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Sample records for absolute transition probabilities

  1. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  2. Absolute Transition Probabilities of Lines in the Spectra of Astrophysical Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of absolute transition probabilities (A-values or F values) for ultraviolet lines is reported. A radio frequency ion trap was used for measurement of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The intersystem line at 2670 A in Al II, which is seen in pre-main sequence stars and symbiotic stars, was studied.

  3. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  4. Laser-excitation technique for the measurement of absolute transition probabilities of weak atomic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, H. S.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is presented for the measurement of transition probabilities for weak allowed, intersystem, and forbidden lines. The method exploits the fact that oscillator strength is proportional to the number of stimulated absorptions and emissions produced by a narrow-band laser pulse of known energy which is in resonance with an atomic transition. The method is tested for a particular transition of Mg I with a known oscillator strength value and of appropriate magnitude. The number densities are measured using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the hook method for the lower level population and by measuring an absorption-equivalent width for the other. The apparatus consisted of a high-power tunable laser and a magnesium oven to produce excited Mg vapor, and a laser-plasma background continuum. The results are in good agreement with theoretical and other experimental data.

  5. Transition probabilities of Br II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  6. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  7. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  8. A Posteriori Transit Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Given the radial velocity (RV) detection of an unseen companion, it is often of interest to estimate the probability that the companion also transits the primary star. Typically, one assumes a uniform distribution for the cosine of the inclination angle i of the companion's orbit. This yields the familiar estimate for the prior transit probability of ~Rlowast/a, given the primary radius Rlowast and orbital semimajor axis a, and assuming small companions and a circular orbit. However, the posterior transit probability depends not only on the prior probability distribution of i but also on the prior probability distribution of the companion mass Mc, given a measurement of the product of the two (the minimum mass Mc sin i) from an RV signal. In general, the posterior can be larger or smaller than the prior transit probability. We derive analytic expressions for the posterior transit probability assuming a power-law form for the distribution of true masses, dΓ/dMcvpropMcα, for integer values -3 <= α <= 3. We show that for low transit probabilities, these probabilities reduce to a constant multiplicative factor fα of the corresponding prior transit probability, where fα in general depends on α and an assumed upper limit on the true mass. The prior and posterior probabilities are equal for α = -1. The posterior transit probability is ~1.5 times larger than the prior for α = -3 and is ~4/π times larger for α = -2, but is less than the prior for α>=0, and can be arbitrarily small for α > 1. We also calculate the posterior transit probability in different mass regimes for two physically-motivated mass distributions of companions around Sun-like stars. We find that for Jupiter-mass planets, the posterior transit probability is roughly equal to the prior probability, whereas the posterior is likely higher for Super-Earths and Neptunes (10 M⊕ - 30 M⊕) and Super-Jupiters (3 MJup - 10 MJup), owing to the predicted steep rise in the mass function toward smaller

  9. ESTIMATION OF AGE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZINTER, JUDITH R.

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING DYNAMOD II AGE TRANSITION MATRICES. A SEPARATE MATRIX FOR EACH SEX-RACE GROUP IS DEVELOPED. THESE MATRICES WILL BE USED AS AN AID IN ESTIMATING THE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES IN THE LARGER DYNAMOD II MATRIX RELATING AGE TO OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES. THREE STEPS WERE USED IN THE PROCEDURE--(1)…

  10. Relative transition probabilities of cobalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, R. A.; Miller, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results of determinations of neutral-cobalt transition probabilities measured relative to Co I 4150.43 A and Co II 4145.15 A, using a gas-driven shock tube as the spectroscopic light source. Results are presented for 139 Co I lines in the range from 3940 to 6640 A and 11 Co II lines in the range from 3840 to 4730 A, which are estimated to have reliabilities ranging from 8 to 50%.

  11. Advances in the Measurement of Atomic Transition Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brian, Thomas Raymond

    The technology for measuring absolute atomic transition probabilities is extended. Radiative lifetimes are measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam generated by a versatile hollow cathode discharge source. The radiative lifetimes are free from systematic error at the five percent level. Combined with branching fractions measured with emission or absorption sources, the lifetimes result in absolute transition probabilities usually accurate to 5-10 %. Three new developments in the lifetime and branching fraction technique are reported. Radiative lifetimes for 186 levels in neutral iron are measured, with the energy of the upper levels densely spanning the entire excitation range of neutral iron. Combined with branching fractions measured in emission with Fourier transform spectrophotometry, the level lifetimes directly yield absolute transition probabilities for 1174 transitions. An additional 640 transition probabilities are determined by interpolating level populations in an emission source. The dense energy spacing of the levels with directly measured lifetimes permits accurate population interpolation despite departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. This technique has the potential to permit accurate absolute transition probability measurements for essentially every classified line in a spectrum. Radiative lifetime measurements are extended into the vacuum ultraviolet with a continuously tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based on stimulated anti-Stokes Raman scattering. When used with the hollow cathode atomic beam source, accurate lifetimes are measured for 47 levels in neutral silicon and 8 levels in neutral boron, primarily in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Transition probabilities are reported for many lines connected to these upper levels, using previously measured or calculated branching fractions. The hollow cathode beam source is developed for use with refractory non-metals. Intense atomic beams of boron

  12. Transition probability data for seven band systems of C2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coo, D. M.; Nicholls, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition-probability parameters are reported for seven band systems of the C2 molecule. These include all the known C2 band systems in the spectral region between 0.2 and 1.2 microns with the exception of the Messerle-Krauss system. To obtain the data, absolute intensities of selected spectral regions were measured behind the incident shock wave in a combustion-driven shock tube containing 85% Ar and 15% C2H2. These measurements were converted into electronic transition moments by a synthetic spectrum analysis. The electronic transition moments were then used to determine extensive tables of the transition-probability parameters for each of the band systems measured.

  13. Kr II transition probability measurements for the UV spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, M. T.; Gavanski, L.; Peláez, R. J.; Aparicio, J. A.; Djurović, S.; Mar, S.

    2016-02-01

    The determination of radiative transition probabilities or oscillator strengths is of common interest in astrophysics. The analysis of the high-resolution stellar spectra is now available in order to estimate the stellar abundances. In this paper, 93 experimentally obtained transition probability values (Aki) for singly ionized krypton spectral lines belonging to the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength region (208-360) nm are presented. These data, expressed in absolute units, were derived from the measurements of relative spectral line intensities and the values of transition probability data taken from the literature. The results obtained extend considerably the transition probability data base. As a light source, a plasma from a low-pressure pulsed arc was used. Its electron density was in the range of (1.5-3.4) × 1022 m-3, while the temperature was between 28 000 and 35 000 K. A detailed analysis of the results is also given. Only a few relative and a few absolute transition probabilities from other authors, for the mentioned spectral region, are available in the literature.

  14. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Nitz, D. E.; Chisholm, J.; Sobeck, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are more complex than spectra of other rare earth species. The resulting high density of lines in the visible makes Ce ideal for use in metal halide (MH) High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Inclusion of cerium-iodide in a lamp dose can improve both the Color Rendering Index and luminous efficacy of a MH-HID lamp. Basic spectroscopic data including absolute atomic transition probabilities for Ce I and Ce II are needed for diagnosing and modeling these MH-HID lamps. Recent work on Ce II [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2000 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. [4pt] [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [0pt] [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  15. Transition Probability and the ESR Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrierty, Vincent J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of a modified electron spin resonance apparatus to demonstrate some features of the expression for the transition probability per second between two energy levels. Applications to the third year laboratory program are suggested. (CC)

  16. Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Çelik, Gültekin; Gökçe, Yasin; Yıldız, Murat

    2014-05-15

    Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT.

  17. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was used to obtain the relative continuum transition probabilities of atomic oxygen at 584 A for transitions from 3P ground state into the 4S, D2, and P2 states of the ion. Transition probability ratios for the D2 and P2 states relative to the S4 state of the ion are 1.57 + or - 0.14 and 0.82 + or - 0.07, respectively. In addition, transitions from excited O2(a 1 Delta g) state into the O2(+)(2 Phi u and 2 Delta g) were observed. The adiabatic ionization potential of O2(+)(2 Delta g) was measured as 18.803 + or - 0.006 eV.

  18. Calculation of radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemke, W. T.; Verma, K. K.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for calculating bound-bound and bound-continuum (free) radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes are summarized. Calculations include rotational dependence and R-dependent electronic transition moments (no Franck-Condon or R-centroid approximation). Detailed comparisons of theoretical results with experimental measurements are made for bound-bound transitions in the A-X systems of LiH and Na2. New bound-free results are presented for LiH. New bound-free results and comparisons with very recent fluorescence experiments are presented for Na2.

  19. Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of (223)Ra and decay progeny in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-08-01

    Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the (223)Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of (223)Ra, (219)Rn, (215)Po, (211)Pb, (211)Bi and (207)Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides (223)Ra, (219)Rn and (211)Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the (223)Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. PMID:25933406

  20. Estimation of transition probabilities of credit ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    The present research is based on the quarterly credit ratings of ten companies over 15 years taken from the database of the Taiwan Economic Journal. The components in the vector mi (mi1, mi2,⋯, mi10) may first be used to denote the credit ratings of the ten companies in the i-th quarter. The vector mi+1 in the next quarter is modelled to be dependent on the vector mi via a conditional distribution which is derived from a 20-dimensional power-normal mixture distribution. The transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) for getting mi+1,j = l given that mi, j = k is then computed from the conditional distribution. It is found that the variation of the transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) as i varies is able to give indication for the possible transition of the credit rating of the j-th company in the near future.

  1. Properties of atoms in molecules: Transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, R. F. W.; Bayles, D.; Heard, G. L.

    2000-06-01

    The transition probability for electric dipole transitions is a measurable property of a system and is therefore, partitionable into atomic contributions using the physics of a proper open system. The derivation of the dressed property density, whose averaging over an atomic basin yields the atomic contribution to a given oscillator strength, is achieved through the development of perturbation theory for an open system. A dressed density describes the local contribution resulting from the interaction of a single electron at some position r, as determined by the relevant observable, averaged over the motions of all of the remaining particles in the system. In the present work, the transition probability density expressed in terms of the relevant transition density, yields a local measure of the associated oscillator strength resulting from the interaction of the entire molecule with a radiation field. The definition of the atomic contributions to the oscillator strength enables one to determine the extent to which a given electronic or vibrational transition is spatially localized to a given atom or functional group. The concepts introduced in this article are applied to the Rydberg-type transitions observed in the electronic excitation of a nonbonding electron in formaldehyde and ammonia. The atomic partitioning of the molecular density distribution and of the molecular properties by surfaces of zero flux in the gradient vector field of the electron density, the boundary condition defining the physics of a proper open system, is found to apply to the density distributions of the excited, Rydberg states.

  2. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in the investigation. Atomic oxygen was produced in a microwave discharge operating at a power of 40 W and at a pressure of approximately 20 mtorr. The photoelectron spectrum of the oxygen with and without the discharge is shown. The atomic states can be clearly seen. In connection with the measurement of the probability for transitions into the various ionic states, the analyzer collection efficiency was determined as a function of electron energy.

  3. Augmenting Transition Probabilities for Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salines, Imelda; Park, Chul; Strawa, Anthony W.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The transition probability values for a number of neutral atomic nitrogen (NI) lines in the visible wavelength range are determined in order to augment those given in the National Bureau of Standards Tables. These values are determined from experimentation as well as by using the published results of other investigators. The experimental determination of the lines in the 410 to 430 nm range was made from the observation of the emission from the arc column of an arc-heated wind tunnel. The transition probability values of these NI lines are determined to an accuracy of +/- 30% by comparison of their measured intensities with those of the atomic oxygen (OI) multiplet at around 615 nm. The temperature of the emitting medium is determined both using a multiple-layer model, based on a theoretical model of the flow in the arc column, and an empirical single-layer model. The results show that the two models lead to the same values of transition probabilities for the NI lines.

  4. Transition probabilities and static moments in transitional nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Casten, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic transition probabilities and static moments of excited nuclear states are known to be good probes of nuclear structure. Therefore, a systematic analysis of the large amount of existing experimental data for these observables is expected to provide valuable information about the respective isotopes. It is the purpose of this talk to show that a combined analysis of static magnetic moments of 2/sub 1//sup +/ states and B(E2) transition probabilities for even-even nuclei can be used to obtain effective numbers of valence nucleons. This kind of information is of particular interest in cases where subshell closures are found. For example, it is well known that for the transitional nuclei in the A = 150 region the Z = 64 subshell is active when the number of neutrons N < 90, but disappears for N greater than or equal to 90. A similar situation exists in the A = 100 region, where the Z = 38 subshell is active for N less than or equal to 58. In the following sections we present the method by which effective numbers of valence protons and neutrons can be deduced from B(E2) and g-factor data, and show applications of this method to the A = 150 and A = 100 transitional regions. Part of these results were recently published.

  5. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Thomsen, Jan W.; Martin, Michael J.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Boyd, Martin M.; Ye, Jun; Diddams, Scott A.; Heavner, Thomas P.; Parker, Thomas E.; Jefferts, Steven R.

    2008-10-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a detailed study of systematic effects, which reduced the total systematic uncertainty of the Sr lattice clock to 1.5 × 10-16, the clock frequency is measured against a hydrogen maser which is simultaneously calibrated to the US primary frequency standard, the NIST Cs fountain clock, NIST-F1. The comparison is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals.

  6. Estimation of State Transition Probabilities: A Neural Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Takiyama, Ken; Okada, Masato

    2015-12-01

    Humans and animals can predict future states on the basis of acquired knowledge. This prediction of the state transition is important for choosing the best action, and the prediction is only possible if the state transition probability has already been learned. However, how our brains learn the state transition probability is unknown. Here, we propose a simple algorithm for estimating the state transition probability by utilizing the state prediction error. We analytically and numerically confirmed that our algorithm is able to learn the probability completely with an appropriate learning rate. Furthermore, our learning rule reproduced experimentally reported psychometric functions and neural activities in the lateral intraparietal area in a decision-making task. Thus, our algorithm might describe the manner in which our brains learn state transition probabilities and predict future states.

  7. Ultraviolet transition probabilities in N II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David G.

    1993-01-01

    Oscillator strengths were calculated for the ultraviolet transition array 2p sup 2 - 2p3s in the N II spectrum. Results obtained confirm that the 748 A intercombination line is usually strong as predicted by Fawcett (1987). The results of theoretical weighted oscillator strengths are considered to be reliable.

  8. Estimating the absolute position of a mobile robot using position probability grids

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, W.; Fox, D.; Hennig, D.; Schmidt, T.

    1996-12-31

    In order to re-use existing models of the environment mobile robots must be able to estimate their position and orientation in such models. Most of the existing methods for position estimation are based on special purpose sensors or aim at tracking the robot`s position relative to the known starting point. This paper describes the position probability grid approach to estimating the robot`s absolute position and orientation in a metric model of the environment. Our method is designed to work with standard sensors and is independent of any knowledge about the starting point. It is a Bayesian approach based on certainty grids. In each cell of such a grid we store the probability that this cell refers to the current position of the robot. These probabilities are obtained by integrating the likelihoods of sensor readings over time. Results described in this paper show that our technique is able to reliably estimate the position of a robot in complex environments. Our approach has proven to be robust with respect to inaccurate environmental models, noisy sensors, and ambiguous situations.

  9. TRANSIT PROBABILITIES FOR STARS WITH STELLAR INCLINATION CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Seager, Sara

    2010-04-01

    The probability that an exoplanet transits its host star is high for planets in close orbits, but drops off rapidly for increasing semimajor axes. This makes transit surveys for planets with large semimajor axes orbiting bright stars impractical, since one would need to continuously observe hundreds of stars that are spread out over the entire sky. One way to make such a survey tractable is to constrain the inclination of the stellar rotation axes in advance, and thereby enhance the transit probabilities. We derive transit probabilities for stars with stellar inclination constraints, considering a reasonable range of planetary system inclinations. We find that stellar inclination constraints can improve the transit probability by almost an order of magnitude for habitable-zone planets. When applied to an ensemble of stars, such constraints dramatically lower the number of stars that need to be observed in a targeted transit survey. We also consider multiplanet systems where only one planet has an identified transit and derive the transit probabilities for the second planet assuming a range of mutual planetary inclinations.

  10. Transition Probabilities of the Rare Earth Neutral Lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Andria; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of a long-standing project to measure transition probabilities for rare earth elements, La i is currently being studied. Transition probabilities of the rare earths and other elements are determined in order to assist astronomers in making stellar spectroscopy more quantitative. Atomic spectroscopy is a key tool for astronomers as it provides nearly all the details about the physics and chemistry of the universe outside of our solar system. Rare earth elements tend to have complex electronic structure due to their open 4f, 5d, 6s, and 6p shells. This leads to a rich spectrum throughout the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared, making them very accessible elements for study in stellar photospheric spectra. A transition probability is the probability per unit time for a transition to occur between an upper level and a lower level. The process for measuring transition probabilities is by using the well-established technique of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence to measure the radiative lifetimes for each upper level. This is then combined with branching fractions measured using a 1m high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Radiative lifetimes for ~70 upper levels of neutral La along with their associated branching fractions will be reported, resulting in the determination of several hundred new transition probabilities. These transition probabilities will assist astronomers in analyzing the chemical compositions of older, cooler stars which give insight into the origins of the chemical elements.This work supported by by NSF grant AST-1211055 (JEL & EDH) and by the NSF REU program (AJP).

  11. Hydrogeologic Unit Flow Characterization Using Transition Probability Geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N L; Walker, J R; Carle, S F

    2003-11-21

    This paper describes a technique for applying the transition probability geostatistics method for stochastic simulation to a MODFLOW model. Transition probability geostatistics has several advantages over traditional indicator kriging methods including a simpler and more intuitive framework for interpreting geologic relationships and the ability to simulate juxtapositional tendencies such as fining upwards sequences. The indicator arrays generated by the transition probability simulation are converted to layer elevation and thickness arrays for use with the new Hydrogeologic Unit Flow (HUF) package in MODFLOW 2000. This makes it possible to preserve complex heterogeneity while using reasonably sized grids. An application of the technique involving probabilistic capture zone delineation for the Aberjona Aquifer in Woburn, Ma. is included.

  12. Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines in Co I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitz, D. E.; Wilson, K. L.; Lentz, L. R.

    1996-05-01

    We are in the process of determining transition probabilities for visible and uv lines in Co I from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak and made available to us by Prof. W. Whaling. Normalization of relative transition probabilities obtained from these spectra is achieved using recently-measured Co I lifetimes.(D. E. Nitz, S. D. Bergeson, and J. E. Lawler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 377 (1995).) To date we have obtained preliminary results for 240 lines having branch fractions > 1

  13. Collision strengths and transition probabilities for Co III forbidden lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, P. J.; Sochi, Taha

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we compute the collision strengths and their thermally averaged Maxwellian values for electron transitions between the 15 lowest levels of doubly ionized cobalt, Co2+, which give rise to forbidden emission lines in the visible and infrared region of spectrum. The calculations also include transition probabilities and predicted relative line emissivities. The data are particularly useful for analysing the thermodynamic conditions of supernova ejecta.

  14. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  15. Determination of transition probabilities for the 3p → 3s transition array in neon using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, Haroon; Ali, Raheel; Baig, M. Aslam

    2013-12-15

    We present here a study of the optical emission spectra of the laser produced neon plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. The spectra were recorded using the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy 2000 detection system comprising of five spectrometers covering the entire visible region. The observed spectra yield all the optically allowed transitions between the 2p{sup 5}3p upper and 2p{sup 5}3s lower configurations based levels. The relative line strengths of all the dipole allowed transitions have been determined using the intensity ratios and compared with the J-file sum rule. The absolute transition probabilities have been calculated by using the lifetimes of the upper levels and the intensities of the observed spectral lines and show good agreement with the literature values.

  16. Experimental transition probabilities and Stark-broadening parameters of neutral and single ionized tin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Strengths and Stark-effect widths of the Sn I and Sn II lines prominent between 3200 and 7900 A are measured with a spectroscopic shock tube. Absolute strengths of 17 ionic lines are obtained with estimated (22-50)% accuracy and conform to appropriate quantum-mechanical sum rules. Relative transition probabilities for nine prominent neutral tin lines, normalized to radiative-lifetime data, are compared with other experiments and theoretical predictions. Parameters for Stark-effect broadening are measured over a range of plasma electron densities. Broadening data (with accuracies of 15-35%) for one neutral and ten ionic lines of tin are compared to theoretical predictions.

  17. Executable Code Recognition in Network Flows Using Instruction Transition Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ikkyun; Kang, Koohong; Choi, Yangseo; Kim, Daewon; Oh, Jintae; Jang, Jongsoo; Han, Kijun

    The ability to recognize quickly inside network flows to be executable is prerequisite for malware detection. For this purpose, we introduce an instruction transition probability matrix (ITPX) which is comprised of the IA-32 instruction sets and reveals the characteristics of executable code's instruction transition patterns. And then, we propose a simple algorithm to detect executable code inside network flows using a reference ITPX which is learned from the known Windows Portable Executable files. We have tested the algorithm with more than thousands of executable and non-executable codes. The results show that it is very promising enough to use in real world.

  18. Camera-Model Identification Using Markovian Transition Probability Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guanshuo; Gao, Shang; Shi, Yun Qing; Hu, Ruimin; Su, Wei

    Detecting the (brands and) models of digital cameras from given digital images has become a popular research topic in the field of digital forensics. As most of images are JPEG compressed before they are output from cameras, we propose to use an effective image statistical model to characterize the difference JPEG 2-D arrays of Y and Cb components from the JPEG images taken by various camera models. Specifically, the transition probability matrices derived from four different directional Markov processes applied to the image difference JPEG 2-D arrays are used to identify statistical difference caused by image formation pipelines inside different camera models. All elements of the transition probability matrices, after a thresholding technique, are directly used as features for classification purpose. Multi-class support vector machines (SVM) are used as the classification tool. The effectiveness of our proposed statistical model is demonstrated by large-scale experimental results.

  19. Transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of Mg III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.

    2015-03-01

    There have been calculated transition probabilities for 365 lines arising from 2p5 n s(n = 3 , 4 , 5) , 2p5 n p(n = 3 , 4) , 2p5 n d(n = 3 , 4) , 2p5 n f(n = 4 , 5) and 2p5 5g configurations of Mg III and radiative lifetimes corresponding to 89 levels. These values were obtained in intermediate coupling (IC) by using ab initio relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) calculations. Later, we use the standard method of least square fitting of experimental energy levels for the IC calculations by means of Cowan's computer codes. The vast majority of the calculated transition probabilities correspond to lines lying in the ultraviolet range (UV) which are of high interest in astrophysics. Our results are compared to those previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, the values of transition probabilities of configuration levels 2p5 4d, 2p5 n f(n = 4 , 5) and 2p5 5g are presented for the first time. In light of these findings, it is possible to extend the range of wavelengths which allows us to estimate the temperature in plasma diagnostic. In addition, our results for radiative lifetimes have been compared to the available experimental values.

  20. Estimating transition probabilities in unmarked populations --entropy revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooch, E.G.; Link, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The probability of surviving and moving between 'states' is of great interest to biologists. Robust estimation of these transitions using multiple observations of individually identifiable marked individuals has received considerable attention in recent years. However, in some situations, individuals are not identifiable (or have a very low recapture rate), although all individuals in a sample can be assigned to a particular state (e.g. breeding or non-breeding) without error. In such cases, only aggregate data (number of individuals in a given state at each occasion) are available. If the underlying matrix of transition probabilities does not vary through time and aggregate data are available for several time periods, then it is possible to estimate these parameters using least-squares methods. Even when such data are available, this assumption of stationarity will usually be deemed overly restrictive and, frequently, data will only be available for two time periods. In these cases, the problem reduces to estimating the most likely matrix (or matrices) leading to the observed frequency distribution of individuals in each state. An entropy maximization approach has been previously suggested. In this paper, we show that the entropy approach rests on a particular limiting assumption, and does not provide estimates of latent population parameters (the transition probabilities), but rather predictions of realized rates.

  1. Numerical aspects of searching convective/absolute instability transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, Sergey A.

    2006-02-01

    An overview of various numerical techniques used to determine the spatio-temporal character of instabilities in fluid flows is given. The advantageous features of various previously known individual techniques are discussed and a practical procedure combining them is suggested for a specific task of determining the complete boundary between linearly convectively and absolutely unstable regimes in a multi-parameter space in problems with a fully numerical dispersion relation. Special attention is paid to aspects of automatization of computations as this is a crucial condition for their efficiency. The suggested procedure is successfully used and is shown to provide a high degree of automatism in the physical example of non-Boussinesq mixed convection in a vertical channel. This example comprises most of the major numerical difficulties found in various spatio-temporal instability studies of two-dimensional fluid flows which previously could not be handled without frequent human intervention and visual inspection of intermediate results. This paper focuses on the general numerical aspects of the computations leaving the detailed discussion of the obtained physical results for a separate publication.

  2. Estimating transition probabilities among everglades wetland communities using multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotaling, A.S.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we were able to provide the first estimates of transition probabilities of wet prairie and slough vegetative communities in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Florida Everglades and to identify the hydrologic variables that determine these transitions. These estimates can be used in management models aimed at restoring proportions of wet prairie and slough habitats to historical levels in the Everglades. To determine what was driving the transitions between wet prairie and slough communities we evaluated three hypotheses: seasonality, impoundment, and wet and dry year cycles using likelihood-based multistate models to determine the main driver of wet prairie conversion in WCA3A. The most parsimonious model included the effect of wet and dry year cycles on vegetative community conversions. Several ecologists have noted wet prairie conversion in southern WCA3A but these are the first estimates of transition probabilities among these community types. In addition, to being useful for management of the Everglades we believe that our framework can be used to address management questions in other ecosystems. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. Recursive recovery of Markov transition probabilities from boundary value data

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, S.K.

    1994-04-01

    In an effort to mathematically describe the anisotropic diffusion of infrared radiation in biological tissue Gruenbaum posed an anisotropic diffusion boundary value problem in 1989. In order to accommodate anisotropy, he discretized the temporal as well as the spatial domain. The probabilistic interpretation of the diffusion equation is retained; radiation is assumed to travel according to a random walk (of sorts). In this random walk the probabilities with which photons change direction depend upon their previous as well as present location. The forward problem gives boundary value data as a function of the Markov transition probabilities. The inverse problem requires finding the transition probabilities from boundary value data. Problems in the plane are studied carefully in this thesis. Consistency conditions amongst the data are derived. These conditions have two effects: they prohibit inversion of the forward map but permit smoothing of noisy data. Next, a recursive algorithm which yields a family of solutions to the inverse problem is detailed. This algorithm takes advantage of all independent data and generates a system of highly nonlinear algebraic equations. Pluecker-Grassmann relations are instrumental in simplifying the equations. The algorithm is used to solve the 4 {times} 4 problem. Finally, the smallest nontrivial problem in three dimensions, the 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 problem, is solved.

  4. Transition of absolute instability from global to local modes in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier.

    PubMed

    Chang, T H; Chen, N C

    2006-07-01

    The gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier employing the distributed-loss scheme is capable of very high gain and effective in suppressing the global absolute instabilities. This study systematically characterizes the local absolute instabilities and their transitional behavior. The local absolute instabilities are analyzed using a model that incorporates the penetration of the field from the copper section into the lossy section. The axial modes were characterized from the perspective of beam-wave interaction and were found to share many characteristics with the global modes. The transition from global modes to local modes as the distributed loss increases was demonstrated. The electron transit angle in the copper section, which determines the feedback criterion, governs the survivability of an oscillation. In addition, the oscillation thresholds predicted using this model are more accurate than those obtained using a simplified model. PMID:16907193

  5. Absolute frequency measurements and hyperfine structures of the molecular iodine transitions at 578 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Tanabe, Takehiko; Yasuda, Masami; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2016-04-01

    We report absolute frequency measurements of 81 hyperfine components of the rovibrational transitions of molecular iodine at 578 nm using the second harmonic generation of an 1156-nm external-cavity diode laser and a fiber-based optical frequency comb. The relative uncertainties of the measured absolute frequencies are typically $1.4\\times10^{-11}$. Accurate hyperfine constants of four rovibrational transitions are obtained by fitting the measured hyperfine splittings to a four-term effective Hamiltonian including the electric quadrupole, spin-rotation, tensor spin-spin, and scalar spin-spin interactions. The observed transitions can be good frequency references at 578 nm, and are especially useful for research using atomic ytterbium since the transitions are close to the $^{1}S_{0}-^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition of ytterbium.

  6. The FERRUM Project: Experimental Transition Probabilities of [Fe II] and Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H.; Derkatch, A.; Donnelly, M. P.; Gull, T.; Hibbert, A.; Johannsson, S.; Lundberg, H.; Mannervik, S.; Norlin, L. -O.; Rostohar, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on experimental transition probabilities for thirteen forbidden [Fe II] lines originating from three different metastable Fe II levels. Radiative lifetimes have been measured of two metastable states by applying a laser probing technique on a stored ion beam. Branching ratios for the radiative decay channels, i.e. M1 and E2 transitions, are derived from observed intensity ratios of forbidden lines in astrophysical spectra and compared with theoretical data. The lifetimes and branching ratios are combined to derive absolute transition probabilities, A-values. We present the first experimental lifetime values for the two Fe II levels a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) and A-values for 13 forbidden transitions from a(sup 6)S(sub 5/2), a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 4)D(sub 7/2) in the optical region. A discrepancy between the measured and calculated values of the lifetime for the b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) level is discussed in terms of level mixing. We have used the code CIV3 to calculate transition probabilities of the a(sup 6)D-a(sup 6)S transitions. We have also studied observational branching ratios for lines from 5 other metastable Fe II levels and compared them to calculated values. A consistency in the deviation between calibrated observational intensity ratios and theoretical branching ratios for lines in a wider wavelength region supports the use of [Fe II] lines for determination of reddening.

  7. Determination of transition probability for the 655-nm Tl line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J. J.

    Studies of high-pressure Hg-Tl I a.c. (50 Hz) arc plasmas have been used to verify the validity of Boltzmann statistics at the moment of maximum electron density (5 ms) by applying LTE criteria. For a known plasma temperature, the transition probability of the optically-thin 655-nm line of Tl was derived from emission measurements by using the self-reversed 535-nm line of Tl as reference [A655 = (3.74±0.37)×106s-1].

  8. Transition probability of the Al II 2669 intersystem line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved observations of the spin-changing, or 'intersystem' emission at 2669.157 A obtained by the ion storage technique are used to measure the transition probability of the 3s2 1S0 - 3s3p 3P1 exp 0 line in Al II. A laser-generated plasma was used as the source of the metastable Al(+) ions. The A-value result obtained for the intersystem transition is 3.33 + or - 0.23 x 10 to the 3rd/sec at the 90-percent confidence level; this value is used to derive two line-intensity ratios which involve the intersystem line as a function of electron density and temperature.

  9. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for the W xlv ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, S.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for W xlv transitions between levels arising from configurations 3d104s2,4p2,4d2, 3d104k4l (k = s,p,d,f and l = p,d,f), 3d94s24l (l = p,d,f) and 3d94s4p2. The model used to calculate these contained all configurations which can be constructed from the available orbitals (up to n = 4), with either a 3d10 or 3d9 core. The calculations were performed with the configuration interaction CIV3 program with the inclusion of relativistic effects achieved through the use of the Breit-Pauli approximation. We compare our ab initio energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition rates with other experimental and theoretical values available in the literature. There is generally good agreement when only levels with 3d10 cores are considered. The literature is sparse for levels in which the 3d-subshell is opened: for the majority of the fine-structure lines considered, there is either no comparison data available or substantial differences are found. This paper also investigates how the inclusion of relativistic effects can result in a significant redistribution of the oscillator strength from the LS calculations.

  10. Radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities of neutral lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Palmer, A. J.; Lawler, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    The radiative lifetimes of 72 odd-parity levels of neutral lanthanum are measured to ±5% accuracy using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam. The levels range in energy from 15031 to 32140 cm-1. Branching fraction measurements using Fourier-transform spectroscopy are attempted and completed for all of the 72 levels. The branching fractions, when combined with the radiative lifetimes, yield new transition probabilities for 315 lines of the first spectrum of lanthanum (La i ). This study is part of a larger body of work on the radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms, and is motivated by research needs in lighting science and astrophysics.

  11. Theoretical electric quadrupole transition probabilities for Ca, Sr and Ba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Jaffe, R. L.; Partridge, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 1D-1S quadrupole transition probabilities for Ca, Sr and Ba have been computed using extended GTO and STO valence basis sets and configuration-interaction wavefunctions that include the important core-valence correlation effects. For Ba and Sr, the relativistic contraction of the core orbitals was accounted for in the GTO calculations by a relativistic effective-core potential. The computed Einstein coefficient for Ca of 39.6/s is in excellent agreement with the recent experimental value of 40 + or - 8/s. The best Einstein coefficients for Sr (44.7/s) and Ba (2.98/s) imply increasing quadrupole line strengths down the column. Relativistic effects substantially increase the quadrupole Einstein coefficient for Ba.

  12. E2 Transition Probabilities in 114Te: a Conundrum

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, O; Warr, N; Jolie, J; Dewald, A; Fitzler, A; Linnemann, A; Zell, K O; Garrett, P E; Yates, S W

    2005-05-13

    Lifetimes in {sup 114}Te were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with a plunger device coupled to five HP Ge detectors enhanced by one Euroball Cluster detector. The experiment was carried out at the Cologne FN Tandem facility using the {sup 93}Nb({sup 24}Mg,p2n) reaction at 90 MeV. The differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for seven excited states, while the lifetime of an isomeric state was obtained in singles mode. The resulting E2 transition probabilities are shown to be very anomalous in comparison with the vibrational energy spacings of the ground state band.

  13. E2 transition probabilities in {sup 114}Te: A conundrum

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, O.; Warr, N.; Jolie, J.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Linnemann, A.; Zell, K.O.; Garrett, P.E.; Yates, S.W.

    2005-06-01

    Lifetimes in {sup 114}Te were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with a plunger device coupled to five HP Ge detectors enhanced by one Euroball cluster detector. The experiment was carried out at the Cologne FN Tandem facility using the {sup 93}Nb({sup 24}Mg,p2n) reaction at 90 MeV. The differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for seven excited states, whereas the lifetime of an isomeric state was obtained in singles mode. The resulting E2 transition probabilities are shown to be very anomalous in comparison with the vibrational energy spacings of the ground-state band.

  14. Transition probabilities in neutron-rich Se,8684

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzinger, J.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Didierjean, F.; Duchêne, G.; Fransen, C.; Lozeva, R.; Sieja, K.; Verney, D.; de Angelis, G.; Bazzacco, D.; Birkenbach, B.; Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Braunroth, T.; Cederwall, B.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Ellinger, E.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; Goasduff, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Grebosz, J.; Hackstein, M.; Hess, H.; Ibrahim, F.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kolos, K.; Korten, W.; Leoni, S.; Lunardi, S.; Maj, A.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatovic, T.; Million, B.; Möller, O.; Modamio, V.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rosso, D.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Scarlassara, F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Valiente Dobón, J. J.; Vandone, V.; Vogt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Reduced quadrupole transition probabilities for low-lying transitions in neutron-rich Se,8684 are investigated with a recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) experiment. The experiment was performed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro using the Cologne Plunger device for the RDDS technique and the AGATA Demonstrator array for the γ -ray detection coupled to the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer for an event-by-event particle identification. In 86Se the level lifetime of the yrast 21+ state and an upper limit for the lifetime of the 41+ state are determined for the first time. The results of 86Se are in agreement with previously reported predictions of large-scale shell-model calculations using Ni78-I and Ni78-II effective interactions. In addition, intrinsic shape parameters of lowest yrast states in 86Se are calculated. In semimagic 84Se level lifetimes of the yrast 41+ and 61+ states are determined for the first time. Large-scale shell-model calculations using effective interactions Ni78-II, JUN45, jj4b, and jj4pna are performed. The calculations describe B (E 2 ;21+→01+) and B (E 2 ;61+→41+) fairly well and point out problems in reproducing the experimental B (E 2 ;41+→21+) .

  15. Matter-enhanced transition probabilities in quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kenzo Tobita, Yutaka

    2014-05-15

    The relativistic quantum field theory is the unique theory that combines the relativity and quantum theory and is invariant under the Poincaré transformation. The ground state, vacuum, is singlet and one particle states are transformed as elements of irreducible representation of the group. The covariant one particles are momentum eigenstates expressed by plane waves and extended in space. Although the S-matrix defined with initial and final states of these states hold the symmetries and are applied to isolated states, out-going states for the amplitude of the event that they are detected at a finite-time interval T in experiments are expressed by microscopic states that they interact with, and are surrounded by matters in detectors and are not plane waves. These matter-induced effects modify the probabilities observed in realistic situations. The transition amplitudes and probabilities of the events are studied with the S-matrix, S[T], that satisfies the boundary condition at T. Using S[T], the finite-size corrections of the form of 1/T are found. The corrections to Fermi’s golden rule become larger than the original values in some situations for light particles. They break Lorentz invariance even in high energy region of short de Broglie wave lengths. -- Highlights: •S-matrix S[T] for the finite-time interval in relativistic field theory. •S[T] satisfies the boundary condition and gives correction of 1/T . •The large corrections for light particles breaks Lorentz invariance. •The corrections have implications to neutrino experiments.

  16. Giant modification of atomic transition probabilities induced by a magnetic field: forbidden transitions become predominant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, Armen; Tonoyan, Ara; Hakhumyan, Grant; Papoyan, Aram; Mariotti, Emilio; Sarkisyan, David

    2014-05-01

    The magnetic field-induced giant modification of probabilities for seven components of 6S1/2, Fg = 3 → 6P3/2, Fe = 5 transition of the Cs D2 line, forbidden by selection rules, is observed experimentally for the first time. For the case of excitation with circularly polarized laser radiation, the probability of a Fg = 3, mF = -3 → Fe = 5, mF = -2 transition becomes the largest of 25 transitions of the Fg = 3 → Fe = 2,3,4,5 group in a wide-range magnetic field of 200-3200 G. Moreover, the modification is the largest among D2 lines of alkali metals. A half-wave-thick cell (the length along the beam propagation axis L = 426 nm) filled with Cs has been used in order to achieve sub-Doppler resolution, which allows the large number of atomic transitions that appear in the absorption spectrum to be separated when an external magnetic field is applied. For B > 3000 G the group of seven transitions Fg = 3 → Fe = 5 is completely resolved and is located at the high frequency level of Fg= 3 → Fe = 2,3,4 transitions. The applied theoretical model describes very well the experimental curves.

  17. Broken scaling laws of the transition probabilities from jj to LS coupling transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Han, Xiao-Ying; Zeng, De-Ling; Jin, Rui; Li, Jia-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Accurate electromagnetic transition rates between the ground electronic configurations are important in diagnostic studies of planetary nebulae. Based on a "quasi-complete basis" set, we present large-scale multi-configuration Dirac-Fock calculations of the forbidden transition rates within the ground electronic configuration along the nitrogen-like isoelectronic sequence. The broken scaling laws of the transition probabilities from jj to LS coupling transitions are elucidated and found to be extensions of the well-known scaling laws discussed in the single electron case. The equivalent oscillator strength is very large for ions in high-Z regions and should play a crucial role in the cooling mechanism in astrophysics.

  18. TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR STUDENT-TEACHER POPULATION GROWTH MODEL (DYNAMOD II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZINTER, JUDITH R.

    THIS NOTE PRESENTS THE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES CURRENTLY IN USE IN DYNAMOD II. THE ESTIMATING PROCEDURES USED TO DERIVE THESE PROBABILITIES WERE DISCUSSED IN THESE RELATED DOCUMENTS--EA 001 016, EA 001 017, EA 001 018, AND EA 001 063. THE TRANSIT ON PROBABILITIES FOR FOUR SEX-RACE GROUPS ARE SHOWN ALONG WITH THE DONOR-RECEIVER CODES TO WHICH THEY…

  19. CYCLIC TRANSIT PROBABILITIES OF LONG-PERIOD ECCENTRIC PLANETS DUE TO PERIASTRON PRECESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Horner, Jonathan

    2012-09-20

    The observed properties of transiting exoplanets are an exceptionally rich source of information that allows us to understand and characterize their physical properties. Unfortunately, only a relatively small fraction of the known exoplanets discovered using the radial velocity technique are known to transit their host due to the stringent orbital geometry requirements. For each target, the transit probability and predicted transit time can be calculated to great accuracy with refinement of the orbital parameters. However, the transit probability of short period and eccentric orbits can have a reasonable time dependence due to the effects of apsidal and nodal precession, thus altering their transit potential and predicted transit time. Here we investigate the magnitude of these precession effects on transit probabilities and apply this to the known radial velocity exoplanets. We assess the refinement of orbital parameters as a path to measuring these precessions and cyclic transit probabilities.

  20. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  1. Absolute Frequency Measurements of the D1 and D2 Transitions in Aatomic Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Donal; Almaguer, Jose; Baron, Jacob; Elgee, Peter; Rowan, Michael; Stalnaker, Jason

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary results from our measurements of the D1 and D2 transitions in Li. The data were obtained from a collimated atomic beam excited by light from an extended cavity diode laser. The frequency of the diode laser was stabilized to an optical frequency comb, providing absolute frequency measurement and control of the excitation laser frequency. These measurements will provide a stringent test of atomic structure calculations and yield information about the nuclear structure. We also discuss plans to extend the technique to other high-lying states in lithium. Funded by the NIST Precision Measurements Grant and NSF Award #1305591.

  2. Absolute wavelength measurement of the Lyman-{alpha} transitions of hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, G.; Foerster, E.; Kloepfel, D.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Widmann, K.

    1998-02-01

    The wavelengths of the 1s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 1/2} and 1s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} Lyman-{alpha} transitions have been measured in hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+} with an accuracy as high as 24 ppm. The measurement was carried out on an electron-beam ion trap and utilized a quasimonolithic crystal setup absolutely calibrated relative to optical standards. The resulting values for the two transitions were 0.84250{plus_minus}0.00004 and 0.84190{plus_minus}0.00002nm, respectively. The measurement confirms calculations of the 1s-2p wavelengths and tests the size of the 1s Lamb shift to within 13{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  4. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Montanero, J M

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters. PMID:26382502

  5. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. Said; Herrada, M. A.; Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Montanero, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters.

  6. Radiative transition probabilities in the O-like sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.

    2005-04-01

    In the present work a complete set of radiative transition rates is calculated for all for the O-like ions with Z=11{-}30. Energy levels, oscillator strengths and A values are computed for all transitions within the n=2 complex and are compared with previous calculations, where available. Calculations are carried out using the Superstructure code. The present work provides for the first time a self-consistent, complete set of A values necessary for the calculation of line emissivities and synthetic spectra for all the ions considered, filling several gaps in the existing literature. The present data are especially suited for the analysis of spectral lines emitted by the less-abundant elements in the universe, for which few if any data were available in the literature.

  7. Transition Probabilities And Chiral Symmetry In 134Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Tonev, D.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Martines, T.; Napoli, D.R.; Prete, G.; Behera, B.R.; Rusu, C.; Petkov, P.; Dewald, A.; Pejovic, P.; Fitzler, A.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O.; Balabanski, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Camera, F.; Paleni, A.

    2005-04-05

    Lifetime measurements in 134Pr were performed by means of the Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation methods using the multidetector array EUROBALL, in conjunction with the inner BGO ball. The derived B(E2) transition strengths within the two bands candidates for chiral partners behave differently with increasing spin while the corresponding B(M1) values have a similar behaviour within the experimental uncertainties.

  8. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XIX

    SciTech Connect

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2011-07-15

    An extensive set of oscillator strengths, line strengths, and radiative decay rates for the allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XIX is presented. They correspond to 1626 fine structure levels of total angular momenta 0{<=}J{<=}8 of even and odd parities with 2{<=}n{<=}10, 0{<=}l{<=}9, 0{<=}L{<=}10, and (2S+1)=1, 3, 5. In contrast, the compiled table of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) lists only 63 observed levels. A total of 289,291 electric dipole allowed transitions are presented. They were obtained in the close coupling approximation using the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. The wavefunction expansion included 15 levels of the configurations 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}, 2s2p{sup 4}, and 2p{sup 5} of the Fe XX core. The calculated fine structure levels are assigned with spectroscopic identifications using quantum defect analysis. Comparison with the observed energies shows very good agreement, the largest difference being less than 4%. The transitions also compare well with the compiled data by NIST and recent calculations. The forbidden transitions of the electric quadrupole and octupole, and magnetic dipole and quadrupole, type are presented for the 379 levels of the configurations 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}, 2s2p{sup 5}, 2p{sup 6}, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3s, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3p, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3d, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}4s, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}4p, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}4d, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}4f, 2s2p{sup 4}3s, 2s2p{sup 4}3p, 2s2p{sup 4}3d, 2s2p{sup 4}4s, 2s2p{sup 4}4p, and 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}3s{sup 2} of Fe XIX. They correspond to a total of 66,619 transitions. These results have been obtained from relativistic Breit-Pauli atomic structure calculations using the program SUPERSTRUCTURE. The forbidden transition probabilities show very good agreement with those compiled by NIST. - Highlights: {yields} Presents the most complete (n up to 10) set of transitions for Fe XIX. {yields} Considers both allowed and forbidden transitions. {yields} Large number

  9. Transition probability functions for applications of inelastic electron scattering.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Stefan; Schattschneider, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In this work, the transition matrix elements for inelastic electron scattering are investigated which are the central quantity for interpreting experiments. The angular part is given by spherical harmonics. For the weighted radial wave function overlap, analytic expressions are derived in the Slater-type and the hydrogen-like orbital models. These expressions are shown to be composed of a finite sum of polynomials and elementary trigonometric functions. Hence, they are easy to use, require little computation time, and are significantly more accurate than commonly used approximations. PMID:22560709

  10. Exact transition probabilities in a 6-state Landau-Zener system with path interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    We identify a nontrivial multistate Landau-Zener (LZ) model for which transition probabilities between any pair of diabatic states can be determined analytically and exactly. In the semiclassical picture, this model features the possibility of interference of different trajectories that connect the same initial and final states. Hence, transition probabilities are generally not described by the incoherent successive application of the LZ formula. We discuss reasons for integrability of this system and provide numerical tests of the suggested expression for the transition probability matrix.

  11. Are Einstein's transition probabilities for spontaneous emission constant in plasmas?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griem, H. R.; Huang, Y. W.; Wang, J.-S.; Moreno, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted with a ruby laser to experimentally confirm the quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients and propose a mechanism for the phenomenon. Results of previous experiments are examined to determine the consistency and validity of interpretations of the spontaneous emissions. For the C IV 3s-3p and 2s-3p transitions, the line-intensity ratios are found to be dependent on the separation of the laser from the target. Density gradients and Stark broadening are proposed to interpret the results in a way that does not invalidate the Einstein A values. The interpretation is extended to C III and N V, both of which demonstrate similar changes in A values in previous experiments. The apparent quenching of Ar II by photon collisions is explained by Rabi oscillations and power broadening in the argon-ion laser cavity. It is concluded that the changes in A values cannot result from dense plasma effects.

  12. Absolute molecular transition frequencies measured by three cavity-enhanced spectroscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Cygan, A; Wójtewicz, S; Kowzan, G; Zaborowski, M; Wcisło, P; Nawrocki, J; Krehlik, P; Śliwczyński, Ł; Lipiński, M; Masłowski, P; Ciuryło, R; Lisak, D

    2016-06-01

    Absolute frequencies of unperturbed (12)C(16)O transitions from the near-infrared (3-0) band were measured with uncertainties five-fold lower than previously available data. The frequency axis of spectra was linked to the primary frequency standard. Three different cavity enhanced absorption and dispersion spectroscopic methods and various approaches to data analysis were used to estimate potential systematic instrumental errors. Except for a well established frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we applied the cavity mode-width spectroscopy and the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for measurement of absorption and dispersion spectra, respectively. We demonstrated the highest quality of the dispersion line shape measured in optical spectroscopy so far. We obtained line positions of the Doppler-broadened R24 and R28 transitions with relative uncertainties at the level of 10(-10). The pressure shifting coefficients were measured and the influence of the line asymmetry on unperturbed line positions was analyzed. Our dispersion spectra are the first demonstration of molecular spectroscopy with both axes of the spectra directly linked to the primary frequency standard, which is particularly desirable for the future reference-grade measurements of molecular spectra. PMID:27276950

  13. Absolute molecular transition frequencies measured by three cavity-enhanced spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygan, A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Kowzan, G.; Zaborowski, M.; Wcisło, P.; Nawrocki, J.; Krehlik, P.; Śliwczyński, Ł.; Lipiński, M.; Masłowski, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Lisak, D.

    2016-06-01

    Absolute frequencies of unperturbed 12C16O transitions from the near-infrared (3-0) band were measured with uncertainties five-fold lower than previously available data. The frequency axis of spectra was linked to the primary frequency standard. Three different cavity enhanced absorption and dispersion spectroscopic methods and various approaches to data analysis were used to estimate potential systematic instrumental errors. Except for a well established frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy, we applied the cavity mode-width spectroscopy and the one-dimensional cavity mode-dispersion spectroscopy for measurement of absorption and dispersion spectra, respectively. We demonstrated the highest quality of the dispersion line shape measured in optical spectroscopy so far. We obtained line positions of the Doppler-broadened R24 and R28 transitions with relative uncertainties at the level of 10-10. The pressure shifting coefficients were measured and the influence of the line asymmetry on unperturbed line positions was analyzed. Our dispersion spectra are the first demonstration of molecular spectroscopy with both axes of the spectra directly linked to the primary frequency standard, which is particularly desirable for the future reference-grade measurements of molecular spectra.

  14. ANALYSIS OF BREIT-PAULI TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR LINES IN O III

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C. Froese; Tachiev, G.; Rubin, R. H.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-09-20

    Accurate atomic data are essential for understanding the properties of both O III lines produced by the Bowen fluorescence mechanism and [O III] forbidden lines observed in numerous gaseous nebulae. Improved Breit-Pauli transition probabilities have been published for the carbon sequence. Included were revised data for O III. The present paper analyzes the accuracy of the data specifically for O III by comparison with other theory as well as some recent experiments and observations. For the electric dipole transition probabilities, good agreement is found for allowed Bowen fluorescence lines between predictions of intensity ratios with observed data. For forbidden transitions, the Breit-Pauli magnetic dipole transition operator requires corrections that often are neglected. Good agreement is found when these transition probabilities are computed with multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock methods.

  15. The Effects of a High-Probability Request Sequencing Technique in Enhancing Transition Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, an autism support teacher used a high-probability request sequencing technique to help a middle-school student with autism engage in three transition behaviors. High probability request sequencing refers to a procedure in which 2 to 3 preferred questions, highly associated with compliance, are rapidly given before presenting a low…

  16. Radiative transition probabilities and recombination coefficients of the ion C IV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Bound-bound and bound-free radiative transition probabilities, as well as radiative recombination coefficients of the ion C IV, are computed with a semi-empirical polarization potential method. The nonhydrogenic probabilities and coefficients are given for all bound states of the ion up to the principal quantum number n = 7.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KOI transit probabilities of multi-planet syst. (Brakensiek+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakensiek, J.; Ragozzine, D.

    2016-06-01

    Using CORBITS, we computed the transit probabilities of all the KOIs with at least three candidate or confirmed transiting planets and report the results in Table 2 for a variety of inclination distributions. See section 4.6. (1 data file).

  18. Tracking move-stop-move targets with state-dependent mode transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for tracking ground moving targets with a GMTI radar. To avoid detection by the GMTI radar, targets can deliberately stop for some time before moving again. The GMTI radar does not detect a target when the radial velocity (along the line-of-sight from the sensor) falls below a certain minimum detectable velocity (MDV). We develop a new approach by using state-dependent mode transition probabilities to track move-stop-move targets. Since in a real scenario, the maximum deceleration is always limited, a target can not switch to the stopped-target model from a high speed. Therefore, with the use of the stopped-target model, the Markov chain of the mode switching has jump probabilities that depend on the target's kinematic state. A mode transition matrix with zero jump probabilities to the stopped-target mode is used when the speed is above a certain "stopping" limit (above which the target cannot stop in one sampling interval, designated as "fast stage") and another transition matrix with non-zero jump probabilities to the stopped-target mode is used when the speed is below this limit (designated as "slow stage"). The stage probabilities are calculated using the kinematic state statistics from the IMM estimator and then used to combine the state-dependent mode transition probabilities (SDP) in the two different transition matrices. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  19. Electric quadrupole transition probabilities and line strengths of Ti{sup 11+}

    SciTech Connect

    Gökçe, Yasin; Çelik, Gültekin; Yıldız, Murat

    2014-07-15

    Electric quadrupole transition probabilities and line strengths have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model for sodium-like titanium, considering many transition arrays. We employed numerical Coulomb approximation and non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for the expectation values of radii in determination of parameters of the model. The necessary energy values have been taken from experimental data in the literature. The calculated electric quadrupole line strengths have been compared with available data in the literature and good agreement has been obtained. Moreover, some electric quadrupole transition probability and line strength values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using this method.

  20. Calculation of rotational transition probabilities in molecular collisions - Application to N2 + N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itikawa, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A computational method is proposed to obtain rotational transition probabilities in collisions between two diatomic molecules. The potential method of Rabitz and an exponential approximation are used to solve the semiclassical coupled equations without invoking any perturbational technique. The collision trajectory is determined in the classical modified-wave-number approximation. The method can treat systems involving strong interactions and provide probabilities for transitions even with a multiquantum jump. A simultaneous transition in the rotational states of both molecules, i.e., the rotational-rotational energy transfer, is taken into account. An application to the system N2 + N2 is presented.

  1. Semiclassical vibration-rotation transition probabilities for motion in molecular state averaged potentials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Collision-induced vibration-rotation transition probabilities are calculated from a semiclassical three-dimensional model, in which the collision trajectory is determined by the classical motion in the interaction potential that is averaged over the molecular rotational state, and compared with those for which the motion is governed by a spherically averaged potential. For molecules that are in highly excited rotational states, thus dominating the vibrational relaxation rate at high temperature, it is found that the transition probability for rotational state averaging is smaller than that for spherical averaging. For typical collisions, the transition cross section is decreased by a factor of about 1.5 to 2.

  2. Efficient Geometric Probabilities of Multi-Transiting Exoplanetary Systems from CORBITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakensiek, Joshua; Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-04-01

    NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has successfully discovered thousands of exoplanet candidates using the transit method, including hundreds of stars with multiple transiting planets. In order to estimate the frequency of these valuable systems, it is essential to account for the unique geometric probabilities of detecting multiple transiting extrasolar planets around the same parent star. In order to improve on previous studies that used numerical methods, we have constructed an efficient, semi-analytical algorithm called the Computed Occurrence of Revolving Bodies for the Investigation of Transiting Systems (CORBITS), which, given a collection of conjectured exoplanets orbiting a star, computes the probability that any particular group of exoplanets can be observed to transit. The algorithm applies theorems of elementary differential geometry to compute the areas bounded by circular curves on the surface of a sphere. The implemented algorithm is more accurate and orders of magnitude faster than previous algorithms, based on comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations. We use CORBITS to show that the present solar system would only show a maximum of three transiting planets, but that this varies over time due to dynamical evolution. We also used CORBITS to geometrically debias the period ratio and mutual Hill sphere distributions of Kepler's multi-transiting planet candidates, which results in shifting these distributions toward slightly larger values. In an Appendix, we present additional semi-analytical methods for determining the frequency of exoplanet mutual events, i.e., the geometric probability that two planets will transit each other (planet–planet occultation, relevant to transiting circumbinary planets) and the probability that this transit occurs simultaneously as they transit their star. The CORBITS algorithms and several worked examples are publicly available.

  3. Reliability analysis of redundant systems. [a method to compute transition probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the transition probability (the probability of partial or total failure) of parallel redundant system. The effect of geometry of the system, the direction of load, and the degree of redundancy on the probability of complete survival of parachute-like system are also studied. The results show that the probability of complete survival of three-member parachute-like system is very sensitive to the variation of horizontal angle of the load. However, it becomes very insignificant as the degree of redundancy increases.

  4. Transition probability, dynamic regimes, and the critical point of financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinan; Chen, Ping

    2015-07-01

    An empirical and theoretical analysis of financial crises is conducted based on statistical mechanics in non-equilibrium physics. The transition probability provides a new tool for diagnosing a changing market. Both calm and turbulent markets can be described by the birth-death process for price movements driven by identical agents. The transition probability in a time window can be estimated from stock market indexes. Positive and negative feedback trading behaviors can be revealed by the upper and lower curves in transition probability. Three dynamic regimes are discovered from two time periods including linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear patterns. There is a clear link between liberalization policy and market nonlinearity. Numerical estimation of a market turning point is close to the historical event of the US 2008 financial crisis.

  5. Tables of stark level transition probabilities and branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The transition probabilities which are given in terms of n prime k prime and n k are tabulated. No additional summing or averaging is necessary. The electric quantum number k plays the role of the angular momentum quantum number l in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios between stark levels are also tabulated. Necessary formulas for the transition probabilities and branching ratios are given. Symmetries are discussed and selection rules are given. Some disagreements for some branching ratios are found between the present calculation and the measurement of Mark and Wierl. The transition probability multiplied by the statistical weight of the initial state is called the static intensity J sub S, while the branching ratios are called the dynamic intensity J sub D.

  6. Analysis of a semiclassical model for rotational transition probabilities. [in highly nonequilibrium flow of diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.; Yoshikawa, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    A semiclassical model proposed by Pearson and Hansen (1974) for computing collision-induced transition probabilities in diatomic molecules is tested by the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. Specifically, this model is described by point centers of repulsion for collision dynamics, and the resulting classical trajectories are used in conjunction with the Schroedinger equation for a rigid-rotator harmonic oscillator to compute the rotational energy transition probabilities necessary to evaluate the rotation-translation exchange phenomena. It is assumed that a single, average energy spacing exists between the initial state and possible final states for a given collision.

  7. Learning in reverse: 8-month-old infants track backward transitional probabilities

    PubMed Central

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous recent studies suggest that human learners, including both infants and adults, readily track sequential statistics computed between adjacent elements. One such statistic, transitional probability, is typically calculated as the likelihood that one element predicts another. However, little is known about whether listeners are sensitive to the directionality of this computation. To address this issue, we tested 8-month-old infants in a word segmentation task, using fluent speech drawn from an unfamiliar natural language. Critically, test items were distinguished solely by their backward transitional probabilities. The results provide the first evidence that infants track backward statistics in fluent speech. PMID:19717144

  8. H∞ filtering of Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mouquan; Park, Ju H

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the H∞ filtering of continuous Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization. S-procedure is employed to handle the adverse influence of the quantization and a new approach is developed to conquer the nonlinearity induced by uncertain and unknown transition probabilities. Then, sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the filtering error system to be stochastically stable with the prescribed performance requirement. Without specified structure imposed on introduced slack variables, a flexible filter design method is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a numerical example. PMID:27129765

  9. Relativistic M-subshell radiationless transition probabilities and energies for Zn, Cd and Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.M.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J.P.

    2014-09-15

    Theoretical calculations of radiationless transition probabilities and energies for M-subshell vacancies in Zn, Cd, and Hg are tabulated using the Dirac–Fock method. Transition probabilities between an initial vacancy state and a final two-vacancies state are presented for each initial and final atomic angular momentum quantum number. Calculations were performed in the single configuration approach with the Breit interaction, self-energy and (Uehling) vacuum polarization corrections included in the self-consistent method. Higher-order retardation corrections and QED effects were also included as perturbations.

  10. Corrections to vibrational transition probabilities calculated from a three-dimensional model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Corrections to the collision-induced vibration transition probability calculated by Hansen and Pearson from a three-dimensional semiclassical model are examined. These corrections come from the retention of higher order terms in the expansion of the interaction potential and the use of the actual value of the deflection angle in the calculation of the transition probability. It is found that the contribution to the transition cross section from previously neglected potential terms can be significant for short range potentials and for the large relative collision velocities encountered at high temperatures. The correction to the transition cross section obtained from the use of actual deflection angles will not be appreciable unless the change in the rotational quantum number is large.

  11. Transition probabilities and Franck-Condon factors for the second negative band system of O2(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.; Dalgarno, A.

    1990-01-01

    Transition probabilities for the second negative band system of O2(+) are computed using the dipole transition moment presented by Wetmore et al. (1984). Vibrational levels v double prime = 0 - 54 of the X2Pi(g) ground state and v prime = - 33 of the excited A2Pi(u) state are included. Franck-Condon factors for ionization-excitation of O2 to O2(+) are also presented.

  12. Transition probability of the 5971-A line in neutral uranium from collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, J.M.; Mongeau, B.; Demers, Y.; Pianarosa, P.

    1981-09-01

    From collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, we have determined the transition probability Aof the 5971-A transition in neutral uranium. Our value, A/sub 5971/ = (5.9 +- 1.8) x 10/sup 5/ sec/sup -1/, is, within experimental error, in good agreement with the previous determination of Corliss, A/sub 5971/ = (7.3 +- 3.0) x 10/sup 5/ sec/sup -1/ (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80,1 (1976)).

  13. Effects of Contextual Predictability and Transitional Probability on Eye Movements During Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisson, Steven; Rayner, Keith; Pickering, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2 eye-movement experiments, the authors tested whether transitional probability (the statistical likelihood that a word precedes or follows another word) affects reading times and whether this occurs independently from contextual predictability effects. Experiment 1 showed early effects of predictability, replicating S. A. McDonald and R. C.…

  14. Orientational invariance of the rotational transition probability in the sudden approximation. [atom-molecule collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Semiclassical collisions of an atom with a rigid-rotor molecule are examined in the sudden approximation. The rotational transition probability is shown to be invariant with respect to the choice of orientation for the molecular coordinate system; this fact contradicts recently reported results of a computer analysis. The present analysis may lead to an improved interpretation of recent molecular beam measurements.

  15. Implicit Segmentation of a Stream of Syllables Based on Transitional Probabilities: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teinonen, Tuomas; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Statistical segmentation of continuous speech, i.e., the ability to utilise transitional probabilities between syllables in order to detect word boundaries, is reflected in the brain's auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). The N1 and N400 ERP components are typically enhanced for word onsets compared to random syllables during active…

  16. A Computational Model of Word Segmentation from Continuous Speech Using Transitional Probabilities of Atomic Acoustic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Okko

    2011-01-01

    Word segmentation from continuous speech is a difficult task that is faced by human infants when they start to learn their native language. Several studies indicate that infants might use several different cues to solve this problem, including intonation, linguistic stress, and transitional probabilities between subsequent speech sounds. In this…

  17. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: Factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Duncan, B.W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Carter, G.M.; Hunt, D.K.; Drese, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many ecosystems are influenced by disturbances that create specific successional states and habitat structures that species need to persist. Estimating transition probabilities between habitat states and modeling the factors that influence such transitions have many applications for investigating and managing disturbance-prone ecosystems. We identify the correspondence between multistate capture-recapture models and Markov models of habitat dynamics. We exploit this correspondence by fitting and comparing competing models of different ecological covariates affecting habitat transition probabilities in Florida scrub and flatwoods, a habitat important to many unique plants and animals. We subdivided a large scrub and flatwoods ecosystem along central Florida's Atlantic coast into 10-ha grid cells, which approximated average territory size of the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a management indicator species. We used 1.0-m resolution aerial imagery for 1994, 1999, and 2004 to classify grid cells into four habitat quality states that were directly related to Florida Scrub-Jay source-sink dynamics and management decision making. Results showed that static site features related to fire propagation (vegetation type, edges) and temporally varying disturbances (fires, mechanical cutting) best explained transition probabilities. Results indicated that much of the scrub and flatwoods ecosystem was resistant to moving from a degraded state to a desired state without mechanical cutting, an expensive restoration tool. We used habitat models parameterized with the estimated transition probabilities to investigate the consequences of alternative management scenarios on future habitat dynamics. We recommend this multistate modeling approach as being broadly applicable for studying ecosystem, land cover, or habitat dynamics. The approach provides maximum-likelihood estimates of transition parameters, including precision measures, and can be used to assess

  18. Calculation of transition probabilities and ac Stark shifts in two-photon laser transitions of antiprotonic helium

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Masaki; Korobov, Vladimir I.

    2010-06-15

    Numerical ab initio variational calculations of the transition probabilities and ac Stark shifts in two-photon transitions of antiprotonic helium atoms driven by two counter-propagating laser beams are presented. We found that sub-Doppler spectroscopy is, in principle, possible by exciting transitions of the type (n,L){yields}(n-2,L-2) between antiprotonic states of principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n{approx}L-1{approx}35, first by using highly monochromatic, nanosecond laser beams of intensities 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} W/cm{sup 2}, and then by tuning the virtual intermediate state close (e.g., within 10-20 GHz) to the real state (n-1,L-1) to enhance the nonlinear transition probability. We expect that ac Stark shifts of a few MHz or more will become an important source of systematic error at fractional precisions of better than a few parts in 10{sup 9}. These shifts can, in principle, be minimized and even canceled by selecting an optimum combination of laser intensities and frequencies. We simulated the resonance profiles of some two-photon transitions in the regions n=30-40 of the p{sup 4}He{sup +} and p{sup 3}He{sup +} isotopes to find the best conditions that would allow this.

  19. Estimating transition probabilities for stage-based population projection matrices using capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    In stage-based demography, animals are often categorized into size (or mass) classes, and size-based probabilities of surviving and changing mass classes must be estimated before demographic analyses can be conducted. In this paper, we develop two procedures for the estimation of mass transition probabilities from capture-recapture data. The first approach uses a multistate capture-recapture model that is parameterized directly with the transition probabilities of interest. Maximum likelihood estimates are then obtained numerically using program SURVIV. The second approach involves a modification of Pollock's robust design. Estimation proceeds by conditioning on animals caught in a particualr class at time i, and then using closed models to estimate the number of these that are alive in other classes at i + 1. Both methods are illustrated by application to meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus, capture-recapture data. The two methods produced reasonable estimates that were similar. Advantages of these two approaches include the directness of estimation, the absence of need for restrictive assumptions about the independence of survival and growth, the testability of assumptions, and the testability of related hypotheses of ecological interest (e.g., the hypothesis of temporal variation in transition probabilities).

  20. Critical inclination for absolute/convective instability transition in inverted falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Benoit; Kofman, Nicolas; Rohlfs, Wilko

    2016-04-01

    Liquid films flowing down the underside of inclined plates are subject to the interaction between the hydrodynamic and the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities causing a patterned and wavy topology at the free surface. The R-T instability results from the denser liquid film being located above a less dense ambient gas, and deforming into an array of droplets, which eventually drip if no saturation mechanism arises. Such saturation mechanism can actually be provided by a fluid motion along the inclined plate. Using a weighted integral boundary layer model, this study examines the critical inclination angle, measured from the vertical, that separates regimes of absolute and convective instability. If the instability is of absolute type, growing perturbations stay localized in space potentially leading to dripping. If the instability is of convective type, growing perturbations move downwards the inclined plate, forming waves and eventually, but not necessarily, droplets. Remarkably, there is a minimum value of the critical angle below which a regime of absolute instability cannot exist. This minimum angle decreases with viscosity: it is about 85° for water, about 70° for silicon oil 20 times more viscous than water, and reaches a limiting value for liquid with a viscosity larger than about 1000 times the one of water. It results that for any fluid, absolute dripping can only exist for inclination angle (taken from the vertical) larger than 57.4°.

  1. Theoretical Study of Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities of Boron Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian Yi, Zhang; Neng Wu, Zheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text PDF Though the electrons configuration for boron atom is simple and boron atom has long been of interest for many researchers, the theoretical studies for properties of BI are not systematic, there are only few results reported on energy levels of high excited states of boron, and transition measurements are generally restricted to transitions involving ground states and low excited states without considering fine structure effects, provided only multiplet results, values for transitions between high excited states are seldom performed. In this article, by using the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory calculations for energy levels of five series are performed and with the same method we give the transition probabilities between excited states with considering fine structure effects. The comprehensive set of calculations attempted in this paper could be of some value to workers in the field because of the lack of published calculations for the BI systems. The perturbations coming from foreign perturbers are taken into account in studying the energy levels. Good agreement between our results and the accepted values taken from NIST has been obtained. We also reported some values of energy levels and transition probabilities not existing on the NIST data bases.

  2. Restoring detailed balance in the Landau-Teller probabilities for collision-induced vibrational transitions.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, E E; Troe, J

    2006-05-01

    The general quasi-classical treatment for collision-induced vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules, under near-adiabatic conditions, is used to derive quantum corrections for probabilities, calculated in the external field approximation originally used by Landau and Teller. The quantum corrections are expressed through the Landau-Teller classical collision time. The first-order correction to the classical exponent restores detailed balance for up- and down-transitions and does not depend on the properties of the bath except for its temperature. The limits of applicability of the first-order correction are discussed. PMID:16633688

  3. Effective transition probability for the Faraday effect of lanthanide(III) ion solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Isai, Kento; Suwa, Masayori; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2009-05-13

    The Faraday effects of 14 lanthanide(III) ion solutions were systematically analyzed on the basis of the Faraday C term. The effective transition probability, K, which measures the magneto-optical contribution of the 4f(n) --> 4f(n-1)5d transition to the molar Verdet constant, was determined. Linear correlations between K and the square root of the molar magnetic susceptibility of the lanthanide(III) ions, chi(m)(1/2), were obtained. From the observed new regularity, K for promethium(III) was estimated. PMID:19378955

  4. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  5. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  6. Splitting the variance of statistical learning performance: A parametric investigation of exposure duration and transitional probabilities.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Siegelman, Noam; Frost, Ram

    2016-08-01

    What determines individuals' efficacy in detecting regularities in visual statistical learning? Our theoretical starting point assumes that the variance in performance of statistical learning (SL) can be split into the variance related to efficiency in encoding representations within a modality and the variance related to the relative computational efficiency of detecting the distributional properties of the encoded representations. Using a novel methodology, we dissociated encoding from higher-order learning factors, by independently manipulating exposure duration and transitional probabilities in a stream of visual shapes. Our results show that the encoding of shapes and the retrieving of their transitional probabilities are not independent and additive processes, but interact to jointly determine SL performance. The theoretical implications of these findings for a mechanistic explanation of SL are discussed. PMID:26743060

  7. Some results on the dynamics and transition probabilities for non self-adjoint hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Bagarello, F.

    2015-05-15

    We discuss systematically several possible inequivalent ways to describe the dynamics and the transition probabilities of a quantum system when its hamiltonian is not self-adjoint. In order to simplify the treatment, we mainly restrict our analysis to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we propose some experiments which could discriminate between the various possibilities considered in the paper. An example taken from the literature is discussed in detail.

  8. Some Results on the Analysis of Stochastic Processes with Uncertain Transition Probabilities and Robust Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Keyong Li; Seong-Cheol Kang; I. Ch. Paschalidis

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates stochastic processes that are modeled by a finite number of states but whose transition probabilities are uncertain and possibly time-varying. The treatment of uncertain transition probabilities is important because there appears to be a disconnection between the practice and theory of stochastic processes due to the difficulty of assigning exact probabilities to real-world events. Also, when the finite-state process comes as a reduced model of one that is more complicated in nature (possibly in a continuous state space), existing results do not facilitate rigorous analysis. Two approaches are introduced here. The first focuses on processes with one terminal state and the properties that affect their convergence rates. When a process is on a complicated graph, the bound of the convergence rate is not trivially related to that of the probabilities of individual transitions. Discovering the connection between the two led us to define two concepts which we call 'progressivity' and 'sortedness', and to a new comparison theorem for stochastic processes. An optimality criterion for robust optimal control also derives from this comparison theorem. In addition, this result is applied to the case of mission-oriented autonomous robot control to produce performance estimate within a control framework that we propose. The second approach is in the MDP frame work. We will introduce our preliminary work on optimistic robust optimization, which aims at finding solutions that guarantee the upper bounds of the accumulative discounted cost with prescribed probabilities. The motivation here is to address the issue that the standard robust optimal solution tends to be overly conservative.

  9. Analytic solution of relaxation in a system with exponential transition probabilities. III. Macroscopic disequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forst, Wendell

    1984-03-01

    The exponential transition probability, in the version that permits an analytical solution of the relaxation problem, is used to compute a number of macroscopic (bulk) observables for a model system based on multiphoton excitation of SF6 coupled to a rare-gas heat bath. Two extreme cases are considered: Initial excitation as a delta function, or as a Poisson distribution. It turns out that regardless of initial conditions, all macroscopic observables are functions of time, including the relaxation time, so that the system does not undergo simple exponential decay. This is because the first moment of the exponential transition probability does not satisfy the linear ``sum rule.'' The exponential transition probability causes the overall (or bulk) average of energy transferred (<<ΔE>>) to be constrained to a maximum which is independent of the nature and level of initial excitation, thus producing a bottleneck in the macroscopic relaxation process when excitation is sufficiently high. The consequence is that the initially more highly excited system takes longer to reach steady state, with a relaxation time that is initially nearly proportional to initial excitation and which decreases as the system approaches steady state. It is only in the immediate vicinity of steady state that simple exponential relaxation takes place, with the shortest relaxation time. Several consequences of this, particularly the population distribution as a function of time, are illustrated and discussed.

  10. Tables of Transition Probabilities and Branching Ratios for Electric Dipole Transitions Between Arbitrary Levels of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.

  11. New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and Singly Ionized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Wolfgang L.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    We have undertaken new critical assessments and tabulations of the transition probabilities of important lines of these spectra. For Fe I and Fe II, we have carried out a complete re-assessment and update, and we have relied almost exclusively on the literature of the last 15 years. Our updates for C I, C II and N I, N II primarily address the persistent lower transitions as well as a greatly expanded number of forbidden lines (M1, M2, and E2). For these transitions, sophisticated multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations have been recently carried out, which have yielded data considerably improved and often appreciably different from our 1996 NIST compilation.

  12. Forbidden transition probabilities for ground terms of ions with p or p5 configurations. [for solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.

    1976-01-01

    Forbidden transition probabilities are given for ground term transitions of ions in the isoelectronic sequences with outer configurations 2s2 2p (B I), 2p5 (F I), 3s2 3p (Al I), and 3p5 (Cl I). Tables give, for each ion, the ground term interval, the associated wavelength, the quadrupole radial integral, the electric quadrupole transition probability, and the magnetic dipole transition probability. Coronal lines due to some of these ions have been observed, while others are yet to be observed. The tales for the Al I and Cl I sequences include elements up to germanium.

  13. Estimation of drought transition probabilities in Sicily making use of exogenous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; di Mauro, Giuseppe; Cancelliere, Antonino; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Drought monitoring and forecasting play a very important role for an effective drought management. A timely monitoring of drought features and/or forecasting of an incoming drought do make possible an effective mitigation of its impacts, more than in the case of other natural disasters (e.g. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.). An accurate selection of indices, able to monitor the main characteristics of droughts, is essential to help decision makers to implement appropriate preparedness and mitigation measures. Among the several proposed indices for drought monitoring, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has found widespread use to monitor dry and wet periods of precipitation aggregated at different time scales. Recently, some efforts have been made to analyze the role of SPI for drought forecasting, as well as to estimate transition probabilities between drought classes. In the present work, a model able to estimate transition probabilities from a current SPI drought class or from a current SPI value to future classes, corresponding to droughts of different severities, is presented and extended in order to include information provided by an exogenous variable, such as a large scale climatic index as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO). The model has been preliminarily applied and tested with reference to SPI series computed on average areal precipitation in Sicily island, Italy, making use of NAO as exogenous variable. Results seem to indicate that winter drought transition probabilities in Sicily are generally affected by NAO index. Furthermore, the statistical significance of such influence has been tested by means of a Montecarlo analysis, which indicates that the effect of NAO on drought transition in Sicily should be considered significant.

  14. Estimating state-transition probabilities for unobservable states using capture-recapture/resighting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Temporary emigration was identified some time ago as causing potential problems in capture-recapture studies, and in the last five years approaches have been developed for dealing with special cases of this general problem. Temporary emigration can be viewed more generally as involving transitions to and from an unobservable state, and frequently the state itself is one of biological interest (e.g., 'nonbreeder'). Development of models that permit estimation of relevant parameters in the presence of an unobservable state requires either extra information (e.g., as supplied by Pollock's robust design) or the following classes of model constraints: reducing the order of Markovian transition probabilities, imposing a degree of determinism on transition probabilities, removing state specificity of survival probabilities, and imposing temporal constancy of parameters. The objective of the work described in this paper is to investigate estimability of model parameters under a variety of models that include an unobservable state. Beginning with a very general model and no extra information, we used numerical methods to systematically investigate the use of ancillary information and constraints to yield models that are useful for estimation. The result is a catalog of models for which estimation is possible. An example analysis of sea turtle capture-recapture data under two different models showed similar point estimates but increased precision for the model that incorporated ancillary data (the robust design) when compared to the model with deterministic transitions only. This comparison and the results of our numerical investigation of model structures lead to design suggestions for capture-recapture studies in the presence of an unobservable state.

  15. Reconstructing the Most Probable Folding Transition Path from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo Andres; Garcia, Angel E

    2013-08-13

    The characterization of transition pathways between long-lived states, and the identification of the corresponding transition state ensembles are useful tools in the study of rare events such as protein folding. In this work we demonstrate how the most probable transition path between metastable states can be recovered from replica exchange molecular dynamic simulation data by using the dynamic string method. The local drift vector in collective variables is determined via short continuous trajectories between replica exchanges at a given temperature, and points along the string are updated based on this drift vector to produce reaction pathways between the folded and unfolded state. The method is applied to a designed beta hairpin-forming peptide to obtain information on the folding mechanism and transition state using different sets of collective variables at various temperatures. Two main folding pathways differing in the order of events are found and discussed, and the relative free energy differences for each path estimated. Finally, the structures near the transition state are found and described. PMID:26584126

  16. Assessing Uncertainties of Theoretical Atomic Transition Probabilities with Monte Carlo Random Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a method of evaluation of uncertainties in calculated transition probabilities by randomly varying parameters of an atomic code and comparing the results. A control code has been written to randomly vary the input parameters with a normal statistical distribution around initial values with a certain standard deviation. For this particular implementation, Cowan’s suite of atomic codes (R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981) was used to calculate radiative rates of magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole transitions within the ground configuration of titanium-like iron, Fe V. The Slater parameters used in the calculations were adjusted to fit experimental energy levels with Cowan’s least-squares fitting program, RCE. The standard deviations of the fitted parameters were used as input of the control code providing the distribution widths of random trials for these parameters. Propagation of errors through the matrix diagonalization and summation of basis state expansions leads to significant variations in the resulting transition rates. These variations vastly differ in their magnitude for different transitions, depending on their sensitivity to errors in parameters. With this method, the rate uncertainty can be individually assessed for each calculated transition. PMID:27274981

  17. K-LL Auger transition probabilities for elements with low and intermediate atomic numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.

    1973-01-01

    Radiationless K-LL transition probabilities have been calculated nonrelativistically in j-j coupling and in intermediate coupling, without and with configuration interaction, for elements with atomic numbers from 13 to 47. The system is treated as a coupled two-hole configuration. The single-particle radial wave functions required in the calculation of radial matrix elements, and in the calculation of mixing coefficients in the intermediate-coupling scheme, were obtained from Green's atomic independent-particle model. Comparison with previous theoretical work and with experimental data is made. The effects of intermediate coupling, configuration interaction, and relativity are noted.

  18. Radiative transition probabilities for all vibrational levels in the X 1Sigma(+) state of HF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemke, Warren T.; Stwalley, William C.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Valderrama, Giuseppe L.; Berry, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent analyses have led to an experimentally-based potential energy curve for the ground state of HF which includes nonadiabatic corrections and which joins smoothly to the long-range potential at an accurately determined dissociation limit. Using this potential curve and a new ab initio dipole moment function, accurate radiative transition probabilities among all vibrational levels of the ground state of HF have been calculated for selected rotational quantum numbers. Comparisons of Einstein A spontaneous emission coefficients, dipole moment absorption matrix elements, and Herman-Wallis factors for absorption bands are presented.

  19. Measurement of absolute E2 transition strengths in {sup 176}W: Signatures for a rapid shape change

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Friessner, G.; Hackstein, M.; Jolie, J.; Pissulla, T.; Rother, W.; Zell, K.-O.; Moeller, O.

    2011-10-28

    The X(5) symmetry describes nuclei at the critical point of the shape phase transition from axially deformed rotor nuclei to spherical vibrators. {sup 150}Nd, {sup 152}Sm, and {sup 154}Gd were the first nuclei where the predicted characteristics of the X(5) symmetry were observed. Later it was shown that also {sup 176,178,180}Os can be successfully described with the X(5) symmetry.In the close vicinity of shape phase transitions one expects strongly changing nuclear shapes. In the X(5) region around A = 150 this was observed for nuclei with different neutron numbers, whereas in the X(5) region around A = 180 this is to be expected for different proton numbers. The aim of the work presented here is the confirmation of a rapid shape change for nuclei close to {sup 178}Os. Besides the knowledge on the level scheme of the nuclei of interest, especially absolute E2 transition strengths are crucial for the interpretation of nuclear structure. Prolate deformation is expected for {sup 176}W. Thus we performed a recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) measurement on {sup 176}W to measure E2 transition strengths from level lifetimes. The experiment was performed at the Cologne FN TANDEM accelerator with the Cologne coincidence plunger with the reaction {sup 169}Dy({sup 16}O,4n){sup 176}W and a beam energy of 80 MeV. We will present our experimental results and relate them to data on the neighboring nuclei {sup 178}Os and {sup 182}Pt. The results will be discussed in the framework of nuclear shape transitions in this mass region and compared to calculations with both the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) and the GCM.

  20. Theoretical transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and radiative lifetimes of levels in Pb IV

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colon, C.; Porcher, P.

    2011-01-15

    Transition probabilities and oscillator strengths of 176 spectral lines with astrophysical interest arising from 5d{sup 10}ns (n = 7,8), 5d{sup 10}np (n = 6,7), 5d{sup 10}nd (n = 6,7), 5d{sup 10}5f, 5d{sup 10}5g, 5d{sup 10}nh (n = 6,7,8), 5d{sup 9}6s{sup 2}, and 5d{sup 9}6s6p configurations, and radiative lifetimes for 43 levels of Pb IV, have been calculated. These values were obtained in intermediate coupling (IC) and using relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations including core-polarization effects. For the IC calculations, we use the standard method of least-square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. The inclusion in these calculations of the 5d{sup 10}7p and 5d{sup 10}5f configurations has facilitated a complete assignment of the energy levels in the Pb IV. Transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and radiative lifetimes obtained are generally in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. OSSOS. II. A Sharp Transition in the Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Kuiper Belt’s Scattering Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankman, C.; Kavelaars, JJ.; Gladman, B. J.; Alexandersen, M.; Kaib, N.; Petit, J.-M.; Bannister, M. T.; Chen, Y.-T.; Gwyn, S.; Jakubik, M.; Volk, K.

    2016-02-01

    We measure the absolute magnitude, H, distribution, dN(H) ∝ 10αH, of the scattering Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) as a proxy for their size-frequency distribution. We show that the H-distribution of the scattering TNOs is not consistent with a single-slope distribution, but must transition around Hg ˜ 9 to either a knee with a shallow slope or to a divot, which is a differential drop followed by second exponential distribution. Our analysis is based on a sample of 22 scattering TNOs drawn from three different TNO surveys—the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey, Alexandersen et al., and the Outer Solar System Origins Survey, all of which provide well-characterized detection thresholds—combined with a cosmogonic model for the formation of the scattering TNO population. Our measured absolute magnitude distribution result is independent of the choice of cosmogonic model. Based on our analysis, we estimate that the number of scattering TNOs is (2.4-8.3) × 105 for Hr < 12. A divot H-distribution is seen in a variety of formation scenarios and may explain several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. We find that a divot H-distribution simultaneously explains the observed scattering TNO, Neptune Trojan, Plutino, and Centaur H-distributions while simultaneously predicting a large enough scattering TNO population to act as the sole supply of the Jupiter-Family Comets.

  2. Solution to a gene divergence problem under arbitrary stable nucleotide transition probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1976-01-01

    A nucleic acid chain, L nucleotides in length, with the specific base sequence B(1)B(2) ... B(L) is defined by the L-dimensional vector B = (B(1), B(2), ..., B(L)). For twelve given constant non-negative transition probabilities that, in a specified position, the base B is replaced by the base B' in a single step, an exact analytical expression is derived for the probability that the position goes from base B to B' in X steps. Assuming that each base mutates independently of the others, an exact expression is derived for the probability that the initial gene sequence B goes to a sequence B' = (B'(1), B'(2), ..., B'(L)) after X = (X(1), X(2), ..., X(L)) base replacements. The resulting equations allow a more precise accounting for the effects of Darwinian natural selection in molecular evolution than does the idealized (biologically less accurate) assumption that each of the four nucleotides is equally likely to mutate to and be fixed as one of the other three. Illustrative applications of the theory to some problems of biological evolution are given.

  3. Absolute Cross sections of Fe XVII x-ray transitions measured with the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M.; Scofield, J.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-04-01

    We have used the NASA/GSFC engineering model Astro-E microcalorimeter 6x6 array with the LLNL electron beam ion trap uc(ebit-i) to measure absolute excitation cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell x-ray transitions by normalizing to radiative recombination (RR). In the past, normalizing Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitions to RR has not been possible because it is approximately 1000 times weaker than direct excitation, its emission often blends with emission from other charge states, and it is separated from direct excitation by greater than 500 eV. However, because of its large effective area, high resolution, large bandwidth, and long-time gain stability, the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter coupled with uc(ebit-i) has made measurement of absolute cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitons possible. We present the measured cross sections of two of the strongest lines observed in a plethora of astrophysical sources, the Fe uc(xvii) resonance and intercombination lines, located at 15.01 Å and 15.26 Årespectively. Our results provide stringent tests for atomic data present in spectral modeling packages and can be used to interpret high-resolution spectra provided by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and, in the near future, Astro-E2. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under auspices of DOE under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Columbia University.

  4. Absolute redshifts in the CIV 1548 A line in the transition region of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, William; Engvold, Oddbjorn

    1992-01-01

    Observations with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument on the SMM spacecraft were made at the polar limb and disk center for the accurate determination of Doppler shifts of the CIV 1548 A emission line formed at 10 exp -5 K in the transition region of the quiet sun. Individual data points representing 3 arcsec square pixels yield both redshifts and blueshifts, but the mean values from four different days of observations are toward the red. The mean redshifts are in the range 4-8 km/s and are produced by nearly vertically directed flows; the uncertainty associated with the mean values corresponds to +/- 0.5 km/s. The redshift increases with brightness of the CIV line.

  5. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, Marko; Lee, Eunghyun

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  6. Effect of external electric field on the probability of optical transitions in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pikhtin, A. N. Komkov, O. S.; Bazarov, K. V.

    2006-05-15

    The effect of external electric field on interband optical transitions in single In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs quantum wells is studied by electroreflectance spectroscopy. A procedure is suggested for separating the contribution of particular exciton transitions to the complicated modulation spectrum. Nontrivial field dependences of the probability of optical transitions forbidden by the symmetry are observed experimentally. The data are compared with the corresponding theoretical dependences. The strength of the internal electric field in the region of the quantum well is determined from Frantz-Keldysh's oscillations. Under certain electric fields, the probability of transitions forbidden with no field is higher than the probability of transitions allowed by the symmetry.

  7. Absorption coefficient, transition probability, and collision-broadening frequency of dimethylether at He-Xe laser 3.51-micron wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegman, A. E.; Wang, S. C.

    1970-01-01

    Absorptivity, transition probability and collision broadening frequency of dimethylether at 3.51 micron He-Xe laser wavelength, noting pressure dependence, transition lifetime and saturation intensity

  8. DROPOUT AND RETENTION RATE METHODOLOGY USED TO ESTIMATE FIRST-STAGE ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES FOR DYNAMOD II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUDMAN, JOHN T.; ZABROWSKI, EDWARD K.

    EQUATIONS FOR SYSTEM INTAKE, DROPOUT, AND RETENTION RATE CALCULATIONS ARE DERIVED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, SECONDARY SCHOOLS, AND COLLEGES. THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED WERE FOLLOWED IN DEVELOPING ESTIMATES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS OF THE TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES USED IN DYNAMOD II. THE PROBABILITY MATRIX CELLS ESTIMATED BY THE PROCEDURES DESCRIBED…

  9. Peculiarities of high-overtone transition probabilities in carbon monoxide revealed by high-precision calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Meshkov, Vladimir V.; Stolyarov, Andrey V.; Gordon, Iouli E.

    2015-10-01

    In the recent work devoted to the calculation of the rovibrational line list of the CO molecule [G. Li et al., Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 216, 15 (2015)], rigorous validation of the calculated parameters including intensities was carried out. In particular, the Normal Intensity Distribution Law (NIDL) [E. S. Medvedev, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 174307 (2012)] was employed for the validation purposes, and it was found that, in the original CO line list calculated for large changes of the vibrational quantum number up to Δn = 41, intensities with Δn > 11 were unphysical. Therefore, very high overtone transitions were removed from the published list in Li et al. Here, we show how this type of validation is carried out and prove that the quadruple precision is indispensably required to predict the reliable intensities using the conventional 32-bit computers. Based on these calculations, the NIDL is shown to hold up for the 0 → n transitions till the dissociation limit around n = 83, covering 45 orders of magnitude in the intensity. The low-intensity 0 → n transition predicted in the work of Medvedev [Determination of a new molecular constant for diatomic systems. Normal intensity distribution law for overtone spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and anomalies in overtone absorption spectra of diatomic molecules, Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 1984] at n = 5 is confirmed, and two additional "abnormal" intensities are found at n = 14 and 23. Criteria for the appearance of such "anomalies" are formulated. The results could be useful to revise the high-overtone molecular transition probabilities provided in spectroscopic databases.

  10. Peculiarities of high-overtone transition probabilities in carbon monoxide revealed by high-precision calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Meshkov, Vladimir V.; Stolyarov, Andrey V.

    2015-10-21

    In the recent work devoted to the calculation of the rovibrational line list of the CO molecule [G. Li et al., Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 216, 15 (2015)], rigorous validation of the calculated parameters including intensities was carried out. In particular, the Normal Intensity Distribution Law (NIDL) [E. S. Medvedev, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 174307 (2012)] was employed for the validation purposes, and it was found that, in the original CO line list calculated for large changes of the vibrational quantum number up to Δn = 41, intensities with Δn > 11 were unphysical. Therefore, very high overtone transitions were removed from the published list in Li et al. Here, we show how this type of validation is carried out and prove that the quadruple precision is indispensably required to predict the reliable intensities using the conventional 32-bit computers. Based on these calculations, the NIDL is shown to hold up for the 0 → n transitions till the dissociation limit around n = 83, covering 45 orders of magnitude in the intensity. The low-intensity 0 → n transition predicted in the work of Medvedev [Determination of a new molecular constant for diatomic systems. Normal intensity distribution law for overtone spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and anomalies in overtone absorption spectra of diatomic molecules, Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 1984] at n = 5 is confirmed, and two additional “abnormal” intensities are found at n = 14 and 23. Criteria for the appearance of such “anomalies” are formulated. The results could be useful to revise the high-overtone molecular transition probabilities provided in spectroscopic databases.

  11. Measurement of the transition probability of the C III 190.9 nanometer intersystem line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.; Fang, Z.; Gibbons, T. T.; Parkinson, W. H.; Smith, Peter L.

    1993-01-01

    A radio-frequency ion trap has been used to store C(2+) ions created by electron bombardment of CO. The transition probability for the 2s2p 3Po1-2s2 1S0 intersystem line of C m has been measured by recording the radiative decay at 190.9 nm. The measured A-value is 121 +/- 7/s and agrees, within mutual uncertainty limits, with that of Laughlin et al. (1978), but is 20 percent larger than that of Nussbaumer and Storey (1978). The effective collision mixing rate coefficient among the fine structure levels of 3Po and the combined quenching and charge transfer rate coefficients out of the 3Po1 level with the CO source gas have also been measured.

  12. Transition probabilities of PrII-lines emitted from a ferroelectric plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, A.; Kusz, J.; Quang, B. Nguyen; Weniger, S.

    1991-03-01

    An argon-praseodymium plasma was generated under atmospheric pressure between a ceramic ferroelectric plate and a praseodymium plate. The system of plates was connected to an acoustic frequency supply. The plasma radiation was analyzed in the spectral range from 2000 to 7000 A by using a grating spectrograph with a linear dispersion near 1 mm/A, adopted to photoelectric measurements. The emission spectrum of praseodymium was recorded, and the intensities of a few hundred lines were measured. Transition probabilities were determined for 62 PrII-lines, using available lifetime data for excited levels and measured branching ratios of the corresponding lines. Reasonable agreement has been found between the experimental data of Lage and Whaling (1976) and some of the present results.

  13. Reliable Sampled-Data Control of Fuzzy Markovian Systems with Partly Known Transition Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, R.; Kaviarasan, B.; Kwon, O. M.; Rathika, M.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a fuzzy dynamic reliable sampled-data control design for nonlinear Markovian jump systems, where the nonlinear plant is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and the transition probability matrix for Markov process is permitted to be partially known. In addition, a generalised as well as more practical consideration of the real-world actuator fault model which consists of both linear and nonlinear fault terms is proposed to the above-addressed system. Then, based on the construction of an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the employment of convex combination technique together with free-weighting matrices method, some sufficient conditions that promising the robust stochastic stability of system under consideration and the existence of the proposed controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved by any of the available standard numerical softwares. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology.

  14. Charge exchange transition probability for collisions between unlike ions and atoms within the adiabatic approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A simple formula for the transition probability for electron exchange between unlike ions and atoms is established within the adiabatic approximation by employing the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. The formula also involves an adiabatic parameter, introduced by Massey, and thus the difficulties arising from the internal energy defect and the adiabatic approximation are avoided. Specific reactions Li(+++) + H to Li(++) + H(+) and Be(4+) + H to Be(3+) + H(+) are considered as examples. The calculated capture cross section results of the present work are compared with the experimental data and with the calculation of other authors over the velocity range of 10(7) cm/sec to 10(8) cm/sec.

  15. Statistical simulation of internal energy exchange in shock waves using explicit transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Erik; Magin, Thierry

    2012-11-01

    A statistical model originally developed for electronic-translational energy transfer in atoms having multiple electronic states (Anderson et al, RGD15, 1986) is applied to the study of internal energy exchange in a polyatomic gas. The model is well-suited for gas kinetic simulations, because it provides an explicit expression for the transition probabilities between internal energy levels. All molecules possessing a given internal energy level are treated as a separate chemical species and all collisions involving exchange of internal energy thus become pseudo-chemical reactions. Post-collision energy levels of the two partners are determined by conserving the total energy of the collision pair and taking into account detailed balance. In the present work, DSMC simulations of relaxation in a stationary gas are performed and compared to those obtained by Anderson et al. Additionally, we apply the model to the simulation of rotational relaxation behind a normal shock wave.

  16. Absolute measurements of the electronic transition moments of seven band systems of the C2 molecule. Ph.D. Thesis - York Univ., Toronto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Electronic transition moments of seven C2 singlet and triplet band systems in the 0.2-1.2 micron spectral region were measured. The measurements were made in emission behind incident shock waves in C2H2-argon mixtures. Narrow bandpass radiometers were used to obtain absolute measurements of shock-excited C2 radiation from which absolute electronic transition moments are derived by a synthetic spectrum analysis. New results are reported for the Ballik-Ramsay, Phillips, Swan, Deslandres-d'Azambuja, Fox-Herzberg, Mulliken, and Freymark systems.

  17. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  18. The k-sample problem in a multi-state model and testing transition probability matrices.

    PubMed

    Tattar, Prabhanjan N; Vaman, H J

    2014-07-01

    The choice of multi-state models is natural in analysis of survival data, e.g., when the subjects in a study pass through different states like 'healthy', 'in a state of remission', 'relapse' or 'dead' in a health related quality of life study. Competing risks is another common instance of the use of multi-state models. Statistical inference for such event history data can be carried out by assuming a stochastic process model. Under such a setting, comparison of the event history data generated by two different treatments calls for testing equality of the corresponding transition probability matrices. The present paper proposes solution to this class of problems by assuming a non-homogeneous Markov process to describe the transitions among the health states. A class of test statistics are derived for comparison of [Formula: see text] treatments by using a 'weight process'. This class, in particular, yields generalisations of the log-rank, Gehan, Peto-Peto and Harrington-Fleming tests. For an intrinsic comparison of the treatments, the 'leave-one-out' jackknife method is employed for identifying influential observations. The proposed methods are then used to develop the Kolmogorov-Smirnov type supremum tests corresponding to the various extended tests. To demonstrate the usefulness of the test procedures developed, a simulation study was carried out and an application to the Trial V data provided by International Breast Cancer Study Group is discussed. PMID:23722306

  19. Transition probability of the Si III 189.2-nm intersystem line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, H. S.; Johnson, B. C.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetime of the metastable 3s3p(3)P(0)1 level of Si(2+) (Si III), which decays by photon emission at 189.2 nm to the 3s2(1)S0 state, is reported. The data were taken from spontaneous emission from metastable Si III stored in an RF ion trap. The Si III ions were produced through electron bombardment of SiH4 and SiF4 at pressures of 1/100,000,000-1/10,000,000 Torr. A photomultiplier was employed to count the photon emissions from the transitions. A total of 11 decay curves were generated for analysis, with Poisson statistics used to set the uncertainties at within 8 pct. Significant systematic effects were controlled, and the lifetime was found to be within 3.6 microsec of 59.9 microsec. The method used is concluded valid for determining the lifetimes of metastable levels of low-Z ions with low charge, and thereby the transition probabilities.

  20. Einstein A coefficients and absolute line intensities for the E2Π-X2Σ+ transition of CaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Ram, Ram S.; Western, Colin M.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Einstein A coefficients and absolute line intensities have been calculated for the E2Π-X2Σ+ transition of CaH. Using wavefunctions derived from the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method and electronic transition dipole moment functions obtained from high-level ab initio calculations, rotationless transition dipole moment matrix elements have been calculated for all 10 bands involving v‧=0,1 of the E2Π state and v″=0,1,2,3,4 of the X2Σ state. The rotational line strength factors (Hönl-London factors) are derived for the intermediate coupling case between Hund's case (a) and (b) for the E2Π-X2Σ+ transition. The computed transition dipole moments and the spectroscopic constants from a recent study [Ram et al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2011;266:86-91] have been combined to generate line lists containing Einstein A coefficients and absolute line intensities for 10 bands of the E2Π-X2Σ+ transition of CaH for J-values up to 50.5. The absolute line intensities have been used to determine a rotational temperature of 778±3 °C for the CaH sample in the recent study.

  1. Calculations of hydrogen atom multiphoton energy level shifts, transition amplitudes and ionization probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, K. G.; Chang, C. S.

    2008-07-01

    Analyses of the resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms require knowledge of ac Stark energy shifts and of multiphoton, bound-to-bound state, transition amplitudes. In this paper, we consider the three-photon photoionization of hydrogen atoms at frequencies that are at and surrounding the two-photon 1s to 2s resonance. AC energy shift sums of both the 1s and 2s states are calculated as a function of the laser frequency along with two-photon 1s → 2s resonant transition amplitude sums. These quantities are calculated using an extended version of a method, which has often been employed in a variety of ways, of calculating these sums by expressing them in terms of solutions to a variety of differential equations that are derived from the different sums being evaluated. We demonstrate how exact solutions are obtained to these differential equations, which lead to exact evaluations of the corresponding sums. A variety of different cases are analysed, some involving analytic continuation, some involving real number analysis and some involving complex number analysis. A dc Stark sum calculation of the 2s state is carried out to illustrate the case where analytic continuation, pole isolation and pole subtraction are required and where the calculation can be carried out analytically; the 2s state, ac Stark shift sum calculations involve a case where no analytic continuation is required, but where the solution to the differential equation produces complex numbers owing to the finite photoionization lifetime of the 2s state. Results from these calculations are then used to calculate three-photon ionization probabilities of relevance to an analysis of the multiphoton ionization data published by Kyrala and Nichols (1991 Phys. Rev. A 44, R1450).

  2. Delineation of an Optimal Location for Oil Sand Exploration through Transition Probabilities of Composing Lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, M.; Jeong, J.; Park, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional geostatistical studies of delineating an optimal exploitation location for oil sand in McMurray Formation, Athabasca, Canada were carried out. The area is mainly composed of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sand where breccia, mud, clay, etc. are associated as alternating layers. For the prediction of the optimal location of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique, the conventional approach of cumulating the predicted thickness of the media with higher bitumen bearing possibility (i.e. Breccia and Sand) was pursued. As an alternative measure, mean vertical extension of the permeable media was also assessed based on vertical transition rate of each media and the corresponding optimal location was decided. For the both predictions, 110 borehole data acquired from the study area were analyzed under Markovian transition probability (TP) framework and three-dimensional distributions of the composing media were predicted stochastically through an existing TP based geostatistical model. The effectiveness of the two competing measures (cumulative thickness and mean vertical extension) for SAGD applications was verified through two-dimensional dual-phase flow simulations where high temperature steam was injected in the delineated reservoirs, and the size of steam chamber was compared. The results of the two-dimensional SAGD simulation has shown that the geologic formation containing the highest mean vertical extension of permeable media is more suitable for the development of the oil sand by developing larger size of steam chamber compared to that from the highest cumulative thickness. Given those two-dimensional results, the cumulative thickness alone may not be a sufficient criterion for an optimal SAGD site and the mean vertical extension of the permeable media needs to be jointly considered for the sound selections.

  3. Under the hood of statistical learning: A statistical MMN reflects the magnitude of transitional probabilities in auditory sequences

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Busch, Tobias; Jentschke, Sebastian; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of statistical learning, many behavioural studies investigated the processing of unpredicted events. However, surprisingly few neurophysiological studies are available on this topic, and no statistical learning experiment has investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of processing events with different transition probabilities. We carried out an EEG study with a novel variant of the established statistical learning paradigm. Timbres were presented in isochronous sequences of triplets. The first two sounds of all triplets were equiprobable, while the third sound occurred with either low (10%), intermediate (30%), or high (60%) probability. Thus, the occurrence probability of the third item of each triplet (given the first two items) was varied. Compared to high-probability triplet endings, endings with low and intermediate probability elicited an early anterior negativity that had an onset around 100 ms and was maximal at around 180 ms. This effect was larger for events with low than for events with intermediate probability. Our results reveal that, when predictions are based on statistical learning, events that do not match a prediction evoke an early anterior negativity, with the amplitude of this mismatch response being inversely related to the probability of such events. Thus, we report a statistical mismatch negativity (sMMN) that reflects statistical learning of transitional probability distributions that go beyond auditory sensory memory capabilities. PMID:26830652

  4. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; et al

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  5. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tarun; De Munshi, Debashis; Yum, Dahyun; Rebhi, Riadh; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P3/2 level of the barium ion, with precision below 0.5%. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with a precision better than 1%. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the barium puzzle in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with a precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic uncertainties. The unique measurement protocol proposed here can be easily extended to any decay with more than two channels and hence paves the way for measuring the branching fractions of other hydrogenic atoms with no significant systematic uncertainties. PMID:27432734

  6. Inverse modeling of hydraulic tests in fractured crystalline rock based on a transition probability geostatistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessent, Daniela; Therrien, René; Lemieux, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of a series of hydraulic interference tests conducted in crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto (Finland), a potential site for the disposal of the Finnish high-level nuclear waste. The tests are in a block of crystalline bedrock of about 0.03 km3 that contains low-transmissivity fractures. Fracture density, orientation, and fracture transmissivity are estimated from Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements in boreholes drilled in the rock block. On the basis of those data, a geostatistical approach relying on a transitional probability and Markov chain models is used to define a conceptual model based on stochastic fractured rock facies. Four facies are defined, from sparsely fractured bedrock to highly fractured bedrock. Using this conceptual model, three-dimensional groundwater flow is then simulated to reproduce interference pumping tests in either open or packed-off boreholes. Hydraulic conductivities of the fracture facies are estimated through automatic calibration using either hydraulic heads or both hydraulic heads and PFL flow rates as targets for calibration. The latter option produces a narrower confidence interval for the calibrated hydraulic conductivities, therefore reducing the associated uncertainty and demonstrating the usefulness of the measured PFL flow rates. Furthermore, the stochastic facies conceptual model is a suitable alternative to discrete fracture network models to simulate fluid flow in fractured geological media.

  7. Transition probabilities for the UV0.01 multiplet in N III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brage, Tomas; Fischer, Charlotte Froese; Judge, Philip G.

    1995-01-01

    We report on large-scale ab initio multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for the UV0.01 multiplet, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)P(sub J) - 2s2p(sup 2 4)P(sub J prime), in N III. The resulting transition probabilities agree very well with recent semiempirical calculations, and the lifetimes for two of the three upper levels agree with experiments. The deviation for the third level is discussed. Comparisons made with the highest quality IUE echelle spectra available -- those of RR Tel and V1016 Cyg (both photoionized sources with electron densities below 10(exp 8)/cu cm) -- show that computed branching ratios of lines sharing a common upper level are in agreement with observations to within uncertainties of +/- 10%. High-quality solar limb data or stellar data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) could, in principle, be used to determine whether the theoretical or measured lifetimes for the discrepant level are in error. Unfortunately, stellar data for high-density plasmas (N(sub e) greater than 10(exp 11)/cu cm are needed) do not yet exist, and existing solar data lack the photometric precision to address this problem.

  8. Evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity effects on river flow loss using a transition probability framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, N.B.; Vogler, E.T.; Weissmann, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    River-aquifer exchange is considered within a transition probability framework along the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to provide a stochastic estimate of aquifer heterogeneity and river loss. Six plausible hydrofacies configurations were determined using categorized drill core and wetland survey data processed through the TPROGS geostatistical package. A base case homogeneous model was also constructed for comparison. River loss was simulated for low, moderate, and high Rio Grande stages and several different riverside drain stage configurations. Heterogeneity effects were quantified by determining the mean and variance of the K field for each realization compared to the root-mean-square (RMS) error of the observed groundwater head data. Simulation results showed that the heterogeneous models produced smaller estimates of loss than the homogeneous approximation. Differences between heterogeneous and homogeneous model results indicate that the use of a homogeneous K in a regional-scale model may result in an overestimation of loss but comparable RMS error. We find that the simulated river loss is dependent on the aquifer structure and is most sensitive to the volumetric proportion of fines within the river channel. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tarun; de Munshi, Debashis; Yum, Dahyun; Rebhi, Riadh; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-07-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P3/2 level of the barium ion, with precision below 0.5%. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with a precision better than 1%. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the barium puzzle in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with a precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic uncertainties. The unique measurement protocol proposed here can be easily extended to any decay with more than two channels and hence paves the way for measuring the branching fractions of other hydrogenic atoms with no significant systematic uncertainties.

  10. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tarun; De Munshi, Debashis; Yum, Dahyun; Rebhi, Riadh; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P3/2 level of the barium ion, with precision below 0.5%. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with a precision better than 1%. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the barium puzzle in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with a precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic uncertainties. The unique measurement protocol proposed here can be easily extended to any decay with more than two channels and hence paves the way for measuring the branching fractions of other hydrogenic atoms with no significant systematic uncertainties. PMID:27432734

  11. Magnetic-dipole transition probabilities in B-like and Be-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tupitsyn, I. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Volotka, A. V.; Shabaev, V. M.; Plunien, G.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Lapierre, A.; Ullrich, J.

    2005-12-15

    The magnetic-dipole transition probabilities between the fine-structure levels (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p) {sup 2}P{sub 1/2}-{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} for B-like ions and (1s{sup 2}2s2p) {sup 3}P{sub 1}-{sup 3}P{sub 2} for Be-like ions are calculated. The configuration-interaction method in the Dirac-Fock-Sturm basis is employed for the evaluation of the interelectronic-interaction correction with negative-continuum spectrum being taken into account. The 1/Z interelectronic-interaction contribution is derived within a rigorous QED approach employing the two-time Green function method. The one-electron QED correction is evaluated within framework of the anomalous magnetic-moment approximation. A comparison with the theoretical results of other authors and with available experimental data is presented.

  12. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Pawłat, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudes for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.

  13. Analytical results for state-to-state transition probabilities in the multistate Landau-Zener model by nonstationary perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, M. V.; Ostrovsky, V. N.

    2007-02-15

    Multistate generalizations of Landau-Zener model are studied by summing entire series of perturbation theory. A technique for analysis of the series is developed. Analytical expressions for probabilities of survival at the diabatic potential curves with extreme slope are proved. Degenerate situations are considered when there are several potential curves with extreme slope. Expressions for some state-to-state transition probabilities are derived in degenerate cases.

  14. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ghumman, S. S.

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  15. Absolute frequency measurement of the 7s2 1S0-7s7p 1P1 transition in Ra225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, B.; Dammalapati, U.; Groot, A.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2014-10-01

    Transition frequencies were determined for transitions in Ra in an atomic beam and for reference lines in Te2 molecules in a vapor cell. The absolute frequencies were calibrated against a GPS stabilized Rb clock by means of an optical frequency comb. The 7s21S0(F=1/2)-7s7p1P1(F =3/2) transition in Ra225 was determined to be 621042124(2)MHz. The measurements provide input for designing efficient and robust laser cooling of Ra atoms in preparation of a search for a permanent electric dipole moment in Ra isotopes.

  16. Radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities for electric-dipole delta n equals zero transitions in highly stripped sulfur ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Elston, S. B.; Griffin, P. M.; Forester, J. P.; Thoe, R. S.; Peterson, R. S.; Sellin, I. A.; Hayden, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The beam-foil time-of-flight method has been used to investigate radiative lifetimes and transition rates involving allowed intrashell transitions within the L shell of highly ionized sulfur. The results for these transitions, which can be particularly correlation-sensitive, are compared with current calculations based upon multiconfigurational models.

  17. Probability distributions of linear statistics in chaotic cavities and associated phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N.; Bohigas, Oriol

    2010-03-01

    We establish large deviation formulas for linear statistics on the N transmission eigenvalues (T{sub i}) of a chaotic cavity, in the framework of random matrix theory. Given any linear statistics of interest A=SIGMA{sub i=1}{sup N}a(T{sub i}), the probability distribution P{sub A}(A,N) of A generically satisfies the large deviation formula lim{sub N-}>{sub i}nfinity[-2 log P{sub A}(Nx,N)/betaN{sup 2}]=PSI{sub A}(x), where PSI{sub A}(x) is a rate function that we compute explicitly in many cases (conductance, shot noise, and moments) and beta corresponds to different symmetry classes. Using these large deviation expressions, it is possible to recover easily known results and to produce new formulas, such as a closed form expression for v(n)=lim{sub N-}>{sub i}nfinity var(T{sub n}) (where T{sub n}=SIGMA{sub i}T{sub i}{sup n}) for arbitrary integer n. The universal limit v*=lim{sub n-}>{sub i}nfinity v(n)=1/2pibeta is also computed exactly. The distributions display a central Gaussian region flanked on both sides by non-Gaussian tails. At the junction of the two regimes, weakly nonanalytical points appear, a direct consequence of phase transitions in an associated Coulomb gas problem. Numerical checks are also provided, which are in full agreement with our asymptotic results in both real and Laplace space even for moderately small N. Part of the results have been announced by Vivo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 216809 (2008)].

  18. Impulsive synchronization of Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities via multiple integral approach.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, A; Rakkiyappan, R; Cao, Jinde

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies the impulsive synchronization of Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities via multiple integral approach. The array of neural networks are coupled in a random fashion which is governed by Bernoulli random variable. The aim of this paper is to obtain the synchronization criteria, which is suitable for both exactly known and partly unknown transition probabilities such that the coupled neural network is synchronized with mixed time-delay. The considered impulsive effects can be synchronized at partly unknown transition probabilities. Besides, a multiple integral approach is also proposed to strengthen the Markovian jumping randomly coupled neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities. By making use of Kronecker product and some useful integral inequalities, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was designed for handling the coupled neural network with mixed delay and then impulsive synchronization criteria are solvable in a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the theoretical results. PMID:26210982

  19. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Adler, D. P.; Best, F. A.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has embedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity. We present the details of a demonstration experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station later this year. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. The planned microgravity demonstration will compare melt signatures obtained pre-flight on the ground with those obtained on the ISS for three phase change materials (water, gallium-tin, and gallium). With a successful demonstration experiment the phase transition cells in a microgravity environment will have cleared the last hurdle before being ready for

  20. QED calculations of three-photon transition probabilities in H-like ions with arbitrary nuclear charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalialiutdinov, T.; Solovyev, D.; Labzowsky, L.

    2016-03-01

    The quantum electrodynamical theory of three-photon transitions in hydrogen-like ions is presented. Emission probabilities of various three-photon decay channels for 2{p}3/2, 2{p}1/2 and 2{s}1/2 states are calculated for Z, the nuclear charge value, 1≤slant Z≤slant 95. The results are given in two different gauges. The fully relativistic three-photon decay rates of hydrogen-like ions with half-integer nuclear spin are given for transitions between fine structure components. The results can be applied to the Bose-Einstein statistics tests for multiphoton systems.

  1. Probabilities for nonradiative intermultiplet transitions in the holmium ion in lithium-yttrium double fluoride crystals and stimulated emission

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, A.M.; Khilko, A.V.; Petrov, M.V.

    1985-02-01

    Nonradiative transition probabilities have been studied as functions of the energy difference between the closest-lying multiplets of the Ho/sup 3 +/ ion in the LiYF/sub 4/ crystal. The efficiencies of emission from terms of the holmium ion have been determined. The cross sections for stimulated emission for emission lines corresponding to the transition /sup 5/S/sub 2/ ..-->.. /sup 5/I/sub 7/ have also been determined. Some characteristics of the stimulated emission of LiYF/sub 4/:Ho/sup 3 +/ crystals are reported for several wavelengths in the 0.75--3.9-..mu..m spectral interval.

  2. Transition probabilities and Stark-broadening parameters of neutral and singly ionized lead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Bengston, R. D.; Lindsay, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Strengths and Stark widths of the prominent visible PbI and PbII lines are measured in emission by means of a gas-driven shock tube. Absolute ionic line strengths for 7s-7p and 7p-7d arrays conform well to quantum-mechanical sum rules and agree with theoretical predictions, but 6d-5f results differ markedly from central-field approximations. Neutral-line strengths agree satisfactorily with available comparison data. Semiempirical theory predicts the widths of PbII lines with characteristic reliability of better than 25%.

  3. Dipole and quadrupole integrals for the C I, N I, and O I sequences. [electron transition probabilities computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Wade, C.

    1974-01-01

    The Coulomb approximation tables of Oertel and Shomo, together with binding-energy values obtained by a screening approximation, have been used to produce values of the dipole and quadrupole radial integrals needed in obtaining transition probabilities for ions of six, seven, and eight electrons. Some comparisons with more rigorously calculated values show that the present values are quite accurate, especially for ions of higher atomic number.

  4. Wavelengths and transition probabilities for n = 4 {sup {yields}} n' = 4 transitions in heavy Cu-like ions (70 {<=} Z {<=} 92)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmeri, P. . E-mail: palmeri@umh.ac.be; Quinet, P.; Biemont, E.; Traebert, E.

    2007-05-15

    Wavelengths and transition probabilities have been calculated for the n = 4 {sup {yields}} n' = 4 allowed transitions in the heavy Cu-like ions with Z = 70-92. Fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations were carried out. They take into account the correlations within the n = 4 complex, the core-valence n = 3 {sup {yields}} n' = 4 virtual excitations, and quantum electrodynamics effects. The present results are compared to and agree well with recent electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT) measurements in ytterbium, tungsten, osmium, gold, lead, bismuth, thorium, and uranium.

  5. Wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths for M-shell transitions in Co-, Ni-, Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Min; Jiang, Gang; Deng, Banglin; Bian, Guojie

    2014-11-15

    Wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths have been calculated for M-shell electric dipole transitions in Co-, Ni-, Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method, taking quantum electrodynamical effects and the Breit correction into account, was used in the calculations. Calculated energy levels of M-shell excited states for Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions from the method were compared with available theoretical and experimental results, and good agreement with them was achieved.

  6. Theoretical transition probabilities between the lowest 2S, 2P and 2D states of Na, K, Rb and Cs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical transition probabilities between the lowest 2S, 2P and 2D states of the alkali atoms Na through Cs have been computed using near Hartree-Fock quality Slater basis sets. The important core-valence correlation effects are incorporated explicitly by a configuration-interaction procedure. For Cs, the calculations were repeated using a Gaussian basis set so that relativistic effects could be incorporated through an effective core potential procedure. The best calculated electric quadrupole Einstein coefficients are Na(196.3/s), K(103.6/s), Rb(72.4/s) and Cs(19.7/s). Core-valence effects become increasingly important down the column, and reduce the quadrupole transition strengths to about the same degree as for the 2P-2S and 2D-2P dipole-allowed transitions. Relativistic effects increase the quadrupole moment of Cs, but less so than in Ba, presumably because the alkali 2D states are more diffuse.

  7. Extensive computation of allowed and forbidden transition probabilities in the potassium isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Gopal; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.; Majumder, Sonjoy

    2007-06-01

    Our primary aim in this work is to present both allowed and forbidden transition amplitudes and corresponding wavelengths and oscillator strengths for a few ions in the 19-electron potassium isoelectronic sequence. All of these ions have the configuration [Ar] 3^2D3/2 as their ground state, except in the case of K and Ca^+, where it is [Ar] 4^2S1/2.This difference in ground state configuration arises due to strong contributions of correlation effects in the energy levels of these systems [1]. Allowed and forbidden transitions in these systems are of great importance in astrophysics [2] and in laboratory plasma research [3]. We apply in the present work the relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) theory [4] to evaluate the energy levels and wave functions of these systems and study amplitudes for electric and magnetic dipole transition amplitudes and also the electric quadrupole transition amplitudes. The contributions of various electron correlation effects to the transition amplitudes are estimated in some detail using the RCC theory. [1] Gopal Dixit et al., Astrophys. J (submitted); arXiv.org: physics/0702066. [2] C. R. Cowley and G. M. Wahlgern, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 447, 681 (2002). [3] J. E. Vernazza, E. M. Reeves, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 37, 485 (1978) [4] I. Lindgren, Physics Scripta, 36, 591 (1987).

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of the ^1S0<->^3P0 clock transition at 578.4 nm in ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Chad; Barber, Zeb; Oates, Chris; Fortier, Tara; Diddams, Scott

    2005-05-01

    We report the first precision absolute frequency measurements of the highly forbidden (6s^2)^1S0<->(6s6p)^3P0 optical clock transition at 578.4 nm in two odd isotopes of ytterbium. Atoms are cooled to tens of microkelvins in two successive stages of laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping that use transitions at 398.9 nm and 555.8 nm, respectively. The resulting trapped atomic cloud is irradiated with excitation light at 578.4 nm and absorption is detected by monitoring trapped atom depletion. With the laser on resonance, we demonstrate trap depletions of more than 80 % relative to the off-resonance case. Absolute frequency measurements are made for ^171Yb (I=1/2) and ^173Yb (I=5/2) with an uncertainty of 4.4 kHz using a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the NIST cesium fountain clock. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is ˜10 mHz, making them well-suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice. Lattice-based optical clocks have the potential to surpass the performance of the best current atomic clocks by orders of magnitude. The accurate ytterbium frequency knowledge presented here (nearly a million-fold reduction in uncertainty) will greatly expedite Doppler- and recoil-free lattice spectroscopy.

  9. Absolute cascade-free cross-sections for the 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged-beams methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute cascade-free excitation cross-sections in an ion have been measured for the resonance 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged electron-ion beams methods. Measurements were carried out at electron energies of below threshold to 6 times threshold. Comparisons are made with 2-, 5-, and 15-state close-coupling and distorted-wave theories. There is good agreement between experiment and the 15-state close-coupling cross-sections over the energy range of the calculations.

  10. Simultaneous analysis of matter radii, transition probabilities, and excitation energies of Mg isotopes by angular-momentum-projected configuration-mixing calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Shin; Tagami, Shingo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    We perform simultaneous analysis of (1) matter radii, (2) B (E 2 ;0+→2+) transition probabilities, and (3) excitation energies, E (2+) and E (4+) , for Mg-4024 by using the beyond-mean-field (BMF) framework with angular-momentum-projected configuration mixing with respect to the axially symmetric β2 deformation with infinitesimal cranking. The BMF calculations successfully reproduce all of the data for rm,B (E 2 ) , and E (2+) and E (4+) , indicating that it is quite useful for data analysis; particularly for low-lying states. We also discuss the absolute value of the deformation parameter β2 deduced from measured values of B (E 2 ) and rm. This framework makes it possible to investigate the effects of β2 deformation, the change in β2 due to restoration of rotational symmetry, β2 configuration mixing, and the inclusion of time-odd components by infinitesimal cranking. Under the assumption of axial deformation and parity conservation, we clarify which effect is important for each of the three measurements and propose the kinds of BMF calculations that are practical for each of the three kinds of observables.

  11. Electron-impact dissociative double ionization of N2 and CO: Dependence of transition probability on impact energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Kumar, P.; Banerjee, S. B.; Subramanian, K. P.; Bapat, B.

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental and computational analysis of dissociative double ionization of N2 and CO molecules under electron impact. Experiments are performed at three energies, viz. 1, 3, and 5 keV, in order to observe the effect of impact energy on the dissociative ionization kinematics. We compare the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of the charge symmetric dissociation channels of N22 + and CO2 + at these impact energies. An approximately linear trend between the transition energy and the expected KER values is inferred on the basis of the calculated potential energy curves of the dications. Experimentally, the normalized differential KER cross sections for these channels show an increasing trend in the low KER range and a decreasing trend in the high KER range as the electron-impact energy is increased. This observation indicates that the transition probability for excitation to different molecular ion states is not only a function of energy difference between the ground and excited states, but also a complicated function of the impact energy. In addition, nature of the observed trend in the differential KER cross sections differs significantly from their differential transition probability, which are calculated using inelastic collision model for fast-electron-impact case.

  12. Improvement of HMM-based action classification by using state transition probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yuka; Aruga, Haruki; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to classify multiple similar actions which are contained in human behaviors by considering a weak-constrained order of "actions". The proposed method regards the human behavior as a combination of "action" patterns which have order constrained weakly. In this method, actions are classified by using not only image features but also consistency of transitions between an action and next action. By considering such an action transition, our method can recognize human behavior even if image features of different action are similar to each other. Based on this idea, we have improved the previous HMM-based algorithm effectively. Through some experiments using test image sequences of human behavior appeared in a bathroom, we have confirmed that the average classification success rate is 97 %, which is about 53 % higher than the previous method.

  13. Patient Education and Support During CKD Transitions: When the Possible Becomes Probable.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-07-01

    Patients transitioning from kidney disease to kidney failure require comprehensive patient-centered education and support. Efforts to prepare patients for this transition often fail to meet patients' needs due to uncertainty about which patients will progress to kidney failure, nonindividualized patient education programs, inadequate psychosocial support, or lack of assistance to guide patients through complex treatment plans. Resources are available to help overcome barriers to providing optimal care during this time, including prognostic tools, educational lesson plans, decision aids, communication skills training, peer support, and patient navigation programs. New models are being studied to comprehensively address patients' needs and improve the lives of kidney patients during this high-risk time. PMID:27324676

  14. Local neighborhood transition probability estimation and its use in contextual classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of incorporating spatial or contextual information into classifications is considered. A simple model that describes the spatial dependencies between the neighboring pixels with a single parameter, Theta, is presented. Expressions are derived for updating the posteriori probabilities of the states of nature of the pattern under consideration using information from the neighboring patterns, both for spatially uniform context and for Markov dependencies in terms of Theta. Techniques for obtaining the optimal value of the parameter Theta as a maximum likelihood estimate from the local neighborhood of the pattern under consideration are developed.

  15. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and were further refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has imbedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium, providing calibration from 233K to 303K. One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration will make use of an Experiment Support Package developed by Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory to continuously run melt cycles on miniature phase change cells containing gallium, a gallium-tin eutectic, and water. The phase change cells will be mounted in a small aluminum block along with a thermistor temperature sensor. A thermoelectric cooler will be used to change the temperature of the block. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. Melt signatures

  16. Evaluation of the Time-Derivative Coupling for Accurate Electronic State Transition Probabilities from Numerical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2014-07-01

    Spikes in the time-derivative coupling (TDC) near surface crossings make the accurate integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations a challenge. To address this issue, we present an approximation to the TDC based on a norm-preserving interpolation (NPI) of the adiabatic electronic wave functions within each time step. We apply NPI and two other schemes for computing the TDC in numerical simulations of the Landau-Zener model, comparing the simulated transfer probabilities to the exact solution. Though NPI does not require the analytical calculation of nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements, it consistently yields unsigned population transfer probability errors of ∼0.001, whereas analytical calculation of the TDC yields errors of 0.0-1.0 depending on the time step, the offset of the maximum in the TDC from the beginning of the time step, and the coupling strength. The approximation of Hammes-Schiffer and Tully yields errors intermediate between NPI and the analytical scheme. PMID:26279558

  17. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag+ ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm−1, equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given. PMID:26401429

  18. Energy levels and transition probabilities in the neutron-rich lanthanide nucleus sup 156 Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Hellstroem, M.; Fogelberg, B.; Spanier, L.; Mach, H. )

    1990-05-01

    The decay of {sup 156}Pm has been studied resulting in the first detailed information on the excited states of {sup 156}Sm. About 25 levels were found, of which two were {gamma}-decaying isomers. The expected low-lying quadrupole vibrational levels could not be identified. The observed decay rates for {beta} and {gamma} transitions have enabled the classification of some levels, including the {beta}-decaying ground state of {sup 156}Pm, in terms of specific two-quasiparticle states. The total beta-decay energy of {sup 156}Pm was obtained as 5.155(35) MeV.

  19. The Neural Representation of Sequences: From Transition Probabilities to Algebraic Patterns and Linguistic Trees.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Meyniel, Florent; Wacongne, Catherine; Wang, Liping; Pallier, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    A sequence of images, sounds, or words can be stored at several levels of detail, from specific items and their timing to abstract structure. We propose a taxonomy of five distinct cerebral mechanisms for sequence coding: transitions and timing knowledge, chunking, ordinal knowledge, algebraic patterns, and nested tree structures. In each case, we review the available experimental paradigms and list the behavioral and neural signatures of the systems involved. Tree structures require a specific recursive neural code, as yet unidentified by electrophysiology, possibly unique to humans, and which may explain the singularity of human language and cognition. PMID:26447569

  20. A simple protocol for the probability weights of the simulated tempering algorithm: Applications to first-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Carlos E.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2010-12-01

    The simulated tempering (ST) is an important method to deal with systems whose phase spaces are hard to sample ergodically. However, it uses accepting probabilities weights, which often demand involving and time consuming calculations. Here it is shown that such weights are quite accurately obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the transfer matrix—a quantity straightforward to compute from direct Monte Carlo simulations—thus simplifying the algorithm implementation. As tests, different systems are considered, namely, Ising, Blume-Capel, Blume-Emery-Griffiths, and Bell-Lavis liquid water models. In particular, we address first-order phase transition at low temperatures, a regime notoriously difficulty to simulate because the large free-energy barriers. The good results found (when compared with other well established approaches) suggest that the ST can be a valuable tool to address strong first-order phase transitions, a possibility still not well explored in the literature.

  1. Effect of magnetic field on electron spectrum and probabilities of intraband quantum transitions in spherical quantum-dot-quantum-well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatsky, V.; Bernik, I.; Yakhnevych, M.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of magnetic field on electron energy spectrum, wave functions and probabilities of intraband quantum transitions in multilayered spherical quantum-dot-quantum-well (QDQW) CdSe/ZnS/CdSe/ZnS is studied. Computations are performed in the framework of the effective mass approximation and rectangular potential barriers model. The wave functions are expanded over the complete basis of functions obtained as exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for the electron in QDQW without the magnetic field. It is shown that magnetic field takes off the spectrum degeneration with respect to the magnetic quantum number and changes the localization of electron in the nanostructure. The field stronger effects on the spherically-symmetric states, especially in the case of electron location in the outer potential well. The magnetic field changes more the radial distribution of probability of electron location in QDQW than the angular one. The oscillator strengths of intraband quantum transitions are calculated as functions of the magnetic field induction and their selection rules are established.

  2. Nonparametric estimation of transition probabilities in the non-Markov illness-death model: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Meira-Machado, Luís

    2015-06-01

    Multi-state models are often used for modeling complex event history data. In these models the estimation of the transition probabilities is of particular interest, since they allow for long-term predictions of the process. These quantities have been traditionally estimated by the Aalen-Johansen estimator, which is consistent if the process is Markov. Several non-Markov estimators have been proposed in the recent literature, and their superiority with respect to the Aalen-Johansen estimator has been proved in situations in which the Markov condition is strongly violated. However, the existing estimators have the drawback of requiring that the support of the censoring distribution contains the support of the lifetime distribution, which is not often the case. In this article, we propose two new methods for estimating the transition probabilities in the progressive illness-death model. Some asymptotic results are derived. The proposed estimators are consistent regardless the Markov condition and the referred assumption about the censoring support. We explore the finite sample behavior of the estimators through simulations. The main conclusion of this piece of research is that the proposed estimators are much more efficient than the existing non-Markov estimators in most cases. An application to a clinical trial on colon cancer is included. Extensions to progressive processes beyond the three-state illness-death model are discussed. PMID:25735883

  3. Measurements of transition probabilities for spin-changing lines of atomic ions used in diagnostics of astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Johnson, B. C.; Kwong, H. S.; Parkinson, W. H.; Knight, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensities of ultraviolet, spin-changing, 'intersystem' lines of low-Z atomic ions are frequently used in determinations of electron densities and temperatures in astrophysical plasmas as well as in measurements of element abundances in the interstellar gas. The transition probabilities (A-values) of these lines, which are about five orders of magnitude weaker than allowed lines, have not been measured heretofore and various calculations produce A-values for these lines that differ by as much as 50 percent A radio-frequency ion trap has been used for the first measurements of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The measurement procedure is discussed and results for Si III, O III, N II, and C III are reviewed and compared to calculated values. Discrepancies exist; these indicate that some of the calculated A-values may be less reliable than has been beleived and that revisions to the electron densities determined for some astrophysical plasmas may be required.

  4. The electron excited ultraviolet spectrum of HD : cross sections and transition probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph; Palle, Prahlad Vatti; Abgrall, Herve'; Roueff, Evelyne; Bhardwaj, Anil; Gustin, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) emission spectrum of molecular deuterium hydride (HD) excited by electron impact at 100 eV under optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. The high-resolution spectrum (FWHM=160 mA) spans the wavelength range from 900 to 1650 A and contains the two Rydberg series of HD: (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +)1s(sigma), np(si n=2, 3, 4) --> X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +) and (sup 1)Pi(sub u)(sup +)1s(sigma), np(pi)(C,D,D',D'', n=2, 3, 4, 5) -->X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +). A model spectrum of HD, based on newly calculated tra rovibrational coupling for the strongest band systems, B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +)-X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +),B'(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +)-X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +),C(sup 1)Pi(sub u)-X(sup 1)Sigm sections for direct excitation at 100 eV of the B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), B' (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), C(sup 1)Pi(sub u), and D(sup 1)Pi(sub u) states were derived from a model analysis of the state. The absolute cross section values for excitation to the B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), B' (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), C(sup 1)Pi(sub u), and D(sup 1)Pi(sub u) states were found to be (2.57+/-0. and (0.17+/-0.04)x10(exp -17) sq cm, respectively. We have also determined the dissociative excitation cross sections at 100 eV for the emission of Ly(alpha) at 1216 A and Ly(Beta) at 1025 A lines, which are (7.98+/-1.12)x10(exp -18) and (0.40+/-0.10)x10(exp -18) sq cm, respectively. The summed excitation function of the closely spaced pair of lines, H Ly(alpha) and D Ly(Beta), resulting from excitation of HD, has been measured from the threshold to 800 eV and is analytically modeled with a semiempirical relation. The model cross sections are in good agreement with the corrected Ly(alpha) cross sections of Mohlmann et al. up to 2 keV. Based on measurements of H, D (2s) production cross section values by Mohlmann et al., the H, D (n=2) cross section is estimated to be 1.6 x 10(exp -17) sq cm at 100 eV.

  5. Bayesian Estimates of Transition Probabilities in Seven Small Lithophytic Orchid Populations: Maximizing Data Availability from Many Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Raymond L.; McCarthy, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting population dynamics for rare species is of paramount importance in order to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and planning conservation strategies. However, evaluating and predicting population viability can be hindered from a lack of data. Rare species frequently have small populations, so estimates of vital rates are often very uncertain due to lack of data. We evaluated the vital rates of seven small populations from two watersheds with varying light environment of a common epiphytic orchid using Bayesian methods of parameter estimation. From the Lefkovitch matrices we predicted the deterministic population growth rates, elasticities, stable stage distributions and the credible intervals of the statistics. Populations were surveyed on a monthly basis between 18–34 months. In some of the populations few or no transitions in some of the vital rates were observed throughout the sampling period, however, we were able to predict the most likely vital rates using a Bayesian model that incorporated the transitions rates from the other populations. Asymptotic population growth rate varied among the seven orchid populations. There was little difference in population growth rate among watersheds even though it was expected because of physical differences as a result of differing canopy cover and watershed width. Elasticity analyses of Lepanthes rupestris suggest that growth rate is more sensitive to survival followed by growth, shrinking and the reproductive rates. The Bayesian approach helped to estimate transition probabilities that were uncommon or variable in some populations. Moreover, it increased the precision of the parameter estimates as compared to traditional approaches. PMID:25068598

  6. Low-lying electronic states of the OH radical: Potential energy curves, dipole moment functions, and transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, X.; Zhang, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The six doublet and the two quartet electronic states (2Σ+(2), 2Σ-, 2Π(2), 2Δ, 4Σ-, and 4Π) of the OH radical have been studied using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method where the Davidson correction, core-valence interaction and relativistic effect are considered with large basis sets of aug-cc-pv5z, aug-cc-pcv5z, and cc-pv5z-DK, respectively. Potential energy curves (PECs) and dipole moment functions are also calculated for these states for internuclear distances ranging from 0.05 nm to 0.80 nm. All possible vibrational levels and rotational constants for the bound state X2Π and A2Σ+ of OH are predicted by numerical solving the radial Schrödinger equation through the Level program, and spectroscopic parameters, which are in good agreements with experimental results, are obtained. Transition dipole moments between the ground state X2Π and other excited states are also computed using MRCI, and the transition probability, lifetime, and Franck-Condon factors for the A2Σ+-X2Π transition are discussed and compared with existing experimental values.

  7. On the use of the thermal lens effect for measuring absolute luminescence quantum yields of transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Joachim; Reinecke, Klaus; Schmidtke, Hans-Herbert

    1992-05-01

    The thermal lens effect or thermal blooming of a laser beam passing through an absorbing medium is used to determine the fraction of absorbed laser power which is converted into heat. By this photocaloric method absolute luminescence quantum yields Φ can be evaluated covering the full range of possible Φ values. A check with organic standards for which quantum yields of 1, 0.52 and 0 are reported, supplies values of 0.99, 0.52 and 0.04, respectively. The sample of compounds [Ru(bipy) 3]X 2, X  Cl, ClO 4, and bipy  bipyridine, were studied using different concentrations in water and methanol solution at room temperature. The results strongly depend on the counter ion: for the Cl -- and (ClO 4) --salts quantum yields of Φ = 0.31 and 0.79, respectively, are obtained, which may be explained by different polarization conditions. The yields are, on the other hand, independent from the solvent and from the concentration, which was considered ranging from 10 -4 to 2.5 × 10 -5 M. Thermal blooming was also observed from [Ru(bipy) 3]Cl 2 contained in KBr pellets, measuring at various temperatures.

  8. Measurement of absolute transition frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states by means of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Markus; Karlewski, Florian; Hattermann, Helge; Hoeckh, Simone; Jessen, Florian; Cano, Daniel; Fortagh, Jozsef

    2011-05-15

    We report the measurement of absolute excitation frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states. The Rydberg transition frequencies are obtained by observing electromagnetically induced transparency on a rubidium vapor cell. The accuracy of the measurement of each state is < or approx. 1 MHz, which is achieved by frequency stabilizing the two diode lasers employed for the spectroscopy to a frequency comb and a frequency comb calibrated wavelength meter, respectively. Based on the spectroscopic data we determine the quantum defects of {sup 87}Rb, and compare it with previous measurements on {sup 85}Rb. We determine the ionization frequency from the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=1) ground state of {sup 87}Rb to 1010.029 164 6(3)THz, providing the binding energy of the ground state with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0-3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Oates, C W; Fortier, T M; Diddams, S A; Hollberg, L

    2005-08-19

    We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s2) 1S0 <--> (6s6p) 3P0 optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at approximately 70 microK in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in 171Yb (F=1/2) is 518,295,836,591.6 +/- 4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in 173Yb (F=5/2) is 518,294,576,847.6 +/- 4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10(6)-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be approximately 10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice. PMID:16196856

  10. Time varying moments, regime switch, and crisis warning: The birth-death process with changing transition probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinan; Chen, Ping

    2014-06-01

    The sub-prime crisis in the U.S. reveals the limitation of diversification strategy based on mean-variance analysis. A regime switch and a turning point can be observed using a high moment representation and time-dependent transition probability. Up-down price movements are induced by interactions among agents, which can be described by the birth-death (BD) process. Financial instability is visible by dramatically increasing 3rd to 5th moments one-quarter before and during the crisis. The sudden rising high moments provide effective warning signals of a regime-switch or a coming crisis. The critical condition of a market breakdown can be identified from nonlinear stochastic dynamics. The master equation approach of population dynamics provides a unified theory of a calm and turbulent market.

  11. Absolute optical frequency measurements of the cesium D1 transitions and their effect on alpha, the fine-structured constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Keith Gordon

    The fine-structure constant or electromagnetic coupling constant, alpha e, is a dimensionless ratio which unites many physics subfields. Although known precisely via experiments in each subfield, there is disagreement within and between subfields. In particular, precise values obtained via electron ge - 2 experiments which depend heavily on QED calculations have not always been in agreement with those obtained via muon g mu - 2 experiments. Also, solid state measurements (quantum hall effect and AC Josephson effect) often disagree with neutronic hmn measurements. alphae is often said to vary with energy but the question remains as to whether or not its low energy value is stable now or has been stable over the history of the universe. Improved precision helps resolve these issues as they relate to physics, possibly beyond the standard model. The Optical Frequency Measurements group in the Time and Frequency Division at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST, Boulder, CO) developed and maintains a femtosecond laser frequency comb which is calibrated with respect to the cesium fountain clock implementation of the second. A single frequency component of the femtosecond laser comb is used together with a solid state diode laser and cesium thermal beam to precisely measure the cesium D1 F ∈ {3,4} transition frequencies. The value of fD1centroid = 335 116 048 748.1(2.4) kHz obtained for the transition centroid is over fifteen times more precise than the most recent previous measurement. A precise value for the cesium D1 hyperfine splitting fHFe = 1 167 723.6(4.7) kHz is reported as well. This value is also over fifteen times more precise than the most recent previous measurement. These new neutral 133Cs 6s 2 S½ → 6p 2 P½ transition (D1) frequencies, when combined with the 2002 CODATA values of the Rydberg, proton/electron mass ratio, cesium atomic mass, and cesium recoil frequency, provide an almost QED-free value of alpha: alphae = 1/137.036 0000

  12. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  13. Fine-structure calculations of energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for sulfur-like iron, Fe XI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Allam, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the 14 LS states belonging to configurations of sulfur-like iron, Fe XI, have been calculated. These states are represented by configuration interaction wavefunctions and have configurations 3s23p4, 3s3p5, 3s23p33d, 3s23p34s, 3s23p34p, and 3s23p34d, which give rise to 123 fine-structure energy levels. Extensive configuration interaction calculations using the CIV3 code have been performed. To assess the importance of relativistic effects, the intermediate coupling scheme by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian terms, such as the one-body mass correction and Darwin term, and spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, and spin-spin corrections, are incorporated within the code. These incorporations adjusted the energy levels, therefore the calculated values are close to the available experimental data. Comparisons between the present calculated energy levels as well as oscillator strengths and both experimental and theoretical data have been performed. Our results show good agreement with earlier works, and they might be useful in thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical applications.

  14. Energy levels, wavelengths, and radiative transition probabilities for the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zhang; Qiren Zhu; Shoufu Pan )

    1992-11-01

    The investigation by Z.-Q Zhang et al. (Acta Optica Sinica 11, 193, 1991) shows that it is possible to realize soft X-ray lasing in the water window 23.3-43.8 [Angstrom] with the Na-like recombination scheme, which requires a lower pumping power at a high-power laser facility than that with other schemes. The fine-structure levels with n [le] 15 and l [le] 6 in Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45 and the probabilities for radiative transitions between these levels are calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. The calculations show that the wavelengths of the anticipated laser transitions 6 f-4d and 6g-4f in the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 43 and 5f-4d and 5g-4f in the Na-like ions with 40 [le] Z [le] 45 lie in the region of the water window.

  15. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  16. Fine-structure calculations of energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for sulfur-like iron, Fe XI

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Allam, S.H.

    2014-05-15

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the 14 LS states belonging to configurations of sulfur-like iron, Fe XI, have been calculated. These states are represented by configuration interaction wavefunctions and have configurations 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}, 3s3p{sup 5}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}3d, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4s, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4p, and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4d, which give rise to 123 fine-structure energy levels. Extensive configuration interaction calculations using the CIV3 code have been performed. To assess the importance of relativistic effects, the intermediate coupling scheme by means of the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian terms, such as the one-body mass correction and Darwin term, and spin–orbit, spin–other-orbit, and spin–spin corrections, are incorporated within the code. These incorporations adjusted the energy levels, therefore the calculated values are close to the available experimental data. Comparisons between the present calculated energy levels as well as oscillator strengths and both experimental and theoretical data have been performed. Our results show good agreement with earlier works, and they might be useful in thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical applications. -- Highlights: •Accurate atomic data of iron ions are needed for identification of solar corona. •Extensive configuration interaction wavefunctions including 123 fine-structure levels have been calculated. •The relativistic effects by means of the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian terms are incorporated. •This incorporation adjusts the energy levels, therefore the calculated values are close to experimental values.

  17. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  18. Configuration-interaction plus many-body-perturbation-theory calculations of Si i transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savukov, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    The precision of the mixed configuration-interaction plus many-body-perturbation-theory (CI+MBPT) method is limited in multivalence atoms by the large size of valence CI space. Previously, to study this problem, the CI+MBPT method was applied to calculations of energies in a four-valence electron atom, Si i. It was found that by using a relatively small cavity of 30 a.u. and by choosing carefully the configuration space, quite accurate agreement between theory and experiment at the level of 100 cm-1 can be obtained, especially after subtraction of systematic shifts for groups of states of the same J and parity. However, other properties are also important to investigate. In this work, the CI+MBPT method is applied to studies of transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes. A close agreement with accurate experimental measurements and other elaborate theories is obtained. The long-term goal is to extend the CI+MBPT approach to applications in more complex atoms, such as lantanides and actinides.

  19. The FERRUM project: Experimental lifetimes and transition probabilities from highly excited even 4d levels in Fe ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report lifetime measurements of the 6 levels in the 3d6(5D)4d e6G term in Fe ii at an energy of 10.4 eV, and f-values for 14 transitions from the investigated levels. The lifetimes were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on ions in a laser-produced plasma. The high excitation energy, and the fact that the levels have the same parity as the the low-lying states directly populated in the plasma, necessitated the use of a two-photon excitation scheme. The probability for this process is greatly enhanced by the presence of the 3d6(5D)4p z6F levels at roughly half the energy difference. The f-values are obtained by combining the experimental lifetimes with branching fractions derived using relative intensities from a hollow cathode discharge lamp recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer. The data is important for benchmarking atomic calculations of astrophysically important quantities and useful for spectroscopy of hot stars.

  20. Deterministic inference for stochastic systems using multiple shooting and a linear noise approximation for the transition probabilities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Estimating model parameters from experimental data is a crucial technique for working with computational models in systems biology. Since stochastic models are increasingly important, parameter estimation methods for stochastic modelling are also of increasing interest. This study presents an extension to the 'multiple shooting for stochastic systems (MSS)' method for parameter estimation. The transition probabilities of the likelihood function are approximated with normal distributions. Means and variances are calculated with a linear noise approximation on the interval between succeeding measurements. The fact that the system is only approximated on intervals which are short in comparison with the total observation horizon allows to deal with effects of the intrinsic stochasticity. The study presents scenarios in which the extension is essential for successfully estimating the parameters and scenarios in which the extension is of modest benefit. Furthermore, it compares the estimation results with reversible jump techniques showing that the approximation does not lead to a loss of accuracy. Since the method is not based on stochastic simulations or approximative sampling of distributions, its computational speed is comparable with conventional least-squares parameter estimation methods. PMID:26405142

  1. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands. PMID:26595457

  2. Inversion of the relative probabilities of the f- f and f- d transitions in the Ln3+ lanthanide ions at their radio- and sonoexcitation as compared to photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, G. L.

    2007-07-01

    The results of measuring the efficiencies of the formation of electronically excited states of the Ln3+ lanthanide ions in aqueous solutions in the processes of radioluminescence and multibubble sonoluminescence are analyzed. In both cases, electronic excitation occurs due to inelastic collisions of Ln3+ ions with (for radioluminescence) charged ionizing particles in liquid and (for multibubble sonoluminescence) high-energy particles, primarily electrons, in the gas phase of cavitation bubbles. In both processes, the efficiencies of exciting ions whose luminescence states appear in the 4 f-5 d transitions (Ce3+ and Pr3+) are significantly lower (by an order of magnitude or larger) than the efficiencies of exciting ions whose luminescence states appear in the 4 f-4 f transitions (Gd3+ and Tb3+). Therefore, the probability of the f- d transitions is lower than the probability of the f- f transitions in lanthanide ions excited by collisions with the charged particles and the relative probabilities of these transitions are inverted in these processes as compared to photoexcitation.

  3. Dipole moments and transition probabilities of the a 3Sigma(+)g - b 3Sigma(+)u system of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S.; Dalgarno, A.; Posen, A.; Kwok, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Multiconfiguration variational calculations of the electronic wave functions of the a 3Sigma(+)g and b 3Sigma(+)u states of molecular hydrogen are presented, and the electric dipole transition moment between them (of interest in connection with stellar atmospheres and the UV spectrum of the Jovian planets) is obtained. The dipole moment is used to calculate the probabilities of radiative transitions from the discrete vibrational levels of the a 3Sigma(+)g state to the vibrational continuum of the repulsive b 3Sigma(+)u state as functions of the wavelength of the emitted photons. The total transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of the levels v prime = 0-20 are presented.

  4. Transition probabilities for the Au ((2)S, (2)D, and (2)P) with SiH(4) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Sánchez, J H; Luna-García, H M; García-Cruz, L M; Novaro, O

    2010-01-28

    Transition probabilities on the interaction of the ground and the lowest excited states of gold Au ((2)S:5d(10)6s(1), (2)D:5d(9)6s(2), and (2)P:5d(10)6p(1)) with silane (SiH(4)) are studied through ab initio Hartree-Fock self-consistent field calculations, where the atom's core is represented by relativistic effective core potentials. These calculations are followed by a multiconfigurational self-consistent field study. The correlation energy is accounted for through extensive variational and perturbative second order multireference Moller-Plesset configuration interaction analysis of selected perturbations obtained by iterative process calculations using the CIPSI program package. It is found that the Au atom in the ((2)P:5d(10)6p(1)) state inserts in the Si-H bond. In this interaction its corresponding D (2)A(') potential energy surface is initially attractive and only becomes repulsive after encountering an avoided crossing with the initially repulsive C (2)A(') surface linked to the Au((2)D:5d(9)6s(2))-SiH(4) fragments. The A, B, and C (2)A(') curves derived from the Au((2)D:5d(9)6s(2)) atom interaction with silane are initially repulsive, each one of them showing two avoided crossings, while the A (2)A(') curve goes sharply downwards until it meets the X (2)A(') curve interacting adiabatically, which is linked with the Au((2)S:5d(10)6s(1))-SiH(4) moieties. The A (2)A(') curve becomes repulsive after the avoided crossing with the X (2)A('), curve. The lowest-lying X (2)A(') potential leads to the HAuSiH(3) X (2)A(') intermediate molecule. This intermediate molecule, diabatically correlated with the Au((2)P:5d(10)6p(1))+SiH(4) system which lies 3.34 kcal/mol above the ground state reactants, has been carefully characterized as have the dissociation channels leading to the AuH+SiH(3) and H+AuSiH(3) products. These products are reached from the HAuSiH(3) intermediate without any activation barrier. The Au-SiH(4) calculation results are successfully compared to

  5. New experimental limits on the probabilities of pauli-forbidden transitions in the {sup 12}C nucleus from data obtained with the borexino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Derbin, A. V.; Fomenko, K. A.

    2010-12-15

    The Pauli exclusion principle was tested for nucleons in the {sup 12}C nucleus by using data from the Borexino detector. The approach used consisted in seeking photons, neutrons, and protons, as well as electrons and positrons, emitted in the Pauli-forbidden transitions of nucleons from the 1P{sub 3/2} shell to the filled 1S{sub 1/2} shell. Owing to a uniquely low background level in the Borexino detector and its large mass, the currently most stringent experimental limits were obtained for the probabilities and relative intensities of Pauli-forbidden transitions for the electromagnetic, strong, and weak channels.

  6. Transition probabilities of the B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) to X 1Sigma(g)(+) system of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, T. L.; Dalgarno, A.; Posen, A.

    1985-01-01

    From published potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, there are obtained by numerical integration of the equations of nuclear motion the vibrational eigenfunctions of the X 1Sigma(g)(+) and B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) states of H2. The probabilities of radiative transitions from the discrete vibrational levels of the excited B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) electronic state of H2 to the discrete and continuum vibrational levels of the ground X 1Sigma(g)(+) electronic state are calculated. The Franck-Condon factors are also presented.

  7. Absolute frequency and isotope shift of the magnesium (3 s2) 1S0→(3 s 3 d ) 1D2 two-photon transition by direct frequency-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E.; Reinhardt, S.; Hänsch, Th. W.; Udem, Th.

    2015-12-01

    We use a picosecond frequency-doubled mode-locked titanium sapphire laser to generate a frequency comb at 431 nm in order to probe the (3 s2) 1S0 →(3 s 3 d ) 1D2 transition in atomic magnesium. Using a second, self-referenced femtosecond frequency comb, the absolute transition frequency and the 24Mg and 26Mg isotope shift is determined relative to a global-positioning-system-referenced hydrogen maser. Our result for the transition frequency of the main isotope 24Mg of 1 391 128 606.14 (12 ) MHz agrees with previous measurements and reduces its uncertainty by four orders of magnitude. For the isotope shift we find δ ν26 ,24=3915.13 (39 ) MHz. Accurate values for transition frequencies in Mg are relevant in astrophysics and to test atomic structure calculations.

  8. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities from the Breit–Pauli R-matrix method: Ne IV

    SciTech Connect

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2014-09-15

    The atomic parameters–oscillator strengths, line strengths, radiative decay rates (A), and lifetimes–for fine structure transitions of electric dipole (E1) type for the astrophysically abundant ion Ne IV are presented. The results include 868 fine structure levels with n≤ 10, l≤ 9, and 1/2≤J≤ 19/2 of even and odd parities, and the corresponding 83,767 E1 transitions. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic Breit–Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. The transitions have been identified spectroscopically using an algorithm based on quantum defect analysis and other criteria. The calculated energies agree with the 103 observed and identified energies to within 3% or better for most of the levels. Some larger differences are also noted. The A-values show good to fair agreement with the very limited number of available transitions in the table compiled by NIST, but show very good agreement with the latest published multi-configuration Hartree–Fock calculations. The present transitions should be useful for diagnostics as well as for precise and complete spectral modeling in the soft X-ray to infra-red regions of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. -- Highlights: •The first application of BPRM method for accurate E1 transitions in Ne IV is reported. •Amount of atomic data (n going up to 10) is complete for most practical applications. •The calculated energies are in very good agreement with most observed levels. •Very good agreement of A-values and lifetimes with other relativistic calculations. •The results should provide precise nebular abundances, chemical evolution etc.

  9. On Probability Domains III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Domains of generalized probability have been introduced in order to provide a general construction of random events, observables and states. It is based on the notion of a cogenerator and the properties of product. We continue our previous study and show how some other quantum structures fit our categorical approach. We discuss how various epireflections implicitly used in the classical probability theory are related to the transition to fuzzy probability theory and describe the latter probability theory as a genuine categorical extension of the former. We show that the IF-probability can be studied via the fuzzy probability theory. We outline a "tensor modification" of the fuzzy probability theory.

  10. Improved techniques for outgoing wave variational principle calculations of converged state-to-state transition probabilities for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Steven L.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved techniques and well-optimized basis sets are presented for application of the outgoing wave variational principle to calculate converged quantum mechanical reaction probabilities. They are illustrated with calculations for the reactions D + H2 yields HD + H with total angular momentum J = 3 and F + H2 yields HF + H with J = 0 and 3. The optimization involves the choice of distortion potential, the grid for calculating half-integrated Green's functions, the placement, width, and number of primitive distributed Gaussians, and the computationally most efficient partition between dynamically adapted and primitive basis functions. Benchmark calculations with 224-1064 channels are presented.

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  13. TURBULENCE IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL DEFLAGRATION MODEL FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. INTERMITTENCY AND THE DEFLAGRATION-TO-DETONATION TRANSITION PROBABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F.; Roepke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2010-02-20

    The delayed detonation model describes the observational properties of the majority of Type Ia supernovae very well. Using numerical data from a three-dimensional deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae, the intermittency of the turbulent velocity field and its implications on the probability of a deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) transition are investigated. From structure functions of the turbulent velocity fluctuations, we determine intermittency parameters based on the log-normal and the log-Poisson models. The bulk of turbulence in the ash regions appears to be less intermittent than predicted by the standard log-normal model and the She-Leveque model. On the other hand, the analysis of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame front by Roepke suggests a much higher probability of large velocity fluctuations on the grid scale in comparison to the log-normal intermittency model. Following Pan et al., we computed probability density functions for a DDT for the different distributions. The determination of the total number of regions at the flame surface, in which DDTs can be triggered, enables us to estimate the total number of events. Assuming that a DDT can occur in the stirred flame regime, as proposed by Woosley et al., the log-normal model would imply a delayed detonation between 0.7 and 0.8 s after the beginning of the deflagration phase for the multi-spot ignition scenario used in the simulation. However, the probability drops to virtually zero if a DDT is further constrained by the requirement that the turbulent velocity fluctuations reach about 500 km s{sup -1}. Under this condition, delayed detonations are only possible if the distribution of the velocity fluctuations is not log-normal. From our calculations follows that the distribution obtained by Roepke allow for multiple DDTs around 0.8 s after ignition at a transition density close to 1 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}.

  14. Transition probabilities of HER2-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer patients treated with Trastuzumab obtained from a clinical cancer registry dataset

    PubMed Central

    Pobiruchin, Monika; Bochum, Sylvia; Martens, Uwe M.; Kieser, Meinhard; Schramm, Wendelin

    2016-01-01

    Records of female breast cancer patients were selected from a clinical cancer registry and separated into three cohorts according to HER2-status (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) and treatment with or without Trastuzumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody). Propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts. Afterwards, documented information about disease events (recurrence of cancer, metastases, remission of local/regional recurrences, remission of metastases and death) found in the dataset was leveraged to calculate the annual transition probabilities for every cohort. PMID:27054173

  15. Transition probabilities of HER2-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer patients treated with Trastuzumab obtained from a clinical cancer registry dataset.

    PubMed

    Pobiruchin, Monika; Bochum, Sylvia; Martens, Uwe M; Kieser, Meinhard; Schramm, Wendelin

    2016-06-01

    Records of female breast cancer patients were selected from a clinical cancer registry and separated into three cohorts according to HER2-status (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) and treatment with or without Trastuzumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody). Propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts. Afterwards, documented information about disease events (recurrence of cancer, metastases, remission of local/regional recurrences, remission of metastases and death) found in the dataset was leveraged to calculate the annual transition probabilities for every cohort. PMID:27054173

  16. Transition probabilities in OH A 2 sigma + - X 2 pi i: Bands with v prime = 0 and 1, v double prime = 0 to 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Richard A.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Crosley, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results for relative vibrational band transition probabilities for v prime = 0 and 1, and v double prime = 0 to 4 in the A-X electronic system of OH are presented. The measurements, part of a larger set involving v prime = 0 to 4 and v double prime = 0 to 6, were made using spectrally dispersed laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in the burnt gases of a flame. These Einstein coefficients will be useful in dynamics experiments for quantitative LIF determinations of OH radical concentrations in high v double prime.

  17. Dynamic phase transitions of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model under an oscillating external magnetic field by the path probability method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    By using the path probability method (PPM) with point distribution, we study the dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model under an oscillating external magnetic field. The phases in the model are obtained by solving the dynamic equations for the average order parameters and a disordered phase, ordered phase and four mixed phases are found. We also investigate the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to analyze the nature dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the DPT temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in three different planes in which exhibit the dynamic tricritical point, double critical end point, critical end point, quadrupole point, triple point as well as the reentrant behavior, strongly depending on the values of the system parameters. We compare and discuss the dynamic phase diagrams with dynamic phase diagrams that were obtained within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.

  18. Absolute measurement of the 1S0 − 3P0 clock transition in neutral 88Sr over the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optic link

    PubMed Central

    Morzyński, Piotr; Bober, Marcin; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobrosława; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Krehlik, Przemysław; Śliwczyński, Łukasz; Lipiński, Marcin; Masłowski, Piotr; Cygan, Agata; Dunst, Piotr; Garus, Michał; Lisak, Daniel; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Gawlik, Wojciech; Radzewicz, Czesław; Ciuryło, Roman; Zawada, Michał

    2015-01-01

    We report a stability below 7 × 10−17 of two independent optical lattice clocks operating with bosonic 88Sr isotope. The value (429 228 066 418 008.3(1.9)syst (0.9)stat Hz) of the absolute frequency of the 1S0 – 3P0 transition was measured with an optical frequency comb referenced to the local representation of the UTC by the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optical link. The result was verified by series of measurements on two independent optical lattice clocks and agrees with recommendation of Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. PMID:26639347

  19. Effect of H2 binding on the nonadiabatic transition probability between singlet and triplet states of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site.

    PubMed

    Kaliakin, Danil S; Zaari, Ryan R; Varganov, Sergey A

    2015-02-12

    We investigate the effect of H2 binding on the spin-forbidden nonadiabatic transition probability between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states of [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site model, using a velocity averaged Landau-Zener theory. Density functional and multireference perturbation theories were used to provide parameters for the Landau-Zener calculations. It was found that variation of the torsion angle between the terminal thiolate ligands around the Ni center induces an intersystem crossing between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states in the bare active site and in the active site with bound H2. Potential energy curves between the singlet and triplet minima along the torsion angle and H2 binding energies to the two spin states were calculated. Upon H2 binding to the active site, there is a decrease in the torsion angle at the minimum energy crossing point between the singlet and triplet states. The probability of nonadiabatic transitions at temperatures between 270 and 370 K ranges from 35% to 32% for the active site with bound H2 and from 42% to 38% for the bare active site, thus indicating the importance of spin-forbidden nonadiabatic pathways for H2 binding on the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site. PMID:25603170

  20. Microstructure-sensitive weighted probability approach for modeling surface to bulk transition of high cycle fatigue failures dominated by primary inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salajegheh, Nima

    The mechanical alloying and casting processes used to make polycrystalline metallic materials often introduce undesirable non-metallic inclusions and pores. These are often the dominant sites of fatigue failure origination at the low stress amplitudes that correspond to the high cycle fatigue (HCF) and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regimes, in which the number of cycles to crack initiation is more than 106. HCF and VHCF experiments on some advanced metallic alloys, such as powder metallurgy Ni-base superalloys, titanium alloys, and high-strength steels have shown that the critical inclusions and pores can appear on the surface as well as in the bulk of the specimen. Fatigue lives have been much higher for specimens that fail from a bulk site. The relative number of bulk initiations increases as the stress amplitude decreases such that just below the traditional HCF limit, fatigue life data appears to be evenly scattered between two datasets corresponding to surface and bulk initiations. This is often referred to as surface to bulk transition in the VHCF regime. Below this transition stress, the likelihood of surface versus bulk initiation significantly impacts the low failure probability estimate of fatigue life. Under these circumstances, a large number of very costly experiments need to be conducted to obtain a statistically representative distribution of fatigue life and to predict the surface versus bulk initiation probability. In this thesis, we pursue a simulation-based approach whereby microstructure-sensitive finite element simulations are performed within a statistical construct to examine the VHCF life variability and assess the surface initiation probability. The methodology introduced in this thesis lends itself as a cost-effective platform for development of microstructure-property relations to support design of new or modified alloys, or to more efficiently predict the properties of existing alloys.

  1. Regulation of human fibroblast growth rate by both noncycling cell fraction transition probability is shown by growth in 5-bromodeoxyuridine followed by Hoechst 33258 flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, P S

    1983-01-01

    Growth of human diploid fibroblasts in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, followed by flow cytometric analysis of DNA-specific fluorescence with Hoechst 33258 dye, allows quantitation of the proportion of cells that have not cycled, as well as those in G1 and G2 of two subsequent cell cycles. This technique allows rapid and accurate quantitation of the growth fraction and G1/S transition rate of these cells. The cell cycle kinetics of human diploid fibroblasts at all population doubling levels reveal two components: cycling cells showing a probabilistic rate of G1/S transition, and a variable proportion of noncycling cells. Both the transition probability (rate of exit from G1) and the noncycling proportion of cells change systematically as a function of serum concentration and as a function of population doubling level. The data suggest the existence of an underlying heterogeneity in the population of human diploid fibroblasts with respect to the capacity to divide in the presence of a given concentration of mitogen. Models of cell cycle kinetics must be modified to include regulation of growth by changes in the fraction of cycling cells, as well as by changes in the rate of exit from G1. PMID:6190165

  2. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  3. Measurement of absolute cross sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.

  4. The cumulative reaction probability as eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthe, Uwe; Miller, William H.

    1993-09-01

    It is shown that the cumulative reaction probability for a chemical reaction can be expressed (absolutely rigorously) as N(E)=∑kpk(E), where {pk} are the eigenvalues of a certain Hermitian matrix (or operator). The eigenvalues {pk} all lie between 0 and 1 and thus have the interpretation as probabilities, eigenreaction probabilities which may be thought of as the rigorous generalization of the transmission coefficients for the various states of the activated complex in transition state theory. The eigenreaction probabilities {pk} can be determined by diagonalizing a matrix that is directly available from the Hamiltonian matrix itself. It is also shown how a very efficient iterative method can be used to determine the eigenreaction probabilities for problems that are too large for a direct diagonalization to be possible. The number of iterations required is much smaller than that of previous methods, approximately the number of eigenreaction probabilities that are significantly different from zero. All of these new ideas are illustrated by application to three model problems—transmission through a one-dimensional (Eckart potential) barrier, the collinear H+H2→H2+H reaction, and the three-dimensional version of this reaction for total angular momentum J=0.

  5. Electron impact excitation of Mg VIII . Collision strengths, transition probabilities and theoretical EUV and soft X-ray line intensities for Mg VIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Keenan, F. P.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Mg viii emission lines are observed in a range of astronomical objects such as the Sun, other cool stars and in the coronal line region of Seyfert galaxies. Under coronal conditions Mg viii emits strongly in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray spectral regions which makes it an ideal ion for plasma diagnostics. Aims: Two theoretical atomic models, consisting of 125 fine structure levels, are developed for the Mg viii ion. The 125 levels arise from the 2s22p, 2s2p2, 2p3, 2s23s, 2s23p, 2s23d, 2s2p3s, 2s2p3p, 2s2p3d, 2p23s, 2p23p and 2p23d configurations. Electron impact excitation collision strengths and radiative transition probabilities are calculated for both Mg viii models, compared with existing data, and the best model selected to generate a set of theoretical emission line intensities. The EUV lines, covering 312-790 Å, are compared with existing solar spectra (SERTS-89 and SUMER), while the soft X-ray transitions (69-97 Å) are examined for potential density diagnostic line ratios and also compared with the limited available solar and stellar observational data. Methods: The R-matrix codes Breit-Pauli RMATRXI and RMATRXII are utilised, along with the PSTGF code, to calculate the collision strengths for two Mg viii models. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian distribution to produce the corresponding effective collision strengths for use in astrophysical applications. Transition probabilities are also calculated using the CIV3 atomic structure code. The best data are then incorporated into the modelling code CLOUDY and line intensities generated for a range of electron temperatures and densities appropriate to solar and stellar coronal plasmas. Results: The present effective collision strengths are compared with two previous calculations. Good levels of agreement are found with the most recent, but there are large differences with the other for forbidden transitions. The resulting line intensities compare favourably with the

  6. Radiative transition probabilities, lifetimes and dipole moments for the vibrational levels of the X1Sigma+ ground state of 39K85Rb.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Warren T; Stwalley, William C

    2004-01-01

    Using a potential energy curve (based primarily on the RKR potential of Amiot and Verges [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7068 (2000)]) and a dipole moment function (based primarily on ab initio calculations of Park et al. [Chem. Phys. 257, 135 (2000)]), we have calculated radiative transition probabilities (Einstein A coefficients), radiative lifetimes, and dipole moment expectation values involving all vibrational levels (for several rotational quantum numbers) of the X1Sigma+ ground state of 39K85Rb. We observe that the radiative lifetimes of vibrationally excited levels, in particular, are approximately 10(3)-10(6) seconds, far too long to be significant in most ultracold experiments involving 39K85Rb or its isotopomers. Comparison with other molecules (LiH and HF) suggests that simple scaling (A approximately mu2nu3 approximately tau(-1)) will predict similarly long lifetimes for many other heteronuclear molecules, e.g., RbCs. PMID:15267264

  7. Radiative transition probabilities, lifetimes and dipole moments for the vibrational levels of the X 1Σ+ ground state of 39K85Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Warren T.; Stwalley, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a potential energy curve (based primarily on the RKR potential of Amiot and Vergès [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7068 (2000)]) and a dipole moment function (based primarily on ab initio calculations of Park et al. [Chem. Phys. 257, 135 (2000)]), we have calculated radiative transition probabilities (Einstein A coefficients), radiative lifetimes, and dipole moment expectation values involving all vibrational levels (for several rotational quantum numbers) of the X 1Σ+ ground state of 39K85Rb. We observe that the radiative lifetimes of vibrationally excited levels, in particular, are ˜103-106 seconds, far too long to be significant in most ultracold experiments involving 39K85Rb or its isotopomers. Comparison with other molecules (LiH and HF) suggests that simple scaling (A˜μ2ν3˜τ-1) will predict similarly long lifetimes for many other heteronuclear molecules, e.g., RbCs.

  8. The Neolithic Demographic Transition in Europe: Correlation with Juvenility Index Supports Interpretation of the Summed Calibrated Radiocarbon Date Probability Distribution (SCDPD) as a Valid Demographic Proxy

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Sean S.; Bocaege, Emmy; Kerig, Tim; Edinborough, Kevan; Shennan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD) from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture. PMID:25153481

  9. Energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for Si-like P II, S III, Cl IV, Ar V and K VI

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Allam, S.H.; El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2012-07-15

    Fine-structure calculations of energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the terms belonging to 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p, 3s{sup 2}3p4d, 3s{sup 2}3p5s and 3s{sup 2}3p5p configurations of silicon-like ions P II, S III, Cl IV, Ar V and K VI have been calculated using configuration-interaction version 3 (CIV3). We compared our data with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Most of our calculations of energy levels and oscillator strengths (in length form) show good agreement with both experimental and theoretical data. Lifetimes of the excited levels are also given.

  10. Relative transition probabilities for krypton.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    First experimental line strength data for the visible Kr II lines and for several of the more prominent Kr I lines are given. The spectroscopic light source used is the thermal plasma behind the reflected shock wave in a gas-driven shock tube. A 3/4-m spectrograph and a 1-m spectrograph were employed simultaneously to provide redundant photometry. The data are compared with other measurements and with theoretical calculations.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute cross sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, M.E.; Chung, Y.; Djuric, N.; Wallbank, B.; Woitke, O.; Zhou, S.; Dunn, G.H.; Smith, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+} were measured from 7.35 eV to 8.45 eV using the merged electron-ion-beams energy-loss technique. The results settle the discrepancy between two previous experiments using the crossed-beams fluorescence method, being in very good agreement with the older results [P. O. Taylor, D. Gregory, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. H. Crandall, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 39}, 1256 (1977)] but less so with the more recent ones [D. W. Savin, L. D. Gardner, D. B. Reisenfeld, A. R. Young, and J. L. Kohl, Phys. Rev. A {bold 51}, 2162 (1995)]. The present measurements are also in good agreement with unitarized Coulomb-Born and close-coupling calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0(F = 1/2)-3P0(F = 1/2) transition of 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Lee, Won-Kyu; Eon Park, Sang; Kim, Eok Bong; Lee, Sun Kyung; Cho, Jun Woo; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Mun, Jongchul; Jong Park, Sung; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Sang-Bum

    2013-04-01

    We measured the absolute frequency of the optical clock transition 1S0(F = 1/2)-3P0(F = 1/2) of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and it was determined to be 518 295 836 590 863.5(8.1) Hz. The frequency was measured against Terrestrial Time (TT; the SI second on the geoid) using an optical frequency comb of which the frequency was phase-locked to an H-maser as a flywheel oscillator traceable to TT. The magic wavelength was also measured as 394 798.48(79) GHz. The results are in good agreement with two previous measurements of other institutes within the specified uncertainty of this work.

  15. Observation and Absolute Frequency Measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} Optical Clock Transition in Neutral Ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, C.W.; Barber, Z.W.; Oates, C.W.; Fortier, T.M.; Diddams, S.A.; Hollberg, L.

    2005-08-19

    We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at {approx}70 {mu}K in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in {sup 171}Yb (F=1/2) is 518 295 836 591.6{+-}4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in {sup 173}Yb (F=5/2) is 518 294 576 847.6{+-}4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10{sup 6}-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be {approx}10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice.

  16. Absolute CH radical concentrations in rich low-pressure methane-oxygen-argon flames via cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the A transition

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Thomas, Jr; Andrew McIlroy

    1999-11-22

    We measure cavity ringdown spectra of the A{sup 2}{Delta}-X{sup 2}II transition of the methylidyne (CH) radical in a series of rich low-pressure methane-oxygen-argon flames and demonstrate that the technique is sensitive, quantitative, and straightforward in its implementation and interpretation. As a line-of-sight technique, it complements imaging techniques, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence. Our results generally agree with chemical kinetic models for methane oxidation that have appeared in the literature, but suggest some refinements are necessary. Additional examination of the CH + O{sub 2} reaction rate as a function of temperature is advised. Our results are consistent with those of Derzy et al. using the C{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-X{sup 2}II transition for stoichiometric, low-pressure flames which include nitrogen. Our results for rich flames, as with earlier experiments for singlet methylene, suggest that flame chemical kinetic models need to be adjusted to account for flame chemistry for stoichiometries richer than {phi} = 1.5.

  17. Single-case probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David

    1991-12-01

    The propensity interpretation of probability, bred by Popper in 1957 (K. R. Popper, in Observation and Interpretation in the Philosophy of Physics, S. Körner, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957, and Dover, New York, 1962), p. 65; reprinted in Popper Selections, D. W. Miller, ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1985), p. 199) from pure frequency stock, is the only extant objectivist account that provides any proper understanding of single-case probabilities as well as of probabilities in ensembles and in the long run. In Sec. 1 of this paper I recall salient points of the frequency interpretations of von Mises and of Popper himself, and in Sec. 2 I filter out from Popper's numerous expositions of the propensity interpretation its most interesting and fertile strain. I then go on to assess it. First I defend it, in Sec. 3, against recent criticisms (P. Humphreys, Philos. Rev. 94, 557 (1985); P. Milne, Erkenntnis 25, 129 (1986)) to the effect that conditional [or relative] probabilities, unlike absolute probabilities, can only rarely be made sense of as propensities. I then challenge its predominance, in Sec. 4, by outlining a rival theory: an irreproachably objectivist theory of probability, fully applicable to the single case, that interprets physical probabilities as instantaneous frequencies.

  18. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Nayak, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even-even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values.

  19. Phosphate is not an absolute requirement for the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A or cyclophilin D deletion on mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    McGee, Allison M; Baines, Christopher P

    2012-04-01

    CypD (cyclophilin D) has been established as a critical regulator of the MPT (mitochondrial permeability transition) pore, and pharmacological or genetic inhibition of CypD attenuates MPT in numerous systems. However, it has recently been suggested that the inhibitory effects of CypD inhibition only manifest when P(i) (inorganic phosphate) is present, and that inhibition is lost when P(i) is replaced by As(i) (inorganic arsenate) or V(i) (inorganic vanadate). To test this, liver mitochondria were isolated from wild-type and CypD-deficient (Ppif-/-) mice and then incubated in buffer containing P(i), As(i) or V(i). MPT was induced under both energized and de-energized conditions by the addition of Ca2+, and the resultant mitochondrial swelling was measured spectrophotometrically. For pharmacological inhibition of CypD, wild-type mitochondria were pre-incubated with CsA (cyclosporin A) before the addition of Ca2+. In energized and de-energized mitochondria, Ca2+ induced MPT regardless of the anion present, although the magnitude differed between P(i), As(i) and V(i). However, in all cases, pre-treatment with CsA significantly inhibited MPT. Moreover, these effects were independent of mouse strain, organ type and rodent species. Similarly, attenuation of Ca2+-induced MPT in the Ppif-/- mitochondria was still observed irrespective of whether P(i), As(i) or V(i) was present. We conclude that the pharmacological and genetic inhibition of CypD is still able to attenuate MPT even in the absence of P(i). PMID:22236255

  20. First-principles relativistic calculations of the fine-structure intervals and magnetic dipole transition probabilities in the 1 s sup 2 2 p configuration of the lithium isoelectric sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.P.; Venugopal, E.P. ); Idrees, M. )

    1990-12-01

    We present the results of our first-principles relativistic calculations of the fine-structure intervals and magnetic dipole transition probabilities for the 1{ital s}{sup 2}2{ital p} configuration of the lithium isoelectronic sequence using a variational approach. The contributions of the Breit interaction and approximate Lamb-shift corrections are incorporated via first-order perturbation theory. Our results of the fine-structure intervals are in good agreement with experiment, but experimental data for the magnetic dipole transition probabilities are not available for comparison with our calculations.

  1. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  2. Is spacetime absolutely or just most probably Lorentzian?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Pre-gauging the cosmological scale factor a(t) does not introduce unphysical degrees of freedom into the exact FLRW classical solution. It seems to lead, however, to a non-dynamical mini superspace. The missing ingredient, a generalized momentum enjoying canonical Dirac (rather than Poisson) brackets with the lapse function n(t), calls for measure scaling which can be realized by means of a scalar field. The latter is essential for establishing a geometrical connection with the five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein Schwarzschild–deSitter black hole. Contrary to the Hartle–Hawking approach, (i) the t-independent wave function \\psi (a) is traded for an explicit t-dependent \\psi (n,t), (ii) the classical FLRW configuration does play a major role in the structure of the ’most classical’ cosmological wave packet, and (iii) the non-singular Euclid/Lorentz crossovers get quantum mechanically smeared.

  3. Why Probability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Myra S.

    1984-01-01

    Instruction in mathematical probability to enhance higher levels of critical and creative thinking with gifted students is described. Among thinking skills developed by such an approach are analysis, synthesis, evaluation, fluency, and complexity. (CL)

  4. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  5. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  6. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  7. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  8. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  9. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  10. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement