 20 GHz before and after exposure. The change in the dielectric properties of the exposed luciferase solution was related to the disaggregation potency of the applied field. Together, our results suggested that direct interactions with luciferase molecules and its dipole moment were responsible for the reduced aggregation and enhanced luciferase activity upon exposure to the EMF. PMID:23633149

  19. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang

    2012-12-01

    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise calibrated isotopic composition measurements are 0.319876 ± 0.000067, 0.319768 ± 0.000187, and 0.319549 ± 0.000044, respectively. As a result, the atomic weights of chlorine in NIST 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 are derived as 35.45284(8), 35.45272(21), and 35.45252(2) individually, which are consistent with the issued values of 35.453(2) by IUPAC in 1999. PMID:23088631

  20. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight. PMID:25305691

  1. EMF24 Global Scenario Modeler Presentation Insights from the IMACLIM model

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Guivarch, Adrien Vogt-Schilb & Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED, France) hal-00799921,version1-12Mar2013 #12-00799921,version1-12Mar2013 #12;Why was it so hard to run EMF24 scenarios with IMACLIM lands to relax CO2 constraint 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080

  2. Examination of the melatonin hypothesis in women exposed at night to EMF or bright light.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, C; Cook, M R; Gerkovich, M M; Sastre, A

    2001-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrial societies is related to greater exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and/or the presence of high levels of light at night (LAN). EMF and LAN are said to reduce circulating levels of the hormone melatonin which, in turn, allows estrogen levels to rise and stimulate the turnover of breast epithelial stem cells and increase the risk for malignant transformation. Three laboratory-based studies, in which a total of 53 healthy young women were exposed at night to EMF or to LAN under controlled exposure conditions, were performed to determine whether such exposures reduce melatonin and are associated with further alterations in estrogen. All-night exposure to industrial-strength magnetic fields (60 Hz, 28.3 microT) had no effect on the blood levels of melatonin or estradiol. In contrast, nocturnal melatonin levels were profoundly suppressed, and the time of peak concentration was significantly delayed in women exposed to LAN, regardless of whether they were in the follicular or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. These changes, however, were not associated with alterations in point-for-point matching measures of estradiol. Women who chronically secrete high or low amounts of melatonin each night (area-under-curve range: 86-1,296 pg/mL) also did not differ in their blood levels of estradiol. Taken together, these results are consistent with a growing body of evidence which generally suggests that environmental EMF exposure has little or no effect on the parameters measured in this report. PMID:11401762

  3. Examination of the melatonin hypothesis in women exposed at night to EMF or bright light.

    PubMed

    Graham, C; Cook, M R; Gerkovich, M M; Sastre, A

    2001-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrial societies is related to greater exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and/or the presence of high levels of light at night (LAN). EMF and LAN are said to reduce circulating levels of the hormone melatonin which, in turn, allows estrogen levels to rise and stimulate the turnover of breast epithelial stem cells and increase the risk for malignant transformation. Three laboratory-based studies, in which a total of 53 healthy young women were exposed at night to EMF or to LAN under controlled exposure conditions, were performed to determine whether such exposures reduce melatonin and are associated with further alterations in estrogen. All-night exposure to industrial-strength magnetic fields (60 Hz, 28.3 microT) had no effect on the blood levels of melatonin or estradiol. In contrast, nocturnal melatonin levels were profoundly suppressed, and the time of peak concentration was significantly delayed in women exposed to LAN, regardless of whether they were in the follicular or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. These changes, however, were not associated with alterations in point-for-point matching measures of estradiol. Women who chronically secrete high or low amounts of melatonin each night (area-under-curve range: 86-1,296 pg/mL) also did not differ in their blood levels of estradiol. Taken together, these results are consistent with a growing body of evidence which generally suggests that environmental EMF exposure has little or no effect on the parameters measured in this report. PMID:11401762

  4. Stability of a synchronous generator with diode-bridge rectifier and back-EMF load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma Weiming; Hu An; Liu Dezhi; Zhang Gaifan

    2000-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model of a synchronous generator with diode-bridge rectifier and back-EMF load is presented in this paper. The principle of harmonic balance is applied, which makes it possible to construct a state-space mathematical model for the system. The criterion of stability is obtained for the system under small disturbances. This stability criterion is more accurate than that presented

  5. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  6. Non-thermal effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain: the Lund experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif G. Salford; Henrietta Nittby; Arne Brun; Gustav Grafström; Jacob L. Eberhardt; Lars Malmgren; Bertil R. R. Persson

    2007-01-01

    The environment in which biology exists has dramatically changed during the last decades. Life was formed during billions\\u000a of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation and the terrestrial\\u000a magnetism. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century\\u000a mankind introduced the use

  7. Absolute beam brightness detector.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-01

    In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas ?(x), ?(y) occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article. PMID:22380223

  8. Absolute beam brightness detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

  9. Absolute configuration of helminthogermacrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adewale Martins Adio; Claudia Paul; Hailemichael Tesso; Petra Kloth; Wilfried A König

    2004-01-01

    The absolute configuration of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon helminthogermacrene is established. Helminthogermacrene is an (E,Z)-configurational isomer of germacrene A and thus undergoes similar transformations forming elemenes via Cope rearrangement and yielding bicyclic systems via acid catalyzed reactions. The reaction products are investigated using enantioselective GC and extensive NMR measurements (1H–; 1H1H-COSY; HSQC; HMBC and NOE-experiments). In addition, NMR data of related

  10. Multiplexed absolute quantification in

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Multiplexed absolute quantification in proteomics using artificial QCAT proteins of concatenated and construction of an artificial gene encoding a concatenation of tryptic peptides (QCAT protein) from several,688.78 T3 T11 T20 T14 T8 T18 T6 T5 T10 T7 T17 T16 T15T4 T13 T19 T25 T22 T21 QCAT protein 405.2 T1 386.25 1

  11. The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF 27 scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, Gunnar; Krey, Volker; Calvin, Katherine V.; Merrick, James; Mima, Silvana; Pietzcker, Robert; Van Vliet, Jasper; Wada, Kenichi

    2013-10-15

    This paper uses the EMF27 scenarios to explore the role of renewable energy (RE) in climate change mitigation. Currently RE supplies almost 20 % of global electricity demand. Almost all EMF27 mitigation scenarios show a strong increase in renewable power production, with a substantial ramp-up of wind and solar power deployment. In many scenarios, renewables are the most important long-term mitigation option for power supply. Wind energy is competitive even without climate policy, whereas the prospects of solar photovoltaics (PV) are highly contingent on the ambitiousness of climate policy. Bioenergy is an important and versatile energy carrier; however—with the exception of low temperature heat—there is less scope for renewables other than biomass for non-electric energy supply. Despite the important role of wind and solar power in climate change mitigation scenarios with full technology availability, limiting their deployment has a relatively small effect on mitigation costs, if nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS)—which can serve as substitutes in low-carbon power supply—are available. Limited bioenergy availability in combination with limited wind and solar power by contrast, results in a more substantial increase in mitigation costs. While a number of robust insights emerge, the results on renewable energy deployment levels vary considerably across the models. An in-depth analysis of a subset of EMF27 reveals substantial differences in modeling approaches and parameter assumptions. To a certain degree, differences in model results can be attributed to different assumptions about technology costs, resource potentials and systems integration.

  12. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2014-05-01

    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes meandering effect and incorporates information about exposure time for each non-zero concentration value present. Also, it is shown that EMF is able to clearly reflect the effects of aquifer heterogeneity and structure as well as the Pe value. The latter is demonstrated through the non-carcinogenic risk assessment framework. To demonstrate the uniqueness of the moment collapse feature and ability of the Beta distribution to account for the concentration frequencies even in real cases, Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE1) [Boggs et al, 1992] data sets are used for validation.

  13. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  14. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the mirror is slightly tilted. Hence, one can determine the amount and direction of tilt from the coordinates of the target image on the viewing plane.

  15. Stimulation of fracture healing with electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency (EMF of ELF).

    PubMed

    Wahlström, O

    1984-06-01

    This randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate how electromagnetic fields affect the accumulation of 99mTechnetium - methylendiphosphonate (Tc-MDP) in fresh fractures. Thirty women with Colles' fractures, aged 50-70 years, participated in this study--some in a control group and some in a treated group. After reduction, all patients were immobilized for four weeks. After randomization, 15 patients were treated by electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency (EMF of ELF ), which were generated by a coil and a battery-powered portable current generator during the time of immobilization. The frequency of the alternating magnetic field was 1-1000 Hz; the magnitude was 4 gauss [RMS (root-mean-square) value]. The scintigrams were performed one, two, four, and eight weeks after the injury. The activity ratio in the fracture area was significantly higher at the examination of one and two weeks (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.01) in the treated group than it was in the control group. The clinical relevance of the results is not known, but one interpretation of the data is that the stimulation with EMF of ELF improves (accelerates) the early phase of fracture healing. The data warrant further investigation of fresh fracture treatment with this method. PMID:6233054

  16. Effects of 940 MHz EMF on bioluminescence and oxidative response of stable luciferase producing HEK cells.

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Yahya; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Khodagholi, Fariba; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Foolad, Forough; Faraji-Dana, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The effects of mobile phone frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF, 940 MHz) on a stable cell line (HEK293T) harbouring the firefly luciferase gene were evaluated. A waveguide exposure system with 1 W input power provided the mean specific absorption rate of ?0.09 W kg(-1) in 35 mm Petri dishes. The effects of exposure duration (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min) on luciferase activity and oxidative response elements were investigated. Endogenous luciferase activity was reduced after 30 and 45 min of continuous exposure, while after 60 min, the exposed cell lysate showed higher luciferase activity compared with the non-exposed control. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was highest in the 30 min exposed cells as studied by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. The observed boost in ROS was then followed by a sharp rise in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and elevation of glutathione (GSH) during the 45 min exposure. Decrease in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) was meaningful for the 45 and 60 min exposed cells. Therefore, it appears that an increase in the activity of luciferase after 60 min of continuous exposure could be associated with a decrease in ROS level caused by activation of the oxidative response. This ability in cells to overcome oxidative stress and compensate the luciferase activity could also be responsible for the adaptive response mechanism detected in ionizing radiation studies with RF-EMF pre-treatments. PMID:24886806

  17. NOVA: Absolute Zero

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On a hot day, some might wish they could get the temperature down a bit. They might not wish it to be as cold as, say absolute zero, but there are many scientists who are interested in doing just that. For those who are curious, absolute zero clocks in at around minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit. This engaging website is meant to serve as a complementary resource to the two-part series that recently aired on NOVA on this engaging topic. Visitors can start by watching a short preview of the program, and then continuing on to look over some of the special interactive features on the site. All told, there are ten different features, including "A Sense of Scale", "How Low Can You Go?", and "Milestones in Cold Research". The "Milestones in Cold Research" is a great place to start, as it's an interactive timeline that chronicles the "netherworld of extraordinarily low temperatures" as investigated by everyone from Galileo to current researchers. Of course, there are also more playful features here, such as "The Ice Trade", which asks users to dispatch ships loaded with natural ice to Florida, Brazil, and India.

  18. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  19. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongly depends on electrical excitability. We therefore investigated effects of acute (30min) and sub-chronic (48h) exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF on naïve and chemically stressed pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The latter have higher levels of iron and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and display increased vulnerability to environmental insults. Effects of ELF-EMF on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity were assessed using Fura-2 single cell fluorescence microscopy, H2-DCFDA and CFDA assays, respectively. Our data demonstrate that acute exposure of naïve PC12 cells to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000?T fails to affect basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i. Moreover, sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure up to 1000?T has no consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis in naïve PC12 cells and does not affect ROS production and membrane integrity. Notably, in chemically stressed PC12 cells both acute and sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure also failed to exert consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity. Our combined findings thus indicate that exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000?T, i.e. 10,000 times above background exposure, does not induce neurotoxic effects in vitro, neither in naïve nor in chemically stressed PC12 cells. Though our data require confirmation, e.g. in developing neuronal cells in vitro or (developing) animals, it appears that the neurotoxic risk of ELF-EMF exposure is limited. PMID:25111744

  20. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Reda; J. Zeng; J. Scheuch; L. Hanssen; B. Wilthan; D. Myers; T. Stoffel

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13\\/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal

  1. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources. PMID:26006132

  2. Lack of an EMF-induced genotoxic effect in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, M.A.; Pak, C.M.; Caren, R.P.; Caren, L.D. [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States)] [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A few epidemiological studies have linked exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the incidence of cancer. Since many carcinogens are mutagens in the Ames assay, the purpose of this study was to determine if exposure of four tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) to EMF would increase their rate of mutation. Parallel plate electrodes and Helmholtz coils were used to create uniform field properties 300 coils were used to create uniform field properties (300 V/in., 0.3 mT). Separate and combined alternating electric and magnetic fields effects were studied at a combined field frequency of 60, 600, and 6000 Hz at room temperature. These fields did not elevate the temperature of the culture plates above room temperature. Petri dishes containing each tester strain in top agar were exposed to an electric field (E), magnetic field (M), combined electric and magnetic field (EM), or no additional field above ambient conditions in the lab (control). Four plates containing each strain were exposed in each condition: two plates had the appropriate positive-control mutagen for each strain included in the top agar and two plates did not. Plates were exposed to either E, M, EM, or control conditions at room temperature for 48 hr. and then incubated an additional 24 hr. at 37 deg. C. The plates containing mutagen in the top agar showed an increased number of colonies consistent with mutagenesis. However, the rate of mutation in the S. Typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102 in either the presence or absence of mutagen was not affected by 48 hr. exposure at room temperature to E, M, or EM fields at 60, 600, 94 6000 Hz. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people's mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources. PMID:26006132

  4. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IEKP, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  5. Fast Parallel Absolute Irreducibility Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Kaltofen

    1985-01-01

    e present a fast parallel deterministic algorithm for testing multivariate integral polyno- - c mials for absolute irreducibility, that is irreducibility over the complex numbers. More pre isely, we establish that the set of absolutely irreducible integral polynomials belongs to the e i complexity class NC of Boolean circuits of polynomial size and logarithmic depth. Therefor t also belongs to

  6. An Efficient Control of a Series Connected Two-Synchronous Motor 5-Phase with Non Sinusoidal EMF Supplied by a Single 5-leg VSI: Experimental and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    proposes the control scheme of an original drive which is made up of two 5-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) connected in series. Even if the Electro-Motive Force (EMF) are trapezoidal

  7. Absolute self-calibrated room-temperature terahertz powermeter.

    PubMed

    Pradere, Christophe; Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Toutain, Jean; Abraham, Emmanuel; Chassagne, Bruno; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-10

    Coupling optical and thermal properties of a terahertz (THz) thermal converter based on the Seebeck effect provides an unsupplied room-temperature measuring device dedicated to THz power metrology. Performance characteristics such as broadband response (0-30 THz), high sensitivity (<25 ?W·Hz(-0.5)), and the possibility to develop an internal absolute self-calibration estimated at 9.93 W·V(-1) are reported. Advantages and drawbacks of this THz powermeter are discussed. PMID:23670761

  8. Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Torque-Capability, Torque-Property, No-Load Back EMF, and Mechanical Losses

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2004-09-30

    In today's hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is currently considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is significant that in today's marketplace, Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. This project's objective is to test the torque capability of the 2004 Prius motor and to analyze the torque properties relating to the rotor structure. The tested values of no-load back electromotive force (emf) and mechanical losses are also presented.

  9. An online identification method for both stator resistance and back-EMF coefficient of PMSMs without rotational transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyu-Wang Lee; Doo-Hee Jung; In-Joong Ha

    2004-01-01

    This letter describes an effective online method for identifying both the stator resistance and the back-electromotive-force (EMF) coefficient of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) without rotational transducers. Using only the information of stator currents and voltages, it can provide fairly good identification accuracy under various load conditions and can be easily incorporated into most sensorless speed control schemes proposed in

  10. Absolute fiber optic pressure transducer for aircraft air data measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Reed; J. W. Berthold

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the design rationale for a total pressure fiber optic transducer under development for planned flight test. Pressure sealing problems for absolute pressure transduction are discussed. Information is given on the microbend fiber optic sensor approach used to measure diaphragm deflection, and requirements for microbend sensor thermal compensation. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) approaches are described to self-reference the

  11. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS USING A FLOW EMF METHOD. 2. NaCl-K2SO4-H2O SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Luzheng

    #12;DETERMINATION OF ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS USING A FLOW EMF METHOD. 2. NaCl-K2SO4-H2O SYSTEM AT 298 electrolyte in mixed solvent rapidly. The EMF data for the ternary system NaCl(1)-K2SO4(2)-H2O(3) without aqueous solution with a common anion, NaCl-KCl-H2O system, at 298.15K [7]. In this work, the flow method

  12. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia V Torres-Duran; Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo; Marco A Juarez-Oropeza; David Elias-Viñas; Leticia Verdugo-Diaz

    2007-01-01

    BACKGOUND: The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. METHODS: Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h) of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT) or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure). RESULTS: Blood lipids showed,

  13. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-in?ammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. Methods N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-? and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-? and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-? and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. Conclusions EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that the JAK2-STAT3 pathway may not mediate this initial microglial activation but does promote pro-inflammatory responses in EMF-stimulated microglial cells. Thus, the JAK2-STAT3 pathway might be a therapeutic target for reducing pro-inflammatory responses in EMF-activated microglia. PMID:20828402

  14. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  15. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  16. Classical Mechanics without Absolute Space

    E-print Network

    D. Lynden-Bell; J. Katz

    1995-10-01

    A relative mechanics with no absolute space is shown to be equivalent to Newtonian mechanics applied in a universe of zero net angular momentum. Closed spaces in General Relativity have no angular momentum and shrivel to one point as the mass-energy contained tends to zero, so obeying Mach's principle on the origin of inertia.

  17. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    E-print Network

    Hopchev, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  18. Absolute Radiometric In-Flight Validation of Mid Infrared and Thermal Infrared Data From ASTER and MODIS on the Terra Spacecraft Using the Lake Tahoe, CA\\/NV, USA, Automated Validation Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon J. Hook; R. Greg Vaughan; Hideyuki Tonooka; S. Geoffrey Schladow

    2007-01-01

    In December 1999, the first Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument were launched into polar orbit on the Terra spacecraft. Both instruments measure surface radiance, which requires that they are calibrated and validated in flight. In-flight validation is essential to independently verify that instrument calibration correctly compensates for any

  19. The amelioration of phagocytic ability in microglial cells by curcumin through the inhibition of EMF-induced pro-inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient clearance by microglial cells, prevalent in several neurological conditions and diseases, is intricately intertwined with MFG-E8 expression and inflammatory responses. Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can elicit the pro-inflammatory activation and may also trigger an alteration of the clearance function in microglial cells. Curcumin has important roles in the anti-inflammatory and phagocytic process. Here, we evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed microglial cells (N9 cells) and documented relative pathways. Methods N9 cells were pretreated with or without recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8), curcumin and an antibody of toll-like receptor 4 (anti-TLR4), and subsequently treated with EMF or a sham exposure. Their phagocytic ability was evaluated using phosphatidylserine-containing fluorescent bioparticles. The pro-inflammatory activation of microglia was assessed via CD11b immunoreactivity and the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and nitric oxide (NO) via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or the Griess test. We evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells, including checking the expression of MFG-E8, ?v?3 integrin, TLR4, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) using Western blotting. Results EMF exposure dramatically enhanced the expression of CD11b and depressed the phagocytic ability of N9 cells. rmMFG-E8 could clearly ameliorate the phagocytic ability of N9 cells after EMF exposure. We also found that EMF exposure significantly increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?) and the production of NO; however, these increases were efficiently chilled by the addition of curcumin to the culture medium. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that curcumin and naloxone restored the expression of MFG-E8 but had no effect on TLR4 and cytosolic STAT3. Moreover, curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NF-?B p65 in nuclei and phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) in cytosols and nuclei. Conclusions This study indicates that curcumin ameliorates the depressed MFG-E8 expression and the attenuated phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells, which is attributable to the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory response through the NF-?B and STAT3 pathways. PMID:24645646

  20. Influence of the thermal conductivity anisotropy on the transverse thermoelectric power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Y. Luste; A. G. Samoilovich

    1977-01-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that the essential condition for thermoelectric energy conversion is the anisotropy or inhomogeneity of the thermoelectric power. Anisotropy of the thermal conductivity may distort temperature, potential, and current distributions in a thermoelectric medium but cannot of itself act as the source of the thermo-emf.

  1. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  2. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #3 Description: The figure below shows five stars (A - E) as they appear in the night sky from Earth. The absolute magnitude number: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ D. Ranking Instructions: Rank the absolute magnitude number (from greatest to least) of each star (A

  3. What is wrong with absolute individual fitness?

    E-print Network

    Wilson, David. S.

    What is wrong with absolute individual fitness? David Sloan Wilson Departments of Biology is that fit- ness is a relative concept. It does not matter how well an organism survives and reproduces, only arguments are framed in terms of absolute individual fitness. The absolute fitness criterion (AFC) can

  4. Absolute convergence implies convergence Willard Miller

    E-print Network

    Olver, Peter

    Absolute convergence implies convergence Willard Miller November 13, 2007 Definition 1 The series k=1 Ak is absolutely convergent if the series k=1 |Ak| converges. Thus the p-series for p = 2 k=1 1 k2 is absolutely convergent, as is the alternating series k=1 (-1)k-1 k2 . However

  5. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B.; Miras, Monaliza A.; Mendioro, Merlyn S.; Simon, Eliza V.; Lumanglas, Patrick D.; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5–2.0h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. PMID:25534925

  6. Efficiency determination and general characterization of thermoelectric generators using an absolute measurement of the heat flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Rauscher; S Fujimoto; H T Kaibe; S Sano

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the conversion efficiency ? and several further key properties of thermoelectric generators is presented. To achieve highest reliability and accuracy the crucial determination of the thermal energy that is supplied to the generator is done by an absolute method, i.e. by measuring the electrical power that is dissipated in a thermally guarded resistive heater. The accuracy

  7. Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback 1 Running Head: ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK

    E-print Network

    Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback 1 Running Head: ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK Objective Standards Matter Too Much: The Use and Abuse of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions Don A. Moore Carnegie Mellon University

  8. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Arizona and Powder River, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offield, T. W. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A theoretical evaluation of the proportional and linear relationship between absolute and relative thermal inertia was performed, and a potentially more accurate expression for absolute thermal inertia mapping was proposed.

  9. Impedance of a Spacecraft-Borne Antenna in the Magnetospheric Plasma and Quasi-Equilibrium Noise EMF in the Lower-Hybrid Frequency Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugunov, Yu. V.; Grach, V. S.; Pasmanik, D. L.

    2013-07-01

    We present analytical and numerical estimations of the value and frequency dependence of the impedance and noise electromotive force (EMF) in the context of the conditions which correspond to the trajectories and parameters of the antennas borne by geophysical monitoring satellites. The estimations were obtained for two circular orbits at altitudes of 600 and 1200 km over the Earth's surface in the frequency range from 20 to 120 kHz, which corresponded to the area of the lower-hybrid resonance, where a higher level of noise emissions is observed at the altitudes under consideration. It is shown that near the lower-hybrid resonance frequency, the real part of the antenna impedance is determined by the resonant "monopole" loss by radiation of quasipotential waves. In the nonresonant frequency band (at the frequencies below the frequency of the lowerhybrid resonance), the antenna reactance is determined by the transit loss, which is, however, low as compared with the resonant loss. When the noise was calculated, the medium was assumed to be a two-temperature plasma. The spectral density of the power of the noise EMF lies in the range and is determined mainly by suprathermal electrons. In the nonresonant frequency band, the efficient temperature of noise radiation is equal to the temperature of the "cold" plasma component, and the antenna reactance is determined by the transit loss, i.e., the level of the noise EMF is low as compared with the EMF in the resonant frequency band.

  10. Developing policy in the face of scientific uncertainty: interpreting 0.3 microT or 0.4 microT cutpoints from EMF epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, Leeka; Sahl, Jack D; Shimkhada, Riti; Repacholi, Mike H

    2005-08-01

    There has been considerable scientific effort to understand the potential link between exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and the occurrence of cancer and other diseases. The combination of widespread exposures, established biological effects from acute, high-level exposures, and the possibility of leukemia in children from low-level, chronic exposures has made it both necessary and difficult to develop consistent public health policies. In this article we review the basis of both numeric standards and precautionary-based approaches. While we believe that policies regarding EMF should indeed be precautionary, this does not require or imply adoption of numeric exposure standards. We argue that cutpoints from epidemiologic studies, which are arbitrarily chosen, should not be used as the basis for making exposure limits due to a number of uncertainties. Establishment of arbitrary numeric exposure limits undermines the value of both the science-based numeric EMF exposure standards for acute exposures and precautionary approaches. The World Health Organization's draft Precautionary Framework provides guidance for establishing appropriate public health policies for power-frequency EMF. PMID:16268940

  11. Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network

    PubMed Central

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Choo, Hyunseung; Kim, Dongsoo Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF)-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time. PMID:22346680

  12. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  13. An absolute Johnson noise thermometer

    E-print Network

    Callegaro, Luca; Pisani, Marco; Pollarolo, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    We developed an absolute Johnson noise thermometer (JNT), an instrument to measure the thermodynamic temperature of a sensing resistor, with traceability to voltage, resistance and frequency quantities. The temperature is measured in energy units, and can be converted to SI units (kelvin) with the accepted value of the Boltzmann constant kb; or, conversely, it can be employed to perform measurements at the triple point of water, and obtain a determination of kb. The thermometer is composed of a correlation spectrum analyzer an a calibrated noise source, both constructed around commercial mixed-signal boards. The calibrator generates a pseudorandom noise, by digital synthesis and amplitude scaling with inductive voltage dividers; the signal spectrum is a frequency comb covering the measurement bandwidth. JNT measurements at room temperature are compatible with those of a standard platinum resistance thermometer within the combined uncertainty of 60 ppm. A path towards future improvements of JNT accuracy is als...

  14. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.709 Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it...

  15. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.709 Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it...

  16. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #4 Description: The table below provides partial magnitude and distance information for five stars (A - E). Star Name Apparent Magnitude Absolute Magnitude Distance from Earth (parsecs) A -1 3 B 5 1 C 0 10 D 1 10,000 E 3 3 A. Ranking

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  19. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  20. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    E-print Network

    Ken Funo; Yûto Murashita; Masahito Ueda

    2015-03-30

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolute irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing $N$ heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  1. Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Torque Capability, Torque Property, No-Load Back EMF, and Mechanical Losses, Revised May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Ayers, C.W.; Coomer, C.L.; Wiles, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Campbell, S.L.; Lowe, K.T.; Michelhaugh, R.T.

    2007-05-31

    In today's hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota/Prius drive system is currently considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is significant that in today's marketplace, Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. This project's objective is to test the torque capability of the 2004 Prius motor and to analyze the torque properties relating to the rotor structure. The tested values of no-load back electromotive force (emf) and mechanical losses are also presented.

  2. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production ? as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -?S , where ?S is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: ? characterizing ordinary irreversibility and ?S describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  3. New absolute magnitude calibrations for detached binaries

    E-print Network

    S. Bilir; T. Ak; E. Soydugan; F. Soydugan; E. Yaz; N. Filiz Ak; Z. Eker; O. Demircan; M. Helvaci

    2008-06-07

    Lutz-Kelker bias corrected absolute magnitude calibrations for the detached binary systems with main-sequence components are presented. The absolute magnitudes of the calibrator stars were derived at intrinsic colours of Johnson-Cousins and 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric systems. As for the calibrator stars, 44 detached binaries were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue, which have relative observed parallax errors smaller than 15% ($\\sigma_{\\pi}/\\pi\\leq0.15$). The calibration equations which provide the corrected absolute magnitude for optical and near-infrared pass bands are valid for wide ranges of colours and absolute magnitudes: $-0.18magnitude calibrations of this study can be used as a convenient statistical tool to estimate the true distances of detached binaries out of Hipparcos' distance limit.

  4. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61 137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  5. Absolute intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, James A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The basic principles governing the construction and use of absolute detectors are discussed. The absolute detector must be constructed to insure collection of all ions and to insure that no secondary ionization occurs. The fundamental standard for the absolute detection of VUV radiation and X-rays is based on the ionizing properties of the radiation. The principle of the ionization chamber is described; the wavelength range of the ion chamber is from Xe threshold at 102.2 nm to the double ionization threshold of He at 15.7 nm. The use of Geiger or proportional counters as an absolute standard for wavelengths less than 30 nm and less than 10 nm in the soft X-ray region is examined. Various types of transfer standards such as thermocouples, photodiodes, and photocathodes, and the procedures for calibrating a detector are considered.

  6. A Cryogenic Radiometer for Absolute Radiometric Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Martin; N P Fox; P J Key

    1985-01-01

    The adoption in 1979 of a new definition of the candela, which permitted a detector-based approach to the realization of the unit, has emphasized the importance of high-accuracy absolute radiation detectors. This paper describes a new electrical-substitution absolute radiometer operating at 5 K, based on a standard commercial helium cryostat, which has been developed at NPL for optical radiant-power measurements.

  7. The absolute magnitudes of Type IA supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Phillips

    1993-01-01

    Absolute magnitudes in the B, V, and I bands are derived for nine well-observed Type Ia supernovae, using host galaxy distances estimated via the surface brightness fluctuations or Tully-Fisher methods. These data indicate that there is a significant intrinsic dispersion in the absolute magnitudes at maximum light of Type Ia supernovae, amounting to +\\/- 0.8 mag in B, +\\/- 0.6

  8. Absolute plate motions and regional subduction evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-10-01

    investigate the influence of absolute plate motion on regional 3-D evolution of subduction using numerical thermomechanical modeling. Building on our previous work, we explore the potential impact of four different absolute plate motion frames on subduction evolution in the western Mediterranean region during the last 35 My. One frame is data-based and derived from the global moving hotspot reference frame (GMHRF) of Doubrovine et al. (2012) and three are invented frames: a motion frame in which the African plate motion is twice that in the GMHRF, and two frames in which either the African plate or the Iberian continent is assumed fixed to the mantle. The relative Africa-Iberia convergence is the same in all frames. All motion frames result in distinctly different 3-D subduction evolution showing a critical dependence of slab morphology evolution on absolute plate motion. We attribute this to slab dragging through the mantle forced by the absolute motion of the subducting plate, which causes additional viscous resistance affecting subduction evolution. We observed a strong correlation between increase in northward Africa motion and decrease in the speed of westward slab rollback along the African margin. We relate this to increased mantle resistance against slab dragging providing new insight into propagation and dynamics of subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) faults. Our results demonstrate a large sensitivity of 3-D slab evolution to the absolute motion of the subducting plate, which inversely suggests that detailed modeling of natural subduction may provide novel constraints on absolute plate motions.

  9. Dissociative Recombination and Excitation of CH 5 +: Absolute Cross Sections and Branching Fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Semaniak; A. Larson; A. Le Padellec; C. Stroemholm; M. Larsson; S. Rosen; R. Peverall; H. Danared; N. Djuric; G. H. Dunn; S. Datz

    1998-01-01

    The heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING was used to measure the absolute dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation cross sections for collision energies below 50 eV. Deduced thermal rates coefficients are consistent with previous beams data but are lower by a factor of 3 than the rates measured by means of the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe technique. A resonant structure in dissociative

  10. Dissociative Recombination and Excitation of CH{sup +} â : Absolute Cross Sections and Branching Fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Semaniak; A. Larson; A. Le Padellec; C. Stroemholm; M. Larsson; S. Rosen; R. Peverall; H. Danared; N. Djuric; G. H. Dunn; S. Datz

    1998-01-01

    The heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING was used to measure the absolute dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation cross sections for collision energies below 50 eV. Deduced thermal rates coefficients are consistent with previous beams data but are lower by a factor of 3 than the rates measured by means of the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe technique. A resonant structure in dissociative

  11. Does Exposure to a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Modify Thermal Preference in Juvenile Rats?

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Delanaud, Stéphane; de Seze, René; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Loos, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have shown that people living near a mobile phone base station may report sleep disturbances and discomfort. Using a rat model, we have previously shown that chronic exposure to a low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) was associated with paradoxical sleep (PS) fragmentation and greater vasomotor tone in the tail. Here, we sought to establish whether sleep disturbances might result from the disturbance of thermoregulatory processes by a RF-EMF. We recorded thermal preference and sleep stage distribution in 18 young male Wistar rats. Nine animals were exposed to a low-intensity RF-EMF (900 MHz, 1 V.m?1) for five weeks and nine served as non-exposed controls. Thermal preference was assessed in an experimental chamber comprising three interconnected compartments, in which the air temperatures (Ta) were set to 24°C, 28°C and 31°C. Sleep and tail skin temperature were also recorded. Our results indicated that relative to control group, exposure to RF-EMF at 31°C was associated with a significantly lower tail skin temperature (?1.6°C) which confirmed previous data. During the light period, the exposed group preferred to sleep at Ta?=?31°C and the controls preferred Ta?=?28°C. The mean sleep duration in exposed group was significantly greater (by 15.5%) than in control group (due in turn to a significantly greater amount of slow wave sleep (SWS, +14.6%). Similarly, frequency of SWS was greater in exposed group (by 4.9 episodes.h?1). The PS did not differ significantly between the two groups. During the dark period, there were no significant intergroup differences. We conclude that RF-EMF exposure induced a shift in thermal preference towards higher temperatures. The shift in preferred temperature might result from a cold thermal sensation. The change in sleep stage distribution may involve signals from thermoreceptors in the skin. Modulation of SWS may be a protective adaptation in response to RF-EMF exposure. PMID:24905635

  12. Thermal conductivity of liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Viswanath

    1967-01-01

    The Bridgman equation for thermal conductivity of liquids is examined and a relation between sonic velocity and latent heat of vaporization is given. A correlation based on the hole theory of liquids is presented. This correlation predicts thermal conductivity in the temperature range of -20° to +80°C for 16 liquids, and at 20°C for 50 liquids with an average absolute

  13. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification. PMID:24117660

  14. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  15. New absolute measurements of the solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlov-Vasiljev, K. A.; Gurtovenko, E. A.; Matvejev, Yu. B.

    1995-03-01

    During 1986-1989 at the high-altitude station on the Peak Terskol, Caucasus (h = 3000 m) absolute measurements of the solar disk-center intensity were performed. The observations were carried out with the specialized solar telescope (D = 23 cm, F = 3 m) and grating spectrometer (F = 2 m, grating 140 x 150 mm, 600 grooves mm-1). The ribbon tungsten lamps used for absolute calibration were calibrated to the USSR standard of spectral intensity and were also compared with the irradiance standard of the PMO/WRC (Davos, Switzerland), with the lamps used in the Alma-Ata Observatory (Kazakhstan) and in Simferopol University for absolute measurements of stellar spectra. Methods and apparatus were improving step by step during 1985-1988. Special care was paid to the study of all possible sources of errors, in particular to the method of correction for atmospheric extinction, to polarization properties of optical elements of the apparatus, and to establishing the most reliable absolute calibration system. Finally, the observations performed during 1989 utilized only the refined methods and apparatus. As a result, the absolute integrals of the solar disk-centre intensity for 1-nm wide spectral bands in the range 310-685 nm are available. We estimate the total error is 2.5% at 310 nm and 2.1% at 680 nm. The absolute irradiance for 5-nm wide spectral bands is also obtained. We compare our results with results by Neckel and Labs (1984), with the irradiance filter measurements performed in PMO/WRC and calibration of the Sun's spectral irradiance to the stellar irradiance standard Vega by Lockwood (1992). Our results show a systematic difference with data by Neckel and Labs in the near-ultraviolet. The results by Neckel and Labs are probably underestimated in this spectral range by 8%.

  16. Quantification of lifetime accumulated ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances in the context of a retrospective epidemiological case-control study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Terschüren, Claudia; Kaune, William T; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    In Europe household appliances are a major source of indoor 50 Hz magnetic field exposure. A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations between leukemia risk and personal use of household appliances. In the "Norddeutsche Leukämie und Lymphomstudie" (NLL), which was conducted in Northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) between 1997 and 2001, lifetime use of a preselected array of electric appliances (microwave ovens, hair-dryers, motorized electrical alarm clocks (i.e. that use a motor to move their hands or digits), electric blankets and pillows, heated waterbeds, computers with conventional screens, TVs, and electric sewing machines) was recorded in a standardized, personal, computerized interview. Exposure was assessed on three different levels of precision: ever use, cumulative appliance-years, and average time of daily use. Additional questions referred to exposure modifying factors, including distance from screen while watching TV, position of an alarm clock at the bed etc.). Exposure to ELF-EMF from household appliances was quantified as ever vs. never use, gross and net appliance-years of lifetime use and cumulative microT-hours. Flux densities were based on measurements of appliances from the published literature. These were used as weighting factors to account for the different device-specific contributions to overall ELF-EMF exposure. Resulting distributions (as quartiles) for exposure scores revealed systematic differences for different levels of precision. Our analysis indicates that valid assessment of ELF-EMF exposure from household appliances should be based on the highest possible degree of precision and hence provides a considerable challenge in analytic epidemiology. PMID:15014545

  17. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  18. Absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jisoo

    2014-09-20

    A new instrument for absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection is presented. The instrument determines absolute values of angular reflection quantities in a wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm with a 3 nm spectral resolution by using a white source and a CCD-based spectroradiometer. Through uncertainty evaluation, the measurement uncertainty is determined as 1.4%-2.9% (k=2) for white diffuse material of Spectralon. The gonioreflectometric determination and an integrating-sphere-based reflection measurement traceable to KRISS spectral reflectance scale are compared by determining hemispherical reflectance, which results in agreement in their uncertainties. PMID:25322100

  19. Beyond Repetiton: Karl Kraus's "Absolute Satire"

    E-print Network

    Linden, Ari

    2013-10-01

    KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Beyond Repetition: Karl Kraus’s “Absolute Satire” by Ari Linden KU ScholarWorks is a service provided by the KU Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication & Copyright. This is the published version... of the article, made available with the permission of the publisher. The original published version can be found at the link below. Ari Linden. (2013). Beyond Repetition: Kark Kraus’s “Absolute Satire.” German Studies Review 36(3):515-536. Published version...

  20. Negative Absolute Temperature for Motional Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Ronzheimer, J. P.; Schreiber, M.; Hodgman, S. S.; Rom, T.; Bloch, I.; Schneider, U.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be positive. Under special conditions, however, negative temperatures—in which high-energy states are more occupied than low-energy states—are also possible. Such states have been demonstrated in localized systems with finite, discrete spectra. Here, we prepared a negative temperature state for motional degrees of freedom. By tailoring the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we created an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold bosons at negative temperature that is stable against collapse for arbitrary atom numbers. The quasimomentum distribution develops sharp peaks at the upper band edge, revealing thermal equilibrium and bosonic coherence over several lattice sites. Negative temperatures imply negative pressures and open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states.

  1. Parallel methods for absolute irreducibility testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatima K. Abu Salem; Laurence Tianruo Yang

    2008-01-01

    A heuristic algorithm for testing absolute irreducibility of multivariate polynomials over arbitrary elds using Newton Polytopes was proposed in (8). A preliminary implementa- tion by S. Gao and A. Lauder (2003) established a wide range of families of low degree and sparse polynomials for which the algorithm works ecien tly and with a high success rate. In this paper, we

  2. Absolute configuration of remisporines A & B.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Edward C; Cheeseman, James R; Williamson, R Thomas

    2015-04-14

    The absolute configuration of remisporine B was determined based on a comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate the ECD spectra varying the parameter controlling the number of calculated electronic transitions. Mapping the reaction surface provided support for the proposed Diels-Alder dimerization of remisporine A to form remisporine B. PMID:25735997

  3. TURING'S "ORACLE": FROM ABSOLUTE TO RELATIVE

    E-print Network

    Feferman, Solomon

    TURING'S "ORACLE": FROM ABSOLUTE TO RELATIVE COMPUTABILITY--AND BACK Solomon Feferman Logic Seminar} is not r.e. (xyT(z, x, y)) #12;2. Relative Effective Computability · `Oracle' computability (Turing 1939). A is effectively computable from B if it is computable by a machine which may call on an "oracle" for B. · Write f

  4. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #2 Description: The figure below magnitude. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 _______ Least Or, the apparent magnitude number would be the same for each star. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your

  5. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, J.

    1997-02-01

    Conflicting calibrations of the absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen in the vacuum and extreme ultraviolet are tested by a sum-rule analysis. It is shown that the scaling factor obtained by Samson and Pareek results in much closer adherence to three sum rules.

  6. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra M. Walczak; José N. Onuchic; Peter G. Wolynes

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor

  7. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  8. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  9. The homological degree and Hopf's absolute degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyarenko, Evgenii G.

    2008-12-01

    A cohomological degree theory is constructed for continuous maps of topological manifolds, including manifolds with boundaries, with emphasis on the non-orientable case. Some applications are given, among which the most substantial is an extremely simple definition of Hopf's absolute degree (which coincides with the geometric degree). Bibliography: 29 titles.

  10. Epinephrine, DNA integrity and oxidative stress in workers exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) at 132?kV substations.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ravindra; Lakshmi, N K; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2015-03-01

    There is apprehension about widespread use of electrical and electromagnetic gadgets which are supposed to emit electromagnetic radiations. Reports are controversy. These electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have considerable effect on endocrine system of exposed subjects. This study was focused to assess the possible bioeffects of extremely low-frequency (ELF)-EMFs on epinephrine level, DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to 132?kV high-voltage substations. The blood sample of 142 exposed subjects and 151 non-exposed individuals was analyzed. Plasma epinephrine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay along with oxidative stress. Epinephrine levels of sub-groups showed mean concentration of 75.22 ?±? 1.46, 64.43 ?±? 8.26 and 48.47 ?±? 4.97 for high, medium and low exposed groups, respectively. DNA damage ranged between 1.69?µm and 9.91?µm. The oxidative stress levels showed significant increase. The individuals employed in the live-line procedures were found to be vulnerable for EM stress with altered epinephrine concentrations, DNA damage and increased oxidative stress. PMID:24460415

  11. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  12. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  13. Absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Frimout, D.; Lillie, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A two-channel spectrometer was calibrated in the wavelength region 1200-3400 A and flown on an Aerobee rocket to observe the stars alpha Lyr, eta UMa, and zeta Oph. Standard tungsten lamps provided the absolute calibration down to 2250 A, and a photodiode calibrated by the National Bureau of Standards was the reference at shorter wavelengths. The molecular branching-ratio technique of relative calibration using the gases CO, NO, and N2 was a check on the absolute calibration. The flux from eta UMa agrees with the prediction of a hydrogen line blanketed model atmosphere within 10% between 1700 and 3400 A and within 4% over most of this wavelength region.

  14. Absolute quantification method for protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingdong; Tan, Jiaojie; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-12-16

    A fast and accurate assay to determine the absolute concentration of proteins is described based on direct measurement of droplet entrapped oligomer formation in electrospray. Here we demonstrate the approach using electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA), which can distinguish monomers and dimers from higher order oligomers. A key feature of the method is that it allows determination of the absolute number concentration of proteins eliminating the need for protein-specific calibration. The method was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of a NIST Standard Reference Material 927e (bovine serum albumin), a high-purity immunoglobulin G 1?, and a formulated Rituximab. The method may be applied to any electrospray source, regardless of diagnostic tool (e.g., MS or ion-mobility, etc.), provided the electrospray is operated in a droplet-fission mode. PMID:25412350

  15. Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry

    E-print Network

    Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

  16. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  17. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  18. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  19. Relaxation towards negative absolute temperature states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Stephan; Feiguin, Adrian; Manmana, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observation of negative absolute temperature states with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, [Braun et al., Science 339 52 (2013)], we discuss the formation of these states. More specifically, we consider the relaxation after a sudden inversion of the external parabolic confining potential. First, previous numerical simulation results of a semiclassical Boltzmann equation for the case of fermions will be discussed, which show a surprisingly slow equilibration due to the diffusive rearrangement of the local kinetic energies in the inhomogeneous system. We then focus on the integrable system of one-dimensional hard-core bosons. Here, we provide convincing numerical evidence for the relaxation to a generalized Gibbs ensemble at negative absolute temperature, a notion we define in this context.

  20. Blood Pressure Targets and Absolute Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (?60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ?60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ?20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ?20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ?20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  1. Absolute Flux Calibrated Spectrum of Vega

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Colina; R. Bohlin; F. Castelli

    An absolute flux calibrated reference spectrum of Vega, the primary calibration standard in the optical, is presented. The spectrum covers the entire 0.12 to 2.6 microns wavelength. The ultraviolet spectrum is based on IUE measurements. The optical and near-infrared up to 1.05 microns consists of Hayes (1985) average spectrum. A model spectrum normalized to Hayes (1985) Johnson V flux covers

  2. Absolute model ages from lunar crater morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Boyce, Joseph M.

    2015-04-01

    The degradation state of an impact crater is an indicator of its age. Previous workers have used crater degradation states to estimate ages of surfaces or geomorphological features; one example is the degree of freshness method developed by Pohn and Offield. Here we attempted to produce an empirical calibration that yields absolute model ages based upon the degree of freshness technique for craters ~8-20 km in diameter. To produce the calibration, we first selected 15 craters with degree of freshness values ranging from 2.5 to 6.3. Next, we used the Kaguya Terrain Camera data to measure crater density on the ejecta of these craters, from which absolute model age could be calculated. The resulting absolute model ages ranged from 0.9 to 4.0 Ga. We used two linear regressions to describe the relationship between the absolute model age and degree of freshness of the craters. We fitted each trend with two linear least-squares regressions, where the first regression represents craters with a degree of freshness from 0.0 to 4.9 and the second regression from 5.0 to 7.0. The 95% confidence belt shows that the calibrations are accurate to ±0.5 Ga to ±1.1 Ga for the fresh crater regression (5.0-7.0) and slightly more accurate, to ±0.3 Ga to ±0.1 Ga, for the degraded crater regression (0.0-4.9). However, the degraded crater regression is likely based upon craters with continuous ejecta that are crater saturated, thus implying that craters with a degree of freshness <5.0 is likely to be >3.8 Ga.

  3. Regressional models that describe oil absolute viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Toro-Vazquez; R. Infante-Guerrero

    1993-01-01

    Equations that describe the temperature dependence (298–338K) of absolute viscosity (?) of 21 oils and oil-liquid fat mixtures\\u000a were obtained based on two different approaches. Fitting each particular viscosity profile to a quadratic extension of the\\u000a Andrade equation provided the best predictive models (R2>0.96). However, the coefficients associated with temperature effect did not have a physical-chemical meaning. In contrast,\\u000a the

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. The absolute bioavailability of caffeine in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blanchard; S. J. A. Sawers

    1983-01-01

    The absolute bioavailability of orally administered caffeine was investigated in 10 healthy adult male volunteers, aged 18.8 to 30.0 years. The subjects were administered a 5 mg\\/kg dose of caffeine as either an aqueous oral solution or an intravenous infusion, on separate occasions about 1 week apart, in a randomized crossover fashion. Plasma samples were collected over the 24-h period

  6. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) ?Gal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) ?Gal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  7. Relative versus absolute quantitation in disease glycomics.

    PubMed

    Moh, Edward S X; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H

    2015-04-01

    The glycome of a diagnostic biological material such as blood, urine, saliva, tissue, or cell cultures comprises of a vast array of structurally distinct glycans attached to the protein complement. Aberrant glycan structures and distributions result from changes in specific glycosyltransferase activities and have different biological significance, making proper quantitation of glycans highly important. In this review, common HPLC/CE and LC-MS/MS-based methods for glycomics, their advantages and disadvantages, will be discussed with respect to the main quantitative strategies. With the increasing interest in absolute quantitation for glycomics, we discuss absolute and relative glycome quantitation and how it affects the resulting conclusions drawn from glycomics studies. We argue that while absolute quantitation of glycomes may be attractive for some areas of clinical glycomics, relative quantitation of glycans remains the most informative and time/cost-effective method to obtain biological insight into the regulation of the cellular glycosylation machinery and the synthesis of the resultant glycan structures in most research questions due to the enzymatic relatedness of the biosynthesized glycans. Recent developments in multiplexing of glycomes by the introduction of stable isotopic labeling of glycans show promise for providing another level of information to the existing benefits of relative quantitation. PMID:25684231

  8. Negative absolute temperature for mobile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative absolute temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative absolute temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.

  9. Absolute metastable atom-atom collision cross section measurements using a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Matherson, K. J.; Glover, R. D.; Laban, D. E.; Sang, R. T. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    We present a new technique to measure absolute total collision cross sections from metastable neon atoms. The technique is based on the observation of the decay rate of trapped atoms as they collide with room temperature atoms. We present the first measurement of this kind using trapped neon atoms in the {sup 3}P{sub 2} metastable state colliding with thermal ground state argon. The measured cross section has a value of 556{+-}26 A ring {sup 2}.

  10. A wireless batch sealed absolute capacitive pressure sensor Orhan Akarb

    E-print Network

    Akin, Tayfun

    A wireless batch sealed absolute capacitive pressure sensor Orhan Akarb , Tayfun Akina,b,* , Khalil sensor; Sealed pressure sensor; Capacitive pressure sensor 1. Introduction Absolute pressure sensors- ricate absolute pressure sensors with sealed cavities that also allow easy lead transfer from inside

  11. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated visible photons

    E-print Network

    Sergienko, Alexander

    techniques have shown promise in two areas of radiometry: absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency of measuring absolute spec- tral radiance without externally calibrated stan- dards, one employs the processMeasuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated visible photons: technique

  12. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  13. Mixed Integer Linear Programming Method for Absolute Value Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longquan Yong

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the NP-hard absolute value equation as linear complementary problem when the singular values of A exceed one, and we proposed a mixed integer linear programming method to absolute value equation problem. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its ability to solve random problems. Index Terms—absolute value equation; linear complementary problem; mixed integer linear programming. The basic

  14. Are Naturopathic Universities ``The Natural Places'' to investigate Attention-Deficit Type Disorders, with Possible Linkages to Cultural Patterns and the EMF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Beatriz; Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2006-03-01

    We desire serious investigations of behavioral impacts of certain localized or larger-scale environmental elements, such as the electromagnetic spectrum as detected by us at some sites. One author was impacted by the earth's EMF to such an extent in FL that it falsely convinced him that he was having a heart attack more severe than his nearly fatal one. Instead, it preceded an earthquake he then predicted six hours in advance. Chitto Tustenugee's `everglades' site, in Miramar FL, evokes tinnitus. Elsewhere, unease, terror, inappropriate behavior or sporadic loss of attention occurs where it can impact runway or roadway safety. Physics and Naturopathic Universities could be appropriate partners for understanding, preventing or curing these.

  15. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  16. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, C.; Peters, G.; Clemens, M.; Lengfeld, K.; Ament, F.

    2015-02-01

    The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band) and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD) profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (approx. 30 dBZ). Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates) around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is in the order of 1%. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of 8 range gates on both sides of the vertically pointing radar is most appropriate for calibration.

  17. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  18. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  19. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Absolute positions of SiO masers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.C.H.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Plambeck, R.L.; Welch, W.J. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The absolute radio positions of the v = 1, J = 2-1 SiO masers toward nine stars have been measured with typical position uncertainties of + or - 0.15 arcsec. The stars include the IR source IRc2 in Orion and R Aqr. The maser positions are compared with astrometrically determined stellar positions. For six of the stars, the stellar and maser positions differ by less than 0.35 arcsec. For VY CMa, the optical position is displaced by 1.1 arcsec from the maser. 47 refs.

  1. Proteomics of human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF).

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Battisti, Emilio; Albanese, Antonietta; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Gagliardi, Assunta; Landi, Claudia; Carta, Serafino; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disease, characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix and alterations in chondrocyte metabolism. Some authors reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can positively interfere with patients affected by OA, even though the nature of the interaction is still debated. Human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from the femoral heads of OA-patients undergoing to total hip replacement, were cultured in vitro and exposed 30?min/day for two weeks to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100?Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities and waveforms. Sham-exposed (S.E.) cells served as control group. Cell viability was measured at days 2, 7 and 14. After two weeks, cell lysates were processed using a proteomic approach. Chondrocyte exposed to ELF and TAMMEF system demonstrated different viability compared to untreated chondrocytes (S.E.). Proteome analysis of 2D-Electrophoresis and protein identification by mass spectrometry showed different expression of proteins derived from nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles. Function analysis of the identified proteins showed changes in related-proteins metabolism (glyceraldeyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase), stress response (Mn-superoxide-dismutase, heat-shock proteins), cytoskeletal regulation (actin), proteinase inhibition (cystatin-B) and inflammation regulatory functions (S100-A10, S100-A11) among the experimental groups (ELF, TAMMEF and S.E.). In conclusion, EMFs do not cause damage to chondrocytes, besides stimulate safely OA-chondrocytes and are responsible of different protein expression among the three groups. Furthermore, protein analysis of OA-chondrocytes treated with ELF and the new TAMMEF systems could be useful to clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms of OA by identifying biomarkers of the disease. PMID:23713417

  2. Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

  3. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG, with a standard deviation of {+-}0.7 W m{sup -2}. These results suggest that the ACP design might be used for addressing the need to improve the international reference for broadband outdoor longwave irradiance measurements.

  4. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  5. Absolute specular reflectance measurements in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snail, Keith A.; Morrish, Arthur A.; Hanssen, Leonard

    1987-02-01

    The absolute reflectance of specular surfaces can be measured with a 'V-W' optical system invented by Strong. The most difficult systematic error to eliminate in a V-W measurement is drift of the beam spot on the detector surface with small angular shifts of the beam between the sample-in (W) and sample-out (V) positions. In the infrared, this problem is exacerbated by the nonuniformity and small size of available detectors. Previous researchers have minimized this error with integrating spheres (in the visible) and/or auxiliary optics which desensitize the system to sample tilt errors. In order to verify this sensitivity to beam drift, a set of angular response measurements were performed on a commercial, variable angle V-W accessory and then modeled with a CODE V raytrace. The absolute accuracy of the instrument was estimated by measuring the specular reflectance of silver from 2-20 microns and comparing it to a Hagens-Rubens model. Finally, a nonimaging concentrator and a gold integrating sphere are considered as ways to increase the effective area of the detector and thus further desensitize the optics to misalignment errors.

  6. Absolute configuration of 7-epi-sesquithujene.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard A; Crook, Damon J

    2011-06-24

    7-epi-sesquithujene (1) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene isolated from phoebe oil, an essential oil of the Brazilian walnut tree, Phoebe porosa. It is also produced by stressed ash trees and has been shown to elicit strong electrophysiological responses on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, antennae. In the course of the development of a synthetic 7-epi-sesquithujene lure for field testing against the emerald ash borer, we found that the absolute configuration of this compound had not been determined. We isolated >95% pure 7-epi-sesquithujene from phoebe oil via successive fractionation and conventional and argentation (HPLC) chromatographies. The specific optical rotation of this compound matched that of a synthetic product of known configuration. We also synthesized two other stereoisomers of sesquithujene and developed a chiral GC method to separate all four. Based on the specific rotation, stereoselective syntheses, and chiral GC analyses, 7-epi-sesquithujene present in phoebe oil and white ash was found to have the 2S,6S,7R absolute configuration. PMID:21574561

  7. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  8. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  9. Thermal conductivity of liquid metals and alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Viswanath; B. C. Mathur

    1972-01-01

    The thermal conductivity data of liquid metals have been correlated based on the cell theory of liquids. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is predicted in the case of thirteen metals for which experimental data are available. The overall average absolute deviation of predicted values is 4.25 pct. The method has been extended to alloys.

  10. Experiments for the absolute neutrino mass measurement

    E-print Network

    Markus Steidl

    2009-06-02

    Experimental results and perspectives of different methods to measure the absolute mass scale of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. The mass sensitivities from cosmological observations, double beta decay searches and single beta decay spectroscopy differ in sensitivity and model dependance. Next generation experiments in the three fields reach the sensitivity for the lightest mass eigenstate of $m_1<0.2eV$, which will finally answer the question if neutrino mass eigenstates are degenerate. This sensitivity is also reached by the only model-independent approach of single beta decay (KATRIN experiment). For higher sensitivities on cost of model-dependance the neutrinoless double beta decay search and cosmological observation have to be applied. Here, in the next decade sensitivities are approached with the potential to test inverted hierarchy models.

  11. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  12. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  13. Absolutely Maximally Entangled Qudit Graph States

    E-print Network

    Wolfram Helwig

    2013-06-12

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are multipartite entangled states that are maximally entangled for any possible bipartition. In this paper, we study the description of AME states within the graph state formalism. The graphical representation provides an intuitive framework to visualize the entanglement in graph states, which makes them a natural candidate to describe AME states. We show two different methods of determining bipartite entanglement in graph states and use them to define various AME graph states. We further show that AME graph states exist for all number of parties, and that any AME graph states shared between an even number of parties can be used to describe quantum secret sharing schemes with a threshold or ramp access structure directly within the graph states formalism.

  14. Absolute image registration for geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankervis, R.; Koch, D.; Sielski, H.; Hall, D.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for the absolute registration of earth images acquired by cameras on geosynchronous satellites is described. A conventional least squares process is used to estimate navigational parameters and camera pointing biases from observed minus computed landmark line and element numbers. These estimated parameters along with orbit and attitude dynamic models are used to register images, employing an automated grey-level correlation technique, inside the span represented by the landmark data. Experimental results obtained from processing the SMS-2 observation data base covering May 2, 1979 through May 20, 1979 show registration accuracies with a standard deviation of less than two pixels if the registration is within the landmark data span. It is also found that accurate registration can be expected for images obtained up to 48 hours outside of the landmark data span.

  15. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  16. A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

    1990-05-01

    We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

  17. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration. PMID:16106389

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; C. Adrover; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; Y. Amhis; J. Anderson; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; L. Arrabito; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; D. S. Bailey; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; A. Bates; C. Bauer; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; I. Bediaga; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; M. Benayoun; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; R. Bernet; M van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; A. Bizzeti; P. M. Bjørnstad; T. Blake; F. Blanc; C. Blanks; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; A. Bobrov; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; T. J. V. Bowcock; C. Bozzi; T. Brambach; J. van den Brand; J. Bressieux; D. Brett; S. Brisbane; M. Britsch; T. Britton; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; A. Büchler-Germann; I. Burducea; A. Bursche; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; J. M. Caicedo Carvajal; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; P. Campana; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; M. Cattaneo; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; N. Chiapolini; K. Ciba; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; P. Collins; F. Constantin; G. Conti; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; G A Cowan; R. Currie; B. D'Almagne; C. D'Ambrosio; P. David; I. De Bonis; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; F. De Lorenzi; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; P. De Simone; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; H. Degaudenzi; M. Deissenroth; L. Del Buono; C. Deplano; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; J. Dickens; H. Dijkstra; P. Diniz Batista; S. Donleavy; F. Dordei; A. Dosil Suárez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; F. Dupertuis; R. Dzhelyadin; C. Eames; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; D. van Eijk; F. Eisele; S. Eisenhardt; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; Ch. Elsasser; D. G. d'Enterria; D. Esperante Pereira; L. Estève; A. Falabella; E. Fanchini; C. Färber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; V. Fave; V. Fernandez Albor; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; C. Fitzpatrick; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; S. Furcas; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J. C. Garnier; J. Garofoli; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; N. Gauvin; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V V Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; H. Gordon; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; S. Gregson; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; R. Harji; N. Harnew; J. Harrison; P. F. Harrison; J. He; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; E. Hicks; W. Hofmann; K. Holubyev; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; R. S. Huston; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; V. Iakovenko; P. Ilten; J. Imong; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; M. Jahjah Hussein; E. Jans; F. Jansen; P. Jaton; B. Jean-Marie; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; B. Jost; S. Kandybei; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; J. Keaveney; U. Kerzel; T. Ketel; A. Keune; B. Khanji; Y. M. Kim; M. Knecht; S. Koblitz; P. Koppenburg; A. Kozlinskiy; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; K. Kruzelecki; M. Kucharczyk; S. Kukulak; R. Kumar; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; E. Lanciotti; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J.-P. Lees; R. Lefèvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; L. Li; L. Li Gioi; M. Lieng; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; J. H. Lopes; E. Lopez Asamar; N. Lopez-March; J. Luisier; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; J. Magnin; S. Malde; R. M. D. Mamunur; G Mancinelli; N. Mangiafave; U. Marconi; R. Märki; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; L. Martin; A. Martín Sánchez; D. Martinez Santos; A. Massafferri; R. Matev; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; M. Matveev; E. Maurice; B. Maynard; A. Mazurov; G. McGregor; R. McNulty; C. Mclean; M. Meissner; M. Merk; J. Merkel; R. Messi; S. Miglioranzi; D. A. Milanes; M.-N. Minard; S. Monteil; D. Moran; P. Morawski; I. Mous; F. Muheim; K. Müller; R. Muresan; B. Muryn; M. Musy; J. Mylroie-Smith; P. Naik; T. Nakada; R. Nandakumar; J. Nardulli; I. Nasteva; M Needham; N. Neufeld; C. Nguyen-Mau; M. Nicol; S. Nies; V. Niess; N. Nikitin; A. Oblakowska-Mucha; V. Obraztsov; S. Oggero; S. Ogilvy; O. Okhrimenko; R. Oldeman; M. Orlandea; J. M. Otalora Goicochea; P. Owen; B. Pal; J. Palacios; M. Palutan; J. Panman; A. Papanestis; M. Pappagallo; C J Parkinson; G. Passaleva; G. D. Patel; M. Patel; S. K. Paterson; G. N. Patrick; C Pavel-Nicorescu; A. Pazos Alvarez; A. Pellegrino; G. Penso

    2011-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of

  20. Advanced Optical Terrain Absolute Navigation for Pinpoint Lunar Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Mammarella; Marcos Avilés Rodrigálvarez; Andrea Pizzichini; Ana María Sánchez Montero

    \\u000a Pin-point landing can only be achieved developing precise Absolute Navigation systems. Craters, for their intrinsic properties,\\u000a are one of the most suitable and robust features identifiable in lunar landscape. The Optical Terrain Absolute Navigation\\u000a (OTAN) system provides absolute navigation features and is composed by two main parts: the off-line part, focused on the extraction\\u000a of the Landmark Database; the on-line

  1. Reconciling late Neogene Pacific absolute and relative plate motion changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wessel; Loren W. Kroenke

    2007-01-01

    New models of Pacific absolute plate motion relative to hot spots and models of relative plate motion involving the Pacific plate all agree there was a significant change in the late Neogene (Chron 3A, ?5.89 Ma), reflecting a more northerly absolute motion than previously determined. As Pacific absolute plate motion became slightly more northerly, left-stepping transform segments came under compression.

  2. A New Steady-State Method for Determining Thermal Conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARSHALL IEITER

    1971-01-01

    A new steady-state absolute method for determining the thermal conductivity of rock specimens is presented. The technique involves putting a known quantity of heat into a specimen with an ohmic heater and determining the thermal gradient across the specimen with thermocouples. It follows from the steady-state conduction equation that the thermal conductivity can be calculated from the expression K --

  3. Efficient thermal to electrical conversion using thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, Yan; Hagelstein, Peter

    2002-03-01

    The efficiency of a semiconductor thermoelectric was found to be improved using a thermal diode configuration. A thermal diode is constructed by adding an emitter layer to the hot-side of a semiconductor thermoelectric, which injects a thermionic current into the thermoelectric. The performance of the thermal diode is enhanced by the addition of a compensation layer near the collector. The product of the short-circuit current density and the open-circuit voltage was found to increase by more than a factor of 4 in InSb thermal diodes, and by about a factor of 8 in Hg[.86]Cd[.14]Te thermal diodes. An absolute efficiency of 17 per cent is reported for thermal to electrical conversion in the case of a hot-side temperature in the vicinity of 250 C, and a cold-side temperature of 15 C. We review results from these experiments, and discuss more recent work.

  4. Holographic thermalization of charged operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Alejandro; Grandi, Nicolás E.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2015-05-01

    We study a light-like charged collapsing shell in AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime, investigating whether the corresponding Vaidya metric is supported by matter that satisfies the null energy condition. We find that, if the absolute value of the charge decreases during the collapse, energy conditions are fulfilled everywhere in spacetime. On the other hand, if the absolute value of the charge increases, the metric does not satisfy energy conditions in the IR region. Therefore, from the gauge/gravity perspective, this last case is only useful to study the thermalization of the UV degrees of freedom. For all these geometries, we probe the thermalization process with two point correlators of charged operators, finding that the thermalization time grows with the charge of the operator, as well as with the dimension of space.

  5. Absolute spacetime: the twentieth century ether

    E-print Network

    Carl H. Brans

    1998-01-09

    All gauge theories need ``something fixed'' even as ``something changes.'' Underlying the implementation of these ideas all major physical theories make indispensable use of an elaborately designed spacetime model as the ``something fixed,'' i.e., absolute. This model must provide at least the following sequence of structures: point set, topological space, smooth manifold, geometric manifold, base for various bundles. The ``fine structure'' of spacetime inherent in this sequence is of course empirically unobservable directly, certainly when quantum mechanics is taken into account. This issue is at the basis of the difficulties in quantizing general relativity and has been approached in many different ways. Here we review an approach taking into account the non-Boolean properties of quantum logic when forming a spacetime model. Finally, we recall how the fundamental gauge of diffeomorphisms (the issue of general covariance vs coordinate conditions) raised deep conceptual problems for Einstein in his early development of general relativity. This is clearly illustrated in the notorious ``hole'' argument. This scenario, which does not seem to be widely known to practicing relativists, is nevertheless still interesting in terms of its impact for fundamental gauge issues.

  6. Redetermination and absolute configuration of berkeleydione

    PubMed Central

    Stierle, Andrea; Stierle, Donald; Decato, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, berkeleydione [systematic name; (5aS,7R,9S,11R,11aS)-methyl 9-hy­droxy-1,1,5,7,9,11a-hexa­methyl-14-methyl­idene-3,8,10-trioxo-1,3,4,5a,6,7,8,9,10,11,11a,12-dodeca­hydro-7,11-methano­cycloocta­[4,5]cyclo­hepta­[1,2-c]pyran-11-carboxyl­ate], C26H32O7, has been reported previously [Stierle et al. (2004 ?). Org. Lett. 6, 1049–1052]. However, the absolute configuration could not be determined from the data collected with Mo K? radiation and has now been determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu K? radiation. It is in agreement with the previous circular dichroism assignment, and the crystal packing is similar to that described previously.

  7. An absolute clock of the cosmos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, V. A.; Lyuty, V. M.

    2010-06-01

    In 1968-2005 different observers (mainly, one of the authors—V.M. Lyuty) performed numerous measurements of luminosity of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. It is shown that ( a) luminosity of the object pulsated over 38 years with a period of 160.0106(7) min coinciding, within the error limits, with the well-known period P 0 = 160.0101(2) min of the enigmatic “solar” pulsations, and ( b) when registering oscillations of luminosity of NGC 4151 nucleus with the P 0 period, time moments of observations must be reduced to the earth instead of the sun, i.e., to the reference frame of the observer. The coherent P 0 oscillation is characterized, therefore, by invariability of both frequency and phase with respect to redshift z and the earth’s orbital motion, respectively. From these results it, thus, follows that the coherent P 0 oscillation seems to be of a true cosmological origin. The P 0 period itself might represent a course of the “cosmic clock” related to the existence of an absolute time of the Universe in Newton’s comprehension.

  8. Thermodynamic data from redox reactions at high temperatures. III. Activity-composition relations in Ni-Pd alloys from EMF measurements at 850–1250 K, and calibration of the NiO+Ni-Pd assemblage as a redox sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark I. Pownceby; Hugh St. C. O'Neill

    1994-01-01

    The assemblage NiO+Ni-Pd alloy has been calibrated as a precise oxygen fugacity sensor in the temperature range 850–1250 K at 1 bar, using an electrochemical technique with oxygen-specific CSZ electrolytes, and Ni+NiO and Cu+Cu2O as the reference electrodes. Nine compositions were studied, ranging from 0.12 to 0.83 XNialloy. Steady EMFs, implying equilibrium, were rapidly achieved in all cells, and were

  9. Acoustical Power of Certain Sound Sources in Absolute Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Sabine

    1923-01-01

    Acoustical power of certain sound sources in absolute units.-Having determined the threshold intensity (in absolute units) as a function of pitch for a particular observer (by Kranz' thermophone method) and the rate of dissipation of sound in the special sound chamber, the acoustic output of each of various sources in its fundamental or chief overtone, was computed from the observed

  10. Absolute external luminescence quantum efficiency of zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Hauser; Alexander Hepting; Robert Hauschild; Huijuan Zhou; Johannes Fallert; Heinz Kalt; Claus Klingshirn

    2008-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the absolute external luminescence quantum efficiency of various ZnO samples using a miniature integrating sphere fitted into a cryostat. Even the absolute luminescence quantum efficiencies per spectral interval are directly accessible. Measurements have been carried out on high quality bulk samples and different commercially available ZnO powders from 8 K up to room temperature.

  11. New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Secondary Alcohols R set of silyl ether reagents for determining the enantiomeric purity and absolute stereochemistry ether group allows for simple derivitiza- tion6 and convenient recovery of the original chiral compound

  12. Absolute Optical Calibrations Using a Simple Tungsten Bulb: Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Harang; M. J. Kosch

    2003-01-01

    The absolute spectral intensity calibration of op- tical detectors has always been difficult. In the past, this was only possible using expensive sources, which had been cross-calibrated against national standards. We describe a simple theoretical approach to absolute optical calibrations using any ordinary Tungsten light bulb. A key element of the theory is transforming Tungsten into an equivalent black body

  13. ABSOLUTELY CONTINUOUS INVARIANT MEASURES AND SUPERSTABLE PERIODIC ORBITS

    E-print Network

    Thunberg, Hans

    ABSOLUTELY CONTINUOUS INVARIANT MEASURES AND SUPER­STABLE PERIODIC ORBITS: WEAK. Introduction This paper will be concerned with absolutely continuous invariant measures (ACIMs) and super­stable 1 can be approximated, in weak* sense, with measures supported on the super­stable periodic orbits

  14. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  15. Investigation of the absolute instability of currents in oceanic gyres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Karpatovich; G. K. Korotaev

    2004-01-01

    In the approximation of geometric optics, we study the absolute instability of currents in oceanic gyres. It is shown that absolute instability is observed in the case where the most unstable mode of wave motion is stationary. Our results qualitatively agree with the data of numerical experiments aimed at the simulation of the synoptic variability of large-scale oceanic gyres.

  16. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  17. Islamic Star Patterns in Absolute Geometry CRAIG S. KAPLAN

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Islamic Star Patterns in Absolute Geometry CRAIG S. KAPLAN University of Waterloo and DAVID H on the axioms of absolute geometry for exploring the design space of Islamic star patterns. Our approach makes-Euclidean geometry, symmetry, tessellations, tilings 1. INTRODUCTION The rise and spread of Islamic culture from

  18. Testing the quasi-absolute method in photon activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wells, D. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph St. Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave. Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. Absolute methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new absolute approach in PAA - quasi-absolute method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental cross sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-absolute method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on cross sections. The quasi-absolute method looks promising.

  19. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (?=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (?=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (?=7.4° ) than for continental lithosphere (?=14.7° ). Two of the slowest-moving plates, Antarctica (vRMS=4 mm a-1, ?=29° ) and Eurasia (vRMS=3 mm a-1, ?=33° ), have two of the largest within-plate dispersions, which may indicate that a plate must move faster than ˜5 mm a-1 to result in seismic anisotropy useful for estimating plate motion. We will investigate if these relationships still hold with the new expanded data set and with the alternative set of relative plate angular velocities. We have found systematic differences between the SKS orientations and our predicted plate motion azimuths underneath the Arabia plate, which suggests to us either plate-scale mantle flow process not directly associated with that plate's absolute motion or intrinsic lithospheric anisotropy. We will discuss more of such discrepancies underneath other plates using the enlarged data set.

  20. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  1. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  2. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Renaud, James; Marchington, David; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61?652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU?min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU?min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved. PMID:23387722

  3. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Marchington, David [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  4. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO format. The NGS absolute system is located in Corbin, Virginia, and uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. NGS is interested in providing calibrations for a wide variety of dual-frequency, geodetic-grade antennas, from types in use at IGS and CORS reference stations to rover antennas not normally seen in those networks. In this presentation, we describe the NGS absolute calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We also demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities.

  5. Ferroelectric bolometer measures RF absolute power at submillimeter wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, M.; Rodgers, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Two ferroelectric bolometer sensing elements measure low rf absolute power at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The sensing elements are mounted in sections of waveguide and connected in series in a standard temperature compensating bridge circuit.

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  7. Absolutely continuous spectrum of a Schroedinger operator on a tree

    SciTech Connect

    Kupin, S. [Universite Aix-Marseille, 39 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2008-11-15

    We give sufficient conditions for the presence of the absolutely continuous spectrum of a Schroedinger operator on a regular rooted tree without loops (also called regular Bethe lattice or Cayley tree)

  8. Absolutely continuous spectrum of a Schrödinger operator on a tree

    E-print Network

    S. Kupin

    2008-05-18

    We give sufficient conditions for the presence of the absolutely continuous spectrum of a Schr\\"odinger operator on a regular rooted tree without loops (also called regular Bethe lattice or Cayley tree).

  9. Comparative vs. Absolute Performance Assessment with Environmental Sustainability Metrics

    E-print Network

    High, Karen

    to another dilemma. This can be further explained as follows. For example, the environmental performanceComparative vs. Absolute Performance Assessment with Environmental Sustainability Metrics Xun Jin Different goals and potential audiences determine that two types of environmental performance assessments

  10. Efficient absolute difference circuits in Virtex-5 FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Perri; Paolo Zicari; Pasquale Corsonello

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel architecture optimized for realizing efficient absolute difference circuits in Virtex-5 FPGA devices. The proposed structure efficiently uses the 6-input look-up-tables available within the chosen devices family to maximize speed performance and to minimize the amount of occupied resources. In comparison with the DSP- and the LUT-based absolute difference circuits automatically synthesized and mapped by the

  11. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D+ Semileptonic Decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Huang; D. H. Miller; V. Pavlunin; B. Sanghi; I. P. J. Shipsey; G. S. Adams; M. Chasse; M. Cravey; J. P. Cummings; I. Danko; J. Napolitano; Q. He; H. Muramatsu; C. S. Park; E. H. Thorndike; T. E. Coan; Y. S. Gao; F. Liu; M. Artuso; C. Boulahouache; S. Blusk; J. Butt; E. Dambasuren; O. Dorjkhaidav; J. Li; N. Menaa; R. Nandakumar; K. Randrianarivony; R. Redjimi; R. Sia; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; J. C. Wang; K. Zhang; S. E. Csorna; G. Bonvicini; D. Cinabro; M. Dubrovin; R. A. Briere; G. P. Chen; J. Chen; T. Ferguson; G. Tatishvili; H. Vogel; M. E. Watkins; J. L. Rosner; N. E. Adam; J. P. Alexander; K. Berkelman; D. G. Cassel; V. Crede; J. E. Duboscq; K. M. Ecklund; R. Ehrlich; L. Fields; L. Gibbons; B. Gittelman; R. Gray; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; D. Hertz; L. Hsu; C. D. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; D. L. Kreinick; V. E. Kuznetsov; H. Mahlke-Krüger; T. O. Meyer; P. U. E. Onyisi; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; E. A. Phillips; J. Pivarski; D. Riley; A. Ryd; A. J. Sadoff; H. Schwarthoff; X. Shi; M. R. Shepherd; S. Stroiney; W. M. Sun; D. Urner; K. M. Weaver; T. Wilksen; M. Weinberger; S. B. Athar; P. Avery; L. Breva-Newell; R. Patel; V. Potlia; H. Stoeck; J. Yelton; P. Rubin; C. Cawlfield; B. I. Eisenstein; G. D. Gollin; I. Karliner; D. Kim; N. Lowrey; P. Naik; C. Sedlack; M. Selen; J. Williams; J. Wiss; K. W. Edwards; D. Besson; T. K. Pedlar; D. Cronin-Hennessy; K. Y. Gao; D. T. Gong; J. Hietala; Y. Kubota; T. Klein; B. W. Lang; S. Z. Li; R. Poling; A. W. Scott; A. Smith; S. Dobbs; Z. Metreveli; K. K. Seth; A. Tomaradze; P. Zweber; J. Ernst; A. H. Mahmood; H. Severini; D. M. Asner; S. A. Dytman; W. Love; S. Mehrabyan; J. A. Mueller; V. Savinov; Z. Li; A. Lopez; H. Mendez; J. Ramirez

    2005-01-01

    Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D+ decays to Kmacr 0e+nue, pi0e+nue, Kmacr *0e+nue, and rho0e+nue, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D+-->omegae+nue. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance

  12. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons generated by heating, which then exchange energy with the magnetic system), a TRM can be acquired with minimal heating of the bulk sample, thus potentially minimizing sample alteration. The theory of TRM acquisition is best developed for single-domain (SD) grains, and most paleointensity techniques are predicated on the assumption that the remanence is carried predominantly by SD material. Because the vast majority of geological materials are characterized by a larger magnetic grain size, efforts to expand paleointensity studies over the past decade have focused on developing TRM theories and paleointensity methods for pseudo-single-domain (PSD) and MD samples. Other workers have been exploring the potential of SD materials that were not traditionally used in paleointensity studies, such as ash flow tuffs, submarine basaltic glass, and single silicate crystals with magnetite inclusions. The latter has the potential to shed light on early Earth processes, given that the fine-grained inclusions may be resistant to alteration over long time scales. We will review the major paleointensity techniques in use today, with special attention paid to the advantages and disadvantages of each. Techniques will be illustrated with examples highlighting new paleointensity applications to geologic processes at a variety of timescales.

  13. Global absolut gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall absolute gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 absolute gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of absolute gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an absolute gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated absolute gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.

  14. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  15. Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liao; L. D. Marks

    2010-01-01

    We generalize a model for friction at a sliding interface involving the motion of misfit dislocations to include the effect\\u000a of thermally activated transitions across barriers. We obtain a comparatively simple form with the absolute zero-temperature\\u000a Peierls barrier replaced by an effective Peierls barrier which varies exponentially with temperature, in agreement with recent\\u000a experimental observations of thermally activated friction. Going

  16. Thermal conductivity of liquid metals and alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Viswanath; B. C. Mathur

    1972-01-01

    The thermal conductivity data of liquid metals have been correlated based on the cell theory of liquids. The temperature dependence\\u000a of thermal conductivity is predicted in the case of thirteen metals for which experimental data are available. The overall\\u000a average absolute deviation of predicted values is 4.25 pct. The method has been extended to alloys.

  17. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    E-print Network

    The LHCb Collaboration; R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; C. Adrover; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; Y. Amhis; J. Anderson; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; L. Arrabito; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; D. S. Bailey; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; A. Bates; C. Bauer; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; I. Bediaga; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; M. Benayoun; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; R. Bernet; M. -O. Bettler; M. van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; A. Bizzeti; P. M. Bjørnstad; T. Blake; F. Blanc; C. Blanks; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; A. Bobrov; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; T. J. V. Bowcock; C. Bozzi; T. Brambach; J. van den Brand; J. Bressieux; D. Brett; S. Brisbane; M. Britsch; T. Britton; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; A. Büchler-Germann; I. Burducea; A. Bursche; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; J. M. Caicedo Carvajal; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; P. Campana; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; M. Cattaneo; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; N. Chiapolini; K. Ciba; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; P. Collins; F. Constantin; G. Conti; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; G. Corti; G. A. Cowan; R. Currie; B. D'Almagne; C. D'Ambrosio; P. David; I. De Bonis; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; F. De Lorenzi; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; P. De Simone; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; H. Degaudenzi; M. Deissenroth; L. Del Buono; C. Deplano; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; J. Dickens; H. Dijkstra; P. Diniz Batista; S. Donleavy; F. Dordei; A. Dosil Suárez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; F. Dupertuis; R. Dzhelyadin; C. Eames; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; D. van Eijk; F. Eisele; S. Eisenhardt; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; Ch. Elsasser; D. G. d'Enterria; D. Esperante Pereira; L. Estève; A. Falabella; E. Fanchini; C. Färber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; V. Fave; V. Fernandez Albor; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; C. Fitzpatrick; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; S. Furcas; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J-C. Garnier; J. Garofoli; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; N. Gauvin; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V. Gibson; V. V. Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; H. Gordon; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; S. Gregson; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; R. Harji; N. Harnew; J. Harrison; P. F. Harrison; J. He; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; E. Hicks; W. Hofmann; K. Holubyev; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; R. S. Huston; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; V. Iakovenko; P. Ilten; J. Imong; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; M. Jahjah Hussein; E. Jans; F. Jansen; P. Jaton; B. Jean-Marie; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; B. Jost; S. Kandybei; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; J. Keaveney; U. Kerzel; T. Ketel; A. Keune; B. Khanji; Y. M. Kim; M. Knecht; S. Koblitz; P. Koppenburg; A. Kozlinskiy; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; K. Kruzelecki; M. Kucharczyk; S. Kukulak; R. Kumar; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; E. Lanciotti; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J. -P. Lees; R. Lefèvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; L. Li; L. Li Gioi; M. Lieng; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; J. H. Lopes; E. Lopez Asamar; N. Lopez-March; J. Luisier; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; J. Magnin; S. Malde; R. M. D. Mamunur; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; N. Mangiafave; U. Marconi; R. Märki; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; L. Martin; A. Martín Sánchez; D. Martinez Santos; A. Massafferri; R. Matev; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; M. Matveev; E. Maurice; B. Maynard; A. Mazurov; G. McGregor; R. McNulty; C. Mclean; M. Meissner; M. Merk; J. Merkel; R. Messi; S. Miglioranzi; D. A. Milanes; M. -N. Minard; S. Monteil; D. Moran; P. Morawski; R. Mountain; I. Mous; F. Muheim; K. Müller; R. Muresan; B. Muryn; M. Musy; J. Mylroie-Smith; P. Naik; T. Nakada; R. Nandakumar; J. Nardulli; I. Nasteva; M. Nedos; M. Needham; N. Neufeld; C. Nguyen-Mau; M. Nicol; S. Nies; V. Niess; N. Nikitin; A. Oblakowska-Mucha; V. Obraztsov; S. Oggero; S. Ogilvy; O. Okhrimenko; R. Oldeman; M. Orlandea; J. M. Otalora Goicochea; P. Owen; B. Pal; J. Palacios; M. Palutan; J. Panman; A. Papanestis; M. Pappagallo; C. Parkes; C. J. Parkinson; G. Passaleva; G. D. Patel

    2012-01-11

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic "van der Meer scan" method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5% in the absolute luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.

  18. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  19. Non-thermal effects of power-line magnetic fields (50 Hz) on gene expression levels of pluripotent embryonic stem cells-the role of tumour suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Jaroslaw; Nikolova, Teodora; Schuderer, Jürgen; Kuster, Niels; Wobus, Anna M

    2004-01-10

    The diffusion of extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in the human environment raises the question of the induction of biological effects of EMF on mammalian cells. We used the model of mouse pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells, which have the capacity to develop in vitro into cells of all lineages, to analyse non-thermal effects of ELF-EMF. Wild type (wt) and p53-deficient ES cells were exposed under controlled conditions to ELF-EMF signals simulating power-line (50 Hz) magnetic field (PL-MF) exposure. Different flux densities of 0.1 mT, 1.0 mT or 2.3 mT and intermittency schemes with various ON/OFF cycles were applied for 6 h or 48 h during the first stages of cell differentiation. Transcript levels of regulatory genes, such as egr-1, p21, c-jun, c-myc, hsp70 and bcl-2, were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR immediately after exposure or after a recovery time of 18 h. Intermittent PL-MF exposure to 5 min ON/30 min OFF cycles at a flux density of 2.3 mT for 6 h resulted in a significant up-regulation of c-jun, p21 and egr-1 mRNA levels in p53-deficient, but not in wild-type cells. No significant effects were observed in both cell systems by PL-MF at lower flux densities, longer exposure time or after 18 h recovery time. Our data indicate that 5 min ON/30 min OFF intermittent PL-MF exposure is capable of evoking non-thermal responses in ES cells, dependent on the cellular p53 function. The nature of the biological responses triggered by PL-MF is discussed. PMID:14706519

  20. ABSOLUTE PHOTODETACHMENT CROSS-SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR HYDROCARBON CHAIN ANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Best, T.; Otto, R.; Wester, R. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Trippel, S.; Hlavenka, P.; Von Zastrow, A.; Eisenbach, S.; Jezouin, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Vigren, E.; Hamberg, M.; Geppert, W. D., E-mail: roland.wester@uibk.ac.at [Molecular Physics Division, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Absolute photodetachment cross sections have been measured for the hydrocarbon chain anions C{sub n}H{sup -}, n = 2, 4, and 6, which are relevant for an understanding of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. Data have been obtained for different photon energies within approximately 1 eV of the detachment threshold. With our recently developed method we have achieved a precision of better than 25% on these absolute cross sections. The experiments have been carried out by means of photodetachment tomography of the mass-selected molecular anions in a multipole radio-frequency ion trap. The measured absolute cross sections are in accordance with the empirical scaling law of Millar et al. and have allowed us to determine its free parameters. These results are important for predicting the photostability and thus the abundance of carbon chain anions in planetary atmospheres, in circumstellar envelopes, and in photon-dominated regions of interstellar molecular clouds.

  1. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jatin G; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  2. About the measurement of absolute isotropic surface stress of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, P.; Kern, R.

    1994-01-01

    Some recent publications report measurements of the curvature of thin asymmetric sheets and deduce the difference of surface stress ( s1 - s2) of both its faces 1 and 2 using a simple formula due to Stoney. An exact formulation gives a relation where ( s1 + s2) enters also. It is shown here how, for thin sheets, ( s1 - s2) and ( s1 + s2) can be measured and therefore the absolute surface stresses s1 and s2. For thicker sheets, only ( s1 - s2) can be measured. Two experimental methods for measuring the absolute surface stresses are proposed.

  3. Absolute Positioning with Single-Frequency GPS Receivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola Øvstedal

    2002-01-01

      The use of precise post-processed satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections in absolute positioning, using one GPS\\u000a receiver only, has proven to be an accurate alternative to the more commonly used differential techniques for many applications\\u000a in georeferencing.\\u000a \\u000a The absolute approach is capable of centimeter accuracy when using state-of-the-art, dual-frequency GPS receivers. When using\\u000a observations from single-frequency receivers, however, the

  4. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  5. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  6. Absolute determination of the neutron source yield using melamine as a neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciechanowski, M.; Bolewski, A., Jr.; Kreft, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to absolute determination of the neutron source yield is presented. It bases on the application of melamine (C3H6N6) to neutron detection combined with Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport. Melamine has the ability to detect neutrons via 14N(n, p)14C reaction and subsequent determination of 14C content. A cross section for this reaction is relatively high for thermal neutrons (1.827 b) and much lower for fast neutrons. A concentration of 14C nuclei created in the irradiated sample of melamine can be reliably measured with the aid of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The mass of melamine sufficient for this analysis is only 10 mg. Neutron detection is supported by Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport carried out with the use of MCNP-4C code. These simulations are aimed at computing the probability of 14C creation in the melamine sample per the source neutron. The result of AMS measurements together with results of MCNP calculations enable us to determine the number of neutrons emitted from the source during the irradiation of melamine. The proposed method was applied for determining the neutron emission from a commercial 252Cf neutron source which was independently calibrated. The measured neutron emission agreed with the certified one within uncertainty limits. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) of the absolute neutron source yield determination was estimated at 2.6%. Apart from calibration of radionuclide neutron sources the proposed procedure could facilitate absolute yield measurements for more complex sources. Potential applications of this methodology as it is further developed include diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion and plasma-focus experiments, calibration of neutron measurement systems at tokamaks and accelerator-based neutron sources as well as characterization of neutron fields generated in large particle detectors during collisions of hadron beams.

  7. Thermal fractionation of air in polar firn by seasonal temperature gradients

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    on first principles to within 30%. Although absolute values of thermal diffusion sensitivities cannot or a rectifier effect is seen. Keywords: Thermal diffusion; firn air; isotope fractionation; gas isotopesThermal fractionation of air in polar firn by seasonal temperature gradients Jeffrey P

  8. Offshore Absolute Calibration of SpaceBorne Radar Altimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GWENAëLE JAN; YVES MÉNARD; MATHILDE FAILLOT; FLORENT LYARD; ERIC JEANSOU; PASCAL BONNEFOND

    2004-01-01

    Absolute calibration of sea level measurements collected from space-borne radar altimeters is usually performed with respect to collocated sea level in situ records from tide gauges or GPS buoys (Ménard et al. 1994; Haines et al. 1996; Bonnefond et al. 2003; Haines et al. 2003; Schum et al. 2003; Watson et al. 2003; Watson et al. 2004). Such a method

  9. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  10. Absolute detector quantum-efficiency measurements using correlated photons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Migdall; R. U. Datla; A. Sergienko; J. S. Orszak; Y. H. Shih

    1995-01-01

    An experimental system using correlated photons for radiometric purposes has been set up at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We use pairs of correlated photons to produce spatial maps of the absolute efficiency of a photomultiplier photocathode at four wavelengths. We also compare this technique with measurements carried out by conventional means tied to existing radiometric standards.

  11. A Unique Asymmetrical Stroop Effect in Absolute Pitch Possessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilach Akiva-Kabiri; Avishai Henik

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has been employed to study automaticity or failures of selective attention for many years. The effect is known to be asymmetrical, with words affecting color naming but not vice versa. In the current work two auditory-visual Stroop-like tasks were devised in order to study the automaticity of pitch processing in both absolute pitch (AP) possessors and musically

  12. Absolute shape measurements using high-resolution optoelectronic holography methods

    E-print Network

    Furlong, Cosme

    of components. In this paper, a unique, compact, and versatile state-of-the-art fiber-optic- based-illumination, and in-plane speckle corre- lation setups. With the OEH apparatus and analysis algorithms, absolute shape-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [S0091-3286(00)02601-5] Subject terms: CAD/CAE models; fiber optics; optoelectronic

  13. Interferometer for measurement of absolute refractive index and thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serguei A. Alexandrov; I. V. Chernyh

    1993-01-01

    The interferometer model for measurement of the absolute refractive index of the optical media with the accuracy of 0.00001 has been developed, manufactured and researched. The sample for test to be manufactured as the flat parallel plate. The interferometer gives possibility to defined sample geometrical thickness with accuracy 0.0002 mm simultaneously with index measurement. The range of index and thickness

  14. Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections of the phenyl radical

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections of the phenyl radical Niels E. Sveum sections of the phenyl radical to form the phenyl cation were measured using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation coupled with photofragment translational spectroscopy. The phenyl radical was produced

  15. Absolute indoor calibration of large area solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Metzdorf; T. Wittchen; H. Kaase

    1986-01-01

    Equipment for the calibration of reference solar cells which is traceable back to their primary radiometric standards is presented. The apparatus, based on the differential spectral responsivity method is an absolute indoor procedure without reference solar cells, and needs no solar simulator. The method is applicable to all kinds of test devices up to solar cell areas of 10 x

  16. Robust synchronization of absolute and difference clocks over networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl Veitch; Julien Ridoux; Satish Babu Korada

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed re-examination of the problem of inexpensive yet accurate clock synchronization for networked devices. Based on an empirically validated, parsimonious abstraction of the CPU oscillator as a timing source, accessible via the TSC register in popular PC architectures, we build on the key observation that the measurement of time differences, and absolute time, requires separate clocks, both

  17. STABILITY AND ERROR ANALYSIS FOR ABSOLUTELY CALIBRATED GEODETIC GPS RECEIVERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Plumb; Kristine Larson; Joe White; Ed Powers; Ron Beard

    The absence of absolute calibration data for geodetic-quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and their associated equipment has limited the application of these instruments for time transfer. We have conducted a series of tests in order to calibrate two such geodetic receivers. Receiver calibration is made with respect to a dual-frequency GPS simulator. Inaccuracies due to the simulator itself are

  18. Fiber-optic sensor systems for absolute measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojtek J. Bock; Waclaw Urbanczyk

    1998-01-01

    In this review presentation we provide a short introduction to fiber-optic sensor technology, a quickly emerging novel industrial application area of photonics, different from fiber-optic communications. Fundamental sensor concepts, sensor classification, sensor components and several representative examples of industrial sensor systems will be presented with special focus on sensors and sensor systems developed for absolute measurements in the area of

  19. Absolute continuity of stable foliations for systems on Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zeng; Young, Lai-Sang; Zeng, Chongchun

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for C maps of Banach spaces satisfying a globally defined infinitesimal invariant cones condition. Proofs of regularity for center and stable manifolds needed for the main theorem are included. Our results are applicable to dynamical systems generated by ordinary, partial, or functional differential equations, including non-autonomous differential equations that are periodic in time.

  20. Analysis I Sheet 7 MT05 Absolute convergence, power series

    E-print Network

    Flynn, E. Victor

    Analysis I Sheet 7 MT05 Absolute convergence, power series 1 Give either a proof of convergence R of each of the following power series. (i) n2005 xn , (ii) x(n 2), (ii) xn 2nn4 , (iii) 2n xn = R and for x = -R. 3 (a) Write down the sum of the power series n=0 xn valid for |x|

  1. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  2. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  3. Absolute and convective instabilities of heated coaxial jet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, Gioele; Gloor, Michael; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the inviscid, linear spatio-temporal stability of heated, compressible, and incompressible coaxial jet flows. The influence of the temperature ratio and the velocity ratio between the core jet and the bypass stream on the transition from convectively to absolutely unstable flows is studied numerically. The investigation shows that for coaxial jets, absolute instability can occur for considerably lower core-stream temperatures than for single jets. The reason for this modified stability character is the appearance of an additional unstable mode as a result of the outer velocity shear layer between the bypass stream and the ambient flow. The presence of two shear layers enables the interaction between otherwise free waves to give rise to new instabilities. When the bypass-stream velocity is increased, the classical absolute mode known from single jets (inner mode) is first stabilized and then destabilized for high bypass-stream velocities, whereas the outer mode reaches maximum spatio-temporal growth rates when the core-stream velocity is approximately equal to twice the bypass-stream velocity. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the spatio-temporal character of the modes is very sensitive to the shear-layer thickness and to the distance separating the two layers. Increasing the Mach number strongly dampens the onset of an absolute instability for both modes.

  4. Structural Health Monitoring of Strategically Tuned Absolutely Resilient Structures (STARS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Marotta; Teng K. Ooi; John A. Gilbert

    Strategically Tuned Absolutely Resilient Structures (STARS) are being designed to store potential energy in the form of elastic deformation that can be released in a controlled fashion as work or kinetic energy. This paper outlines steps being taken to monitor the structural health of STARS by making modifications to a Remote Readiness Asset Prognostic and Diagnostic System (RRAPDS). The latter

  5. Absolute Photodetachment Cross-section Measurements for Hydrocarbon Chain Anions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Best; R. Otto; S. Trippel; P. Hlavenka; A. von Zastrow; S. Eisenbach; S. Jézouin; R. Wester; E. Vigren; M. Hamberg; W. D. Geppert

    2011-01-01

    Absolute photodetachment cross sections have been measured for the hydrocarbon chain anions C n H--, n = 2, 4, and 6, which are relevant for an understanding of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. Data have been obtained for different photon energies within approximately 1 eV of the detachment threshold. With our recently developed method we have achieved a precision

  6. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  7. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  8. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Castle; R. G. Holm; C. J. Kastner; J. M. Palmer; P. N. Slater; M. Dinguirard; C. E. Ezra; D. Jackson; R. K. Savage

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area.

  9. Some Simple Physical Models for Absolute Plate Motions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean C. Solomon; Norman H. Sleep

    1974-01-01

    Although the relative angular velocities of the earth's plates are well known, the velocities relative to the underlying mantle and the nature of the driving forces are not. We calculate several solutions to the 'absolute' velocity field from the hypothesis that no net torque is exerted on the lithosphere as a whole and a series of assumptions about the forces

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of absolute secondary electron yield of Cu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. J. Ding; H. M. Li; X. D. Tang; R. Shimizu

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model of electron interaction with solids that includes cascade secondary electron production has been used to study secondary electron emission from Cu. An optical dielectric function was used to describe electron energy loss and the associated secondary electron excitation. From the simulation, the absolute primary energy dependence of the secondary yield and the energy distribution of

  11. CONVECTIVE AND ABSOLUTE INSTABILITIES OF FLOW OVER COMPLIANT WALLS

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    CONVECTIVE AND ABSOLUTE INSTABILITIES OF FLOW OVER COMPLIANT WALLS CHRISTOPHER DAVIES School in ow over a compliant wall. The model problem of ow in a plane channel between compliant walls are discussed in connection with the design of compliant walls for boundary-layer transition delay. It is shown

  12. Absolute Tilt from a Laser Guide Star: A First Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Esposito; R. Ragazzoni; A. Riccardi; C. O'Sullivan; N. Ageorges; M. Redfern; R. Davies

    2000-01-01

    Absolute tip–tilt recovery using a tilt signal measured on a Laser Guide Star is a central problem in the framework of the development of Adaptive Optics Systems reaching full sky coverage down to visible wavelengths. In the past few years, various techniques aimed at solving this problemhave been proposed. However only a couple of these has been recentlytested in practice.We

  13. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics: A Study of the Absolute Seebeck Coefficient of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Sarah J.

    The worlds demand for energy is ever increasing. Likewise, the environmental impact of climate change due generating that energy through combustion of fossil fuels is increasingly alarming. Due to these factors new sources of renewable energies are constantly being sought out. Thermoelectric devices have the ability to generate clean, renewable, energy out of waste heat. However promising that is, their inefficiency severely inhibits applicability and practical use. The usefulness of a thermoelectric material increases with the dimensionless quantity, ZT, which depends on the Seebeck coefficient and electrical and thermal conductivity. These characteristic material parameters have interdependent energy transport contributions that classically prohibit the optimization of one with out the detriment of another. Encouraging advancements of ZT have occurred in the past ten years due to the decoupling of the thermal and electrical conductivity. Further advancements are necessary in order to produce applicable devices. One auspicious way of decoupling or tuning energy transport properties, is through size reduction to the nanoscale. However, with reduced dimensions come complications in measuring material properties. Measurements of properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, S, are primarily contingent upon the measurement apparatus. The Seebeck coefficient is defined as the amount of voltage generated by a thermal gradient. Measuring a thermally generated voltage by traditional methods gives, the voltage measured as a linear function of the Seebeck coefficient of the leads and of the material being tested divided by the applied thermal gradient. If accurate values of the Seebeck coefficients of the leads are available, simple subtraction provides the answer. This is rarely the case in nanoscale measurement devices with leads exclusively made from thin film materials that do not have well known bulk-like thermopower values. We have developed a technique to directly measure, S, as a function of temperature using a micro-machined thermal isolation platform consisting of a suspended, patterned SiN membrane. By measuring a series of thicknesses of metallic films up to the infinitely thin film limit, in which the electrical resistivity is no longer decreasing with increasing film thickness, but still not at bulk values, along with the effective electron mean free path, we are able to show the contribution of the leads needed to measure this property. Having a comprehensive understanding of the background contribution we are able to determine the absolute Seebeck coefficient of a wide variety of thin films. The nature of the design of the SiN membrane also allows the ability to accurately and directly measure thermal and electrical transport of the thin films yielding a comprehensive measurement of the three quantities that characterize a material's efficiency. This can serve to further the development of thermoelectric materials through precise measurements of the material properties that dictate efficiency.

  14. The measurement of absolute thermal neutron flux using liquid scintillation counting techniques 

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jack Vernon

    1960-01-01

    mean free path, L is the diffusion length, and 4 is the probability that a neutron will be absorbed in a single traverse of the foil. This probability is given by al e-a (1 )R)+g R2p (2'R) (2-10) where Ei (-QR) is the exponential integral.... Chlorine contains two stable isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37. The reactions upon neutron ir- radiation are C135 (n, g ) C13& and C137 (n, r ) C13g. Both C13b and C13S are radioactive but due to the long half life of C13b, 3 x 10& years, the activity...

  15. Onboard Real-Time Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Thermal Infrared Channels of Chinese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites

    E-print Network

    Dery, Stephen

    Geostationary Meteorological Satellites JINJUN TONG Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University Calibration and Validation for Environmental Satellites, China Meteorological Administration, National Satellite Meteorology Center, Beijing, China STEPHEN J. DE´ RY Environmental Science and Engineering Program

  16. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  17. Is absolute separability determined by the partial transpose?

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan Arunachalam; Nathaniel Johnston; Vincent Russo

    2015-01-22

    The absolute separability problem asks for a characterization of the quantum states $\\rho \\in M_m\\otimes M_n$ with the property that $U\\rho U^\\dagger$ is separable for all unitary matrices $U$. We investigate whether or not it is the case that $\\rho$ is absolutely separable if and only if $U\\rho U^\\dagger$ has positive partial transpose for all unitary matrices $U$. In particular, we develop an easy-to-use method for showing that an entanglement witness or positive map is unable to detect entanglement in any such state, and we apply our method to many well-known separability criteria, including the range criterion, the realignment criterion, the Choi map and its generalizations, and the Breuer-Hall map. We also show that these two properties coincide for the family of isotropic states, and several eigenvalue results for entanglement witnesses are proved along the way that are of independent interest.

  18. Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda

    2015-02-27

    A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8?,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model. PMID:25634541

  19. Stability of absolute depth reconstruction from deflectometric measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Alexey

    2014-07-01

    Until recently, the problem of reconstructing specular surface shapes from deflectometric registration data was considered inherently ambiguous, and thus requiring additional information in order to uniquely determine the absolute surface position. In 2013, Liu, Hartley and Salzmann suggested a solution to the reconstruction problem which employed the first-order derivatives of the registration data in order to recover the absolute depth of the surface along each camera ray. In this work, we demonstrate an alternative derivation of equivalent results, leading to more computationally efficient and tractable expressions. Re-formulated in terms of normal vector field, our results provide a natural regularization that together with or without external regularization data could be easily used within the existing reconstruction algorithms. We further elaborate on the stability and the uniqueness of the solution. In particular, we find conditions when a shape cannot be uniquely recovered and identify two equations that characterize the families of such shapes.

  20. Variable Pressure Ion Chamber For Relative And Absolute Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B. X.; Kirz, J.; McNulty, I.

    1986-08-01

    When an X-ray beam is not monochromatic, the transmitted flux through an absorber is not an exponential function of the absorber thickness. Instead, it may be a sum of two, three, or more exponential functions depending on whether the beam contains photons of two, three, or more different energies. This work shows that if the thickness of a gaseous absorber is continuously varied by adjusting the gas pressure, the relative strength of different harmonics in the monochromator output can be determined. This method also provides an accurate means to measure the absolute cross section of the gas molecules, and in conjunction with a modified Samson type ion chamber may also be used to measure the absolute photon flux as well.

  1. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  2. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  3. A direct way to observe absolute molecular handedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vager, Zeev

    2014-07-01

    We claim that the polarization of electrons tunneling through the molecular electric dipole direction uniquely determines the handedness of chiral centers. Unique labeling of chiral stereo-centers must include their handedness. The conventional method is formally known as the R, S nomenclature or the Ingold-Prelog priority (CIP) rules. It requires knowledge of the spatial absolute configuration of that center. Traditionally, experimental methods of extracting handedness go through the absolute configuration and only then would the CIP convention be applied. Here we show that a direct experimental method of determination of the natural molecular handedness by the polarization of tunneling electrons is almost always compatible with the CIP convention. By the sole use of symmetry arguments we show that the chiral molecular symmetry eliminates the need of fine structure splitting. As a consequence, the polarization of electrons tunneling through the molecular electric dipole direction uniquely determines their handedness.

  4. Mass Spectrometry-Based Approaches Toward Absolute Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Keiji; Ito, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has served as a major tool for the discipline of proteomics to catalogue proteins in an unprecedented scale. With chemical and metabolic techniques for stable isotope labeling developed over the past decade, it is now routinely used as a method for relative quantification to provide valuable information on alteration of protein abundance in a proteome-wide scale. More recently, absolute or stoichiometric quantification of proteome is becoming feasible, in particular, with the development of strategies with isotope-labeled standards composed of concatenated peptides. On the other hand, remarkable progress has been also made in label-free quantification methods based on the number of identified peptides. Here we review these mass spectrometry-based approaches for absolute quantification of proteome and discuss their implications. PMID:19452043

  5. Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J. P.; De Waele, V.; Marignier, J. L.; Mostafavi, M. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA/CNRS UMR 7639/Ecole Polytechnique, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique/ELYSE, Universite Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-10-15

    This article gives a detailed description of a single shot electron spectrometer which was used to characterize electron beams produced by laser-plasma interaction. Contrary to conventional electron sources, electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators can produce a broad range of energies. Therefore, diagnosing these electron spectra requires specific attention and experimental development. Here, we provide an absolute calibration of the Lanex Kodak Fine screen on a laser-triggered radio frequency picosecond electron accelerator. The efficiency of scintillating screens irradiated by electron beams has never been investigated so far. This absolute calibration is then compared to charge measurements from an integrating current transformer for quasimonoenergetic electron spectra from laser-plasma interaction.

  6. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  7. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  8. Stellar Absolute Magnitudes via the Statistical Parallax Method

    E-print Network

    Andrew C. Layden

    1998-10-28

    I review statistical parallax absolute magnitude determinations which employ data from the HIPPARCOS satellite for RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, and for several other stellar classes. Five groups have studied the RR Lyrae stars, and the results are reassuringly consistent: M_V(RR) = 0.77 +- 0.13 mag at [Fe/H] = -1.6 dex. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations showed that systematic errors are small (~0.03 mag or less), and corrections for them were applied in the above result. The RR Lyrae result is thus very secure. A statistical parallax study of Cepheids found the Period--Luminosity zero-point to be considerably fainter than studies based on HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallaxes. The distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from this zero-point is in excellent agreement with that derived using the RR Lyrae result. I discuss why the statistical parallax absolute magnitude calibrations differ with some other RR Lyrae and Cepheid calibrations.

  9. Absolute Proper Motion of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy Candidate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana I. Dinescu; David Martínez-Delgado; Terrence M. Girard; Jorge Peñarrubia; Hans-Walter Rix; David Butler; William F. van Altena

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the candidate Canis Major dwarf galaxy (CMa), at (l,b)=(240°,-8°). Likely main-sequence stars in CMa have been selected from a region in the color-magnitude diagram that has very little contamination from known Milky Way components. We obtain mulcosb=-1.47+\\/-0.37 and mub=-1.07+\\/-0.38 mas yr-1, on the International Celestial Reference System by means of Hipparcos stars.

  10. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  11. Electrophysiological Correlates of Absolute Pitch and Relative Pitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosuke Itoh; Shugo Suwazono; Hiroshi Arao; Tsutomu Nakada

    2005-01-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of the cortical processes responsible for absolute pitch (AP) and relative pitch (RP) were investigated by multi-channel event-related potentials (ERPs). Com- pared to listening, pitch-naming of tones in non-possessors of AP elicited three ERP components (P3b, parietal positive slow wave, frontal negative slow wave) over parietal and frontal scalp between 300 and 900 ms in

  12. On the Absolutely Continuous Spectrum of Stark Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Galina

    The stability of the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Stark operator under perturbations of the potential is discussed. The focus is on proving this stability under minimal assumptions on smoothness of the perturbation. A general criterion is presented together with some applications. These include the case of periodic perturbations where we show that any perturbation vL1()?H-1/2() preserves the a.c. spectrum.

  13. Absolute Irradiance of the Moon for On-orbit Calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Stone; Hugh H. Kieffer

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ?500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (?250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within +\\/-90 degrees. A

  14. Absolute Calibration of an Ashtech Z12-T GPS Receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Petit; Zhiheng Jiang; Joe White; Ronald Beard; Edward Powers

    2001-01-01

      Dual-frequency carrier phase and code measurements from geodetic type receivers are a promising tool for frequency and time\\u000a transfer. In order to use them for clock comparisons, all instrumental delays should be calibrated. We have carried out the\\u000a calibration of one such receiver, an Ashtech Z12-T type, by two different methods: first, by absolute calibration using a\\u000a GPS simulator; second,

  15. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Roman; Císa?ová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.

  16. Absolute photonic band gaps in 12-fold symmetric photonic quasicrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Zhang; Zhao-Qing Zhang; C. T. Chan

    2001-01-01

    A recent publication [Nature (London) 404, 740 (2000)] claimed that absolute photonic gaps can be realized in 12-fold quasicrystalline arrangement of small airholes in a matrix of silicon nitride or glass. The result is rather surprising since silicon nitride (n=2.02) and in particular, glass (n=1.45) have rather low refractive index. In this work, we have studied the transmission properties of

  17. Absolute geostrophic currents in the East Auckland Current region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. H. Sutton; T. K. Chereskin

    2002-01-01

    Absolute geostrophic currents are estimated for the full depth of the water column off the north?east coast of New Zealand for February 1998. This is achieved by objectively?mapping subsurface Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data using horizontal length scales determined from repeat high?resolution Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) data and enforcing horizontal non?divergence. The resulting 2?dimensional map of velocity at a single

  18. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    E-print Network

    The Belle collaboration

    2007-01-30

    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  19. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of CD4 Count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan I Shapiro; David J Karras; Stephen H Leech; Katherine L Heilpern

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (white blood count×lymphocyte percentage) can be used to predict a low CD4 count. Methods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of consecutive CD4 count analyses performed between January 1, 1995, through December 1, 1995, at an urban university teaching hospital. Results of consecutive CD4 counts and simultaneously measured ALCs were

  20. Towards Toric Absolute Factorization M. ELKADI, A. GALLIGO, M. WEIMANN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ], the absolute factorization provides all the irreducible factors of f with coefficients in Q[x], Q denotes the algebraic closure of Q. For example the polynomial x2 1 - 2x2 is irreducible in Q[x1, x2], but it has two improved in [7, 16] to provide an algorithm with a quasi-optimal complexity. On the other hand, a geometric

  1. Absolute tip-tilt determination with laser beacons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Ragazzoni

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the absolute determination of the tip-tilt can be inferred from two artificial laser beacons in the high atmosphere (e.g. in the Sodium layer) generated from two ground stations located away from the observing place.The technique is limited by the required Field of View for such a telescope. Assuming a retro-fit to existing telescopes, the technique is

  2. Absolute intensity of radiation emitted by uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of radiation emitted by fissioning and nonfissioning uranium plasmas in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1000 nm was measured. The plasma was produced in a plasma-focus apparatus and the plasma properties are simular to those anticipated for plasma-core nuclear reactors. The results are expected to contribute to the establishment of design criteria for the development of plasma-core reactors.

  3. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  4. Absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan.

    PubMed

    Maljkovi?, J B; Blanco, F; ?urík, R; García, G; Marinkovi?, B P; Milosavljevi?, A R

    2012-08-14

    We report results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan molecules (C(4)H(4)O). The experimental absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for elastic electron scattering were obtained for the incident energies from 50 eV to 300 eV and for scattering angles from 20° to 110°, by using a crossed electron-target beam setup and the relative flow technique for calibration to the absolute scale. The calculations of the electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. The latter calculations also account for rotational excitations in the approximation of a free electric dipole and were used to obtain elastic DCSs as well as total and integral elastic cross sections which are tabulated in the energy range from 10 to 10 000 eV. All SCAR calculated cross sections agree very well with both the present and previously published experimental results. Additionally, calculations based on the first Born approximation were performed to calculate both elastic and vibrationally inelastic DCSs for all the modes of furane, in the energy range from 50 eV to 300 eV. The ratios of the summed vibrational to elastic DCSs are presented and discussed. Finally, the present results for furan are compared with previously published elastic DCSs for the tetrahydrofuran molecule and discussed. PMID:22897278

  5. Absolute measurements of photoionization cross-sections for ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Folkmann, Finn; van Elp, Jan; Knudsen, Helge; West, John B.; Andersen, Torkild

    2005-06-01

    A merged-beam set-up for absolute measurements of photoionization cross-sections of ions is described. The facility is capable of recording cross-sections as low as 10 -19 cm 2 and has been used to study a large number of singly- and multiply-charged, atomic and molecular, positive and negative ions. It is based on a synchrotron radiation beam line fitted with an undulator at the storage ring ASTRID and a low-energy (˜2 keV) ion beam line. Photons in the energy range 15-200 eV are merged co-linearly with the target ions over a distance of 50 cm, and the absolute photoionization cross-section is determined from the resulting photoion yield with a typical accuracy of 10%. Different types of ion sources are available, thus permitting a large number of positive and negative, atomic and molecular, singly- and multiply-charged ions to be investigated. Emphasis is put on accurate determination of the absolute cross-sections, requiring calibration of photodiode and particle detectors together with measurements of the photon-ion overlap.

  6. The red clump absolute magnitude based on revised Hipparcos parallaxes

    E-print Network

    M. A. T. Groenewegen

    2008-07-17

    Over the past decade the use of the red clump (RC) as distance indicator has increased in importance as this evolutionary phase is well populated and a good local calibration exists. The absolute calibration of the RC in the $I$ and $K$ band is investigated again based on the recently published revised Hipparcos parallaxes. A numerical model is developed that takes the various selection criteria and the properties of the Hipparcos catalogue into account. The biases involved in applying certain selections are estimated with this model. The absolute magnitudes that are found are $M_{\\rm I} = -0.22 \\pm 0.03$ and $M_{\\rm K} = -1.54 \\pm 0.04$ (on the 2MASS system). The $I$-band value is in good agreement with previous determinations, the $K$-band value is fainter than previously quoted, and this seems to be related to a selection bias whereby accurate $K$-magnitudes are only available for relatively few bright stars. Applying population corrections to the absolute $K$ magnitude of RC stars in clusters supports the fainter magnitude scale.

  7. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: absolute distance perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Patrick; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the side of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. The increased separation of the cameras induces hyperstereopsis - the exaggeration of the stereoscopic disparities that support the perception of relative depth around the point of fixation. Increased camera separation may also affect absolute depth perception, because it increases the amount of vergence (crossing) of the eyes required for binocular fusion, and because the differential perspective from the viewpoints of the two eyes is increased. The effect of hyperstereopsis on the perception of absolute distance was investigated using a large-scale stereoscopic display system. A fronto-parallel textured surface was projected at a distance of 6 metres. Three stereoscopic viewing conditions were simulated - hyperstereopsis (four times magnification), normal stereopsis, and hypostereopsis (one quarter magnification). The apparent distance of the surface was measured relative to a grid placed in a virtual "leaf room" that provided rich monocular cues, such as texture gradients and linear perspective, to absolute distance as well as veridical sterescopic disparity cues. The different stereoscopic viewing conditions had no differential effect on the apparent distance of the textured surface at this viewing distance.

  8. Peripheral absolute threshold spectral sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Massof, R W; Johnson, M A; Finkelstein, D

    1981-01-01

    Dark-adapted spectral sensitivities were measured in the peripheral retinas of 38 patients diagnosed as having typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and in 3 normal volunteers. The patients included those having autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. Results were analysed by comparisons with the CIE standard scotopic spectral visibility function and with Judd's modification of the photopic spectral visibility function, with consideration of contributions from changes in spectral transmission of preretinal media. The data show 3 general patterns. One group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by Judd's photopic visibility curve. Absolute threshold spectral sensitivities for a second group of patients were fit by a normal scotopic spectral visibility curve. The third group of patients had absolute threshold spectral sensitivities that were fit by a combination of scotopic and photopic spectral visibility curves. The autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance were represented in each group of patients. These data indicate that RP patients have normal rod and/or cone spectral sensitivities, and support the subclassification of patients described previously by Massof and Finkelstein. PMID:7459312

  9. Absolute photoionization cross section of the methyl radical.

    PubMed

    Loison, Jean-Christophe

    2010-06-17

    The absolute photoionization cross section of the methyl radical was determined relative to that of NO at photon energies of 10.54 eV using the CH(3) + NO(2) --> CH(3)O + NO reaction. Kinetics of this reaction was studied in a fast flow reactor coupled with VUV laser photoionization. Simulation of the kinetics of the decrease of the methyl signal and the corresponding increase of the NO signal (in combination with the NO absolute photoionization cross section determined by Watanabe (Watanabe, K. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1564; Watanabe, K.; Matsunaga, F. M.; Sakai, H. Appl. Opt. 1967, 6, 391)), yields the absolute photoionization cross section of the methyl radical: sigma(CH(3))(10.54 eV) = 5.1 (1.2) x 10(-18) cm(2) (95% confidence interval). This result is in good agreement with the recently published measurements by Taatjes et al. (Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T. M.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 9336) and by Gans et al. (Gans, B.; Mendes, L. A. V.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Douin, S.; Garcia, G.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Cunha de Miranda, B. K.; Alcaraz, C.; Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.; Gauyacq, D. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 114, 3237). PMID:20491459

  10. Investigating the absolute phase information in acoustic wave resonance scattering

    PubMed Central

    Mitri, F.G.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Fellah, Z.E.A.; Fatemi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim if this work is to investigate the absolute phase information in resonance acoustic scattering by spheres and cylinders and place this work in the broader context of scattering in which the properties of the magnitude and (processed) phase have been examined in a more general way than in the classical Resonance Scattering Theory (RST). Here, comparisons are made between the classical and modified RST formalisms of acoustic resonance scattering. Experimental and theoretical backscattering form functions are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the magnitude and processed (unwrapped) phase can be correctly obtained through the classical RST, suggesting that the modified RST formalism offers little new practical advantage. Furthermore, the absolute phase is shown to be very sensitive to object's resonances, suggesting that the unwrapped phase may be considered as an efficient tool, along with the magnitude information, to carry out remote (active) classification of targets in underwater acoustics applications. The combination of absolute phase information with the magnitude data offers a complementary advantage in the identification of resonances from cylinders and spheres. PMID:18294670

  11. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters. PMID:23839171

  12. Thermal entanglement of a coupled electronic spins system: interplay between an external magnetic field, nuclear field and spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero M., Roberto J.; Rojas, F.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the thermal entanglement as a function of the temperature for a two-qubits Heisenberg spins system; we have included Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DM), an external magnetic field (EMF) and hyperfine interaction due to the nuclear field of the surrounding nuclei. A critical value for the EMF was found, around mT, which characterizes two regimes of behavior of the thermal entanglement. Our results show that the DM term acts as a facilitator for the entanglement because it prolongs the nonzero thermal entanglement for larger temperatures. We found that the concurrence as a function of the temperature has a local maximum, for values of the magnetic field larger than the critical field. We also show that the critical temperature follows a polynomial growth as a function of the DM term, with characteristic behavior , and the hyperfine field implies a critical temperature as a function of the field variance, of the form . We show that in this system, the entanglement measure by the concurrence and the one-spin polarization observable exhibit opposite behavior, providing a method to obtain the entanglement from the measurement of an observable.

  13. Ionization of low-Rydberg-state He atoms by polar molecules. II. Large rotational-energy transfers and absolute values of the cross sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pesnelle; C. Ronge; M. Perdrix; G. Watel

    1988-01-01

    The absolute values of cross sections for the collisional ionization of low-Rydberg-state He atoms in the n 1P state (n=14) by the polar molecules NH3, SO2, and acetone (C3H6O) are measured in a crossed-beam experiment at thermal kinetic energies, for a well-defined relative velocity. Simultaneous Penning ionization of NH3 by metastable He(23S) atoms is carried out in situ for calibration.

  14. Thermally activated (“thermal”) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Guidotti; Patrick J. Masset

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the history of anode materials developed for use in thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries is presented. The chemistries (phases) and electrochemical characteristics (discharge mechanisms) of these materials are described, along with general thermodynamic properties, where available. This paper is the last of a five-part series that presents a general review of thermal-battery technology.

  15. Thermal activated (thermal) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Masset; Ronald A. Guidotti

    2007-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the important properties and design characteristics of electrolyte used in thermally activated (thermal) batteries. The basic physical properties of the main compositions are reviewed. The properties of electrolytes such as melting point, ionic conductivity, surface tension, density, thermal characteristics, and moisture sensitivity were analyzed in relation with the functioning of the batteries. Solubility data

  16. A Preisach method for estimating absolute paleofield intensity under the constraint of using only isothermal measurements: 1. Theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heslop, David

    2011-04-01

    The theoretical framework for a new nonheating method of determining absolute ancient magnetic field intensities (paleointensities) is described. The approach is based on a thermally activated Preisach model for interacting, randomly orientated single-domain grains with uniaxial anisotropy. The model includes theoretical features not accommodated by previous nonheating paleointensity methods; for example, it includes magnetostatic interactions, allows for variable cooling rates, and can identify, isolate, and reject unstable remanence carriers, i.e., multidomain and superparamagnetic contributions. The input Preisach distribution from which the acquisition of a thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) of a given rock sample can be simulated is obtained from information contained in the sample's first-order reversal curve distribution. The paleointensity estimate is determined by comparing the alternating field demagnetization spectrum of the sample's natural remanent magnetization and its simulated TRM. In the companion paper, the protocol is rigorously tested using a suite of historical samples.

  17. 34 CFR 648.33 - What priorities and absolute preferences does the Secretary establish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...What priorities and absolute preferences does the Secretary establish? 648.33 ...ASSISTANCE IN AREAS OF NATIONAL NEED How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 648.33 What priorities and absolute preferences does the Secretary establish?...

  18. To know what we cannot know: Global mapping of minimal detectable absolute trends in annual precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efrat Morin

    2011-01-01

    High variability of precipitation records often masks existing trendsA methodology is presented to compute a minimal detectable absolute trendMinimal detectable absolute trends in annual precipitation are mapped globally

  19. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. 64.1160 Section...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an unauthorized...

  20. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. 64.1160 Section...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an unauthorized...

  1. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. 64.1160 Section...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an unauthorized...

  2. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. 64.1160 Section...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an unauthorized...

  3. 47 CFR 64.1160 - Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. 64.1160 Section...Absolution procedures where the subscriber has not paid charges. (a) This section shall only apply after a subscriber has determined that an unauthorized...

  4. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  5. A Wireless Batch Sealed Absolute Capacitive Pressure Sensor Orhan Akar1

    E-print Network

    Akin, Tayfun

    A Wireless Batch Sealed Absolute Capacitive Pressure Sensor Orhan Akar1 , Tayfun Akin1 , Tim/mmHg, respectively. Keywords: wireless sensor, sealed sensor, and capacitive pressure sensor Introduction Absolute. However, to fabricate absolute pressure sensors with sealed cavities that also allow easy lead transfer

  6. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    E-print Network

    The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF D. T. Casey,1,a) J. A. Frenje,1 M. Gatu used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute

  7. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  8. Absolute Earthquake Locations with Differential Data By William Menke and David Schaff

    E-print Network

    Menke, William

    Absolute Earthquake Locations with Differential Data By William Menke and David Schaff Lamont the commonly-held wisdom that "you can't determine the absolute location of earthquakes using the double differential arrival time data can, in principle, be used to determine the absolute locations of earthquakes

  9. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,

    E-print Network

    Tyc, Tomas

    are called absolute in- struments [1]. A prototype of an absolute instrument is Maxwell's fish eye, a device eye and Pendry's lens are not limited by diffraction and provide sub-wavelength resolution [3 of a magnifying absolute instrument for homogeneous regions that em- ploys isotropic materials with positive

  10. RAL-TR-97-071 The modi ed absolute-value factorization

    E-print Network

    Nocedal, Jorge

    RAL-TR-97-071 The modi ed absolute-value factorization norm for trust-region minimization Nicholas, using a trust-region norm based upon a modi ed absolute-value factorization of the model Hessian Oxfordshire OX11 0QX December 17, 1997. #12;The modi ed absolute-value factorization norm for trust

  11. The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 ?m, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 ?m. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 ?m). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

  12. Absolute Paleointensity Study of Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiman, A.; Bowles, J.

    2014-12-01

    Unoriented samples from the ~12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon (TC) tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada are studied in terms of magnetic properties and geomagnetic paleointensity. The magnetic mineralogy and magnetic properties of the TC tuff have previously been well documented, and the remanence-carrier in ~15-m thick zones at the top and bottom of the unit is dominantly is single domain (SD) to superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite, which may be considered ideal for absolute paleointensity studies. Among one of the several episodic volcanic eruptions of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field (SWNVF), the welded TC tuff belongs to the Paintbrush Group. Here we present magnetic properties from two previously unreported sections of the TC tuff, as well as Thellier-type absolute paleointensity estimates. Samples were collected from the lower ~7 m at the base of the flow. Magnetic properties studied include hysteresis, bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent susceptibility, and anhysteretic remanent magnetization acquisition. Magnetic property results are consistent with earlier work, showing that the main magnetic mineral is magnetite. SP samples are dominant from the lower ~1 m to ~3.6 m basal unit while the middle unit of ~3.7 m to 7.0 m mainly consists of SD samples. The paleointensity results are closely tied to the stratigraphic height and magnetic properties linked to domain state. The SD samples have consistent absolute paleointensity values 32.40±0.22 uT, VADM 5.74*1022 A.m2 and behaved ideally during paleointensity experiments. The SP samples have consistently higher paleointensity and less ideal behavior, but would likely pass many traditional quality-control tests. Since the magnetite has been interpreted to form by precipitation out of the glass post-emplacement, but at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature, we tentatively interpret the SD remanence to be a primary thermal remanent magnetization and the paleointensity result to be a valid estimate of geomagnetic paleointensity for the Miocene. Post-emplacement vapor-phase alteration might be expected to alter magnetic mineralogy and magnetization, and has been reported in the upper portions of the TC tuff, but not in the lower sections discussed here.

  13. Acceleration statistics in thermally driven superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2014-03-01

    New methods of flow visualization near absolute zero have opened the way to directly compare quantum turbulence (in superfluid helium) to classical turbulence (in ordinary fluids such as air or water) and explore analogies and differences. We present results of numerical simulations in which we examine the statistics of the superfluid acceleration in thermal counterflow. We find that, unlike the velocity, the acceleration obeys scaling laws similar to classical turbulence, in agreement with a recent quantum turbulence experiment of La Mantia et al.

  14. Cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of CuFeSe2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P. C.; Ou, M. N.; Luo, J. Y.; Wu, M. K.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2012-06-01

    The CuFeSe2 is a member of the I-III-VI2 semiconductors, whereas it shows different physical properties from the chalcopyrite family, include the tetragonal structure, the small band gap ˜0.16 eV and the weak magnetic behavior. Only a few articles focused on this material in recent years. The measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the high quality CuFeSe2 thin film could provide valuable information for its thermal application. In this report, a CuFeSe2 thin film with thickness ˜200 nm on SiO2/Si substrate was prepared by pulse laser deposition (PLD). The highly crystallized film shows a preferred orientation (h 0 0) normal to the film surface. Two pairs of heater/sensor Au strips were thermally deposited on the thin film and substrate separately for thermal conductivity measurement using differential 3? method. The Seebeck coefficient across the film plane was directly measured by two additional EMF probes below and above the film with temperature gradient generated by heater/sensor at frequency 2?. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured in a wide temperature range from 150 to 300 K. The room-temperature thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are obtained to be 3.5 W/m-K and -108 ?V/K respectively.

  15. Absolute measurements of local chromophore concentrations using pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, J.; Elwell, C.; Delpy, D.; Beard, P.

    2006-02-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy has the potential to make non-invasive, spatially resolved measurements of absolute chromophore concentrations. This has a wide range of possible applications, for example the mapping of endogenous chromophores such as oxy- (HbO II) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) or externally administered contrast agents designed to target specific tissues or molecular processes. In this study we used near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to determine the absolute concentrations of HbO II and HHb in a tissue phantom. The phantom consisted of three blood filled capillaries (Ø460microns) suspended at depths between 3mm and 9mm in a 2.5% Intralipid solution which also contained 2% blood in order to simulate the background optical attenuation in biological tissue. The blood oxygen saturation (SO II) of the blood circulating in the capillaries was varied using a membrane oxygenator. At each SO II level, nanosecond pulses emitted by an OPO laser system that was tuneable over the wavelength range from 740nm to 1040nm illuminated the phantom. The generated photoacoustic waves were recorded using a single Fabry-Perot ultrasound detector and used to obtain a depth profile of the location of the tubes. The amplitudes of the part of the photoacoustic signal that corresponded to the capillaries and the surface of the Intralipid/blood mixture were plotted as a function of wavelength. The output of a diffusion theory based model of the wavelength dependence of the photoacoustic signal amplitude was then fitted to these spectra. This enabled the quantitative determination of absolute HbO II and HHb concentrations in the capillaries and the Intralipid/blood mixture from which the total haemoglobin concentrations and blood SO II were calculated. Based on these measurements, the smallest chromophore concentrations that can be detected in biological tissue were estimated.

  16. Absolute Efficiency Calibration of a Beta-Gamma Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Lidey, Lance S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2013-04-10

    Abstract- Identification and quantification of nuclear events such as the Fukushima reactor failure and nuclear explosions rely heavily on the accurate measurement of radioxenon releases. One radioxenon detection method depends on detecting beta-gamma coincident events paired with a stable xenon measurement to determine the concentration of a plume. Like all measurements, the beta-gamma method relies on knowing the detection efficiency for each isotope measured. Several methods are commonly used to characterize the detection efficiency for a beta-gamma detector. The most common method is using a NIST certified sealed source to determine the efficiency. A second method determines the detection efficiencies relative to an already characterized detector. Finally, a potentially more accurate method is to use the expected sample to perform an absolute efficiency calibration; in the case of a beta-gamma detector, this relies on radioxenon gas samples. The complication of the first method is it focuses only on the gamma detectors and does not offer a solution for determining the beta efficiency. The second method listed is not similarly constrained, however it relies on another detector to have a well-known efficiency calibration. The final method using actual radioxenon samples to make an absolute efficiency determination is the most desirable, but until recently it was not possible to produce all four isotopically pure radioxenon. The production, by University of Texas (UT), of isotopically pure radioxenon has allowed the beta-gamma detectors to be calibrated using the absolute efficiency method. The first four radioxenon isotope calibration will be discussed is this paper.

  17. Optimized replica gas estimation of absolute integrals and partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, David D. L.

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with most Monte Carlo integration algorithms, which are used to estimate ratios, the replica gas identities recently introduced by Adib enable the estimation of absolute integrals and partition functions using multiple copies of a system and normalized transition functions. Here, an optimized form is presented. After generalizing a replica gas identity with an arbitrary weighting function, we obtain a functional form that has the minimal asymptotic variance for samples from two replicas and is provably good for a larger number. This equation is demonstrated to improve the convergence of partition function estimates in a two-dimensional Ising model.

  18. Absolute neutrino mass scale determination with the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glück, F.

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment KATRIN is the direct and model independent determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale down to 0.2 eV. For this purpose, the integral electron energy spectrum will be measured close to the endpoint of molecular tritium beta decay. The electrostatic retardation method with magnetic adiabatic collimation (MAC-E filter) combines high energy resolution with high statistics and small background. The various components of the experiment (gaseous tritium source, pumping-transport system, pre- and main spectrometer, detector and rear system) are reviewed.

  19. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  20. Structure and absolute stereochemistry of 21-hydroxyoligomycin A.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Melissa M; Williamson, R Thomas; Ho, Douglas M; Carter, Guy T

    2007-03-01

    21-Hydroxyoligomycin A (1) was isolated from Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus (LL-F28249) and fully characterized by NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The complete 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments for 1 were made using 2D NMR experiments, and the chirality at C-21 was deduced to be R from a J-based configuration analysis. The absolute configuration at C-21 and at the other 18 chiral centers in the molecule were independently confirmed by anomalous dispersion measurements on a crystal of the chloroform methanol solvate of 21-hydroxyoligomycin A (1). PMID:17249728

  1. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  2. The framing effect of relative and absolute risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Malenka; John A. Baron; Sarah Johansen; Jon W. Wahrenberger; Jonathan M. Ross

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To test whether a patient’s perception of benefit is influenced by whether the benefit is presented in relative or absolute\\u000a terms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Questionnaire-based study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: A general medicine outpatient clinic at a rural tertiary care center associated with a medical school.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients: 470 of 511 consecutive patients who agreed to answer a questionnaire while waiting for their clinic visit.

  3. Chiroptical study and absolute configuration of securinine oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Chirkin, Egor; Atkatlian, William; Do, Quyên; Gaslonde, Thomas; Dufat, Thi-Hanh; Michel, Sylvie; Lemoine, Pascale; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Porée, François-Hugues

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependant density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism spectra prediction was carried out to study the absolute configuration of phyllanthidine-type derivatives 5 and 6, derived from securinine (1) and its enantiomer virosecurinine (2), respectively. This method demonstrated to be very reliable in this alkaloid series. Thus, 5 and 6 shared the same stereochemistry as their parent precursors, confirming the retentive nature of the oxidation sequence. In addition, this study highlighted the key role of the methylene bridge (BC ring) in the chiroptical activity of these compounds. These results fully clarified the stereochemical relationships between the phyllanthidine and the securinine subgroups. PMID:25790256

  4. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  5. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  6. Correlation of signals of thermal acoustic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Passechnik, V. I.

    2003-03-01

    The spatial correlation function is measured for the pressure of thermal acoustic radiation from a source (a narrow plasticine plate) whose temperature is made both higher and lower than the temperature of the receiver. The spatial correlation function of the pressure of thermal acoustic radiation is found to be oscillatory in character. The oscillation amplitude is determined not by the absolute temperature of the source but by the temperature difference between the source and the receiver. The correlation function changes its sign when a source heated with respect to the receiver is replaced by a cooled one.

  7. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    E-print Network

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg

    2008-01-01

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulatio...

  8. Absolute and relative quantification of RNA modifications via biosynthetic isotopomers

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Stefanie; Ochel, Antonia; Thüring, Kathrin; Spenkuch, Felix; Neumann, Jennifer; Sharma, Sunny; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schneider, Dirk; Helm, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the resurging field of RNA modifications, quantification is a bottleneck blocking many exciting avenues. With currently over 150 known nucleoside alterations, detection and quantification methods must encompass multiple modifications for a comprehensive profile. LC–MS/MS approaches offer a perspective for comprehensive parallel quantification of all the various modifications found in total RNA of a given organism. By feeding 13C-glucose as sole carbon source, we have generated a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for bacterial RNA, which facilitates relative comparison of all modifications. While conventional SIL-IS approaches require the chemical synthesis of single modifications in weighable quantities, this SIL-IS consists of a nucleoside mixture covering all detectable RNA modifications of Escherichia coli, yet in small and initially unknown quantities. For absolute in addition to relative quantification, those quantities were determined by a combination of external calibration and sample spiking of the biosynthetic SIL-IS. For each nucleoside, we thus obtained a very robust relative response factor, which permits direct conversion of the MS signal to absolute amounts of substance. The application of the validated SIL-IS allowed highly precise quantification with standard deviations <2% during a 12-week period, and a linear dynamic range that was extended by two orders of magnitude. PMID:25129236

  9. Auditory stroop and absolute pitch: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Katrin; Mueller, Karsten; Koelsch, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    To date, the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of absolute pitch (AP) have remained elusive. In the present fMRI study, we investigated verbal and tonal perception and working memory in musicians with and without absolute pitch. Stimuli were sine wave tones and syllables (names of the scale tones) presented simultaneously. Participants listened to sequences of five stimuli, and then rehearsed internally either the syllables or the tones. Finally participants indicated whether a test stimulus had been presented during the sequence. For an auditory stroop task, half of the tonal sequences were congruent (frequencies of tones corresponded to syllables which were the names of the scale tones) and half were incongruent (frequencies of tones did not correspond to syllables). Results indicate that first, verbal and tonal perception overlap strongly in the left superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (STG/STS) in AP musicians only. Second, AP is associated with the categorical perception of tones. Third, the left STG/STS is activated in AP musicians only for the detection of verbal-tonal incongruencies in the auditory stroop task. Finally, verbal labelling of tones in AP musicians seems to be automatic. Overall, a unique feature of AP appears to be the similarity between verbal and tonal perception. PMID:22359341

  10. Absolute uniqueness of phase retrieval with random illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2012-07-01

    Random illumination is proposed to enforce absolute uniqueness and resolve all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, in phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for any complex-valued object whose support set has rank ??2. While the new irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a novel perspective and an effective method for phase retrieval. In particular, almost sure uniqueness, up to a global phase, is proved for complex-valued objects under general two-point conditions. Under a tight sector constraint absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases. Under a magnitude constraint with random amplitude illumination, uniqueness modulo global phase is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as object sparsity increases. For general complex-valued objects without any constraint, almost sure uniqueness up to global phase is established with two sets of Fourier magnitude data under two independent illuminations. Numerical experiments suggest that random illumination essentially alleviates most, if not all, numerical problems commonly associated with the standard phasing algorithms.

  11. Absolute bioavailability of a new high dose methylprednisolone tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, G; Hundt, H K; Luus, H G; Müller, F O; Schall, R

    1994-12-01

    This was a single-blind, single-dose, randomized crossover study to determine the absolute bioavailability of Medrol, a new high dose (100 mg) methylprednisolone tablet product, by comparing it with 100 mg methylprednisolone from an intravenous formulation, Solu-Medrol. Fourteen healthy, non-smoking, Caucasian male volunteers took part. On treatment days volunteers remained recumbent for 4 hours after drug administration, with food and fluid intake standardized over this period. Serial blood samples were drawn over a 14-hour period after drug administration. Plasma methylprednisolone concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The geometric means of AUCi.v. and AUCtablet were 4,049 and 3,334 ng.h/ml, respectively. The absolute bioavailability of the tablet product was 82%, which is in agreement with published data for other oral dosage forms of methylprednisolone. Volunteers displayed the expected rise in peripheral blood neutrophil count, but no other clinically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry were observed. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. It is concluded that the tablet product can be used as a substitute for parenteral methylprednisolone in situations requiring high-dose therapy. PMID:7881703

  12. Enabling Dark Energy and Beyond Science with Precise Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Hines, D. C.; Bohlin, R.; Gordon, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtain WFC3/IR observations of 15 carefully selected stars with the immediate objective of establishing their Absolute Physical Flux (ABF), and an ultimate goal of achieving the sub-1% absolute photometric accuracies required by Dark Energy science with JWST and other facilities. Even with the best data available, the current determination of ABFs is plagued by the reliance on the Vega photometric system, which is known to be problematic primarily due to the fact that Vega is a pole-on rapid rotator with an infrared excess from its circumstellar disk! which makes it difficult to model. Vega is also far too bright for large aperture telescopes. In an effort to remedy these difficulties, teams from the National Institute of Standards (NIST), the University of New Mexico, Johns Hopkins University and STScI have begun to develop a catalog of stars that have spectral energy distributions that are tied directly to NIST (diode) standards with very precisely determined physical characteristics. A key element in this pursuit has been the efforts at STScI to measure the spectra of many of these objects with STIS. We discuss our program to extend this effort into the near-IR which is crucial to reliably extend the SEDs to longer wavelengths, including the mid IR.

  13. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    E-print Network

    Albert Fannjiang

    2012-07-20

    Random illumination is proposed to enforce absolute uniqueness and resolve all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for any complex-valued object of a full rank support. While the new irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a novel perspective and an effective method for phase retrieval. In particular, almost sure uniqueness, up to a global phase, is proved for complex-valued objects under general two-point conditions. Under a tight sector constraint absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases. Under a magnitude constraint with random amplitude illumination, uniqueness modulo global phase is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as object sparsity increases. For general complex-valued objects without any constraint, almost sure uniqueness up to global phase is established with two sets of Fourier magnitude data under two independent illuminations. Numerical experiments suggest that random illumination essentially alleviates most, if not all, numerical problems commonly associated with the standard phasing algorithms.

  14. Two-dimensional theory of chirality. I. Absolute chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guennec, Patrick

    2000-09-01

    Chirality is a notion already familiar to undergraduates as the fact that an object is not superposable to its mirror image. Its dichotomous or "yes/no" character, implicit in this definition due to Lord Kelvin, has always been considered self-evident. We prove here and in the companion article that in two dimensions chirality—the very concept of chirality—is a continuous phenomenon in the special case of square-integrable wave functions. This conception of chirality is to Kelvin's definition what the continuous conception of door opening is to the closed/nonclosed dichotomy; hence it provides a continuous description of the discrete achiral symmetry breaking. This result is first extended to three and higher dimensions, then to the whole nonrelativistic quantum description of matter. Thus molecules are more or less chiral just as doors are more or less open, and molecular chirality changes continuously during chemical reactions. Chirality splits into two complementary forms—absolute and relative chirality. We present here the theory of absolute chirality. More generally, this unexpected and paradoxical breakthrough in symmetry theory is based on a geometrical description of wave functions that should find broad applications in molecular physics and in stereochemistry, where the notion of chirality has an overwhelming importance since long ago.

  15. Absolute Quantification of Selected Proteins in the Human Osteoarthritic Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Peffers, Mandy J.; Beynon, Robert J.; Clegg, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a loss of extracellular matrix which is driven by catabolic cytokines. Proteomic analysis of the OA cartilage secretome enables the global study of secreted proteins. These are an important class of molecules with roles in numerous pathological mechanisms. Although cartilage studies have identified profiles of secreted proteins, quantitative proteomics techniques have been implemented that would enable further biological questions to be addressed. To overcome this limitation, we used the secretome from human OA cartilage explants stimulated with IL-1? and compared proteins released into the media using a label-free LC-MS/MS-based strategy. We employed QconCAT technology to quantify specific proteins using selected reaction monitoring. A total of 252 proteins were identified, nine were differentially expressed by IL-1 ? stimulation. Selected protein candidates were quantified in absolute amounts using QconCAT. These findings confirmed a significant reduction in TIMP-1 in the secretome following IL-1? stimulation. Label-free and QconCAT analysis produced equivocal results indicating no effect of cytokine stimulation on aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, fibromodulin, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 or plasminogen release. This study enabled comparative protein profiling and absolute quantification of proteins involved in molecular pathways pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:24132152

  16. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders, E-mail: anders.kristensen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-08-18

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75?nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45?nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  17. AUTOMATIC SECTION THICKNESS DETERMINATION USING AN ABSOLUTE GRADIENT FOCUS FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Elozory, Daniel T.; Kramer, Kurt A.; Chaudhuri, Baishali; Bonam, Om P.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mouton, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of microstructures using computerized stereology systems is an essential tool in many disciplines of bioscience research. Section thickness determination in current non-automated approaches requires manual location of upper and lower surfaces of tissue sections. In contrast to conventional autofocus functions that locate the optimally focused optical plane using the global maximum on a focus curve, the present study identified by two sharp “knees” on the focus curve as the transition from unfocused to focused optical planes. Analysis of fourteen gray-scale focus functions showed, the thresholded absolute gradient function, was best for finding detectable bends that closely correspond to the bounding optical planes at the upper and lower tissue surfaces. Modifications to this function generated four novel functions that outperformed the original. The “modified absolute gradient count” function outperformed all others with an average error of 0.56 ?m on a test set of images similar to the training set; and, an average error of 0.39 ?m on a test set comprised of images captured from a different case, i.e., different staining methods on a different brain region from a different subject rat. We describe a novel algorithm that allows for automatic section thickness determination based on just out-of-focus planes, a prerequisite for fully automatic computerized stereology. PMID:23078150

  18. New Earth-based absolute photometry of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikodsky, Yu. I.; Opanasenko, N. V.; Akimov, L. A.; Korokhin, V. V.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Kaydash, V. G.; Videen, G.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Berdalieva, N. E.

    2011-07-01

    A 2-month series of quasi-simultaneous imaging photometric observations of the Moon and the Sun has been performed at Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan). New absolute values of lunar albedo have been obtained. Maps of lunar apparent albedo and equigonal albedo at phase angles 1.7-73° at wavelength 603 nm are presented. The standard deviation of our data from a best-fitted phase curve is 2%. The average ratio of the Clementine albedo to ours is 1.41. While the ratio of ROLO albedo to ours is 0.87, our data are in agreement with independent measurements of absolute albedo by Saiki et al. (Saiki, K., Saito, K., Okuno, H., Suzuki, A., Yamanoi, Y., Hirata N., Nakamura, R. [2008]. Earth Planets Space 60, 417-424) at a phase angle near 7°. A phase ratio imaging near opposition (1.6°/2.7°) shows almost the same ratio for maria and highlands, though bright craters (e.g., Tycho, Copernicus, Aristarchus) clearly reveal smaller slopes of phase function. This is an unexpected result, as the craters are bright and one could anticipate a manifestation of the coherent backscattering effect resulting in the opposition spike increasing at so small phase angles.

  19. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

  20. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-08-01

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  1. Absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljevi?, A. R.; Blanco, F.; Maljkovi?, J. B.; Ševi?, D.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.

    2008-10-01

    The results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from the 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (3hTHF) (C4H8O2) molecule are reported. The measurements were performed using a crossed beam experimental setup, for an incident electron energy range of 40 300 eV and an overall scattering angle range of 10° 110°. Relative differential cross sections (DCSs) were measured both as a function of the angle and the incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow technique. The calculations of molecular cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screen corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Additional calculations are also done to investigate the influence of rotational excitations and low-angular behavior of SCAR DCSs. The calculated dataset includes differential, integral and total cross sections in the energy range from 5 eV to 10 000 eV. The present results are discussed regarding the most recent low-energy elastic DCSs for 3hTHF (Vizcaino et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 053002), as well as the recent DCSs for molecules of similar structure (tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol).

  2. Absolute and relative satellite-to-satellite navigation using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binning, Patrick William

    This dissertation describes the methods and implementation of extended Kalman filtering, backwards smoothing and carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution for the problem of absolute satellite orbit determination and satellite to satellite relative navigation while using measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS). All data are considered to be taken from both frequencies of the GPS constellation. Also, the data is considered to be free from the effects of Selective Availability (SA) although this feature is briefly addressed. The absolute navigation techniques are applied to actual data obtained from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite as well as simulated data. The algorithms are used to estimate the position, velocity, clock offset, and frequency offset. The simulated data are derived from two sources: a software simulator, and a Northern Telecom GPS signal simulator used in conjunction with an Allen Osborne Associates TurboRogue receiver. Four algorithms are presented in the area of relative satellite to satellite navigation. These can be separated into two categories: those that base the relative state update using only the GPS pseudorange, and those that base the relative state update on the GPS carrier phase only. There are three pseudorange techniques investigated. The first involves straight differencing of two absolute estimates when using the pseudoranges from all observable GPS satellites from each receiver. The second involves using a correlated process noise matrix while processing simultaneous pseudoranges from common view GPS satellites. The relative state for this process is then the difference of the two absolute states. The measurements for both user spacecraft must be taken at the same instant in time for this process to work. A measurement interpolation algorithm is presented in order to solve this problem. The third pseudorange method is the first to estimate the relative state explicitly by employing the single difference pseudorange measurement. The carrier phase technique shows the highest accuracy for relative state estimation. The algorithm in this dissertation utilizes the widelane carrier phase combination of GPS observables. The single difference is then taken between two simultaneous widelane carrier phase measurements. Inherent in this process is the need to determine the widelane integer. A robust algorithm is presented which allows this problem to be solved. The relative navigation algorithms are applied to software and hardware simulated data. A unique aspect of this research involves using a Northern Telecom GPS RF signal generator with an Allen Osborne Associates TurboRogue receiver to simulate measurements from 2 coorbiting receivers. In addition, a software simulator is developed which allows more control over the simulation errors. The absolute navigation 1sigma position errors are 50 cm for a smoothed solution using precise GPS information and 3 to 7 meters when using the broadcast navigation parameters. The most precise pseudorange relative technique demonstrates 1sigma position errors of between 10 cm and 25 cm. The carrier phase technique shows 1sigma position errors on the order of 1.5 cm to 3.0 cm. These statistics are derived from 24 software simulations as well as 20 hardware simulations. A discussion of the cumulative results as well as individual test cases is presented.

  3. Absoluteness of Velocity Caused by Accelerating Process and Absolute Space-time Theory with Variable Scales —The third logically consistent and really rational space-time theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Xiaochun

    s It is proved by means of the dynamical effects of special relativity that the velocity caused by accelerating process is not a relative concept. It is an absolute physical quantity that can be determined by experiments. Therefore, the influence of accelerating process must be considered in space-time theory. Be- sides the Newtonian absolute theory with invariable space-time scales and

  4. Thermal Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kutner

    2000-01-01

    I read this book with great interest since so many standard and good textbooks already exist within statistical and thermal physics that I expected to find an answer to the main question: why should one more book be published and for whom? This branch of knowledge (particularly, the physics at thermal equilibrium which constitutes the main part of this book)

  5. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  6. Space solar patrol absolute measurements of ionizing solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, S.

    In 1996 - 2003 the experiment Space Solar Patrol has been built for permanent absolute measurements of the ionizing solar radiation from the full disk of the Sun. Every 72 seconds the solar spectrum from 0.14 nm to 198 nm will be recorded with the resolution of <1.0 nm. The Space Solar Patrol mission consists of the Radiometer and the grating Spectrometer. Two Spectrometers have been build - EUV-Spectrometer normal incidence and X/EUV-Spectrometer grazing incidence. EUV-Spectrometer employs a classical arrangement of the entrance and six exit slits on the Rowland circle at their "middle" position. The spectrum is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating through an angle of ± 1.9 relative to its middle position. The spectrometer is a scanning polychromator which covers a spectral range from 16 nm to 153 nm by five channels, each one having a bandwidth of about 35 nm and being equipped with its own exit slit and radiation detector. All working five channels for the EUV spectral region overlap so that all the most intense and important lines in the solar flux at 30.4, 58.4, 89-92 (near Lyman continuum), and 121.6 nm are detected twice during a 72-sec measuring cycle. The absolute fluxes are determined with the Radiometer whose 20 filters are all overlapping. With the first filter a permanent control of the sensitivity is carried out by making use of the isotope 55Fe (0.2 nm) source. Since the Radiometer pass bands near the L and M edges of absorption are wide, the EUV-Spectrometer is to be used for measurements of the spectrally resolved solar spectrum. In 2001 - 2003 a new type of X/EUV-Spectrometer of was build, which is characterized by an extremely wide spectral range (from 1.8 nm to 198 nm) and by a large dynamic range of the signal recording (>1\\cdot 106) at the same time. All working channels Spectrometers and Radiometer used open secondary electron multipliers, worked at the Vavilov State Optical Institute. These multipliers are ``solar blind'' for UV and visible light where the sensitiveness decreases by 1\\cdot 1010 times and more. The paper will present details of the Space Solar Patrol apparatus. The methodology of the absolute spectral measurements as well as the calibration including the application of a synchrotron source will also be described. This work is supported by the International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Projects # 385, 385B, 1523, and 2500).

  7. Thermal activated (“thermal”) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Masset; Ronald A. Guidotti

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the pyrite FeS2 used as cathode material in thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries. A large emphasis was placed on the physicochemical properties and electrochemical performance of the pyrite FeS2, including the discharge mechanisms, self-discharge phenomena, and recent developments.

  8. Thermal activated (“thermal”) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Masset; Ronald A. Guidotti

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview of cathode materials (except the pyrite FeS2) used or envisaged in thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries. The physicochemical properties and electrochemical performance of different cathode families (oxides, sulfides) are reviewed, including discharge mechanisms, when known.

  9. Thermally activated (“thermal”) battery technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Guidotti; Patrick Masset

    2006-01-01

    Thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries are primary batteries that use molten salts as electrolytes and employ an internal pyrotechnic (heat) source to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures. They are primarily used for military applications, such as missiles and ordnance, and in nuclear weapons. This paper discusses the development history and presents a general overview of this technology.

  10. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Southworth, John, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: astro.js@keele.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  11. Choice deferral can arise from absolute evaluations or relative comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Chris M; Hoffrage, Ulrich; Reisen, Nils

    2015-06-01

    When choosing among several options, people may defer choice for either of 2 reasons: because none of the options is good enough or because there is uncertainty regarding which is the best. These reasons form the basis of the 2-stage, 2-threshold (2S2T) framework, which posits that a different kind of processing corresponds to these 2 reasons for choice deferral: absolute evaluations and relative comparisons, respectively. Three experiments are reported in which each type of processing was triggered in different conditions either via different payoff structures or different degrees of attribute knowledge. The effects of the 3 main independent variables (the size of the choice set, the utility of the best option, and the number of competitive options) differed depending on the payoff structure or attribute knowledge conditions in ways predicted by the 2S2T framework. Implications for consumer decision making, marketing, and eyewitness identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938974

  12. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.

  13. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p ? 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  14. Absolute Measurement of Tilts via Fourier Analysis of Interferograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier method of interferogram analysis requires the introduction of a constant tilt into the interferogram to serve as a carrier signal for information on the figure of the surface under test. This tilt is usually removed in the first steps of analysis and ignored thereafter. However, in the problem of aligning optical components and systems, knowledge of part orientation is crucial to proper instrument performance. This paper outlines an algorithm which uses the normally ignored carrier signal in Fourier analysis to compute an absolute tilt (orientation) of the test surface. We also provide a brief outline of how this technique, incorporated in a rotating Twyman-Green interferometer, can be used in alignment and metrology of optical systems.

  15. Absolute Measurement of Tilts via Fourier Analysis of Interferograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier method of interferogram analysis requires the introduction of a constant tilt into the inteferogram to serve as a 'carrier signal' for information on the figure of the surface under test. This tilt is usually removed in the first steps of analysis and ignored thereafter. However, in the problem of aligning optical components and systems, knowledge of part orientation is crucial to proper instrument performance. This paper outlines an algorithm which uses the normally ignored carrier signal in Fourier analysis to compute an absolute tilt (orientation) of the test surface. We also provide a brief outline of how this technique, incorporated in a rotating Twyman-Green interferometer, can be used in alignment and metrology of optical systems.

  16. The chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani I. Absolute dimensions

    E-print Network

    A. Washuettl; K. G. Strassmeier; T. Granzer; M. Weber; K. Oláh

    2008-09-04

    We present a detailed determination of the astrophysical parameters of the chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani. Our new radial velocities allow to improve the set of orbital elements and reveal long-term variations of the barycentric velocity. A possible third-body orbit with a period of approximately 19 years is presented. Absolute parameters are determined in combination with the Hipparcos parallax. EI Eri's inclination angle of the rotational axis is confined to 56.0 plus/minus 4.5 degrees, its luminosity class IV is confirmed by its radius of 2.37 plus/minus 0.12 R_Sun. A comparison to theoretical stellar evolutionary tracks suggests a mass of 1.09 plus/minus 0.05 M_Sun and an age of approximately 6.15 Gyr. The present investigation is the basis of our long-term Doppler imaging study of its stellar surface.

  17. Absolute evaporation rates of non-rotating neutral PAH clusters

    E-print Network

    Montillaud, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as candidates for evaporating very small grains, which are thought to be precursors of free-flying PAHs. Evaporation rates have been calculated so far only for species containing up to a few 100 C atoms, whereas interstellar PAH clusters could contain up to ~1000 C atoms. We present a method that generalises the calculation of the statistical evaporation rate of large PAH clusters and provides rates for species containing up to ~1000 C-atoms. The evaporation of non-rotating neutral homo-molecular PAH clusters containing up to 12 molecules from a family of highly symmetric compact PAHs is studied. Statistical calculations were performed and completed with molecular dynamics simulations at high internal energies to provide absolute values for the evaporation rate and distributions of kinetic energy released. The calculations used explicit atom-atom Lennard-Jones potentials in the rigid molecule approximation. A new method is proposed to take...

  18. Absolute Oxygenation Metabolism Measurements Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongyu; Liu, Qingwei; Eldeniz, Cihat; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral oxygen metabolism plays a critical role in maintaining normal function of the brain. It is the primary energy source to sustain neuronal functions. Abnormalities in oxygen metabolism occur in various neuro-pathologic conditions such as ischemic stroke, cerebral trauma, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and shock. Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure tissue oxygenation and oxygen metabolism is essential to the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of various diseases. The focus of this review is to provide an introduction of various blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast methods for absolute measurements of tissue oxygenation, including both magnitude and phase image based approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. PMID:22276084

  19. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L. [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolf, Marek, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz [Astronomical Institute, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, 180 00 Praha 8, V Holesovickach 2 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  20. Absolute Properties of the Eclipsing Binary Star IM Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  1. Absolute Measurement Of Laminar Shear Rate Using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Elliot Jenner; Brian D'Urso

    2015-05-11

    An absolute measurement of the components of the shear rate tensor $\\mathcal{S}$ in a fluid can be found by measuring the photon correlation function of light scattered from particles in the fluid. Previous methods of measuring $\\mathcal{S}$ involve reading the velocity at various points and extrapolating the shear, which can be time consuming and is limited in its ability to examine small spatial scale or short time events. Previous work in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy has involved only approximate solutions, requiring free parameters to be scaled by a known case, or different cases, such as 2-D flows, but here we present a treatment that provides quantitative results directly and without calibration for full 3-D flow. We demonstrate this treatment experimentally with a cone and plate rheometer.

  2. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  3. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLE STAR CF TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Claret, Antonio, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: claret@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. Postal 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    CF Tau is now known to be an eclipsing triple star with relatively deep total and annular eclipses. New light and radial velocity curves as well as new times of minima were obtained and used for further modeling of the system. Very accurate (better than 0.9%) masses and radii of the eclipsing pair are determined from analysis of the two new light curves, the radial velocity curve, and the times of minimum light. The mass and luminosity of the distant third component is accurately determined as well. Theoretical models of the detached, evolved eclipsing pair match the observed absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 4.3 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.14.

  4. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  5. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR HY VIRGINIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H. [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Fekel, Francis C., E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    HY Vir is found to be a double-lined F0m+F5 binary star with relatively shallow (0.3 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7509 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 8862 from the NFO WebScope, and 68 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope, and the 1 m coude-feed spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Very accurate (better than 0.5%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the new light curves and radial velocity curves. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 1.35 Gy.

  6. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Diterpenoids from Hymenaea stigonocarpa.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Afif F; Batista, João M; Machado, Michelle A; Severino, Richele P; Blanch, Ewan W; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Vieira, Paulo C; Severino, Vanessa G P

    2015-06-26

    Chemical investigations of the ethanolic extracts from the flowers and leaves of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne afforded one new ent-halimane diterpenoid, 18-hydroxy-ent-halima-1(10),13-(E)-dien-15-oic acid (1), together with five known compounds (2-6). The structural elucidation was performed by means of NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and MS analyses. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR data assignments are also reported for labd-13-en-8?-ol-15-oic (2) and labd-7,13-dien-15-oic (3) acids. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by comparison of experimental and calculated Raman optical activity spectra. PMID:26039872

  7. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Landi, Enrico [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  8. State estimation and absolute image registration for geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankervis, R.; Koch, D. W.; Sielski, H.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft state estimation and the absolute registration of Earth images acquired by cameras onboard geosynchronous satellites are described. The basic data type of the procedure consists of line and element numbers of image points called landmarks whose geodetic coordinates, relative to United States Geodetic Survey topographic maps, are known. A conventional least squares process is used to estimate navigational parameters and camera pointing biases from observed minus computed landmark line and element numbers. These estimated parameters along with orbit and attitude dynamic models are used to register images, using an automated grey level correlation technique, inside the span represented by the landmark data. In addition, the dynamic models can be employed to register images outside of the data span in a near real time mode. An important application of this mode is in support of meteorological studies where rapid data reduction is required for the rapid tracking and predicting of dynamic phenomena.

  9. Absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    E-print Network

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam-Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used *van der Meer scan* method (VDM). The technique has been used in 10 LHC fills during 2012 including and also provided a first luminosity measurement for proton-lead collisions. This talk presents the principles of the gas injection and the improvements reached with the increased pressure. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch. Those uncertainties are becoming the dominating factor because the uncertainty on the total beam current have been reduced.

  10. Absolute Properties of the Triple Star HP Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek; Burks, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  11. Towards the absolute proton affinities of 20 ?-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksi?, Z. B.; Kova?evi?, B.

    1999-07-01

    The absolute proton affinities (APA) of 20 ?-amino acids, as obtained by the MP2(fc)/6-311+G ??//HF/6-31G ? + ZPVE(HF/6-31G ?) and the scaled Hartree-Fock (HFsc) models, are presented. It is shown that the ?-NH 2 group is protonated in all but four cases: lysine ( K), proline ( P), histidine ( H), and arginine ( R). There is a good overall agreement with experimental data measured by the kinetic method. However, there are some notable exceptions such as glutamine ( Q) and lysine ( K), where strong hydrogen bonds in the protonated forms occur. It is suggested that the present results and theoretical models employed could be useful for resolving such experimental ambiguities. Furthermore, it appears that the HFsc model provides an efficient tool for elucidating APAs of artificial ?-AAs, derivatives of natural ?-AAs and their oligomers.

  12. Absolute determination of dose rate from energetic electron beams.

    PubMed

    Murray, K; Guenzer, C S

    1978-06-01

    A method for absolute dose rate determinations in the range of 10(7) rad (Si) s(-1) to greater than 10(10) rad (Si) s(-1) is reported here. The method is useful in determining the simultaneous dose rate delivered to a device under test which is small enough that it does not significantly affect the beam current. The method requires (1) an instrument consisting of a Faraday cup, scattering plates, and collimators, (2) beam profile measurements, and (3) energy deposition calculations. The Faraday cup is designed for electron beams whose energy is in the range 5-50 MeV. This method is capable of providing dose rates accurate to 10% and total dose to 5%. PMID:18699203

  13. Absolute solar flux measurement shortward of 575 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    A rare-gas ionization chamber was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux in the 50- to 575-A region. The instrument, operating in total and near-total absorption, was flown on a solar-pointing sounding rocket on August 16, 1983. For the day of the flight, the solar activity indices were F sub 10.7 = 132.1 and R sub I = 80, and the integrated solar irradiance at the earth, corrected for atmospheric absorption, was found to be 4.31 + or - 0.31 x 10 to the 10th photons sq cm s. Almost exactly a year earlier (August 10, 1982) the same instrument measured an integrated solar flux of 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm s during a time of enhanced solar activity (F sub 10.7 = 209.5 and R sub I = 155).

  14. Absolute blood velocity measured with a modified fundus camera

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Donald D.; Lemaillet, Paul; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Hiller, Matthias; Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for the quantitative estimation of blood flow velocity, based on the use of the Radon transform. The specific application is for measurement of blood flow velocity in the retina. Our modified fundus camera uses illumination from a green LED and captures imagery with a high-speed CCD camera. The basic theory is presented, and typical results are shown for an in vitro flow model using blood in a capillary tube. Subsequently, representative results are shown for representative fundus imagery. This approach provides absolute velocity and flow direction along the vessel centerline or any lateral displacement therefrom. We also provide an error analysis allowing estimation of confidence intervals for the estimated velocity. PMID:21054108

  15. The Absolute Calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    E-print Network

    Warren, Harry P; Landi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use ultra-deep (>10^5s) exposures of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  16. Absolute falling-ball viscometer: evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, M.; Megharfi, M.; Verdier, C.

    2005-08-01

    To reduce the uncertainties in measurements obtained by means of capillary viscometers, we developed an absolute falling-ball viscometer. The metrological characterization of this experimental bench is presented for a mineral oil with a viscosity of 30 Pa s by means of two distinct methods described in the GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). First, the calculation is performed using the law of propagation of uncertainties. Then, because of the increasing use of the techniques of propagation of distributions in metrology, we calculated the measurement uncertainties by a numerical Monte Carlo simulation. Both results were then compared for a confidence interval of 95%. Finally, the viscosity measurements and uncertainties obtained by the falling-ball viscometer were compared against those obtained by a capillary viscometer.

  17. Absolute measurement of 126Sn radionuclide concentration with AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartenmann, P.; Golser, R.; Haas, P.; Kutschera, W.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Wagner, M. J. M.; Wild, E.

    1996-06-01

    A new attempt has been made at the Zurich AMS facility for absolute measurements of isotopic ratios in connection with a project for the determination of the half-life of 126Sn [P. Haas et al., this issue, following paper]. A {126Sn }/{Sn} ratio of (9.23 ± 0.87) × 10 -6 was measured in material extracted from spent fuel rods of a nuclear power plant. Several specific problems had to be solved. For the separation of the isobaric interference of 126Te the method of projectile X-ray detection was applied. A gas ionization chamber was used to determine 126(Sn + Te) in a second independent way. To study mass fractionation effects, several stable tin isotopes were measured. A detailed description of the experimental setup and the measuring procedure is given. The results and the various sources of uncertainties are discussed.

  18. Absolute Position Total Internal Reflection Microscopy with an Optical Tweezer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lulu; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, in-situ calibration method for Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 $\\mu$m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in-situ, rather than relying on calculations or inexact system analogs for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.

  19. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  20. Absolute high-resolution rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of electrons with HD+: Comparison of results from three heavy-ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, A.; Rosén, S.; Danared, H.; Derkatch, A. M.; Källberg, A.; Larsson, M.; Le Padellec, A.; Neau, A.; Semaniak, J.; Thomas, R.; Af Ugglas, M.; Vikor, L.; Zong, W.; van der Zande, W. J.; Urbain, X.; Jensen, M. J.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Heber, O.; Pedersen, H. B.; Safvan, C. P.; Andersen, L. H.; Lange, M.; Levin, J.; Gwinner, G.; Knoll, L.; Scheffel, M.; Schwalm, D.; Wester, R.; Zajfman, D.; Wolf, A.

    2003-10-01

    Experimental data are presented from three different heavy-ion storage rings (ASTRID in Aarhus, CRYRING in Stockholm, and TSR in Heidelberg) to assess the reliability of this experimental tool for the extraction of absolute rate coefficients and cross sections for dissociative recombination (DR). The DR reaction between HD+ and electrons has been studied between 0 and 30 eV on a dense energy grid. HD+ displays two characteristic local maxima in the DR rate around 9 and 16 eV. These maxima influence the data analysis at smaller collision energies. We conclude that resonant structures in the DR cross sections are reproduced among the experiments within the collision energy resolution. The absolute cross sections agree within the systematic experimental errors of 20% related to the measurement of the ion currents. Absolute thermal rate coefficients for HD+ ions are given for an electron temperature range of 50 300 K. Results for the DR cross section and the thermal rate coefficients are compared to recent theoretical calculations including rotational effects, finding satisfactory agreement.

  1. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    E-print Network

    Guillermo Torres; Luiz Paulo R. Vaz; Claud H. Sandberg Lacy

    2008-09-12

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulation by spots on one or both components. This implies that the spotted star(s) must be rotating faster than the synchronous rate, which disagrees with predictions from current tidal evolution models according to which both stars should be synchronized. We also find that the radius of the secondary is larger than expected from stellar evolution calculations by about 10%, a discrepancy also seen in other (mostly lower-mass and active) eclipsing binaries. We estimate the age of the system to be approximately 9 Gyr. Both components are near the end of their main-sequence phase, and the primary may have started the shell hydrogen-burning stage.

  2. Novel optoelectronic systems for use in absolute position sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Roger Phillip

    This thesis describes the development of two novel optoelectronic systems which have been designed for use in absolute position sensing applications. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the work and reviews the wide variety of optical techniques which are presently available for position measurement. The second chapter provides a synopsis of a new type of optical position sensor designed for medium range sensing applications. This novel system uses optical feedback to a semiconductor laser to measure position. Unlike other proposed feedback sensing systems, this arrangement monitors the frequencies of RF beat modes generated within the laser diode to produce a position measurement capable of micron scale accuracy. The system operates using low optical powers and may be configured to operate as a non-contact, contact or fibre-addressed sensor. Chapter 4 examines the stability of the sensor. In particular, it assesses how the sensor is affected by variations in key operating parameters, such as bias current and feedback strength. Meanwhile, chapter 5 describes a number of signal processing systems which may be used to interface with the RF signal generated by the optical system to provide a real-time output of a suitable form. In addition to examining the experimental operation of the sensor, a thorough theoretical analysis of the operation of the system is presented in chapters 3 and 6. Both steady-state and dynamic approaches are used to analyse the behaviour of the optical system. These allow accurate predictions of the sensor performance to be generated, both for general operation and for stability analysis. Finally chapter 7 describes a separate novel optical position sensor, which provides absolute position measurement with accuracies of 0.004% of measurement range. This sensor utilises reflection from a novel dual track grating, which consists of a pseudo-random binary sequence written in parallel with a periodic asymmetric pattern.

  3. Absolute parameters of young stars: GG Lup and ?1 Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Butland, R.; Blackford, M.

    2015-04-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry, together with literature data, on the Gould's Belt close binary systems GG Lup and ?1 Sco are presented and analysed. In the case of GG Lup, light and radial velocity curve fittings confirm a near-main-sequence picture of a pair of close stars. Absolute parameters are found, to within a few per cent, thus: M1 = 4.16 ± 0.12, M2 = 2.64 ± 0.12 (M?); R1 = 2.42 ± 0.05, R2 = 1.79 ± 0.04 (R?); T1 ˜ 13 000, T2 ˜ 10 600 (K); photometric distance ˜160 (pc). The high eccentricity and relatively short period (105 yr) of apsidal revolution may be related to an apparent `slow B-type pulsator' oscillation. Disturbances of the outer envelope of at least one of the components then compromise comparisons to standard evolutionary models, at least regarding the age of the system. A rate of apsidal advance is derived, which allows a check on the mean internal structure constant overline{k_2} = 0.0058 ± 0.0004. This is in agreement with values recently derived for young stars of solar composition and mass ˜3 M?. For ?1 Sco, we agree with previous authors that the secondary component is considerably oversized for its mass, implying binary (interactive) stellar evolution, probably of the `Case A' type. The primary appears relatively little affected by this evolution, however. Its parameters show consistency with a star of its derived mass at age about 13 Myr, consistent with the star's membership of the Sco-Cen OB2 Association. The absolute parameters are as follows: M1 = 8.3 ± 1.0, M2 = 4.6 ± 1.0 (M?); R1 = 3.9 ± 0.3, R2 = 4.6 ± 0.4 (R?); T1 ˜ 24 000, T2 ˜ 17 000 (K); photometric distance ˜135 (pc).

  4. Absolute angle measurement using the earth-field-referenced hall effect sensors.

    PubMed

    Kolen, P T; Rhode, J P; Francis, P R

    1993-03-01

    A miniaturized absolute angle sensor utilizing Hall generators referenced to the Earth's ambient magnetic field has been developed. The sensor has three-dimensional angular sensitivity which allows the output to be self-normalized resulting in high immunity to both B-field and temperature induced errors. The individual Hall generator elements were operated with a final sensitivity of 4.07 V G-1. The Earth's field, magnitude 0.486 G with a surface declination angle of 58.2 degrees (San Diego, California), was used as the excitation/reference field. Bandwidth limiting, low-noise design, and active/passive thermal compensation techniques were employed resulting in a sensor bandwidth of DC to 100 Hz with a maximum signal-to-noise ratio of 44.5 dB. The maximum angular resolution of the sensor was measured to be +/- 0.27 degrees. Temperature induced error was measured to be less than 2% from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The measurement of shoulder joint rotation was used as the test case application for the sensor with excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental performance. PMID:8468339

  5. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature. PMID:25273786

  6. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux Inorganiques, Université Badji-Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G., E-mail: jean-georges.gasser@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique - Approche Multi-échelle des Milieux Complexes (LCP-A2MC) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago - 57078 Metz cedex 3 (France)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  7. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadlia, L.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  8. Thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wendlandt, W.W.

    1986-04-01

    As in the previous article, this review covers the time period in Chemical Abstracts, Thermal Analysis (CA Selects), from about December 1, 1983, to November 1, 1985. An attempt was made to keep the number of citations as small as possible and yet include the impact of thermal analysis studies to chemistry and allied fields. This was difficult because of the large number of publications in this area during the past 2 years. However, by a subjective evaluation process, a list of citations was chosen so that, in the author's opinion, they represented the essence of the work that was published during the above time period. The abbreviations used here conform to the recommendations of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis (ICTA), except in the cases where it was a new technique and the name has not yet been approved by this organization. Familiar abbreviations include TG for thermogravimetry, DTA for differential thermal analysis, DSC for differential scanning calorimetry, and EGA for evolved gas analysis. Newer terms are TCA for thermocentrifugometric analysis, TMA for thermomagnetic analysis (not thermomechanical analysis), TCS for thermally stimulated charge, and TVD for thermal voltaic detection. For abbreviations that are questionable, they are defined the first time that they are cited. 164 references.

  9. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.; Fujita, S.; Hoffman, J.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1983-09-30

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  10. Reliable absolute palaeointensities independent of magnetic domain state

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    be a thermoremanent magnetisation, and during the successive heating steps in the laboratory no chemical alteration magnetic history. Through the limited number of thermal steps alteration effects are reduced as well the effects of high-temperature tails that affect multidomain minerals. The pTRM acquisition temperature

  11. Large absolute photonic band gaps created by rotating noncircular rods in two-dimensional lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Hua Wang; Ben-Yuan Gu; Zhi-Yuan Li; Guo-Zhen Yang

    1999-01-01

    Absolute photonic band gaps (PBG's) can be substantially improved in two-dimensional (2D) lattices by rotating noncircular air rods in dielectric background, in which the configuration of high-dielectric regions that are both practically isolated and linked by narrow veins can be freely adjusted to create large absolute PBG's. For square lattice, the largest absolute PBG's in the single-square-rod and double-hybrid-rods structures

  12. Heart rate variability at different thermal comfort levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Yuanmou

    2008-06-01

    The mechanism of human thermal comfort is important for building a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. This paper analyzes human heart rate variability (HRV) at different thermal comfort levels and discusses the mechanism of human thermal comfort. A total of 33 subjects were divided in 3 groups. Under air temperatures of 21, 24, 26, 28, 29, and 30 degrees C, the subjects' electrocardiogram was recorded for 5 min. HRV (the ratio of absolute powers in low- and high-frequency bands, LF/HF ratio) was analyzed. LF/HF at discomfort level were significantly higher than that at comfort level (P < 0.05), despite the same thermal sensation. The results indicate that sympathetic activity plays an important role in subjects' thermal discomfort and the LF/HF ratio may be used as an indicator for human thermal comfort. PMID:18351379

  13. HST Stellar Standards with 1% Accuracy in Absolute Flux

    E-print Network

    Ralph C. Bohlin

    2006-08-31

    Free of any atmospheric contamination, HST provides the best available spectrophotometry from the far-UV to the near-IR for stars as faint as V~16. The HST CALSPEC standard star network is based on 3 standard candles: the hot, pure hydrogen white dwarf (WD) stars G191B2B, GD153, and GD71, which have Hubeny NLTE model flux calculations that require the atomic physics for only one atom. These model flux distributions are normalized to the absolute flux for Vega of 3.46x10^{-9} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} \\AA^{-1} at 5556\\AA using precise Landolt V band photometry and the V bandpass function corrected for atmospheric transmission by M. Cohen. The 3 primary WD standards provide absolute flux calibrations for FOS, STIS, and NICMOS spectrophotometry from these instruments on the HST. About 32 stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed with a primary pedigree from the STIS data, which extends from 1150 \\AA for the hot stars to a long wavelength limit of 1\\mu m. NICMOS grism spectrophotometry provides an extension to 1.9\\mu m in the IR for 17 of the HST standards and longward to 2.5\\mu m for a few of the brighter stars. Included among these HST standards are Vega, the Sloan standard BD+17$^{\\circ}$4708, 3 bright solar analog candidates, 3 cool stars of type M or later, and 5 hot WDs. In addition, 4 K giants and 4 main sequence A-stars have NICMOS spectrophotometry from 0.8-2.5\\mu m. The WD fluxes are compared to their modeled SEDs and demonstrate an internal precision of 1-2%, while the A-stars agree with the Cohen IR fluxes to ~2%. Three solar analog candidate stars differ from the solar spectrum by up to 10% in the region of heavy line blanketing from 3000-4000 \\AA and show differences in shape of ~5% in the IR around 1.8\\mu m.

  14. Observational constraints on atmospheric radiaitve feedbacks: absolute accuracy and next-generation observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Anderson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The central role of atmospheric radiative feedbacks to understanding and projecting climate change calls for a robust observational system. Recent studies have shown the value of space-based measurements for putting quantitative constraints on a range of radiative feedback processes through a fingerprinting method applied to long-term observational records. More recent work has suggested the value of demonstrably accurate measurements to disentangle model error from observational uncertainties within reanalysis systems, potentially yielding improved representations of feedback processes within just a few years. Both of these methods rely on space-based measurements that can be objectively tested for accuracy on-orbit. A new class of mission has been proposed that incorporates the same type of empirical tests for accuracy as used in the laboratory into a space-based sensor. One example of such a mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), a new mission suggested by the 2006 National Research Council Decadal Survey. CLARREO includes three sensor types: thermal infrared, microwave, and reflected shortwave. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of prototype systems for testing the on-orbit accuracy of a thermal infrared sensor for CLARREO. These systems utilize infrared lasers to provide monochromatic light sources to quantitatively determine the optical properties of materials. These infrared optical properties are major determinants of the on-orbit radiometric performance of a thermal infrared sensor. For this reason, reliable quantitative information (including uncertainty) that tracks any changes in relevant infrared materials over the mission lifetime is essential to objective assessment of instrument accuracy. The practicality of mid-infrared lasers for these applications is due to the availability and continued evolution of compact, high-efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs). These lasers can provide over 100 mW of continuous wave (cw) monochromatic illumination at room temperature. In this paper, results are presented on recent QCL technological advances and environmental qualification. The results of QCL-based systems for testing optical materials, specifically the reflectance of calibration standards, are analyzed and compared with laboratory techniques. The results of the spectral calibration of sensors by utilizing the monochromatic property of QCL illumination will also be shown.

  15. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS. PMID:22145764

  16. Improving metabolic flux predictions using absolute gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constraint-based analysis of genome-scale metabolic models typically relies upon maximisation of a cellular objective function such as the rate or efficiency of biomass production. Whilst this assumption may be valid in the case of microorganisms growing under certain conditions, it is likely invalid in general, and especially for multicellular organisms, where cellular objectives differ greatly both between and within cell types. Moreover, for the purposes of biotechnological applications, it is normally the flux to a specific metabolite or product that is of interest rather than the rate of production of biomass per se. Results An alternative objective function is presented, that is based upon maximising the correlation between experimentally measured absolute gene expression data and predicted internal reaction fluxes. Using quantitative transcriptomics data acquired from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures under two growth conditions, the method outperforms traditional approaches for predicting experimentally measured exometabolic flux that are reliant upon maximisation of the rate of biomass production. Conclusion Due to its improved prediction of experimentally measured metabolic fluxes, and of its lack of a requirement for knowledge of the biomass composition of the organism under the conditions of interest, the approach is likely to be of rather general utility. The method has been shown to predict fluxes reliably in single cellular systems. Subsequent work will investigate the method’s ability to generate condition- and tissue-specific flux predictions in multicellular organisms. PMID:22713172

  17. Robust absolute magnetometry with organic thin-film devices

    PubMed Central

    Baker, W.J.; Ambal, K.; Waters, D.P.; Baarda, R.; Morishita, H.; van Schooten, K.; McCamey, D.R.; Lupton, J.M.; Boehme, C.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors based on organic thin-film materials have attracted considerable interest in recent years as they can be manufactured at very low cost and on flexible substrates. However, the technological relevance of such magnetoresistive sensors is limited owing to their narrow magnetic field ranges (?30 mT) and the continuous calibration required to compensate temperature fluctuations and material degradation. Conversely, magnetic resonance (MR)-based sensors, which utilize fundamental physical relationships for extremely precise measurements of fields, are usually large and expensive. Here we demonstrate an organic magnetic resonance-based magnetometer, employing spin-dependent electronic transitions in an organic diode, which combines the low-cost thin-film fabrication and integration properties of organic electronics with the precision of a MR-based sensor. We show that the device never requires calibration, operates over large temperature and magnetic field ranges, is robust against materials degradation and allows for absolute sensitivities of <50 nT Hz?1/2. PMID:22692541

  18. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of absolute pitch and relative pitch.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kosuke; Suwazono, Shugo; Arao, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Ken'ichi; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2005-06-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of the cortical processes responsible for absolute pitch (AP) and relative pitch (RP) were investigated by multi-channel event-related potentials (ERPs). Compared to listening, pitch-naming of tones in non-possessors of AP elicited three ERP components (P3b, parietal positive slow wave, frontal negative slow wave) over parietal and frontal scalp between 300 and 900 ms in latency, representing the cortical processes for RP. Possessors of AP elicited a unique left posterior-temporal negativity ('AP negativity') at 150 ms in both listening and pitch-naming conditions, representing the cortical processes for AP that were triggered by pitch input irrespective of the task the subjects were asked to perform. Congruency of auditory Stroop stimuli modulated the amplitudes of parietal positive slow wave (non-possessors of AP) and 'AP negativity' (possessors of AP), confirming that these components reflect the verbal labeling or pitch-to-pitch-name associative transformation that is central to pitch-naming. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that AP is subserved by neuronal processes in the left auditory association cortex that occur earlier and more automatically than the processes for RP, which involve broader areas of the cortex over longer periods of time. PMID:15371294

  20. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  1. Absolute Quantification of Individual Biomass Concentrations in a Methanogenic Coculture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Identification of individual biomass concentrations is a crucial step towards an improved understanding of anaerobic digestion processes and mixed microbial conversions in general. The knowledge of individual biomass concentrations allows for the calculation of biomass specific conversion rates which form the basis of anaerobic digestion models. Only few attempts addressed the absolute quantification of individual biomass concentrations in methanogenic microbial ecosystems which has so far impaired the calculation of biomass specific conversion rates and thus model validation. This study proposes a quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach for the direct determination of individual biomass concentrations in methanogenic microbial associations by correlating the native qPCR signal (cycle threshold, Ct) to individual biomass concentrations (mg dry matter/L). Unlike existing methods, the proposed approach circumvents error-prone conversion factors that are typically used to convert gene copy numbers or cell concentrations into actual biomass concentrations. The newly developed method was assessed and deemed suitable for the determination of individual biomass concentrations in a defined coculture of Desulfovibrio sp. G11 and Methanospirillum hungatei JF1. The obtained calibration curves showed high accuracy, indicating that the new approach is well suited for any engineering applications where the knowledge of individual biomass concentrations is required. PMID:24949269

  2. Absolute parameters of young stars - II. V831 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Erdem, A.; Inlek, G.; Demircan, O.

    2010-04-01

    Literature photometry and new high-resolution spectroscopy of V831 Cen are presented and analysed. Light and radial velocity curve fittings confirm the central pair of this young multiple system to be close to contact. Absolute parameters are found as follows: M1 = 4.08 +/- 0.07Msolar, M2 = 3.35 +/- 0.06Msolar, R1 = 2.38 +/- 0.03Rsolar, R2 = 2.25 +/- 0.03Rsolar, T1 = 13000 +/- 300K, T2 = 11800 +/- 300K distance of 110 +/- 10pc and age of ~20 +/- 5Myr. Detailed examination of the spectrograms indicates the third component (V831 Cen B) to be an Ap star. The orbit of the third star about the close binary is analysed using historic astrometric measurements. This allows an estimate of the third star's mass to be about 2.5Msolar, but this is sensitive to the adopted distance and inclination values. It is, however, confirmed by the measured radial velocity of the third star. To some extent, such analysis can also be applied to the fourth star (V831 Cen C). The derived properties can be checked against the system's membership of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB2 association.

  3. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  4. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-12-22

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  5. Absolute Quantification of the Glycolytic Pathway in Yeast:

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Simpson, Deborah M.; Eyers, Claire E.; Knight, Christopher G.; Brownridge, Philip; Dunn, Warwick B.; Winder, Catherine L.; Lanthaler, Karin; Pir, P?nar; Malys, Naglis; Kell, Douglas B.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Gaskell, Simon J.; Beynon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of label-free data derived from yeast cells (based on the summed intensity of the three strongest, isoform-specific peptides) permitted a preliminary assessment of protein abundances for glycolytic proteins. Following this analysis, we demonstrate successful application of the QconCAT technology, which uses recombinant DNA techniques to generate artificial concatamers of large numbers of internal standard peptides, to the quantification of enzymes of the glycolysis pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A QconCAT of 88 kDa (59 tryptic peptides) corresponding to 27 isoenzymes was designed and built to encode two or three analyte peptides per protein, and after stable isotope labeling of the standard in vivo, protein levels were determined by LC-MS, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. We were able to determine absolute protein concentrations between 14,000 and 10 million molecules/cell. Issues such as efficiency of extraction and completeness of proteolysis are addressed, as well as generic factors such as optimal quantotypic peptide selection and expression. In addition, the same proteins were quantified by intensity-based label-free analysis, and both sets of data were compared with other quantification methods. PMID:21931151

  6. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  7. The Absolute Instability of Joukowski-Type Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkyilmazoglu, M.

    In this paper an investigation is undertaken to explore the nature of the flow in the vicinity of the trailing edge of Joukowski-type airfoil configurations. Making use of the asymptotic interactive boundary layer theory, the basic flow profiles in the attached and detached flow regions are computed numerically through integrating the interactive boundary layer equations governing the flow motion for sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. Employing a Spectral Chebyshev collocation numerical integration scheme, boundary layer features corresponding to a number of thickness-to-chord ratio parameter cases are produced. The analysis carried out over the interaction region of the trailing edge shows that flow separation always takes place beyond certain critical value of the thickness-to-chord ratio parameter under the action of a self-induced pressure gradient. In addition, reversed flow regions of a sufficiently large size are found to be absolutely unstable, within the framework of linear spatio-temporal stability analysis in combination with the Briggs--Bers branch point criterion.

  8. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    E-print Network

    Massimo Giovannini

    2014-09-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as Ligo/Virgo, Lisa and Bbo/Decigo) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  9. Absolutely Continuous Convolutions of Singular Measures and an Application to the Square Fibonacci Hamiltonian

    E-print Network

    David Damanik; Anton Gorodetski; Boris Solomyak

    2014-08-28

    We prove for the square Fibonacci Hamiltonian that the density of states measure is absolutely continuous for almost all pairs of small coupling constants. This is obtained from a new result we establish about the absolute continuity of convolutions of measures arising in hyperbolic dynamics with exact-dimensional measures.

  10. Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical and radiocarbon methods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical Egyptology, the establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt has been an ambition which has contained lists of the kings who reigned in Egypt. The Palermo Stone, the Abydos reliefs and the Turin Canon

  11. The Lissajous Lens: A Three-Dimensional Absolute Optical Instrument without Spherical Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Tyc, Tomas

    .099999 The advent of transformation optics [1], [2] and recent efforts to construct useful non-Euclidean lenses [3 that the field of absolute optical instruments, a special subset of non- Euclidean gradient index lenses that there is an infinite number of absolute optical instruments of both categories, and many properties of these lenses

  12. Increasing absolute mortality disparities by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1971e2000

    E-print Network

    Increasing absolute mortality disparities by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1971e2000 and sensible inequality measures, this study documents the changes in absolute and relative mortality-standardised mortality rates and the population exposures for three educational categories were computed from detailed

  13. Comparison of empirical absolute energy distributions in stellar spectra with stellar atmosphere models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Merezhin

    1991-01-01

    Elambda values of the same stars are shown to depend on the used variant of an absolute energy distribution in Vega's spectrum to which their measurement data are referred. At present, absolute energy distributions in investigated stellar spectra are evaluated with real accuracy of 6 - 7% and 9 - 14% in visible and IR regions, respectively.

  14. Absolute calibration of energy distribution in the Vega spectrum. I. Spectral region 310 - 750 nm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eh. I. Terez

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of the absolute energy distribution in the Vega spectrum in the region of 310 - 750 nm are described. Absolute calibration is based on the new method consisting in comparison of stellar radiation with the brightness of a diffusely scattering screen illuminated by a laboratory standard light source. The atmospheric extinction was determined by the Bouger

  15. High-Precision Absolute Positioning of Medical Instruments in MRI Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Aboussouan; Sylvain Martel

    2006-01-01

    An absolute positioning technique has been developed for ferromagnetic markers in medical instruments and untethered devices operating in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. This technique allows high precision 3D readings of the location of the device with respect to the absolute center of the MRI bore. The local magnetic field induced by the device is used as a signature

  16. Improvements of the Maximum Intersection Method for 3D Absolute Earthquake Locations

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Improvements of the Maximum Intersection Method for 3D Absolute Earthquake Locations by Thomas of the maximum intersection (MAXI) method in which absolute earthquake location is defined by the maximum a technique that minimizes travel-time residues. To conclude, we apply the MAXI method to locate earthquakes

  17. Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids

    E-print Network

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids for calculating the absolute entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte. In this paper we remove the excluded volume EV restriction, replacing it by a "free volume" FV approach

  18. A new chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1932-01-01

    This report is concerned with the derivation of a chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane. This chart may be used in conjunction with the usual curves of power required and power available as an accurate substitute for extended calculation, or it may be used in the estimation of absolute ceiling when power curves are not available.

  19. Absolute dune ages and implications for the time of formation of gullies in Nirgal Vallis, Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Reiss; S. van Gasselt; G. Neukum; R. Jaumann

    2004-01-01

    Transverse dunes cover the valley floor of Nirgal Vallis, a 670 km long valley network at 318°E and 29°S. The dunes are superposed by small undeformed impact craters, which implies that the dunes are inactive under present atmospheric conditions. The last active phase of dune movement (absolute age) can be determined by crater size frequency distributions. The derived absolute ages

  20. The Relation between the Absolute Level of Parenting and Differential Parental Treatment with Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…

  1. Relative Gravity Measurement Campaign during the 8th International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters (2009)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2009-01-01

    Relative Gravity Measurement Campaign during the 8th International Comparison of Absolute) and the associated Relative Gravity Campaign (RGC2009) took place at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures relative gravimeters participated in the ICAG/RGC campaign. Accurate absolute and relative gravity

  2. Different Kinds of DIF: A Distinction between Absolute and Relative Forms of Measurement Invariance and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; Van Heerden, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    In this article, a distinction is made between absolute and relative measurement. Absolute measurement refers to the measurement of traits on a group-invariant scale, and relative measurement refers to the within-group measurement of traits, where the scale of measurement is expressed in terms of the within-group position on a trait. Relative…

  3. Fuzzy algorithm for commutation of permanent magnet AC servo motors without absolute rotor position sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Il Kim; Jin Won Lee; Sungkwun Kim

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy algorithm is proposed which makes it possible to estimate the absolute rotor position essential to the electrical commutation of the permanent magnet AC servo motor with an incremental encoder coupled to the shaft. This improved fuzzy algorithm estimates the absolute rotor position with the desirable convergence time and little oscillation in the transient state. Using this algorithm, the

  4. Control of permanent magnet AC servo motors without absolute rotor position transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Il Kim; Jinwon Lee; Sungkwun Kim

    1991-01-01

    An attempt to control permanent magnet AC servo motors without the detection of the rotor position by absolute position transducers such as absolute encoders or resolvers is presented. The incremental encoder has been used in order to obtain the information of the rotor position and speed. A feedforward controller and an acceleration feedback controller are incorporated into the conventional PI

  5. On Distribution Semimajor Axes of Longperiodic Comets Depending of Their Absolute Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, A. S.; Poladova, U. J.

    2009-12-01

    The linear dependence between reciprocal semimajor axes (1/a) and absolute magnitudes (H10) of 318 long periodic comets were revealed.The values of correlation coefficients was calculated. The differences between absolute magnitudes of the "new" and "old" comets was determined. It is shown that division of comets "new" and "old" category contradicts with the observational dates

  6. Pigeons Encode Absolute Distance but Relational Direction From Landmarks and Walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Gray; Marcia L. Spetch

    2006-01-01

    In recent studies, researchers have examined animals' use of absolute or relational distances in finding a hidden goal. When trained with an array of landmarks, most animals use the default strategy of searching at an absolute distance from 1 or more landmarks. In contrast, when trained in enclosures, animals often use the relationship among walls. In the present study, pigeons

  7. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  8. Propagation delay as a tool to retrieve high-frequency absolute tilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziano Niero; Roberto Ragazzoni; Jacopo Farinato

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of Propagation Delay technique is to retrieve high frequency portion of absolute tip-tilt from a laser guide star by observing the fired artificial beacon just from the laser projector. This technique can relax the requirements on absolute tilt retrieving from other schemes, such as, for example, a fainter natural guide star in the same isoplanatic field, thus increasing

  9. Studies on thermal-control paints for use as diffuse targets in the calibration of flight sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Bruegge; Richard A. Rainen; Donald F. Lewis; Cheng Hsieh; Shelley B. Petroy; Beatrice Chommeloux; Jean-Loup Bezy

    1993-01-01

    In recent years data have been collected on conductive thermal-control paints, such as PCBZ and NS43G, in order to evaluate their stability to the space environment. In addition to being considered for spacecraft thermal control, the paints have been considered as an alternate material for use within on- orbit calibration systems. This will provide both an absolute calibration, by knowing

  10. Thermal defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  11. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  12. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition stable isotope systems. But even absolute isotope ratio measurements have an important role to play in delta-scale schemes. Highly precise and unbiased measurements of the artifact anchor for any scale facilitates the replacement of that scale's anchor once the initial supply of the iRM is exhausted. Absolute isotope ratio measurements of artifacts at the positive and negative extremes of a delta-scale will allow the appropriate assignment of delta-values to these normalizing iRMs, thereby minimizing any scale contractions or expansions to either side of the anchor artifact. And finally, absolute values for critical iRMs with also allow delta-scale results to be used in other scientific disciplines that employ other units of measure. Precise absolute isotope ratios of Si has been one of the consequences of the Avogadro Project (an international effort to replace the original kilogram artifact with a natural constant, the Planck constant.) We will present the results of applying such measurements to the principal iRMs for the Si isotope system (SRM 990, Big Batch and Diatomite) and its consequences for their delta-Si29 and delta-Si30 values.

  13. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals. PMID:24287679

  14. Absolute Measurements Of Methane On Mars: The Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Novak, R. E.; Hewagama, T.; Bonev, B. P.; DiSanti, M. A.; Smith, M. D.

    2008-09-01

    Our study of methane on Mars now extends over three Mars years, sampling a wide range of seasons with significant spatial coverage. Three spectrometer-telescope combinations were used. With the spectrometer slit oriented North-South on the planet, we obtain simultaneous spectra at latitudes along the central meridian. Successive longitudes are sampled as the planet rotates, and the combination then permits partial mapping of the planet. We earlier reported differential detections of methane and water on Mars. Here, we present absolute extractions of methane, based on improved analytical procedures developed since 2005. We now identify and correct instrumental effects such as variations in resolving power along the slit, second-order optical fringe removal, and correction of (minor) internal scattered light. We synthesize the fully-resolved terrestrial transmittance spectrum, convolve it to the instrumental resolution, and subtract it from the measured Mars-Earth spectrum. Fraunhofer lines are removed from the residual Mars spectra along with spectral lines of water and of (newly identified by us) carbon dioxide isotopomers. The residuals are then inspected for signatures of methane and other possible trace constituents such as HDO and H2O (Villanueva et al., this Conference). On certain dates, the residual spectra display spectral lines at the Doppler-shifted positions expected for methane on Mars. The positive indications favor certain seasons (e.g., Ls = 121° & 155°) and locations. Mixing ratios derived from those residuals (up to 60 ppb) greatly exceed upper limits obtained at other seasons (e.g., < 3ppb at Ls = 17°) these variations could be consistent with episodic release. The CH4 spatial extent requires transport over large distances (coupled with eddy diffusion), and destruction lifetimes of order one year. Details will be presented and implications will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA's Astrobiology, Planetary Astronomy, and Postdoctoral Programs, and NSF's RUI Program.

  15. Absolute Proper Motions of Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Edward

    1997-07-01

    We propose to measure precise absolute proper motions for four dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way using spectroscopically-confirmed background QSOs to define a zero- velocity reference frame. Two epochs separated by 2 yrs will yield systemic tangential velocities of UMi, Car, Scl, {and For} to +/- 78 kms {+/- 130 kms}. These are worst-case velocity precisions and they are likely to be 2-4* smaller. Our long-term goal is to reduce them by an additional factor of several by obtaining data over the lifetime of WFPC2. With 2-3 QSOs per galaxy, we will still be confident of our motions with only 2 epochs. We will test whether the halo contains a small number of massive streams containing several dwarf galaxies, or whether the individual halo dwarfs are traveling along independent orbits. HST is essential to achieving the high precisions needed to conclusively compare the projected orbital motions of the individual galaxies; even with our conservative uncertainties, we are competitive with the best ground-based efforts with only a 2 year baseline. We will also use our results to improve our estimate of the mass of the Galaxy interior to 100 kpc. We believe that our project will show that astrometry has been a much ignored resource and power of HST. If HST performs as well as we suspect it can, it will be possible to measure the internal motions of stars in the dwarf spheroidals and the proper motions of all of the Local Group members over a timespan of 5 - 10 years.

  16. Absolute Raman matrix elements of graphene and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Rohit; Panknin, Robert; Reich, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    Using sample substitution [Grimsditch , J. Raman Spectrosc. 10, 77 (1981)10.1002/jrs.1250100113] we deconvolve the highly wavelength-dependent response of the spectrometer from the Raman spectra of graphene suspended on an SiO2-Si substrate and graphite for the D and G modes in the visible range. We derive a model that considers graphene suspended on an arbitrary stratified medium while sidestepping its problematic ascription as an object of finite thickness and calculate the absolute Raman response of graphene (and graphite) via its explicitly frequency-independent Raman matrix element [Falicov and Martin, Light Scattering in Solids I: Introductory Concepts (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 1083] |K2f,10'|2 vs laser frequency. For both graphene and graphite the |K2f,10'|2 per graphene layer vs laser frequency rises rapidly for the G mode and less so for the D mode over the visible range. Although we find a dispersion of the D mode position with laser frequency for both graphene and graphite of 41cm-1/eV and 35cm-1/eV , respectively, in good agreement with Narula and Reich [Phys. Rev. B 78, 165422 (2008)]10.1103/PhysRevB.78.165422 assuming constant matrix elements, the observed intensity dependence is in disagreement. Finally, we show the sensitivity of our calculation to the variation in thickness of the underlying SiO2 layer for graphene. Our findings shall serve as an experimental verification of the behavior of the relevant matrix elements in graphene and its allotropes that may be calculated theoretically in the future.

  17. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  18. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

  19. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  20. Near-Infrared Absolute Photometry of the Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momary, T. W.; Baines, K. H.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Golisch, W.; Kaminski, C.

    1998-09-01

    We report absolutely-calibrated photometry of the Saturnian satellites in canonical near-infrared filters, including the first such spectrum of the leading side of Enceladus. The satellites were observed during Ring Plane Crossing in August and September of 1995 with the NSFCAM instrument at the NASA/IRTF. These observations were also simultaneous with those of the Uranian system, taken with the same instrument and filters, and analyzed by Baines et al. (Icarus 132, 266-284, 1998). Results are reported for J, H, and K filters near 1.27, 1.62, and 2.20 mu m, and two 0.1 mu m-wide filters centered at 1.73 and 2.27 mu m. We find that Enceladus has a peak brightness at 1.27 mu m with a geometric albedo of 0.898 +/- 0.063, in contrast to the Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Titania, which are relatively dim at this wavelength (albedos of roughly 0.3). The J-H band depth of Enceladus is about 30%, characteristic of spectra of Rhea, Tethys, and the trailing side of Iapetus, taken from Clark et al. (Icarus 58, 265-281, 1984) and convolved with our filters. By contrast, the darker Uranian satellites display a J-H band depth of less than 10%. From H to 1.73 mu m, the full-disk albedo of Enceladus increases by 27%, similar to the Uranian satellites. The dip in the Enceladus spectrum from J to H, as well as the subsequent rise from H to 1.73 mu m, are an expected signature of water ice. Finally, preliminary results for the albedos of Tethys, Dione, Rhea, and Mimas, as well as Enceladus, at 2.27 mu m compare favorably with the visible albedos of Buratti and Veverka (Icarus, 58, 254-264, 1984).

  1. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  2. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    PubMed Central

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. Methods/Principal Findings A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Conclusions/Significance Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP. PMID:21085598

  3. a Portable Apparatus for Absolute Measurements of the Earth's Gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark Andrew

    We have developed a new, portable apparatus for making absolute measurements of the acceleration due to the earth's gravity. We use the method of interferometrically determining the acceleration of a freely falling corner -cube prism. The falling object is surrounded by a chamber which is driven vertically inside a fixed vacuum chamber. This falling chamber is servoed to track the falling corner -cube to shield it from drag due to background gas. In addition, the drag-free falling chamber removes the need for a magnetic release, shields the falling object from electrostatic forces, and provides a means of both gently arresting the falling object and quickly returning it to its start position, to allow rapid acquisition of data. A synthesized long period isolation device reduces the noise due to seismic oscillations. A new type of Zeeman laser is used as the light source in the interferometer, and is compared with the wavelength of an iodine stabilized laser. The times of occurrence of 45 interference fringes are measured to within 0.2 nsec over a 20 cm drop and are fit to a quadratic by an on-line minicomputer. 150 drops can be made in ten minutes resulting in a value of g having a precision of 3 to 6 parts in 10('9). Systematic errors have been determined to be less than 5 parts in 10('9) through extensive tests. Three months of gravity data have been obtained with a reproducibility ranging from 5 to 10 parts in 10('9). The apparatus has been designed to be easily portable. Field measurements are planned for the immediate future. An accuracy of 6 parts in 10('9) corresponds to a height sensitivity of 2 cm. Vertical motions in the earth's crust and tectonic density changes that may precede earthquakes are to be investigated using this apparatus.

  4. Study of the Taiwanese Orogen from Absolute Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, F.; Mouyen, M.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.; Lee, C.; Le Moigne, N.; Hinderer, J.; Cattin, R.; Luck, B.; Bayer, R.; Malavieille, J.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is located on the convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Chinese continental margin. In south-central Taiwan, the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Chinese continental margin has caused intense crustal thickening and shortening in the rising mountain range. The mountain building processes are very alive and well illustrated by the rugged topography, rapid uplift and denudation, young tectonic landforms, active faulting and numerous earthquakes. The project AGTO proposes to study this natural laboratory of building of the mountain ranges using absolute gravimetry (AG). It also includes relative gravimetry (RG), GPS measurements and modelling. The target area is the southern part of the Island, for the Luzon volcanic arc to the east (Lutao island) to the western coastal plain (Tainan county), crossing the Coastal and Central ranges. This region probably suffers the highest rates of rising (between 1 and 2 cm/year of vertical movement in the Central range documented by permanent GPS measurements). Two AG measurements of the nine AGTO gravity bases have been performed respectively in November 2006 and November 2008. We will present these data and compare with models. Using simple models, we have estimated vertical movements and gravity field's variations which can be expected near the AG sites. Gravity variations due to the deformations are dominated by plate and free air effects, i.e. elevation of the topography. By comparison with these effects, those generated by mass transfers are weak: maximum 0.1 microgal/yr with the thin-skinned tectonic and 0.4 microgal/yr with the thick-skinned tectonic.

  5. Robustness and Limitations of 0-1 Ma Absolute Paleointensity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, L. B.; Constable, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Absolute paleomagnetic field intensity data derived from thermally magnetized lavas and archeological objects provide information about past geomagnetic field behavior, but the average field strength, its variability, and the expected distribution of these observations remain uncertain despite growing data sets. We investigate these issues for the 0-1 Ma field using data from igneous rocks compiled in the PINT03 database, 1124 samples of heterogeneous quality with restricted temporal and spatial coverage. Using virtual axial dipole moments (VADM) to accommodate variable spatial sampling and a bootstrap importance sampling technique to correct for uneven temporal sampling, we find an average VADM of 7.26 × 1022 Am2 ± 0.14. The associated statistical distribution appears bimodal with a subsidiary peak at approximately 5 × 1022 Am2. Tests indicate that this behavior is unlikely to arise from contamination by poor quality data, geographic bias in sampling, or over-representation of typically low intensity excursional data or to result from a mixture of two statistical distributions each corresponding to a distinct intensity state for the magnetic field. Simulations from a stochastic model based on the paleofield spectrum support the alternative possibility that a hypothetically smoother underlying distribution cannot be recovered from a 1 Myr time span. Possible influence of the restricted material type used in our analyses is assessed using additional data compilations and comparing Holocene data from lava flows, Submarine Basaltic Glass (SBG), and archeological objects. The SBG results are inconclusive because of dating issues, but average paleointensities from lavas are about 10% higher than for archeological materials and show greater dispersion. Uncorrected variable cooling rates during remanence acquisition provide a plausible explanation for these differences which may contribute to systematic bias in the 0- 1 Ma average field estimates.

  6. On the Thermal Symmetry of the Markovian Master Equation

    E-print Network

    B. A. Tay; T. Petrosky

    2012-07-25

    The quantum Markovian master equation of the reduced dynamics of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a thermal reservoir is shown to possess thermal symmetry. This symmetry is revealed by a Bogoliubov transformation that can be represented by a hyperbolic rotation acting on the Liouville space of the reduced dynamics. The Liouville space is obtained as an extension of the Hilbert space through the introduction of tilde variables used in the thermofield dynamics formalism. The angle of rotation depends on the temperature of the reservoir, as well as the value of Planck's constant. This symmetry relates the thermal states of the system at any two temperatures. This includes absolute zero, at which purely quantum effects are revealed. The Caldeira-Leggett equation and the classical Fokker-Planck equation also possess thermal symmetry. We compare the thermal symmetry obtained from the Bogoliubov transformation in related fields and discuss the effects of the symmetry on the shape of a Gaussian wave packet.

  7. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The University of Georgia used NASTRAN, a COSMIC program that predicts how a design will stand up under stress, to develop a model for monitoring the transient cooling of vegetables. The winter use of passive solar heating for poultry houses is also under investigation by the Agricultural Engineering Dept. Another study involved thermal analysis of black and green nursery containers. The use of NASTRAN has encouraged student appreciation of sophisticated computer analysis.

  8. Absolute healing of pyroclasts during welding of a rheomorphic ignimbrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.; Hess, K.; Andrews, G.; Branney, M.; Quane, S.; Russell, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    The architectural description of ignimbrites often shows evidence for post-deposition development of a rheomorphic, ductile shear zone - a feature which may strongly affect the progression of the flow. Rheological experiments were performed on a welded rheomorphic unit from the Grey's Landing ignimbrite in the Snake River Plain to characterize its behaviour and assess the degree of welding. The investigated sample contains 5 vol.% open pores and is made of approximately 5 vol.% crystals bathing in a relatively degassed, peraluminous glass containing 79 wt.% SiO2. Pre-eruptive temperature determination from geothermometry on pyroxenes yielded values at around 900-1050 ° C. Dilatometric measurements suggest a calorimetric glass transition temperature during deposition of approximately 845 ° C and a H2O content of approximately 0.04 wt.%. Repeated series of heating and cooling using an advanced dilatometric technique shows an increase of the glass transition temperature to 880 ° C, which is in accordance with degassing of approximately 0.02 wt.% H2O. Complementary investigation using a uniaxial press revealed an absence of strain rate dependence of the viscosity (1010.78 Pa*s) at a temperature of 900 ° C and at strain rates up to 2.5 x 10-4 s-1. Under similar conditions, a fully degassed lava with an equivalent composition would yield a comparable viscosity of 1010.89 Pa*s. Our findings may help constrain the flare up of the Grey's Landing ignimbrite. The presence of small amounts of water in the glass and the narrow temperature window between the residence in the reservoir and the transition to a glass (which would have mechanically locked this unit in place) in the flow indicates a high discharge rate and rapid post-fragmentation deposition, mass agglutination and welding. Moreover, the Newtonian character of this welded unit suggests that healing of the pyroclastic flow was absolute (that is, no thixotropic effects from the pores remain), and thus that the term 'lava-like' is adequate to rheologically describe rheomorphic pyroclastic flows.

  9. Regional neonatal brain absolute thermometry by 1H MRS.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Alan; Kendall, Giles S; De Vita, Enrico; Hagmann, Cornelia; Kapetanakis, Andrew; Cady, Ernest B; Robertson, Nicola J

    2013-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is standard care for infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy. (1) H MRS thermometry (MRSt) measures regional brain absolute temperature using the temperature-dependent water chemical shift. This study evaluates the clinical feasibility of MRSt in human neonates, and correlates white matter (WM) and thalamus (Thal) MRSt with conventional rectal temperature (Trectal ) measurement. Fifty-six infants born at term underwent perinatal MRSt for suspected hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and 33 infants born preterm had MRSt at a term-equivalent age; 56 of the 89 had Trectal measured after MRSt of either a Thal or posterior WM voxel, or both. MRSt used point-resolved spectroscopy (no water suppression; TR = 1370 ms; TE = 288 ms; 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm(3) Thal and 1.1 × 1.3 × 1.4 cm(3) WM voxels). Time domain data were phase and frequency corrected before summation and motion-corrupted data were excluded from further analysis using simple criteria [preprocessing + quality assurance (QA)]. Two published water temperature-dependence calibrations [both using cerebral creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (Naa) as independent reference peaks] were compared. The temperature measurements derived from Cr, Cho and Naa were combined to give a single amplitude-weighted combination temperature (TAWC ). WM and Thal TAWC correlated linearly with Trectal (Thal slope, 0.82 ± 0.04, R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.05; WM slope, 0.95 ± 0.04, R(2) = 0.78, p < 0.05). Preprocessing + QA improved the correlation between WM TAWC and Trectal (R(2) increased from 0.27 to 0.78, p < 0.001). Both calibration datasets showed specific inconsistencies between the temperatures calculated using Cr, Cho and Naa reference peaks when applied to this neonatal dataset. Neonatal MRSt is clinically feasible. Preprocessing +?QA improved MRSt reliability in WM. The consideration of MRSt calibration internal biases is necessary before combining MRSt temperatures from multiple reference peaks to obtain TAWC. PMID:23074155

  10. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, ?{sub 1}=1.5{sub ?0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub ?0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, ?{sub 1}=0.87{sub ?0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub ?0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of ?{sub 2} ? 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ?0.01 and ?3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ?}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has ?{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, ?{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ?}}?3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  11. Absolute Magnitudes of Pan-STARRS PS1 Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Peter; Jedicke, R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Denneau, L.; Wainscoat, R.; Bolin, B.; PS1SC Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Absolute magnitude (H) of an asteroid is a fundamental parameter describing the size and the apparent brightness of the body. Because of its surface shape, properties and changing illumination, the brightness changes with the geometry and is described by the phase function governed by the slope parameter (G). Although many years have been spent on detailed observations of individual asteroids to provide H and G, vast majority of minor planets have H based on assumed G and due to the input photometry from multiple sources the errors of these values are unknown. We compute H of ~ 180 000 and G of few thousands asteroids observed with the Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope in well defined photometric systems. The mean photometric error is 0.04 mag. Because on average there are only 7 detections per asteroid in our sample, we employed a Monte Carlo (MC) technique to generate clones simulating all possible rotation periods, amplitudes and colors of detected asteroids. Known asteroid colors were taken from the SDSS database. We used debiased spin and amplitude distributions dependent on size, spectral class distributions of asteroids dependent on semi-major axis and starting values of G from previous works. H and G (G12 respectively) were derived by phase functions by Bowell et al. (1989) and Muinonen et al. (2010). We confirmed that there is a positive systematic offset between H based on PS1 asteroids and Minor Planet Center database up to -0.3 mag peaking at 14. Similar offset was first mentioned in the analysis of SDSS asteroids and was believed to be solved by weighting and normalizing magnitudes by observatory codes. MC shows that there is only a negligible difference between Bowell's and Muinonen's solution of H. However, Muinonen's phase function provides smaller errors on H. We also derived G and G12 for thousands of asteroids. For known spectral classes, slope parameters agree with the previous work in general, however, the standard deviation of G in our sample is twice as larger, most likely due to sparse phase curve sampling. In the near future we plan to complete the H and G determination for all PS1 asteroids (500,000) and publish H and G values online. This work was supported by NASA grant No. NNX12AR65G.

  12. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    PubMed

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos. PMID:25942486

  13. Absolute versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Zucco, G.; Mittelbach, H.; Moramarco, T.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture can be carried out considering the absolute (original) soil moisture values or relative values, such as the percent of saturation or temporal anomalies. Over large areas, soil moisture data measured at different sites can be characterized by large differences in their minimum, mean, and maximum absolute values, even though in relative terms their temporal patterns are very similar. In these cases, the analysis considering absolute compared with percent of saturation or temporal anomaly soil moisture values can provide very different results with significant consequences for their use in hydrological applications and climate science. In this study, in situ observations from six soil moisture networks in Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Australia, and United States are collected and analyzed to investigate the spatial soil moisture variability over large areas (250-150,000 km2). Specifically, the statistical and temporal stability analyses of soil moisture have been carried out for absolute, temporal anomaly, and percent of saturation values (using two different formulations for temporal anomalies). The results highlight that the spatial variability of the soil moisture dynamic (i.e., temporal anomalies) is significantly lower than that of the absolute soil moisture values. The spatial variance of the time-invariant component (temporal mean of each site) is the predominant contribution to the total spatial variance of absolute soil moisture data. Moreover, half of the networks show a minimum in the spatial variability for intermediate conditions when the temporal anomalies are considered, in contrast with the widely recognized behavior of absolute soil moisture data. The analyses with percent saturation data show qualitatively similar results as those for the temporal anomalies because of the applied normalization which reduces spatial variability induced by differences in mean absolute soil moisture only. Overall, we find that the analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of absolute soil moisture does not apply to temporal anomalies or percent of saturation values.

  14. Determination of the absolute configuration of two estrogenic nonylphenols in solution by chiroptical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinscheid, Uwe M.

    2009-01-01

    The absolute configurations of two estrogenic nonylphenols were determined in solution. Both nonylphenols, NP35 and NP112 could not be crystallized so that only solution methods are able to solve directly the question of absolute configuration. The conclusion based on experimental and calculated optical rotation and VCD data for the nonylphenol NP35 was independently confirmed by another study using a camphanoyl derivative and X-ray analysis of the obtained crystals. In case of NP112, the experimental rotation data are inconclusive. However, the comparison between experimental and calculated VCD data allowed the determination of the absolute configuration.

  15. Thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  16. Bidwell's Intercept Relation and the Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Powell

    1948-01-01

    A note pointing out that the claim made by Bidwell and Hogan [Journal of Applied Physics 18, 776 (1947)], that the relation k?&rgr;C=K(1?T)+K1, where k is the thermal conductivity, &rgr; the density, C the specific heat, T the absolute temperature and K and K1 are constants, holds for aluminium, tin, lead and zinc with the intercept, K1, the same for

  17. White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement

    E-print Network

    Xu, Zhiguang

    A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any ...

  18. Determination of birefringence and absolute optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Determination of birefringence and absolute optic axis orientation using polarization fibers and fiber coupler to measure birefringence properties of samples. Polarization distortion due Society of America OCIS codes: (170.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (260.1440) Birefringence; (230

  19. Enantioselective total synthesis and assignment of the absolute configuration of (+)-laurokamurene B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adusumilli Srikrishna; Baire Beeraiah; R. Ramesh Babu

    2008-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of the rearranged aromatic sesquiterpene (+)-laurokamurene B, isolated from the Chinese red algae Laurencia okamurai Yamada, has been accomplished starting from (S)-campholenaldehyde, establishing the absolute configuration of laurokamurenes.

  20. Absolute continuity of projected SRB measures of coupled Arnold cat map lattices

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Absolute continuity of projected SRB measures of coupled Arnold cat map lattices F. Bonetto + , A to the Sinai--Ruelle--Bowen (SRB) measures for these systems [5]. A question then arose of what significance

  1. The investigation of ELAIS field by Vega photometry: Absolute - magnitude dependent on the Galactic model parameters

    E-print Network

    S. Bilir; S. Karaali; G. Gilmore

    2005-11-22

    We estimate the density laws of the Galactic stellar populations as a function of absolute magnitude in a near-polar Galactic field. The density laws are determined by the direct fit to photometric parallaxes from Vega photometry in the ELAIS (l=84.27, b=+44.90; 6.571 deg^2) field both independently for each population and simultaneously for all stellar populations. Stars have been separated into different populations based on their spatial location. The thick disc and halo best fit by an exponential. However, the thin disc best fits by using a sech^2 law for stars at faint absolute magnitudes, (10,11], (11,12] and (12,13], whereas an exponential law for stars at relatively bright absolute magnitudes, (5,6], (6,7], (7,8], (8,9] and (9,10]. The scaleheights for the sech^2 density laws are the equivalent exponential scaleheights. Galactic model parameters are absolute magnitude dependent: The scaleheight for thin disc decreases monotonically from stars at bright absolute magnitudes to stars at faint absolute magnitudes in the range 363-163 pc, except the minimum H=211 pc at (9,10] where sech density law fits better. Its local density is flat at bright absolute magnitudes but it increases at faint absolute magnitudes. For thick disc, the scaleheight is flat within the uncertainties. The local space density of thick disc relative to the local space density for the thin disc is almost flat at absolute magnitude intervals (5,6] and (6,7], 7.59 and 7.41% respectively, whereas it decreases down to 3.31% at absolute magnitude interval (7,8]. The axial ratio for the halo is e=0.60, 0.73 and 0.78 for the absolute magnitude intervals (4,5], (5,6] and (6,7] respectively, and its local space density relative to the local space density for the thin disc is 0.06 and 0.04% for the intervals (5,6], and (6,7] respectively.

  2. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  3. Mechanical and thermal design of the CEBAF Hall a beam calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bevins; A. Day; P. Degtiarenko; L.A. Dillon-Townes; A. Freyberger; R. Gilman; A. Saha; S. Slachtouski

    2005-05-16

    A calorimeter is being fabricated to provide 0.5% - 1.0% absolute measurement of the beam current in the Hall A end station of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB). Modern powder metallurgy processes have produced high density, high thermal conductivity tungsten-copper composite materials that minimize electromagnetic and hadronic energy loss while maintaining a rapid thermal response time. Heat leaks are minimized by mounting the mass in vacuum on glass ceramic mounts. A conduction cooling scheme utilizes an advanced carbon fiber compliant thermal interface material. Transient finite difference and finite element models were developed to estimate heat leaks and thermal response times.

  4. Physical properties and special characteristics of the electron structure of Co2Si-Ni2Si alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Frolov; R. P. Krentsis; F. A. Sidorenko; P. V. Gel'D

    1974-01-01

    The specific electrical resistance, absolute thermo-emf, Hall coefficient, thermal conductivity, and paramagnetic susceptibility of Co2Si-Ni2Si solid solutions are given as functions of temperature (80 350‡K). An explanation is offered for the anomalous concentration dependence of all these properties on the basis of interband s --> d transitions. The properties of the alloys with compositions close to Ni2Si are explained on

  5. Absolute3 P o triple differential cross sections for electron-helium Wannier threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, D. R. J.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    1992-12-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of Crothers is employed to find a final-state3 P o wave function for threshold electron impact ionisation of helium. The Kohn variational principle is applied perturbatively to evaluate the scattering amplitude and hence the absolute3 P o contribution to the triple differential cross sections. These plus the previous absolute singlet results of Crothers are compared favourably with the relative experimental results of Selles et al.

  6. The absolute solar soft X ray flux in the 20- to 100-A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Solar spectral data are used together with absolute neon ionization cell data to estimate the absolute solar soft X-ray flux and its variation with solar activity in the 20- to 100-A region. The dependence of the integrated solar soft X-ray flux between 20 and 100 A on the daily 10.7 cm radio flux observed at 1 AU is determined. An estimate is obtained of the maximum flux that can be expected over the solar cycle.

  7. Frequency comparison and absolute frequency measurement of I 2-stabilized lasers at 532 nm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Nevsky; R. Holzwarth; J. Reichert; Th. Udem; T. W. Hänsch; J. von Zanthier; H. Walther; H. Schnatz; F. Riehle; P. V. Pokasov; M. N. Skvortsov; S. N. Bagayev

    2001-01-01

    A frequency comparison and an absolute frequency measurement of iodine stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm has been performed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics. Two independent I2-stabilized laser systems, one assembled at the Institute of Laser Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia, the other at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany were investigated. Using a phase-coherent frequency chain, the absolute frequency of

  8. Influence of absolute basicity and capillary porosity on carbonation of concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingfang Ba; Chunxiang Qian; Guibo Gao

    2010-01-01

    The single influence of capillary porosity and coupling effects of absolute basicity and capillary porosity on concrete carbonation\\u000a were investigated. The experimental results showed that carbonation rate of concrete at a given absolute basicity (AB) increased\\u000a moderately with the increase of the porosity ranging from 6.2% to 9.25%, and increased rapidly with porosity from 9.25% to\\u000a 12.8%.The coupling effect mainly

  9. Kwabia Tchana et al. : ABSOLUTE LINE INTENSITIES IN METHYL BROMIDE 1 Absolute Line Intensities in Methyl Bromide: The 7-m Region

    E-print Network

    , for the first time, with the modeling of absolute line intensities in the fundamental 2 and 5 bands of CH3 79 Br of interest because of its contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. Methyl bromide has both natural and anthropogenic origins. Its known sources include natural production from oceans [1] and biomass burning [2

  10. Can measures of sound localization acuity be related to the precision of absolute location estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jordan M.; Tollin, Daniel J.; Yin, Tom C.T.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of sound localization use relative or absolute psychoacoustic paradigms. Relative tasks assess acuity by determining the smallest angle separating two sources that subjects can discriminate, the minimum audible angle (MAA), whereas absolute tasks measure subjects’ abilities to indicate sound location. It is unclear whether or how measures from the two tasks are related, though the belief that the MAA is specifically related to the precision of absolute localization is common. The present study aimed to investigate the basis of this relationship by comparing the precision of absolute location estimates with a measure of spatial acuity computed from the same data. Three cats were trained to indicate apparent sound source locations that varied in azimuth and elevation via orienting gaze shifts (combined eye and head movements). The precision of these absolute responses, as measured by their standard deviation, was compared with acuity thresholds derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of the cumulative distributions. Surprisingly, the acuity measures were occasionally very poor indicators of absolute localization precision. Incongruent results were attributed to errors in mean accuracy, which are disregarded in analyses of traditional relative tasks. Discussion focuses on the potential for internal biases to affect measures of localization acuity. PMID:18178351

  11. The investigation of ELAIS field by Vega photometry: Absolute - magnitude dependent on the Galactic model parameters

    E-print Network

    Bilir, S; Gilmore, G

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the density laws of the Galactic stellar populations as a function of absolute magnitude in a near-polar Galactic field. The density laws are determined by the direct fit to photometric parallaxes from Vega photometry in the ELAIS (l=84.27, b=+44.90; 6.571 deg^2) field both independently for each population and simultaneously for all stellar populations. Stars have been separated into different populations based on their spatial location. The thick disc and halo best fit by an exponential. However, the thin disc best fits by using a sech^2 law for stars at faint absolute magnitudes, (10,11], (11,12] and (12,13], whereas an exponential law for stars at relatively bright absolute magnitudes, (5,6], (6,7], (7,8], (8,9] and (9,10]. The scaleheights for the sech^2 density laws are the equivalent exponential scaleheights. Galactic model parameters are absolute magnitude dependent: The scaleheight for thin disc decreases monotonically from stars at bright absolute magnitudes to stars at faint absolute ma...

  12. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  13. Investigation of thermal and slowing-down alpha particles on JET using charge-exchange spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. von Hellermann; W. Mandl; H. P. Summers; A. Boileau; R. Hoekstra; F. J. de Heer; J. Frieling

    1991-01-01

    Thermal alpha particles are observed in JET during helium discharges using spectral emission in He II (n=4 to 3) near 4685 AA following charge transfer reactions along the path of the neutral deuterium heating beams. New and reappraised He22\\/H charge transfer cross-sections are presented. The effects of cross-section energy dependence on temperatures, velocities and absolute densities deduced from thermal alpha

  14. Electropyroelectric technique: A methodology free of fitting procedures for thermal effusivity determination in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, R.; Marin, E.; Villa, J.; Gonzalez, E.; Rodríguez, C. I.; Olvera, J. E.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an alternative methodology to determine the thermal effusivity of a liquid sample using the recently proposed electropyroelectric technique, without fitting the experimental data with a theoretical model and without having to know the pyroelectric sensor related parameters, as in most previous reported approaches. The method is not absolute, because a reference liquid with known thermal properties is needed. Experiments have been performed that demonstrate the high reliability and accuracy of the method with measurement uncertainties smaller than 3%.

  15. Electropyroelectric technique: A methodology free of fitting procedures for thermal effusivity determination in liquids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, R; Marin, E; Villa, J; Gonzalez, E; Rodríguez, C I; Olvera, J E

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an alternative methodology to determine the thermal effusivity of a liquid sample using the recently proposed electropyroelectric technique, without fitting the experimental data with a theoretical model and without having to know the pyroelectric sensor related parameters, as in most previous reported approaches. The method is not absolute, because a reference liquid with known thermal properties is needed. Experiments have been performed that demonstrate the high reliability and accuracy of the method with measurement uncertainties smaller than 3%. PMID:26133860

  16. Research on absolute gravity variations in geodynamic laboratory in Ksi?? in the period of 2007- 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorowski, Marek; Olszak, Tomasz; Walo, Janusz; Barlik, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    In 2006 a gravimetric pavilion was installed inside the Geodynamic Laboratory (LG) in Ksi??. The pavilion was equipped with two pillars intended to serve relative and absolute gravimetric measurements. Installation of measurement platform for absolute gravity measurements inside gravimetric pavilion of LG made it possible to perform four sessions of absolute gravity measurements: two of them in 2007 (June 10-12 and Nov. 21-22), one in 2008 (Apr. 21-22) and one in 2011 (June 19-21). In 2007 the absolute measurements were performed using two FG5 ballistic gravimeters. In April 2007 the measurements were performed by Dr Makinen from Geodetic Institute of Finnish Academy of Science with application of FG5 No. 221 absolute gravimeter. In June 2007 and in the years 2008 and 2011 such gravimetric measurements were performed by the team from Department of Geodesy and Astronomical Geodesy of Warsaw University of Technology using FG5 No. 230 absolute gravimeter. Elaboration of observation sessions from both gravimeters was performed in the Department of Higher Geodesy following the procedures used in constituting of uniform gravimetric system of geodynamic polygons reference. This constituting of gravimetric system comprised inter alia application of identical models of lithospheric tides (global model by Wenzel, 1997) and ocean tides (Schwiderski, 1980) (reduction of absolute measurements with tidal signals). Observations performed during summer of 2007, autumn of 2007, and spring of 2008 and 2011 indicated existence of small changes of absolute gravity of the order of 1 Gal. Maxima of accelerations appear in the spring period, and minima in the autumn period. This effect is connected with the influence of global hydrological factors the annual amplitude of which is ca 1,5 Gal and achieve extreme values in the spring-autumn interval. Very small value of observed amplitude of gravity changes in the period of extreme variability suggests that the observed gravity changes in LG are caused only by global phenomenon. This proves high degree of "independence" of gravimetric measurement base in LG from the local environmental factors such as ground water level variations, ground humidity, impact of snow cover, etc. At this moment the instrumental environment of absolute measurements obtains particular value, especially in the case of the tiltmeters and relative the gravimeter Lacoste& Romberg (LR-648). The relative gravity measurements as performed simultaneously with absolute gravity measurements enable us to determine the local tidal ephemeredes which makes it possible to replace the global tidal modal with ocean tidal model with the more realistic, locally determined tidal parameters (the local tidal ephemeredes).

  17. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  18. Improvement of an electrical heater system for spacecraft thermal control, volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Marke; H. Klotz

    1978-01-01

    For the active temperature control of a mechanical structure with nonhomogeneous and variable heat loads induced by the environment, a control system was defined, which makes use only of heaters as actuators. The control systems under consideration should be able to fulfill high accuracy requirements both for absolute temperature and for the temperature gradient. A mathematical model for the thermal

  19. Anelasticity and thermal structure of the oceanic upper mantle: Temperature calibration with heat flow data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sato; I. Selwyn Sacks

    1989-01-01

    The thermal structure of the oceanic upper mantle is examined on the basis of seismic attenuation, surface heat flow, and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) composition. The comparison of seismic Q with laboratory Q determined at sufficiently high pressure and temperature allows us to constrain temperature in the Earth. Since the inferred absolute temperature relies on knowledge of the frequency dependence

  20. Thermal flywheel effects on the time varying conduction heat transfer through structural walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T Tsilingiris

    2003-01-01

    Wall time varying conduction heat transfer investigations are very important for the prediction of heating and cooling loads in air conditioning practice and absolutely essential to the passive solar heating design. The walls store heat, absorb and dissipate a fraction of it and transmit the rest into the conditioned space at a later time, which depends on the wall thermal